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2006 Minnesota Statutes

This is a historical version of this statute chapter. Also view the most recent published version.

Chapter 609. Criminal Code

Chapter Sections
Section Headnote
609.001APPLICATION OF LAWS 2005, CHAPTER 56, TERMINOLOGY CHANGES.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
609.01NAME AND CONSTRUCTION.
609.015SCOPE AND EFFECT.
609.02DEFINITIONS.
609.025JURISDICTION OF STATE.
609.03PUNISHMENT WHEN NOT OTHERWISE FIXED.
609.031Repealed, 1983 c 331 s 11
609.032Repealed, 1983 c 331 s 11
609.033INCREASED MAXIMUM PENALTIES FOR MISDEMEANORS.
609.0331INCREASED MAXIMUM PENALTIES FOR PETTY MISDEMEANORS.
609.0332INCREASED MAXIMUM PENALTY FOR PETTY MISDEMEANOR ORDINANCE VIOLATIONS.
609.034INCREASED MAXIMUM PENALTY FOR ORDINANCE VIOLATIONS.
609.0341INCREASED MAXIMUM FINES FOR GROSS MISDEMEANORS; FELONIES; OTHER FINES.
609.035CRIME PUNISHABLE UNDER DIFFERENT PROVISIONS.
609.04CONVICTION OF LESSER OFFENSE.
609.041PROOF OF PRIOR CONVICTIONS.
609.045FOREIGN CONVICTION OR ACQUITTAL.
609.05LIABILITY FOR CRIMES OF ANOTHER.
609.055LIABILITY OF CHILDREN.
609.06AUTHORIZED USE OF FORCE.
609.065JUSTIFIABLE TAKING OF LIFE.
609.066AUTHORIZED USE OF DEADLY FORCE BY PEACE OFFICERS.
609.075INTOXICATION AS DEFENSE.
609.08DURESS.
609.085SENDING WRITTEN COMMUNICATION.
609.09COMPELLING TESTIMONY; IMMUNITY FROM PROSECUTION.

SENTENCES
609.095LIMITS OF SENTENCES.
609.10SENTENCES AVAILABLE.
609.101SURCHARGE ON FINES, ASSESSMENTS; MINIMUM FINES.
609.102LOCAL CORRECTIONAL FEES; IMPOSITION BY COURT.
609.103PAYMENT BY CREDIT CARD.
609.105SENTENCE OF IMPRISONMENT.
609.1055OFFENDERS WITH SERIOUS AND PERSISTENT MENTAL ILLNESS; ALTERNATIVE PLACEMENT.
609.106HEINOUS CRIMES.
609.107MANDATORY PENALTY FOR CERTAIN MURDERERS.
609.108Subdivisions renumbered, repealed, or no longer in effect
609.109Subdivisions renumbered, repealed, or no longer in effect
609.1095INCREASED SENTENCES FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS AND REPEAT FELONY OFFENDERS.
609.11MINIMUM SENTENCES OF IMPRISONMENT.
609.113Repealed, 1999 c 216 art 3 s 10
609.115PRESENTENCE INVESTIGATION.
609.116Subdivisions renumbered, repealed, or no longer in effect
609.117DNA ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN OFFENDERS REQUIRED.
609.118FINGERPRINTING REQUIRED.
609.119Repealed, 2005 c 136 art 12 s 12
609.12PAROLE OR DISCHARGE.
609.125SENTENCE FOR MISDEMEANOR OR GROSS MISDEMEANOR.
609.13CONVICTIONS OF FELONY OR GROSS MISDEMEANOR; WHEN DEEMED MISDEMEANOR OR GROSS MISDEMEANOR.
609.131CERTIFICATION OF MISDEMEANOR AS PETTY MISDEMEANOR.
609.132CONTINUANCE FOR DISMISSAL.
609.135STAY OF IMPOSITION OR EXECUTION OF SENTENCE.
609.1351PETITION FOR CIVIL COMMITMENT.
609.1352Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16
609.14REVOCATION OF STAY.
609.145CREDIT FOR PRIOR IMPRISONMENT.
609.15MULTIPLE SENTENCES.
609.152Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16
609.153INCREASED PENALTIES FOR CERTAIN MISDEMEANORS.
609.155Repealed, 1978 c 723 art 1 s 19
609.16Repealed, 1978 c 723 art 1 s 19
609.165RESTORATION OF CIVIL RIGHTS; POSSESSION OF FIREARMS.
609.166Repealed, 1996 c 408 art 9 s 10
609.167Repealed, 1996 c 408 art 9 s 10
609.168Repealed, 1996 c 408 art 9 s 10

ANTICIPATORY CRIMES
609.17ATTEMPTS.
609.175CONSPIRACY.

HOMICIDE AND SUICIDE
609.18DEFINITION.
609.184Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16
609.185MURDER IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
609.19MURDER IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
609.195MURDER IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
609.196Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16
609.20MANSLAUGHTER IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
609.205MANSLAUGHTER IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
609.21CRIMINAL VEHICULAR HOMICIDE AND INJURY.
609.215SUICIDE.

CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON
609.22Repealed, 1979 c 258 s 25
609.221ASSAULT IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
609.222ASSAULT IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
609.223ASSAULT IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
609.2231ASSAULT IN THE FOURTH DEGREE.
609.2232CONSECUTIVE SENTENCES FOR ASSAULTS COMMITTED BY STATE PRISON INMATES.
609.224ASSAULT IN THE FIFTH DEGREE.
609.2241KNOWING TRANSFER OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.
609.2242DOMESTIC ASSAULT.
609.2243SENTENCING; REPEAT DOMESTIC ASSAULT.
609.2244PRESENTENCE DOMESTIC ABUSE INVESTIGATIONS.
609.2245FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION; PENALTIES.
609.2246TATTOOS; MINORS.
609.2247DOMESTIC ASSAULT BY STRANGULATION.
609.225Repealed, 1979 c 258 s 25
609.226HARM CAUSED BY A DOG.
609.227DANGEROUS ANIMALS DESTROYED.
609.228GREAT BODILY HARM CAUSED BY DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS.
609.229CRIME COMMITTED FOR BENEFIT OF A GANG.
609.23MISTREATMENT OF PERSONS CONFINED.
609.231MISTREATMENT OF RESIDENTS OR PATIENTS.
609.232CRIMES AGAINST VULNERABLE ADULTS; DEFINITIONS.
609.2325CRIMINAL ABUSE.
609.233CRIMINAL NEGLECT.
609.2335FINANCIAL EXPLOITATION OF A VULNERABLE ADULT.
609.2336DECEPTIVE OR UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES; ELDERLY OR DISABLED VICTIMS.
609.234FAILURE TO REPORT.
609.235USE OF DRUGS TO INJURE OR FACILITATE CRIME.
609.24SIMPLE ROBBERY.
609.245AGGRAVATED ROBBERY.
609.25KIDNAPPING.
609.251DOUBLE JEOPARDY; KIDNAPPING.
609.255FALSE IMPRISONMENT.
609.26DEPRIVING ANOTHER OF CUSTODIAL OR PARENTAL RIGHTS.
609.265ABDUCTION.

CRIMES AGAINST UNBORN CHILDREN
609.266DEFINITIONS.
609.2661MURDER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
609.2662MURDER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
609.2663MURDER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
609.2664MANSLAUGHTER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
609.2665MANSLAUGHTER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
609.267ASSAULT OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
609.2671ASSAULT OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
609.2672ASSAULT OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
609.268INJURY OR DEATH OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN COMMISSION OF CRIME.
609.269EXCEPTION.
609.2691OTHER CONVICTIONS NOT BARRED.

CRIMES OF COMPULSION
609.27COERCION.
609.275ATTEMPT TO COERCE.
609.28INTERFERING WITH RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCE.

SEXUAL AND LABOR TRAFFICKING CRIMES
609.281DEFINITIONS.
609.282LABOR TRAFFICKING.
609.283UNLAWFUL CONDUCT WITH RESPECT TO DOCUMENTS IN FURTHERANCE OF LABOR OR SEX TRAFFICKING.
609.284LABOR OR SEX TRAFFICKING CRIMES; DEFENSES; CIVIL LIABILITY; CORPORATE LIABILITY.

SEX CRIMES
609.29Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13
609.291Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13
609.292Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13
609.293SODOMY.
609.294BESTIALITY.
609.295Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13
609.296Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13
609.31LEAVING THE STATE TO EVADE ESTABLISHMENT OF PATERNITY.
609.32Repealed, 1979 c 255 s 9
609.321PROSTITUTION; DEFINITIONS.
609.322SOLICITATION, INDUCEMENT, AND PROMOTION OF PROSTITUTION.
609.323Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 2 s 33
609.3232PROTECTIVE ORDER AUTHORIZED; PROCEDURES; PENALTIES.
609.324OTHER PROSTITUTION CRIMES; PATRONS, PROSTITUTES, AND INDIVIDUALS HOUSING INDIVIDUALS ENGAGED IN PROSTITUTION; PENALTIES.
609.3241PENALTY ASSESSMENT AUTHORIZED.
609.3242PROSTITUTION CRIMES COMMITTED IN SCHOOL OR PARK ZONES; INCREASED PENALTIES.
609.3243LOITERING WITH INTENT TO PARTICIPATE IN PROSTITUTION.
609.325DEFENSES.
609.326EVIDENCE.
609.33DISORDERLY HOUSE.
609.34FORNICATION.
609.341DEFINITIONS.
609.342CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
609.343CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
609.344CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
609.345CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE FOURTH DEGREE.
609.3451CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE FIFTH DEGREE.
609.3452Renumbered 609.3457
609.3453CRIMINAL SEXUAL PREDATORY CONDUCT.
609.3455DANGEROUS SEX OFFENDERS; LIFE SENTENCES; CONDITIONAL RELEASE.
609.3456USE OF POLYGRAPHS FOR SEX OFFENDERS ON PROBATION OR CONDITIONAL RELEASE.
609.3457SEX OFFENDER ASSESSMENT.
609.346Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16
609.3461Renumbered 609.117
609.347EVIDENCE IN CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT CASES.
609.3471RECORDS PERTAINING TO VICTIM IDENTITY CONFIDENTIAL.
609.348MEDICAL PURPOSES; EXCLUSION.
609.349VOLUNTARY RELATIONSHIPS.
609.35COSTS OF MEDICAL EXAMINATION.
609.351APPLICABILITY TO PAST AND PRESENT PROSECUTIONS.
609.352SOLICITATION OF CHILDREN TO ENGAGE IN SEXUAL CONDUCT.
609.353JURISDICTION.

CRIMES AGAINST THE FAMILY
609.355BIGAMY.
609.36ADULTERY.
609.364Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24
609.3641Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24
609.3642Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24
609.3643Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24
609.3644Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24
609.365INCEST.
609.37Repealed, 1993 c 340 s 60
609.375NONSUPPORT OF SPOUSE OR CHILD.
609.3751DISCHARGE AND DISMISSAL.
609.376DEFINITIONS.
609.377MALICIOUS PUNISHMENT OF A CHILD.
609.378NEGLECT OR ENDANGERMENT OF A CHILD.
609.3785UNHARMED NEWBORNS LEFT AT HOSPITALS; AVOIDANCE OF PROSECUTION.
609.379PERMITTED ACTIONS.
609.38STAYED SENTENCE.

CRIMES AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT
609.385TREASON.
609.39MISPRISION OF TREASON.
609.395STATE MILITARY FORCES; INTERFERING WITH, OBSTRUCTING, OR OTHER.
609.396UNAUTHORIZED PRESENCE AT CAMP RIPLEY.
609.40FLAGS.
609.405Repealed, 1987 c 10 s 1
609.41FALSE TAX STATEMENT.

CRIMES AFFECTING PUBLICOFFICER OR EMPLOYEE
609.415DEFINITIONS.
609.42BRIBERY.
609.425CORRUPTLY INFLUENCING LEGISLATOR.
609.43MISCONDUCT OF PUBLIC OFFICER OR EMPLOYEE.
609.435OFFICER NOT FILING SECURITY.
609.44PUBLIC OFFICE; ILLEGALLY ASSUMING; NONSURRENDER.
609.445FAILURE TO PAY OVER STATE FUNDS.
609.45PUBLIC OFFICER; UNAUTHORIZED COMPENSATION.
609.455PERMITTING FALSE CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT.
609.456REPORTING TO STATE AUDITOR AND LEGISLATIVE AUDITOR REQUIRED.
609.46Repealed, 1983 c 359 s 151
609.465PRESENTING FALSE CLAIMS TO PUBLIC OFFICER OR BODY.
609.466MEDICAL ASSISTANCE FRAUD.
609.47INTERFERENCE WITH PROPERTY IN OFFICIAL CUSTODY.
609.475IMPERSONATING OFFICER.

CRIMES AGAINST THEADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
609.48PERJURY.
609.485ESCAPE FROM CUSTODY.
609.486COMMISSION OF CRIME WHILE WEARING OR POSSESSING A BULLET-RESISTANT VEST.
609.487FLEEING A PEACE OFFICER IN A MOTOR VEHICLE.
609.49RELEASE, FAILURE TO APPEAR.
609.491FAILURE TO APPEAR; PETTY MISDEMEANOR.
609.493SOLICITATION OF MENTALLY IMPAIRED PERSONS.
609.494SOLICITATION OF JUVENILES.
609.495AIDING AN OFFENDER.
609.496CONCEALING CRIMINAL PROCEEDS.
609.497ENGAGING IN A BUSINESS OF CONCEALING CRIMINAL PROCEEDS.
609.4971WARNING SUBJECT OF INVESTIGATION.
609.4975WARNING SUBJECT OF SURVEILLANCE OR SEARCH.
609.498TAMPERING WITH A WITNESS.
609.50OBSTRUCTING LEGAL PROCESS, ARREST, OR FIREFIGHTING.
609.501609.501 FUNERAL OR BURIAL SERVICE; PROHIBITED ACTS.
609.502INTERFERENCE WITH DEAD BODY; REPORTING.
609.505FALSELY REPORTING CRIME.
609.5051CRIMINAL ALERT NETWORK; DISSEMINATION OF FALSE OR MISLEADING INFORMATION PROHIBITED.
609.506PROHIBITING GIVING PEACE OFFICER FALSE NAME.
609.507FALSELY REPORTING CHILD ABUSE.
609.508FALSE INFORMATION TO FINANCIAL INSTITUTION.
609.51SIMULATING LEGAL PROCESS.
609.515MISCONDUCT OF JUDICIAL OR HEARING OFFICER.

THEFT AND RELATED CRIMES
609.52THEFT.
609.521POSSESSION OF SHOPLIFTING GEAR.
609.523RETURN OF STOLEN PROPERTY TO OWNERS.
609.525BRINGING STOLEN GOODS INTO STATE.
609.526PRECIOUS METAL DEALERS; RECEIVING STOLEN PROPERTY.
609.527IDENTITY THEFT.
609.528POSSESSION OR SALE OF STOLEN OR COUNTERFEIT CHECK; PENALTIES.
609.529MAIL THEFT.
609.53RECEIVING STOLEN PROPERTY.
609.531FORFEITURES.
609.5311FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY ASSOCIATED WITH CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES.
609.5312FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY ASSOCIATED WITH DESIGNATED OFFENSES.
609.5313FORFEITURE BY JUDICIAL ACTION; PROCEDURE.
609.5314ADMINISTRATIVE FORFEITURE OF CERTAIN PROPERTY SEIZED IN CONNECTION WITH A CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES SEIZURE.
609.5315DISPOSITION OF FORFEITED PROPERTY.
609.5316SUMMARY FORFEITURES.
609.5317REAL PROPERTY; SEIZURES.
609.5318FORFEITURE OF VEHICLES USED IN DRIVE-BY SHOOTINGS.
609.5319FINANCIAL INSTITUTION SECURED INTEREST.
609.532ATTACHMENT OF DEPOSITED FUNDS.
609.535ISSUANCE OF DISHONORED CHECKS.
609.54EMBEZZLEMENT OF PUBLIC FUNDS.
609.541PROTECTION OF LIBRARY PROPERTY.
609.545MISUSING CREDIT CARD TO SECURE SERVICES.
609.546MOTOR VEHICLE TAMPERING.
609.55Repealed, 1989 c 290 art 7 s 14
609.551RUSTLING AND LIVESTOCK THEFT; PENALTIES.
609.552UNAUTHORIZED RELEASE OF ANIMALS.

DAMAGE OR TRESPASS TO PROPERTY
609.555Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10
609.556DEFINITIONS.
609.56Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10
609.561ARSON IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
609.562ARSON IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
609.563ARSON IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
609.5631ARSON IN THE FOURTH DEGREE.
609.5632ARSON IN THE FIFTH DEGREE.
609.5633USE OF IGNITION DEVICES; PETTY MISDEMEANOR.
609.564EXCLUDED FIRES.
609.5641WILDFIRE ARSON.
609.565Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10
609.57Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10
609.575Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10
609.576NEGLIGENT FIRES; DANGEROUS SMOKING.
609.58Repealed, 1983 c 321 s 4
609.581DEFINITIONS.
609.582BURGLARY.
609.583SENTENCING; FIRST BURGLARY OF A DWELLING.
609.585DOUBLE JEOPARDY.
609.586POSSESSION OF CODE GRABBING DEVICES; PENALTY.
609.59POSSESSION OF BURGLARY OR THEFT TOOLS.
609.591DAMAGE TO TIMBER OR WOOD PROCESSING AND RELATED EQUIPMENT.
609.592POSSESSION OF TIMBER DAMAGE DEVICES.
609.594DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OF CRITICAL PUBLIC SERVICE FACILITIES, UTILITIES, AND PIPELINES.
609.595DAMAGE TO PROPERTY.
609.596KILLING OR HARMING A PUBLIC SAFETY DOG.
609.597ASSAULTING OR HARMING A POLICE HORSE; PENALTIES.
609.599EXPOSING DOMESTIC ANIMALS TO DISEASE.
609.60Repealed, 1989 c 5 s 18
609.605TRESPASS.
609.6055TRESPASS ON CRITICAL PUBLIC SERVICE FACILITY; UTILITY; OR PIPELINE.
609.606UNLAWFUL OUSTER OR EXCLUSION.
609.61Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10
609.611INSURANCE FRAUD.
609.612EMPLOYMENT OF RUNNERS.
609.615DEFEATING SECURITY ON REALTY.
609.62DEFEATING SECURITY ON PERSONALTY.
609.621PROOF OF CONCEALMENT OF PROPERTY BY OBLIGOR OF SECURED PROPERTY.

FORGERY AND RELATED CRIMES
609.625AGGRAVATED FORGERY.
609.63FORGERY.
609.631CHECK FORGERY; OFFERING A FORGED CHECK.
609.632609.632 COUNTERFEITING OF CURRENCY.
609.635OBTAINING SIGNATURE BY FALSE PRETENSE.
609.64RECORDING, FILING OF FORGED INSTRUMENT.
609.645FRAUDULENT STATEMENTS.
609.65FALSE CERTIFICATION BY NOTARY PUBLIC.
609.651STATE LOTTERY FRAUD.
609.652FRAUDULENT DRIVERS' LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS; PENALTY.
609.655Repealed, 1976 c 112 s 2

CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC SAFETY AND HEALTH
609.66DANGEROUS WEAPONS.
609.661PENALTY FOR SET GUNS; SWIVEL GUNS.
609.662SHOOTING VICTIM; DUTY TO RENDER AID.
609.663DISPLAY OF HANDGUN AMMUNITION.
609.665SPRING GUNS.
609.666NEGLIGENT STORAGE OF FIREARMS.
609.667FIREARMS; REMOVAL OR ALTERATION OF SERIAL NUMBER.
609.668EXPLOSIVE AND INCENDIARY DEVICES.
609.669CIVIL DISORDER.
609.67MACHINE GUNS AND SHORT-BARRELED SHOTGUNS.
609.671ENVIRONMENT; CRIMINAL PENALTIES.
609.672PERMISSIVE INFERENCE; FIREARMS IN AUTOMOBILES.
609.675EXPOSURE OF UNUSED REFRIGERATOR OR CONTAINER TO CHILDREN.
609.68UNLAWFUL DEPOSIT OF GARBAGE, LITTER, OR LIKE.
609.681UNLAWFUL SMOKING.
609.684SALE OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES TO CHILDREN; ABUSE OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES.
609.685SALE OF TOBACCO TO CHILDREN.
609.686FALSE FIRE ALARMS; TAMPERING WITH OR INJURING A FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.

PUBLIC MISCONDUCT OR NUISANCE
609.687ADULTERATION.
609.705UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY.
609.71RIOT.
609.712REAL AND SIMULATED WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION.
609.713TERRORISTIC THREATS.
609.714CRIMES COMMITTED IN FURTHERANCE OF TERRORISM.
609.715PRESENCE AT UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY.
609.72DISORDERLY CONDUCT.
609.725Repealed, 2005 c 136 art 17 s 53
609.735CONCEALING IDENTITY.
609.74PUBLIC NUISANCE.
609.745PERMITTING PUBLIC NUISANCE.
609.746INTERFERENCE WITH PRIVACY.
609.747Repealed, 1993 c 326 art 2 s 34
609.7475609.7475 FRAUDULENT OR OTHERWISE IMPROPER FINANCING STATEMENTS.
609.748HARASSMENT; RESTRAINING ORDER.
609.749HARASSMENT; STALKING; PENALTIES.
609.7495PHYSICAL INTERFERENCE WITH SAFE ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE.

GAMBLING
609.75GAMBLING; DEFINITIONS.
609.755ACTS OF OR RELATING TO GAMBLING.
609.76OTHER ACTS RELATING TO GAMBLING.
609.761OPERATIONS PERMITTED.
609.762FORFEITURE OF GAMBLING DEVICES, PRIZES AND PROCEEDS.
609.763LAWFUL GAMBLING FRAUD.

CRIMES AGAINST REPUTATION
609.765CRIMINAL DEFAMATION.
609.77FALSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA.

CRIMES RELATING TO COMMUNICATIONS
609.774EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS; KIDNAPPINGS.
609.775DIVULGING TELEPHONE OR TELEGRAPH MESSAGE; NONDELIVERY.
609.776INTERFERENCE WITH EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS.
609.78EMERGENCY TELEPHONE CALLS AND COMMUNICATIONS.
609.785Repealed, 1990 c 494 s 7
609.79OBSCENE OR HARASSING TELEPHONE CALLS.
609.795LETTER, TELEGRAM, OR PACKAGE; OPENING; HARASSMENT.
609.80INTERFERING WITH CABLE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS.

CRIMES RELATING TO A BUSINESS
609.805TICKET SCALPING.
609.81Repealed, 1996 c 404 s 18
609.815MISCONDUCT OF JUNK OR SECONDHAND DEALER.
609.82FRAUD IN OBTAINING CREDIT.
609.821FINANCIAL TRANSACTION CARD FRAUD.

MISCELLANEOUS CRIMES
609.825BRIBERY OF PARTICIPANT OR OFFICIAL IN CONTEST.
609.83FALSELY IMPERSONATING ANOTHER.
609.849RAILROAD THAT OBSTRUCTS TREATMENT OF AN INJURED WORKER.
609.85CRIMES AGAINST RAILROAD EMPLOYEES AND PROPERTY; PENALTY.
609.851FALSE TRAFFIC SIGNAL.
609.855CRIMES INVOLVING TRANSIT; SHOOTING AT TRANSIT VEHICLE.
609.856USE OF POLICE RADIOS DURING COMMISSION OF CRIME; PENALTIES.

CRIMES AGAINST COMMERCE
609.86COMMERCIAL BRIBERY.
609.87COMPUTER CRIME; DEFINITIONS.
609.88COMPUTER DAMAGE.
609.89COMPUTER THEFT.
609.891UNAUTHORIZED COMPUTER ACCESS.
609.8911REPORTING VIOLATIONS.
609.8912609.8912 CRIMINAL USE OF ENCRYPTION.
609.8913609.8913 FACILITATING ACCESS TO A COMPUTER SECURITY SYSTEM.
609.892DEFINITIONS.
609.893TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION SERVICES FRAUD; CRIME DEFINED.
609.894CELLULAR TELEPHONE COUNTERFEITING; CRIMES DEFINED.
609.895COUNTERFEITED INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY; PENALTIES.
609.896CRIMINAL USE OF REAL PROPERTY.

RICO
609.901CONSTRUCTION OF RACKETEERING PROVISIONS.
609.902DEFINITIONS.
609.903RACKETEERING.
609.904CRIMINAL PENALTIES.
609.905CRIMINAL FORFEITURE.
609.907PRESERVATION OF PROPERTY SUBJECT TO FORFEITURE.
609.908DISPOSITION OF FORFEITURE PROCEEDS.
609.909ADDITIONAL RELIEF AVAILABLE.
609.910RELATION TO OTHER SANCTIONS.
609.911CIVIL REMEDIES.
609.912NOTICE TO OTHER PROSECUTING AUTHORITIES.
609.001 APPLICATION OF LAWS 2005, CHAPTER 56, TERMINOLOGY CHANGES.
State agencies shall use the terminology changes specified in Laws 2005, chapter 56, section
1, when printed material and signage are replaced and new printed material and signage are
obtained. State agencies do not have to replace existing printed material and signage to comply
with Laws 2005, chapter 56, sections 1 and 2. Language changes made according to Laws 2005,
chapter 56, sections 1 and 2, shall not expand or exclude eligibility to services.
History: 2005 c 56 s 3

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

609.01 NAME AND CONSTRUCTION.
    Subdivision 1. Purposes. This chapter may be cited as the Criminal Code of 1963. Its
provisions shall be construed according to the fair import of its terms, to promote justice, and to
effect its purposes which are declared to be:
(1) To protect the public safety and welfare by preventing the commission of crime through
the deterring effect of the sentences authorized, the rehabilitation of those convicted, and their
confinement when the public safety and interest requires; and
(2) To protect the individual against the misuse of the criminal law by fairly defining the acts
and omissions prohibited, authorizing sentences reasonably related to the conduct and character
of the convicted person, and prescribing fair and reasonable postconviction procedures.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1983 c 216 art 1 s 76]
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.01
609.015 SCOPE AND EFFECT.
    Subdivision 1. Common law crimes abolished. Common law crimes are abolished and no
act or omission is a crime unless made so by this chapter or by other applicable statute, but
this does not prevent the use of common law rules in the construction or interpretation of the
provisions of this chapter or other statute. Crimes committed prior to September 1, 1963, are
not affected thereby.
    Subd. 2. Applicability. Unless expressly stated otherwise, or the context otherwise requires,
the provisions of this chapter also apply to crimes created by statute other than in this chapter.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.015
609.02 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. "Crime" means conduct which is prohibited by statute and for which
the actor may be sentenced to imprisonment, with or without a fine.
    Subd. 2. Felony. "Felony" means a crime for which a sentence of imprisonment for more
than one year may be imposed.
    Subd. 2a.[Repealed, 1999 c 194 s 11]
    Subd. 3. Misdemeanor. "Misdemeanor" means a crime for which a sentence of not more
than 90 days or a fine of not more than $1,000, or both, may be imposed.
    Subd. 4. Gross misdemeanor. "Gross misdemeanor" means any crime which is not a felony
or misdemeanor. The maximum fine which may be imposed for a gross misdemeanor is $3,000.
    Subd. 4a. Petty misdemeanor. "Petty misdemeanor" means a petty offense which is
prohibited by statute, which does not constitute a crime and for which a sentence of a fine of not
more than $300 may be imposed.
    Subd. 5. Conviction. "Conviction" means any of the following accepted and recorded by
the court:
(1) A plea of guilty; or
(2) A verdict of guilty by a jury or a finding of guilty by the court.
    Subd. 6. Dangerous weapon. "Dangerous weapon" means any firearm, whether loaded or
unloaded, or any device designed as a weapon and capable of producing death or great bodily
harm, any combustible or flammable liquid or other device or instrumentality that, in the manner
it is used or intended to be used, is calculated or likely to produce death or great bodily harm,
or any fire that is used to produce death or great bodily harm.
As used in this subdivision, "flammable liquid" means any liquid having a flash point below
100 degrees Fahrenheit and having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch
(absolute) at 100 degrees Fahrenheit but does not include intoxicating liquor as defined in section
340A.101. As used in this subdivision, "combustible liquid" is a liquid having a flash point at
or above 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
    Subd. 7. Bodily harm. "Bodily harm" means physical pain or injury, illness, or any
impairment of physical condition.
    Subd. 7a. Substantial bodily harm. "Substantial bodily harm" means bodily injury which
involves a temporary but substantial disfigurement, or which causes a temporary but substantial
loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ, or which causes a fracture of
any bodily member.
    Subd. 8. Great bodily harm. "Great bodily harm" means bodily injury which creates a
high probability of death, or which causes serious permanent disfigurement, or which causes a
permanent or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ or
other serious bodily harm.
    Subd. 9. Mental state. (1) When criminal intent is an element of a crime in this chapter,
such intent is indicated by the term "intentionally," the phrase "with intent to," the phrase "with
intent that," or some form of the verbs "know" or "believe."
(2) "Know" requires only that the actor believes that the specified fact exists.
(3) "Intentionally" means that the actor either has a purpose to do the thing or cause the
result specified or believes that the act performed by the actor, if successful, will cause that
result. In addition, except as provided in clause (6), the actor must have knowledge of those
facts which are necessary to make the actor's conduct criminal and which are set forth after the
word "intentionally."
(4) "With intent to" or "with intent that" means that the actor either has a purpose to do the
thing or cause the result specified or believes that the act, if successful, will cause that result.
(5) Criminal intent does not require proof of knowledge of the existence or constitutionality
of the statute under which the actor is prosecuted or the scope or meaning of the terms used
in that statute.
(6) Criminal intent does not require proof of knowledge of the age of a minor even though
age is a material element in the crime in question.
    Subd. 10. Assault. "Assault" is:
(1) an act done with intent to cause fear in another of immediate bodily harm or death; or
(2) the intentional infliction of or attempt to inflict bodily harm upon another.
    Subd. 11. Second or subsequent violation or offense. "Second or subsequent violation" or
"second or subsequent offense" means that prior to the commission of the violation or offense, the
actor has been adjudicated guilty of a specified similar violation or offense.
    Subd. 12.[Repealed, 1993 c 326 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 13.[Repealed, 1993 c 326 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 14. Electronic monitoring device. As used in sections 609.135, subdivision 5a,
611A.07, and 629.72, subdivision 2a, "electronic monitoring device" means a radio frequency
transmitter unit that is worn at all times on the person of a defendant in conjunction with a
receiver unit that is located in the victim's residence or on the victim's person. The receiver unit
emits an audible and visible signal whenever the defendant with a transmitter unit comes within
a designated distance from the receiver unit.
    Subd. 15. Probation. "Probation" means a court-ordered sanction imposed upon an offender
for a period of supervision no greater than that set by statute. It is imposed as an alternative
to confinement or in conjunction with confinement or intermediate sanctions. The purpose of
probation is to deter further criminal behavior, punish the offender, help provide reparation to
crime victims and their communities, and provide offenders with opportunities for rehabilitation.
    Subd. 16. Qualified domestic violence-related offense. "Qualified domestic violence-related
offense" includes the following offenses: sections 518B.01, subdivision 14 (violation of domestic
abuse order for protection); 518B.01, subdivision 22 (violation of domestic abuse no contact
order); 609.221
(first-degree assault); 609.222 (second-degree assault); 609.223 (third-degree
assault); 609.2231 (fourth-degree assault); 609.224 (fifth-degree assault); 609.2242 (domestic
assault); 609.2247 (domestic assault by strangulation); 609.342 (first-degree criminal sexual
conduct); 609.343 (second-degree criminal sexual conduct); 609.344 (third-degree criminal sexual
conduct); 609.345 (fourth-degree criminal sexual conduct); 609.377 (malicious punishment of a
child); 609.713 (terroristic threats); 609.748, subdivision 6 (violation of harassment restraining
order); 609.749 (harassment/stalking); and 609.78, subdivision 2 (interference with an emergency
call); and similar laws of other states, the United States, the District of Columbia, tribal lands,
and United States territories.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.02; 1969 c 735 s 3; Ex1971 c 27 s 42,43; 1977 c 355 s 2;
1979 c 258 s 2,3; 1983 c 274 s 14; 1983 c 331 s 4,5; 1985 c 167 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 307
s 1,2; 1987 c 329 s 3; 1987 c 384 art 2 s 1; 1989 c 5 s 1,2; 1992 c 571 art 6 s 10; 1993 c 326
art 5 s 6; 1997 c 239 art 9 s 34; 1Sp1997 c 2 s 59,60; 1999 c 194 s 5; 2000 c 488 art 5 s 2,3;
1Sp2001 c 8 art 10 s 7; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 8; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 12
609.025 JURISDICTION OF STATE.
A person may be convicted and sentenced under the law of this state if the person:
(1) commits an offense in whole or in part within this state; or
(2) being without the state, causes, aids or abets another to commit a crime within the state; or
(3) being without the state, intentionally causes a result within the state prohibited by the
criminal laws of this state.
It is not a defense that the defendant's conduct is also a criminal offense under the laws of
another state or of the United States or of another country.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.025; Ex1971 c 27 s 44; 1986 c 444
609.03 PUNISHMENT WHEN NOT OTHERWISE FIXED.
If a person is convicted of a crime for which no punishment is otherwise provided the
person may be sentenced as follows:
(1) If the crime is a felony, to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of
a fine of not more than $10,000, or both; or
(2) If the crime is a gross misdemeanor, to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both; or
(3) If the crime is a misdemeanor, to imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment
of a fine of not more than $1,000, or both; or
(4) If the crime is other than a misdemeanor and a fine is imposed but the amount is not
specified, to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000, or to imprisonment for a specified term of
not more than six months if the fine is not paid.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.03; 1969 c 735 s 4; 1977 c 355 s 3; 1983 c 331 s 6; 1986 c
444; 2000 c 488 art 5 s 4
609.031 [Repealed, 1983 c 331 s 11]
609.032 [Repealed, 1983 c 331 s 11]
609.033 INCREASED MAXIMUM PENALTIES FOR MISDEMEANORS.
Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $700 as a penalty for a
misdemeanor shall, on or after August 1, 2000, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine
of $1,000.
History: 1983 c 331 s 7; 2000 c 488 art 5 s 5
609.0331 INCREASED MAXIMUM PENALTIES FOR PETTY MISDEMEANORS.
A law of this state that provides, on or after August 1, 2000, for a maximum penalty of $200
for a petty misdemeanor is considered to provide for a maximum fine of $300.
History: 1987 c 329 s 4; 1992 c 464 art 1 s 49; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 13; 2000 c 488 art 5 s 6
609.0332 INCREASED MAXIMUM PENALTY FOR PETTY MISDEMEANOR
ORDINANCE VIOLATIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Increased fine. From August 1, 2000, if a state law or municipal charter
sets a limit of $200 or less on the fines that a statutory or home rule charter city, town, county,
or other political subdivision may prescribe for an ordinance violation that is defined as a petty
misdemeanor, that law or charter is considered to provide that the political subdivision has the
power to prescribe a maximum fine of $300 for the petty misdemeanor violation.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1994 c 636 art 2 s 69]
History: 1987 c 329 s 5; 1991 c 199 art 2 s 1; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 14; 2000 c 488 art 5 s 7
609.034 INCREASED MAXIMUM PENALTY FOR ORDINANCE VIOLATIONS.
Any law of this state or municipal charter which limits the power of any statutory or home
rule charter city, town, county, or other political subdivision to prescribe a maximum fine of $700
or less for an ordinance shall on or after August 1, 2000, be deemed to provide that the statutory
or home rule charter city, town, county, or other political subdivision has the power to prescribe a
maximum fine of $1,000.
History: 1983 c 331 s 8; 2000 c 488 art 5 s 8
609.0341 INCREASED MAXIMUM FINES FOR GROSS MISDEMEANORS; FELONIES;
OTHER FINES.
    Subdivision 1. Gross misdemeanors. Any law of this state which provides for a maximum
fine of $1,000 or for a maximum sentence of imprisonment of one year or which is defined as a
gross misdemeanor shall, on or after August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of
$3,000 and for a maximum sentence of imprisonment of one year.
    Subd. 2. Felonies. (a) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $2,000
shall, on or after August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $4,000.
(b) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $3,000 shall, on or after
August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $5,000.
(c) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $5,000 shall, on or after
August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $10,000.
(d) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $7,000 shall, on or after
August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $14,000.
(e) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $10,000 shall, on or after
August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $20,000.
(f) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $15,000 shall, on or after
August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $30,000.
(g) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $20,000 shall, on or after
August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $35,000.
(h) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $25,000 shall, on or after
August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $40,000.
(i) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $30,000 shall, on or after
August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $45,000.
(j) Any law of this state which provides for a maximum fine of $40,000 shall, on or after
August 1, 1983, be deemed to provide for a maximum fine of $50,000.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1984 c 628 art 3 s 10]
History: 1983 c 331 s 9; 1993 c 326 art 13 s 19
609.035 CRIME PUNISHABLE UNDER DIFFERENT PROVISIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Conduct; multiple crimes; chargeable for one offense. Except as provided
in subdivisions 2, 3, 4, and 5, and in sections 609.251, 609.585, 609.21, subdivisions 3 and
4
, 609.2691, 609.486, 609.494, and 609.856, if a person's conduct constitutes more than one
offense under the laws of this state, the person may be punished for only one of the offenses
and a conviction or acquittal of any one of them is a bar to prosecution for any other of them.
All the offenses, if prosecuted, shall be included in one prosecution which shall be stated in
separate counts.
    Subd. 2. Consecutive sentences. (a) When a person is being sentenced for a violation of
a provision listed in paragraph (e), the court may sentence the person to a consecutive term of
imprisonment for a violation of any other provision listed in paragraph (e), notwithstanding
the fact that the offenses arose out of the same course of conduct, subject to the limitation on
consecutive sentences contained in section 609.15, subdivision 2, and except as provided in
paragraphs (b), (c), and (f) of this subdivision.
(b) When a person is being sentenced for a violation of section 171.09, 171.20, 171.24, or
171.30, the court may not impose a consecutive sentence for another violation of a provision
in chapter 171.
(c) When a person is being sentenced for a violation of section 169.791 or 169.797, the
court may not impose a consecutive sentence for another violation of a provision of sections
169.79 to 169.7995.
(d) This subdivision does not limit the authority of the court to impose consecutive sentences
for crimes arising on different dates or to impose a consecutive sentence when a person is being
sentenced for a crime and is also in violation of the conditions of a stayed or otherwise deferred
sentence under section 609.135.
(e) This subdivision applies to misdemeanor and gross misdemeanor violations of the
following if the offender has two or more prior impaired driving convictions as defined in section
169A.03 within the past ten years:
(1) section 169A.20, subdivision 1, driving while impaired;
(2) section 169A.20, subdivision 2, test refusal;
(3) section 169.791, failure to provide proof of insurance;
(4) section 169.797, failure to provide vehicle insurance;
(5) section 171.09, violation of condition of restricted license;
(6) section 171.20, subdivision 2, operation after revocation, suspension, cancellation, or
disqualification;
(7) section 171.24, driving without valid license; and
(8) section 171.30, violation of condition of limited license.
(f) When a court is sentencing an offender for a violation of section 169A.20 and a violation
of an offense listed in paragraph (e), and the offender has five or more qualified prior impaired
driving incidents, as defined in section 169A.03, within the past ten years, the court shall sentence
the offender to serve consecutive sentences for the offenses, notwithstanding the fact that the
offenses arose out of the same course of conduct.
    Subd. 3. Exception; firearms offenses. Notwithstanding section 609.04, a prosecution for or
conviction of a violation of section 609.165 or 624.713, subdivision 1, clause (b), is not a bar
to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed by the defendant as part of the
same conduct.
    Subd. 4. Exception; arson offenses. Notwithstanding section 609.04, a prosecution for or
conviction of a violation of sections 609.561 to 609.563 or 609.5641 is not a bar to conviction
of or punishment for any other crime committed by the defendant as part of the same conduct
when the defendant is shown to have violated sections 609.561 to 609.563 or 609.5641 for the
purpose of concealing any other crime.
For purposes of the Sentencing Guidelines, a violation of sections 609.561 to 609.563 or
609.5641 is a crime against the person.
    Subd. 5. Exception; fleeing a peace officer. Notwithstanding subdivision 1, a prosecution or
conviction for violating section 609.487 is not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other
crime committed by the defendant as part of the same conduct. If an offender is punished for more
than one crime as authorized by this subdivision and the court imposes consecutive sentences for
the crimes, the consecutive sentences are not a departure from the Sentencing Guidelines.
    Subd. 6. Exception; criminal sexual conduct offenses. Notwithstanding subdivision 1, a
prosecution or conviction for committing a violation of sections 609.342 to 609.345 with force
or violence is not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed by the
defendant as part of the same conduct. If an offender is punished for more than one crime as
authorized by this subdivision and the court imposes consecutive sentences for the crimes, the
consecutive sentences are not a departure from the Sentencing Guidelines.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.035; 1983 c 139 s 1; 1986 c 388 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 111 s
1; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 13; 1994 c 615 s 23; 1996 c 408 art 4 s 2,3; 1997 c 239 art 8 s 28,29; 1999 c
194 s 6; 1999 c 216 art 3 s 4-6; 2000 c 311 art 4 s 1; 2000 c 478 art 2 s 4; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 12 s 16
609.04 CONVICTION OF LESSER OFFENSE.
    Subdivision 1. Lesser offense prosecution. Upon prosecution for a crime, the actor may be
convicted of either the crime charged or an included offense, but not both. An included offense
may be any of the following:
(1) A lesser degree of the same crime; or
(2) An attempt to commit the crime charged; or
(3) An attempt to commit a lesser degree of the same crime; or
(4) A crime necessarily proved if the crime charged were proved; or
(5) A petty misdemeanor necessarily proved if the misdemeanor charge were proved.
    Subd. 2. Conviction; bar to prosecution. A conviction or acquittal of a crime is a bar to
further prosecution of any included offense, or other degree of the same crime.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.04; Ex1971 c 27 s 45
609.041 PROOF OF PRIOR CONVICTIONS.
In a criminal prosecution in which the degree of the crime or the penalty for the crime
depends, in whole or in part, on proof of the existence of a prior conviction, if the defendant
contests the existence of or factual basis for a prior conviction, proof of it is established by
competent and reliable evidence, including a certified court record of the conviction.
History: 1988 c 520 s 2
609.045 FOREIGN CONVICTION OR ACQUITTAL.
If an act or omission in this state constitutes a crime under both the laws of this state and the
laws of another jurisdiction, a conviction or acquittal of the crime in the other jurisdiction shall not
bar prosecution for the crime in this state unless the elements of both law and fact are identical.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.045; 1983 c 152 s 1
609.05 LIABILITY FOR CRIMES OF ANOTHER.
    Subdivision 1. Aiding, abetting; liability. A person is criminally liable for a crime
committed by another if the person intentionally aids, advises, hires, counsels, or conspires with
or otherwise procures the other to commit the crime.
    Subd. 2. Expansive liability. A person liable under subdivision 1 is also liable for any other
crime committed in pursuance of the intended crime if reasonably foreseeable by the person as a
probable consequence of committing or attempting to commit the crime intended.
    Subd. 3. Abandonment of criminal purpose. A person who intentionally aids, advises,
hires, counsels, or conspires with or otherwise procures another to commit a crime and thereafter
abandons that purpose and makes a reasonable effort to prevent the commission of the crime prior
to its commission is not liable if the crime is thereafter committed.
    Subd. 4. Circumstances of conviction. A person liable under this section may be charged
with and convicted of the crime although the person who directly committed it has not been
convicted, or has been convicted of some other degree of the crime or of some other crime based
on the same act, or if the person is a juvenile who has not been found delinquent for the act.
    Subd. 5. Definition. For purposes of this section, a crime also includes an act committed
by a juvenile that would be a crime if committed by an adult.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.05; 1986 c 444; 1991 c 279 s 22,23
609.055 LIABILITY OF CHILDREN.
    Subdivision 1. General rule. Children under the age of 14 years are incapable of committing
crime.
    Subd. 2. Adult prosecution. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b), children
of the age of 14 years or over but under 18 years may be prosecuted for a felony offense if the
alleged violation is duly certified for prosecution under the laws and court procedures controlling
adult criminal violations or may be designated an extended jurisdiction juvenile in accordance
with the provisions of chapter 260B. A child who is 16 years of age or older but under 18 years of
age is capable of committing a crime and may be prosecuted for a felony if:
(1) the child has been previously certified on a felony charge pursuant to a hearing under
section 260B.125, subdivision 2, or pursuant to the waiver of the right to such a hearing, or
prosecuted pursuant to this subdivision; and
(2) the child was convicted of the felony offense or offenses for which the child was
prosecuted or of a lesser included felony offense.
(b) A child who is alleged to have committed murder in the first degree after becoming
16 years of age is capable of committing a crime and may be prosecuted for the felony. This
paragraph does not apply to a child alleged to have committed attempted murder in the first
degree after becoming 16 years of age.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.055; 1992 c 571 art 7 s 12; 1994 c 576 s 45; 1995 c 226 art
3 s 47; 1999 c 139 art 4 s 2
609.06 AUTHORIZED USE OF FORCE.
    Subdivision 1. When authorized. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 2, reasonable
force may be used upon or toward the person of another without the other's consent when the
following circumstances exist or the actor reasonably believes them to exist:
(1) when used by a public officer or one assisting a public officer under the public officer's
direction:
(a) in effecting a lawful arrest; or
(b) in the execution of legal process; or
(c) in enforcing an order of the court; or
(d) in executing any other duty imposed upon the public officer by law; or
(2) when used by a person not a public officer in arresting another in the cases and in the
manner provided by law and delivering the other to an officer competent to receive the other
into custody; or
(3) when used by any person in resisting or aiding another to resist an offense against the
person; or
(4) when used by any person in lawful possession of real or personal property, or by
another assisting the person in lawful possession, in resisting a trespass upon or other unlawful
interference with such property; or
(5) when used by any person to prevent the escape, or to retake following the escape, of a
person lawfully held on a charge or conviction of a crime; or
(6) when used by a parent, guardian, teacher, or other lawful custodian of a child or pupil, in
the exercise of lawful authority, to restrain or correct such child or pupil; or
(7) when used by a school employee or school bus driver, in the exercise of lawful authority,
to restrain a child or pupil, or to prevent bodily harm or death to another; or
(8) when used by a common carrier in expelling a passenger who refuses to obey a lawful
requirement for the conduct of passengers and reasonable care is exercised with regard to the
passenger's personal safety; or
(9) when used to restrain a person who is mentally ill or mentally defective from self-injury
or injury to another or when used by one with authority to do so to compel compliance with
reasonable requirements for the person's control, conduct, or treatment; or
(10) when used by a public or private institution providing custody or treatment against one
lawfully committed to it to compel compliance with reasonable requirements for the control,
conduct, or treatment of the committed person.
    Subd. 2. Deadly force used against peace officers. Deadly force may not be used against
peace officers who have announced their presence and are performing official duties at a location
where a person is committing a crime or an act that would be a crime if committed by an adult.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.06; 1986 c 444; 1993 c 326 art 1 s 4; 1996 c 408 art 3 s
12; 2002 c 221 s 46
609.065 JUSTIFIABLE TAKING OF LIFE.
The intentional taking of the life of another is not authorized by section 609.06, except when
necessary in resisting or preventing an offense which the actor reasonably believes exposes the
actor or another to great bodily harm or death, or preventing the commission of a felony in
the actor's place of abode.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.065; 1978 c 736 s 1; 1986 c 444
609.066 AUTHORIZED USE OF DEADLY FORCE BY PEACE OFFICERS.
    Subdivision 1. Deadly force defined. For the purposes of this section, "deadly force" means
force which the actor uses with the purpose of causing, or which the actor should reasonably know
creates a substantial risk of causing, death or great bodily harm. The intentional discharge of a
firearm, other than a firearm loaded with less lethal munitions and used by a peace officer within
the scope of official duties, in the direction of another person, or at a vehicle in which another
person is believed to be, constitutes deadly force. "Less lethal munitions" means projectiles which
are designed to stun, temporarily incapacitate, or cause temporary discomfort to a person. "Peace
officer" has the meaning given in section 626.84, subdivision 1.
    Subd. 2. Use of deadly force. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 609.06 or 609.065,
the use of deadly force by a peace officer in the line of duty is justified only when necessary:
(1) To protect the peace officer or another from apparent death or great bodily harm;
(2) To effect the arrest or capture, or prevent the escape, of a person whom the peace officer
knows or has reasonable grounds to believe has committed or attempted to commit a felony
involving the use or threatened use of deadly force; or
(3) To effect the arrest or capture, or prevent the escape, of a person whom the officer
knows or has reasonable grounds to believe has committed or attempted to commit a felony
if the officer reasonably believes that the person will cause death or great bodily harm if the
person's apprehension is delayed.
    Subd. 3. No defense. This section and sections 609.06, 609.065 and 629.33 may not be used
as a defense in a civil action brought by an innocent third party.
History: 1978 c 736 s 2; 1986 c 444; 2001 c 127 s 1
609.075 INTOXICATION AS DEFENSE.
An act committed while in a state of voluntary intoxication is not less criminal by reason
thereof, but when a particular intent or other state of mind is a necessary element to constitute
a particular crime, the fact of intoxication may be taken into consideration in determining such
intent or state of mind.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.075
609.08 DURESS.
Except as provided in section 609.20, clause (3), when any crime is committed or participated
in by two or more persons, any one of whom participates only under compulsion by another
engaged therein, who by threats creates a reasonable apprehension in the mind of such participator
that in case of refusal that participator is liable to instant death, such threats and apprehension
constitute duress which will excuse such participator from criminal liability.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.08; 1986 c 444
609.085 SENDING WRITTEN COMMUNICATION.
    Subdivision 1. Definition of offense. When the sending of a letter or other written
communication is made an offense, the offense is complete upon deposit of the letter or
communication in any official depository of mail or given to another for the purpose of delivery
to the receiver.
    Subd. 2. Venue. The offense is committed in both the county in which the letter is so
deposited or given and the county in which it is received by the person for whom it is intended.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.085
609.09 COMPELLING TESTIMONY; IMMUNITY FROM PROSECUTION.
    Subdivision 1. Conditions of immunity. In any criminal proceeding, including a grand jury
proceeding, paternity proceeding, or proceeding in juvenile court, if it appears a person may be
entitled to refuse to answer a question or produce evidence of any other kind on the ground that the
person may be incriminated thereby, and if the prosecuting attorney, in writing, requests the chief
judge of the district or a judge of the court in which the proceeding is pending to order that person
to answer the question or produce the evidence, the judge, after notice to the witness and hearing,
shall so order if the judge finds that to do so would not be contrary to the public interest and would
not be likely to expose the witness to prosecution in another state or in the federal courts.
After complying, and if, but for this section, the witness would have been privileged to
withhold the answer given or the evidence produced by the witness, no testimony or other
information compelled under the order, or any information directly or indirectly derived from
such testimony or other information may be used against the witness in any criminal case, but the
witness may be prosecuted or subjected to penalty or forfeiture for any perjury, false swearing or
contempt committed in answering, or in failing to answer, or in producing, or failing to produce,
evidence in accordance with the order.
    Subd. 2. Testimony required; no use of testimony for prosecution. In every case not
provided for in subdivision 1 and in which it is provided by law that a witness shall not be excused
from giving testimony tending to be self-incriminating, no person shall be excused from testifying
or producing any papers or documents on the ground that doing so may tend to criminate the
person or subject the person to a penalty or forfeiture; but no testimony or other information
directly or indirectly derived from such testimony or other information may be used against the
witness in any criminal case, except for perjury committed in such testimony.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.09; 1969 c 661 s 1; 1981 c 293 s 1; 1986 c 444

SENTENCES

609.095 LIMITS OF SENTENCES.
(a) The legislature has the exclusive authority to define crimes and offenses and the range of
the sentences or punishments for their violation. No other or different sentence or punishment
shall be imposed for the commission of a crime than is authorized by this chapter or other
applicable law.
(b) Except as provided in section 152.18 or 609.375, or upon agreement of the parties, a
court may not refuse to adjudicate the guilt of a defendant who tenders a guilty plea in accordance
with Minnesota Rules of Criminal Procedure, rule 15, or who has been found guilty by a court or
jury following a trial.
(c) Paragraph (b) does not supersede Minnesota Rules of Criminal Procedure, rule 26.04.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.095; 1998 c 367 art 6 s 1; 2001 c 158 s 6
609.10 SENTENCES AVAILABLE.
    Subdivision 1. Sentences available. Upon conviction of a felony and compliance with the
other provisions of this chapter the court, if it imposes sentence, may sentence the defendant to
the extent authorized by law as follows:
(1) to life imprisonment; or
(2) to imprisonment for a fixed term of years set by the court; or
(3) to both imprisonment for a fixed term of years and payment of a fine; or
(4) to payment of a fine without imprisonment or to imprisonment for a fixed term of years if
the fine is not paid; or
(5) to payment of court-ordered restitution in addition to either imprisonment or payment
of a fine, or both; or
(6) to payment of a local correctional fee as authorized under section 609.102 in addition
to any other sentence imposed by the court.
    Subd. 2. Restitution. (a) As used in this section, "restitution" includes:
(1) payment of compensation to the victim or the victim's family; and
(2) if the victim is deceased or already has been fully compensated, payment of money to a
victim assistance program or other program directed by the court.
"Restitution" includes payment of compensation to a government entity that incurs loss as
a direct result of a crime.
(b) When the defendant does not pay the entire amount of court-ordered restitution and the
fine at the same time, the court may order that all restitution shall be paid before the fine is paid.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.10; 1978 c 723 art 1 s 13; 1984 c 610 s 1; 1992 c 571 art 11
s 12; 1995 c 244 s 10; 1996 c 408 art 7 s 2; 1997 c 239 art 7 s 16
609.101 SURCHARGE ON FINES, ASSESSMENTS; MINIMUM FINES.
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 8 s 26]
    Subd. 2. Minimum fines. Notwithstanding any other law, when a court sentences a person
convicted of violating section 609.221, 609.222, 609.223, 609.2231, 609.224, 609.2242, 609.267,
609.2671, 609.2672, 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, or 609.345, it must impose a fine of not less than
30 percent of the maximum fine authorized by law nor more than the maximum fine authorized
by law.
The court shall collect the portion of the fine mandated by this subdivision and forward 70
percent of it to a local victim assistance program that provides services locally in the county
in which the crime was committed. The court shall forward the remaining 30 percent to the
commissioner of finance to be credited to the general fund. If more than one victim assistance
program serves the county in which the crime was committed, the court may designate on a
case-by-case basis which program will receive the fine proceeds, giving consideration to the
nature of the crime committed, the types of victims served by the program, and the funding needs
of the program. If no victim assistance program serves that county, the court shall forward 100
percent of the fine proceeds to the commissioner of finance to be credited to the general fund.
Fine proceeds received by a local victim assistance program must be used to provide direct
services to crime victims.
The minimum fine required by this subdivision is in addition to the surcharge or assessment
required by section 357.021, subdivision 6, and is in addition to any sentence of imprisonment or
restitution imposed or ordered by the court.
As used in this subdivision, "victim assistance program" means victim witness programs
within county attorney offices or any of the following programs: crime victim crisis centers,
victim-witness programs, battered women shelters and nonshelter programs, and sexual assault
programs.
    Subd. 3. Controlled substance offenses; minimum fines. (a) Notwithstanding any other
law, when a court sentences a person convicted of a controlled substance crime under sections
152.021 to 152.025 and 152.0262, it must impose a fine of not less than 30 percent of the
maximum fine authorized by law nor more than the maximum fine authorized by law.
(b) The minimum fine required by this subdivision is in addition to the surcharge or
assessment required by section 357.021, subdivision 6, and is in addition to any sentence of
imprisonment or restitution imposed or ordered by the court.
(c) The court shall collect the fine mandated by this subdivision and forward 70 percent of it
to a local drug abuse prevention program existing or being implemented in the county in which
the crime was committed. The court shall forward the remaining 30 percent to the commissioner
of finance to be credited to the general fund. If more than one drug abuse prevention program
serves the county in which the crime was committed, the court may designate on a case-by-case
basis which program will receive the fine proceeds, giving consideration to the community in
which the crime was committed, the funding needs of the program, the number of peace officers
in each community certified to teach the program, and the number of children served by the
program in each community. If no drug abuse prevention program serves communities in that
county, the court shall forward 100 percent of the fine proceeds to the commissioner of finance
to be credited to the general fund.
(d) The minimum fines required by this subdivision shall be collected as are other fines.
Fine proceeds received by a local drug abuse prevention program must be used to support that
program, and may be used for salaries of peace officers certified to teach the program. The drug
abuse resistance education program must report receipt and use of money generated under this
subdivision as prescribed by the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Advisory Council.
(e) As used in this subdivision, "drug abuse prevention program" and "program" include:
(1) the drug abuse resistance education program described in sections 299A.33 and
299A.331; and
(2) any similar drug abuse education and prevention program that includes the following
components:
(A) instruction for students enrolled in kindergarten through grade six that is designed
to teach students to recognize and resist pressures to experiment with controlled substances
and alcohol;
(B) provisions for parental involvement;
(C) classroom instruction by uniformed law enforcement personnel;
(D) the use of positive student leaders to influence younger students not to use drugs; and
(E) an emphasis on activity-oriented techniques designed to encourage student-generated
responses to problem-solving situations.
    Subd. 4. Minimum fines; other crimes. Notwithstanding any other law:
(1) when a court sentences a person convicted of a felony that is not listed in subdivision 2 or
3, it must impose a fine of not less than 30 percent of the maximum fine authorized by law nor
more than the maximum fine authorized by law; and
(2) when a court sentences a person convicted of a gross misdemeanor or misdemeanor that
is not listed in subdivision 2, it must impose a fine of not less than 30 percent of the maximum fine
authorized by law nor more than the maximum fine authorized by law, unless the fine is set at a
lower amount on a uniform fine schedule established by the Judicial Council in consultation with
affected state and local agencies. This schedule shall be promulgated not later than September
1 of each year and shall become effective on January 1 of the next year unless the legislature,
by law, provides otherwise.
The minimum fine required by this subdivision is in addition to the surcharge or assessment
required by section 357.021, subdivision 6, and is in addition to any sentence of imprisonment or
restitution imposed or ordered by the court.
The court shall collect the fines mandated in this subdivision and, except for fines for traffic
and motor vehicle violations governed by section 169.871 and section 299D.03 and fish and game
violations governed by section 97A.065, forward 20 percent of the revenues to the commissioner
of finance for deposit in the general fund.
    Subd. 5. Waiver prohibited; reduction and installment payments. (a) The court may not
waive payment of the minimum fine required by this section.
(b) If the defendant qualifies for the services of a public defender or the court finds on the
record that the convicted person is indigent or that immediate payment of the fine would create
undue hardship for the convicted person or that person's immediate family, the court may reduce
the amount of the minimum fine to not less than $50. Additionally, the court may permit the
defendant to perform community work service in lieu of a fine.
(c) The court also may authorize payment of the fine in installments.
History: 1981 c 360 art 2 s 50; 1983 c 262 art 1 s 6; 1Sp1985 c 13 s 366; 1986 c 442 s 15;
1986 c 444; 1986 c 463 s 2; 1Sp1986 c 1 art 8 s 15; 1987 c 244 s 1; 1987 c 404 s 189; 1989 c 264
s 2; 1989 c 335 art 4 s 99; 1991 c 279 s 24,41; 1991 c 345 art 1 s 106; 1992 c 571 art 4 s 2,3;
1993 c 192 s 105; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 14; art 12 s 8-12,18; art 13 s 20-22; 1995 c 226 art 2 s 8-10;
1996 c 305 art 1 s 119; 1997 c 7 art 2 s 61; 1997 c 239 art 3 s 4; 1998 c 367 art 8 s 10; 2001 c 71
s 1-4; 2003 c 112 art 2 s 50; 1Sp2003 c 2 art 2 s 6; 2005 c 136 art 7 s 21; 2006 c 260 art 5 s 50
609.102 LOCAL CORRECTIONAL FEES; IMPOSITION BY COURT.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. As used in this section, "local correctional fee" means a fee for
local correctional services established by a local correctional agency under section 244.18.
    Subd. 2. Imposition of fee. When a court places a person convicted of a crime under the
supervision and control of a local correctional agency, that agency may collect a local correctional
fee based on the local correctional agency's fee schedule adopted under section 244.18.
    Subd. 2a. Imposition of correctional fee. When a person convicted of a crime is supervised
by the commissioner of corrections, the commissioner may collect a correctional fee under
section 241.272.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1999 c 111 s 6]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1999 c 111 s 6]
History: 1992 c 571 art 11 s 13; 1999 c 111 s 4; 1999 c 216 art 4 s 10; 2006 c 260 art 4 s 13
609.103 PAYMENT BY CREDIT CARD.
The court may permit the defendant to pay any fine, assessment, surcharge, attorney
reimbursement obligation, or restitution obligation by credit card. The discount fees assessed by
the credit card company shall be borne by the county, except that in a judicial district under
section 480.181, subdivision 1, paragraph (b), the cost shall be borne by the state.
History: 1993 c 192 s 106; 2001 c 78 s 1
609.105 SENTENCE OF IMPRISONMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Sentence to less than 180 days. In a felony sentence to imprisonment,
when the remaining term of imprisonment is for 180 days or less, the defendant shall be
committed to the custody of the commissioner of corrections and must serve the remaining term
of imprisonment at a workhouse, work farm, county jail, or other place authorized by law.
    Subd. 1a. Definitions. (a) The terms in this subdivision apply to this section.
(b) "Remaining term of imprisonment" as applied to inmates whose crimes were committed
before August 1, 1993, is the period of time for which an inmate is committed to the custody of
the commissioner of corrections minus earned good time and jail credit, if any.
(c) "Remaining term of imprisonment" as applied to inmates whose crimes were committed
on or after August 1, 1993, is the period of time equal to two-thirds of the inmate's executed
sentence, minus jail credit, if any.
    Subd. 1b. Sentence to more than 180 days. A felony sentence to imprisonment when the
warrant of commitment has a remaining term of imprisonment for more than 180 days shall
commit the defendant to the custody of the commissioner of corrections.
    Subd. 2. Place of confinement. The commissioner of corrections shall determine the place
of confinement in a prison, reformatory, or other facility of the Department of Corrections
established by law for the confinement of convicted persons and prescribe reasonable conditions
and rules for their employment, conduct, instruction, and discipline within or without the facility.
    Subd. 3. Sentence to one year or less. A sentence to imprisonment for a period of one year or
any lesser period shall be to a workhouse, work farm, county jail, or other place authorized by law.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.105; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1Sp1997 c 2 s 61; 1999 c 126 s
10; 1999 c 194 s 7,8; 1Sp2003 c 2 art 5 s 7-9
609.1055 OFFENDERS WITH SERIOUS AND PERSISTENT MENTAL ILLNESS;
ALTERNATIVE PLACEMENT.
When a court intends to commit an offender with a serious and persistent mental illness, as
defined in section 245.462, subdivision 20, paragraph (c), to the custody of the commissioner of
corrections for imprisonment at a state correctional facility, either when initially pronouncing a
sentence or when revoking an offender's probation, the court, when consistent with public safety,
may instead place the offender on probation or continue the offender's probation and require as
a condition of the probation that the offender successfully complete an appropriate supervised
alternative living program having a mental health treatment component. This section applies only
to offenders who would have a remaining term of imprisonment after adjusting for credit for prior
imprisonment, if any, of more than one year.
History: 1Sp2003 c 2 art 5 s 10
609.106 HEINOUS CRIMES.
    Subdivision 1. Terms. (a) As used in this section, "heinous crime" means:
(1) a violation or attempted violation of section 609.185 or 609.19;
(2) a violation of section 609.195 or 609.221; or
(3) a violation of section 609.342, 609.343, or 609.344, if the offense was committed with
force or violence.
(b) "Previous conviction" means a conviction in Minnesota for a heinous crime or a
conviction elsewhere for conduct that would have been a heinous crime under this chapter if
committed in Minnesota. The term includes any conviction that occurred before the commission
of the present offense of conviction, but does not include a conviction if 15 years have elapsed
since the person was discharged from the sentence imposed for the offense.
    Subd. 2. Life without release. The court shall sentence a person to life imprisonment
without possibility of release under the following circumstances:
(1) the person is convicted of first degree murder under section 609.185, paragraph (a),
clause (1), (2), (4), or (7);
(2) the person is convicted of committing first degree murder in the course of a kidnapping
under section 609.185, clause (3); or
(3) the person is convicted of first degree murder under section 609.185, clause (3), (5), or
(6), and the court determines on the record at the time of sentencing that the person has one or
more previous convictions for a heinous crime.
History: 1998 c 367 art 2 s 6; art 6 s 3,15; 2002 c 401 art 1 s 13; 2005 c 136 art 2 s 5;
art 17 s 9
609.107 MANDATORY PENALTY FOR CERTAIN MURDERERS.
When a person is convicted of violating section 609.19 or 609.195, the court shall sentence
the person to the statutory maximum sentence for the offense if the person was previously
convicted of a heinous crime as defined in section 609.106 and 15 years have not elapsed since
the person was discharged from the sentence imposed for that conviction. The court may not stay
the imposition or execution of the sentence, notwithstanding section 609.135.
History: 1998 c 367 art 6 s 4
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 2005 c 136 art 2 s 23]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 2006 c 260 art 1 s 48]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 2005 c 136 art 2 s 23]

NOTE: Subdivision 7 was also amended by Laws 2005, chapter 136, article 3, section
22, to read as follows:

"Subd. 7. Conditional release of sex offenders. (a) Notwithstanding the statutory maximum
sentence otherwise applicable to the offense or any provision of the Sentencing Guidelines, when
a court sentences a person to prison for a violation of section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, or
609.345, the court shall provide that after the person has completed the sentence imposed, the
commissioner of corrections shall place the person on conditional release. If the person was
convicted for a violation of section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, or 609.345, the person shall be
placed on conditional release for five years, minus the time the person served on supervised
release. If the person was convicted for a violation of one of those sections after a previous sex
offense conviction as defined in subdivision 5, or sentenced under subdivision 6 to a mandatory
departure, the person shall be placed on conditional release for ten years, minus the time the
person served on supervised release.

(b) The conditions of release may include successful completion of treatment and aftercare
in a program approved by the commissioner, satisfaction of the release conditions specified in
section 244.05, subdivision 6, and any other conditions the commissioner considers appropriate.
If the offender fails to meet any condition of release, the commissioner may revoke the offender's
conditional release and order that the offender serve the remaining portion of the conditional
release term in prison. The commissioner shall not dismiss the offender from supervision before
the conditional release term expires.

Conditional release under this subdivision is governed by provisions relating to supervised
release, except as otherwise provided in this subdivision, section 244.04, subdivision 1, or 244.05.

(c) The commissioner shall develop a plan to pay the cost of treatment of a person released
under this subdivision. The plan may include co-payments from offenders, third-party payers,
local agencies, and other funding sources as they are identified. This section does not require the
commissioner to accept or retain an offender in a treatment program."

609.1095 INCREASED SENTENCES FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS AND REPEAT
FELONY OFFENDERS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the
meanings given.
(b) "Conviction" means any of the following accepted and recorded by the court: a plea
of guilty, a verdict of guilty by a jury, or a finding of guilty by the court. The term includes a
conviction by any court in Minnesota or another jurisdiction.
(c) "Prior conviction" means a conviction that occurred before the offender committed
the next felony resulting in a conviction and before the offense for which the offender is being
sentenced under this section.
(d) "Violent crime" means a violation of or an attempt or conspiracy to violate any of the
following laws of this state or any similar laws of the United States or any other state: sections
152.137; 609.165; 609.185; 609.19; 609.195; 609.20; 609.205; 609.21; 609.221; 609.222;
609.223; 609.228; 609.235; 609.24; 609.245; 609.25; 609.255; 609.2661; 609.2662; 609.2663;
609.2664; 609.2665; 609.267; 609.2671; 609.268; 609.342; 609.343; 609.344; 609.345; 609.498,
subdivision 1
; 609.561; 609.562; 609.582, subdivision 1; 609.66, subdivision 1e; 609.687; and
609.855, subdivision 5; any provision of sections 609.229; 609.377; 609.378; 609.749; and
624.713 that is punishable by a felony penalty; or any provision of chapter 152 that is punishable
by a maximum sentence of 15 years or more.
    Subd. 2. Increased sentences for dangerous offender who commits third violent crime.
Whenever a person is convicted of a violent crime that is a felony, and the judge is imposing
an executed sentence based on a Sentencing Guidelines presumptive imprisonment sentence,
the judge may impose an aggravated durational departure from the presumptive imprisonment
sentence up to the statutory maximum sentence if the offender was at least 18 years old at the
time the felony was committed, and:
(1) the court determines on the record at the time of sentencing that the offender has two or
more prior convictions for violent crimes; and
(2) the factfinder determines that the offender is a danger to public safety. The factfinder may
base its determination that the offender is a danger to public safety on the following factors:
(i) the offender's past criminal behavior, such as the offender's high frequency rate of
criminal activity or juvenile adjudications, or long involvement in criminal activity including
juvenile adjudications; or
(ii) the fact that the present offense of conviction involved an aggravating factor that would
justify a durational departure under the Sentencing Guidelines.
    Subd. 3. Mandatory sentence for dangerous offender who commits third violent felony.
(a) Unless a longer mandatory minimum sentence is otherwise required by law or the court
imposes a longer aggravated durational departure under subdivision 2, a person who is convicted
of a violent crime that is a felony must be committed to the commissioner of corrections for a
mandatory sentence of at least the length of the presumptive sentence under the Sentencing
Guidelines if the court determines on the record at the time of sentencing that the person has two
or more prior felony convictions for violent crimes. The court shall impose and execute the prison
sentence regardless of whether the guidelines presume an executed prison sentence.
Any person convicted and sentenced as required by this subdivision is not eligible for
probation, parole, discharge, or work release, until that person has served the full term of
imprisonment imposed by the court, notwithstanding sections 241.26, 242.19, 243.05, 244.04,
609.12, and 609.135.
(b) For purposes of this subdivision, "violent crime" does not include a violation of section
152.023 or 152.024.
    Subd. 4. Increased sentence for offender who commits sixth felony. Whenever a person
is convicted of a felony, and the judge is imposing an executed sentence based on a Sentencing
Guidelines presumptive imprisonment sentence, the judge may impose an aggravated durational
departure from the presumptive sentence up to the statutory maximum sentence if the factfinder
determines that the offender has five or more prior felony convictions and that the present offense
is a felony that was committed as part of a pattern of criminal conduct.
History: 1998 c 367 art 6 s 7; 2005 c 136 art 7 s 16; art 16 s 11,12
609.11 MINIMUM SENTENCES OF IMPRISONMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Commitments without minimums. All commitments to the commissioner
of corrections for imprisonment of the defendant are without minimum terms except when the
sentence is to life imprisonment as required by law and except as otherwise provided in this
chapter.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1978 c 723 art 2 s 5]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1981 c 227 s 13]
    Subd. 4. Dangerous weapon. Any defendant convicted of an offense listed in subdivision 9
in which the defendant or an accomplice, at the time of the offense, used, whether by brandishing,
displaying, threatening with, or otherwise employing, a dangerous weapon other than a firearm,
shall be committed to the commissioner of corrections for not less than one year plus one day,
nor more than the maximum sentence provided by law. Any defendant convicted of a second or
subsequent offense in which the defendant or an accomplice, at the time of the offense, used a
dangerous weapon other than a firearm, shall be committed to the commissioner of corrections for
not less than three years nor more than the maximum sentence provided by law.
    Subd. 5. Firearm. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b), any defendant
convicted of an offense listed in subdivision 9 in which the defendant or an accomplice, at the time
of the offense, had in possession or used, whether by brandishing, displaying, threatening with,
or otherwise employing, a firearm, shall be committed to the commissioner of corrections for
not less than three years, nor more than the maximum sentence provided by law. Any defendant
convicted of a second or subsequent offense in which the defendant or an accomplice, at the time
of the offense, had in possession or used a firearm shall be committed to the commissioner of
corrections for not less than five years, nor more than the maximum sentence provided by law.
(b) Any defendant convicted of violating section 609.165 or 624.713, subdivision 1, clause
(b), shall be committed to the commissioner of corrections for not less than five years, nor more
than the maximum sentence provided by law.
    Subd. 5a. Drug offenses. Notwithstanding section 609.035, whenever a defendant is subject
to a mandatory minimum sentence for a felony violation of chapter 152 and is also subject to
this section, the minimum sentence imposed under this section shall be consecutive to that
imposed under chapter 152.
    Subd. 6. No early release. Any defendant convicted and sentenced as required by this
section is not eligible for probation, parole, discharge, or supervised release until that person has
served the full term of imprisonment as provided by law, notwithstanding the provisions of
sections 242.19, 243.05, 244.04, 609.12 and 609.135.
    Subd. 7. Prosecutor shall establish. The question of whether the defendant or an
accomplice, at the time of commission of an offense listed in subdivision 9, used a firearm or
other dangerous weapon or had in possession a firearm shall be determined by the factfinder at the
time of a verdict or finding of guilt at trial or the entry of a plea of guilty based upon the record
of the trial or the plea of guilty. The factfinder shall also determine whether the defendant has
been convicted of a second or subsequent offense in which the defendant or an accomplice, at
the time of commission of an offense listed in subdivision 9, used a firearm or other dangerous
weapon or had in possession a firearm.
    Subd. 8. Motion by prosecutor. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b), prior
to the time of sentencing, the prosecutor may file a motion to have the defendant sentenced
without regard to the mandatory minimum sentences established by this section. The motion
shall be accompanied by a statement on the record of the reasons for it. When presented with
the motion, or on its own motion, the court may sentence the defendant without regard to the
mandatory minimum sentences established by this section if the court finds substantial and
compelling reasons to do so. A sentence imposed under this subdivision is a departure from
the Sentencing Guidelines.
(b) The court may not, on its own motion or the prosecutor's motion, sentence a defendant
without regard to the mandatory minimum sentences established by this section if the defendant
previously has been convicted of an offense listed in subdivision 9 in which the defendant used or
possessed a firearm or other dangerous weapon.
    Subd. 9. Applicable offenses. The crimes for which mandatory minimum sentences shall
be served as provided in this section are: murder in the first, second, or third degree; assault in
the first, second, or third degree; burglary; kidnapping; false imprisonment; manslaughter in the
first or second degree; aggravated robbery; simple robbery; first-degree or aggravated first-degree
witness tampering; criminal sexual conduct under the circumstances described in sections
609.342, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (f); 609.343, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (f); and 609.344,
subdivision 1
, clauses (a) to (e) and (h) to (j); escape from custody; arson in the first, second, or
third degree; drive-by shooting under section 609.66, subdivision 1e; harassment and stalking
under section 609.749, subdivision 3, clause (3); possession or other unlawful use of a firearm
in violation of section 609.165, subdivision 1b, or 624.713, subdivision 1, clause (b), a felony
violation of chapter 152; or any attempt to commit any of these offenses.
    Subd. 10. Report on criminal cases involving a firearm. Beginning on July 1, 1994, every
county attorney shall collect and maintain the following information on criminal complaints
and prosecutions within the county attorney's office in which the defendant is alleged to have
committed an offense listed in subdivision 9 while possessing or using a firearm:
(1) whether the case was charged or dismissed;
(2) whether the defendant was convicted of the offense or a lesser offense; and
(3) whether the mandatory minimum sentence required under this section was imposed and
executed or was waived by the prosecutor or court.
No later than July 1 of each year, beginning on July 1, 1995, the county attorney shall
forward this information to the Sentencing Guidelines commission upon forms prescribed
by the commission.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.11; 1969 c 743 s 1; 1971 c 845 s 15; 1974 c 32 s 1; 1975 c
378 s 8; 1977 c 130 s 2; 1978 c 723 art 2 s 2; 1979 c 258 s 1; 1981 c 227 s 1-7; 1983 c 274 s
15; 1986 c 351 s 5; 1989 c 290 art 3 s 27,28; 1991 c 279 s 25; 1993 c 326 art 13 s 23; 1994 c
576 s 46; 1994 c 636 art 3 s 5-8; 1996 c 408 art 4 s 4,5; 1997 c 96 s 4; 1998 c 367 art 2 s
4,5; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 13
609.113 [Repealed, 1999 c 216 art 3 s 10]
609.115 PRESENTENCE INVESTIGATION.
    Subdivision 1. Presentence investigation. (a) When a defendant has been convicted of a
misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor, the court may, and when the defendant has been convicted
of a felony, the court shall, before sentence is imposed, cause a presentence investigation and
written report to be made to the court concerning the defendant's individual characteristics,
circumstances, needs, potentialities, criminal record and social history, the circumstances of
the offense and the harm caused by it to others and to the community. At the request of the
prosecutor in a gross misdemeanor case, the court shall order that a presentence investigation and
report be prepared. The investigation shall be made by a probation officer of the court, if there
is one; otherwise it shall be made by the commissioner of corrections. The officer conducting
the presentence or predispositional investigation shall make reasonable and good faith efforts to
contact and provide the victim with the information required under section 611A.037, subdivision
2
. Presentence investigations shall be conducted and summary hearings held upon reports and
upon the sentence to be imposed upon the defendant in accordance with this section, section
244.10, and the Rules of Criminal Procedure.
(b) When the crime is a violation of sections 609.561 to 609.563, 609.5641, or 609.576 and
involves a fire, the report shall include a description of the financial and physical harm the offense
has had on the public safety personnel who responded to the fire. For purposes of this paragraph,
"public safety personnel" means the state fire marshal; employees of the Division of the State Fire
Marshal; firefighters, regardless of whether the firefighters receive any remuneration for providing
services; peace officers, as defined in section 626.05, subdivision 2; individuals providing
emergency management services; and individuals providing emergency medical services.
(c) When the crime is a felony violation of chapter 152 involving the sale or distribution of
a controlled substance, the report shall include a description of any adverse social or economic
effects the offense has had on persons who reside in the neighborhood where the offense was
committed.
(d) The report shall also include the information relating to crime victims required under
section 611A.037, subdivision 1. If the court directs, the report shall include an estimate of the
prospects of the defendant's rehabilitation and recommendations as to the sentence which should
be imposed. In misdemeanor cases the report may be oral.
(e) When a defendant has been convicted of a felony, and before sentencing, the court shall
cause a sentencing worksheet to be completed to facilitate the application of the Minnesota
Sentencing Guidelines. The worksheet shall be submitted as part of the presentence investigation
report.
(f) When a person is convicted of a felony for which the Sentencing Guidelines presume
that the defendant will be committed to the commissioner of corrections under an executed
sentence and no motion for a sentencing departure has been made by counsel, the court may,
when there is no space available in the local correctional facility, commit the defendant to the
custody of the commissioner of corrections, pending completion of the presentence investigation
and report. When a defendant is convicted of a felony for which the Sentencing Guidelines do not
presume that the defendant will be committed to the commissioner of corrections, or for which
the Sentencing Guidelines presume commitment to the commissioner but counsel has moved for a
sentencing departure, the court may commit the defendant to the commissioner with the consent
of the commissioner, pending completion of the presentence investigation and report. The county
of commitment shall return the defendant to the court when the court so orders.
    Subd. 1a. Contents of worksheet. The Supreme Court shall promulgate rules uniformly
applicable to all district courts for the form and contents of sentencing worksheets. These rules
shall be promulgated by and effective on January 2, 1982.
    Subd. 1b.[Repealed, 1987 c 331 s 13]
    Subd. 1c.[Repealed, 1987 c 331 s 13]
    Subd. 2. Life imprisonment report. If the defendant has been convicted of a crime for
which a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment is provided by law, the probation officer of
the court, if there is one, otherwise the commissioner of corrections, shall forthwith make a
postsentence investigation and make a written report as provided by subdivision 1.
    Subd. 2a. Sentencing worksheet; sentencing guidelines commission. If the defendant has
been convicted of a felony, including a felony for which a mandatory life sentence is required by
law, the court shall cause a sentencing worksheet as provided in subdivision 1 to be completed
and forwarded to the Sentencing Guidelines Commission.
For the purpose of this section, "mandatory life sentence" means a sentence under section
609.106, subdivision 2; 609.109, subdivision 3; 609.185; 609.3455; or 609.385, subdivision
2
, and governed by section 244.05.
    Subd. 3. Criminal justice agency disclosure requirements. All criminal justice agencies
shall make available at no cost to the probation officer or the commissioner of corrections the
criminal record and other relevant information relating to the defendant which they may have,
when requested for the purposes of subdivisions 1 and 2.
    Subd. 4. Confidential sources of information. Any report made pursuant to subdivision 1
shall be, if written, provided to counsel for all parties before sentence. The written report shall not
disclose confidential sources of information unless the court otherwise directs. On the request
of the prosecuting attorney or the defendant's attorney a summary hearing in chambers shall be
held on any matter brought in issue, but confidential sources of information shall not be disclosed
unless the court otherwise directs. If the presentence report is given orally the defendant or the
defendant's attorney shall be permitted to hear the report.
    Subd. 5. Report to commissioner or local correctional agency. If the defendant is
sentenced to the commissioner of corrections, a copy of any report made pursuant to this
section and not made by the commissioner shall accompany the commitment. If the defendant
is sentenced to a local correctional agency or facility, a copy of the report must be provided
to that agency or facility.
    Subd. 6. Report disclosure prohibited. Except as provided in subdivisions 4 and 5 or as
otherwise directed by the court any report made pursuant to this section shall not be disclosed.
    Subd. 7. Stay of imposition of sentence. If imposition of sentence is stayed by reason of an
appeal taken or to be taken, the presentence investigation provided for in this section shall not be
made until such stay has expired or has otherwise been terminated.
    Subd. 8. Chemical use assessment required. (a) If a person is convicted of a felony, the
probation officer shall determine in the report prepared under subdivision 1 whether or not alcohol
or drug use was a contributing factor to the commission of the offense. If so, the report shall
contain the results of a chemical use assessment conducted in accordance with this subdivision.
The probation officer shall make an appointment for the defendant to undergo the chemical use
assessment if so indicated.
(b) The chemical use assessment report must include a recommended level of care for the
defendant in accordance with the criteria contained in rules adopted by the commissioner of
human services under section 254A.03, subdivision 3. The assessment must be conducted by an
assessor qualified under rules adopted by the commissioner of human services under section
254A.03, subdivision 3. An assessor providing a chemical use assessment may not have any
direct or shared financial interest or referral relationship resulting in shared financial gain with
a treatment provider. If an independent assessor is not available, the probation officer may use
the services of an assessor authorized to perform assessments for the county social services
agency under a variance granted under rules adopted by the commissioner of human services
under section 254A.03, subdivision 3.
    Subd. 9. Compulsive gambling assessment required. (a) If a person is convicted of theft
under section 609.52, embezzlement of public funds under section 609.54, or forgery under
section 609.625, 609.63, or 609.631, the probation officer shall determine in the report prepared
under subdivision 1 whether or not compulsive gambling contributed to the commission of the
offense. If so, the report shall contain the results of a compulsive gambling assessment conducted
in accordance with this subdivision. The probation officer shall make an appointment for the
offender to undergo the assessment if so indicated.
(b) The compulsive gambling assessment report must include a recommended level of
treatment for the offender if the assessor concludes that the offender is in need of compulsive
gambling treatment. The assessment must be conducted by an assessor qualified under section
245.98, subdivision 2a, to perform these assessments or to provide compulsive gambling
treatment. An assessor providing a compulsive gambling assessment may not have any direct or
shared financial interest or referral relationship resulting in shared financial gain with a treatment
provider. If an independent assessor is not available, the probation officer may use the services of
an assessor with a financial interest or referral relationship as authorized under rules adopted by
the commissioner of human services under section 245.98, subdivision 2a.
(c) The commissioner of human services shall reimburse the assessor for the costs associated
with a compulsive gambling assessment at a rate established by the commissioner up to a
maximum of $100 for each assessment. The commissioner shall reimburse these costs after
receiving written verification from the probation officer that the assessment was performed and
found acceptable.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.115; 1978 c 723 art 2 s 3; 1979 c 233 s 23,24; 1981 c 312 s
1,2; 1983 c 262 art 2 s 3-5; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 331 s 8; 1988 c 669 s 1; 1989 c 117 s 1; 1990 c
602 art 8 s 1; 1991 c 279 s 26; 1991 c 336 art 2 s 42; 1993 c 339 s 23; 1994 c 636 art 6 s 25; 1997
c 239 art 8 s 30; 1998 c 407 art 8 s 7; 1999 c 126 s 11; 2000 c 468 s 28; 2005 c 136 art 14 s 14
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1979 c 258 s 25]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1969 c 997 s 3; 1979 c 258 s 25]
609.117 DNA ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN OFFENDERS REQUIRED.
    Subdivision 1. Upon sentencing. If an offender has not already done so, the court shall
order an offender to provide a biological specimen for the purpose of DNA analysis as defined
in section 299C.155 when:
(1) the court sentences a person charged with committing or attempting to commit a felony
offense and the person is convicted of that offense or of any offense arising out of the same set
of circumstances; or
(2) the juvenile court adjudicates a person a delinquent child who is petitioned for committing
or attempting to commit a felony offense and is adjudicated delinquent for that offense or any
offense arising out of the same set of circumstances.
The biological specimen or the results of the analysis shall be maintained by the Bureau of
Criminal Apprehension as provided in section 299C.155.
    Subd. 2. Before release. The commissioner of corrections or local corrections authority
shall order a person to provide a biological specimen for the purpose of DNA analysis before
completion of the person's term of imprisonment when the person has not provided a biological
specimen for the purpose of DNA analysis and the person:
(1) was initially charged with committing or attempting to commit a felony offense and was
convicted of that offense or of any offense arising out of the same set of circumstances, or the
person has a past felony conviction in this or any other state; or
(2) is serving a term of imprisonment in this state under a reciprocal agreement although
convicted in another state of committing or attempting to commit a felony offense or of any
offense arising out of the same set of circumstances if the person was initially charged with
committing or attempting to commit a felony offense. The commissioner of corrections or local
corrections authority shall forward the sample to the Bureau of Criminal Apprehension.
    Subd. 3. Offenders from other states. When the state accepts an offender from another
state under the interstate compact authorized by section 243.16, the acceptance is conditional
on the offender providing a biological specimen for the purposes of DNA analysis as defined
in section 299C.155, if the offender was initially charged with committing or attempting to
commit a felony offense and was convicted of that offense or of any offense arising out of the
same set of circumstances. The specimen must be provided under supervision of staff from the
Department of Corrections or a Community Corrections Act county within 15 business days after
the offender reports to the supervising agent. The cost of obtaining the biological specimen is the
responsibility of the agency providing supervision.
History: 1989 c 290 art 4 s 16; 1991 c 232 s 2; 1991 c 285 s 11; 1993 c 326 art 10 s 15;
art 13 s 32; 1998 c 367 art 3 s 12,13; art 6 s 15; 1999 c 216 art 3 s 7-9; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 9
s 6; 2005 c 136 art 12 s 9
609.118 FINGERPRINTING REQUIRED.
(a) When a person is convicted of a felony, gross misdemeanor, or targeted misdemeanor,
as defined in section 299C.10, subdivision 1, or is adjudicated delinquent for a felony or gross
misdemeanor, the court shall order the offender to immediately report to the law enforcement
agency responsible for the collection of fingerprint and other identification data required under
section 299C.10, regardless of the sentence imposed or executed.
(b) Paragraph (a) does not apply if the person is remanded to the custody of a law
enforcement agency or if the identification data was collected prior to the conviction or
adjudication for the offense.
(c) A person who fails to obey a court order under paragraph (a) is subject to probation
revocation, contempt of court, or any other appropriate remedy.
(d) This section does not limit or restrict any other statutory requirements or local policies
regarding the collection of identification data.
History: 1Sp2001 c 8 art 6 s 7
609.119 [Repealed, 2005 c 136 art 12 s 12]
609.12 PAROLE OR DISCHARGE.
    Subdivision 1. Authority; conditions. A person sentenced to the commissioner of
corrections for imprisonment for a period less than life may be paroled or discharged at any
time without regard to length of the term of imprisonment which the sentence imposes when in
the judgment of the commissioner of corrections, and under the conditions the commissioner
imposes, the granting of parole or discharge would be most conducive to rehabilitation and
would be in the public interest.
    Subd. 2. Parole required after certain term. If a sentence of more than five years has
been imposed on a defendant for a crime authorizing a sentence of not more than ten years, the
commissioner of corrections shall grant the defendant parole no later than the expiration of five
years of imprisonment, less time granted for good behavior, unless the commissioner determines
with or without hearing that the defendant's parole would not be conducive to rehabilitation or
would not be in the public interest.
    Subd. 3. Parole; commissioner powers. All sentences to the commissioner of corrections
for the imprisonment of the defendant are subject to the laws relating to parole and the powers of
the commissioner of corrections, except as modified in subdivisions 1 and 2, and to all other laws
relating to persons in said institutions and their imprisonment.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.12; 1973 c 654 s 15; 1975 c 271 s 6; 1983 c 274 s 18;
1986 c 444
609.125 SENTENCE FOR MISDEMEANOR OR GROSS MISDEMEANOR.
    Subdivision 1. Sentences available. Upon conviction of a misdemeanor or gross
misdemeanor the court, if sentence is imposed, may, to the extent authorized by law, sentence
the defendant:
(1) to imprisonment for a definite term; or
(2) to payment of a fine, or to imprisonment for a specified term if the fine is not paid; or
(3) to both imprisonment for a definite term and payment of a fine; or
(4) to payment of court-ordered restitution in addition to either imprisonment or payment
of a fine, or both; or
(5) to payment of a local correctional fee as authorized under section 609.102 in addition to
any other sentence imposed by the court; or
(6) to perform work service in a restorative justice program in addition to any other sentence
imposed by the court.
    Subd. 2. Restitution. (a) As used in this section, "restitution" includes:
(1) payment of compensation to the victim or the victim's family; and
(2) if the victim is deceased or already has been fully compensated, payment of money to a
victim assistance program or other program directed by the court.
"Restitution" includes payment of compensation to a government entity that incurs loss as
a direct result of a crime.
(b) When the defendant does not pay the entire amount of court-ordered restitution and the
fine at the same time, the court may order that all restitution shall be paid before the fine is paid.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.125; 1971 c 25 s 91; 1984 c 610 s 2; 1992 c 571 art 11 s 14;
1995 c 244 s 11; 1996 c 408 art 7 s 3; 1997 c 239 art 3 s 6; art 7 s 17
609.13 CONVICTIONS OF FELONY OR GROSS MISDEMEANOR; WHEN DEEMED
MISDEMEANOR OR GROSS MISDEMEANOR.
    Subdivision 1. Felony. Notwithstanding a conviction is for a felony:
(1) the conviction is deemed to be for a misdemeanor or a gross misdemeanor if the sentence
imposed is within the limits provided by law for a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor as defined
in section 609.02; or
(2) the conviction is deemed to be for a misdemeanor if the imposition of the prison sentence
is stayed, the defendant is placed on probation, and the defendant is thereafter discharged without
a prison sentence.
    Subd. 2. Gross misdemeanor. Notwithstanding that a conviction is for a gross misdemeanor,
the conviction is deemed to be for a misdemeanor if:
(1) the sentence imposed is within the limits provided by law for a misdemeanor as defined
in section 609.02; or
(2) if the imposition of the sentence is stayed, the defendant is placed on probation, and the
defendant is thereafter discharged without sentence.
    Subd. 3. Misdemeanors. If a defendant is convicted of a misdemeanor and is sentenced, or if
the imposition of sentence is stayed, and the defendant is thereafter discharged without sentence,
the conviction is deemed to be for a misdemeanor for purposes of determining the penalty for a
subsequent offense.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.13; 1971 c 937 s 21; 1986 c 435 s 6; 1986 c 444; 1993 c
326 art 2 s 10
609.131 CERTIFICATION OF MISDEMEANOR AS PETTY MISDEMEANOR.
    Subdivision 1. General rule. Except as provided in subdivision 2, an alleged misdemeanor
violation must be treated as a petty misdemeanor if the prosecuting attorney believes that it is in
the interest of justice that the defendant not be imprisoned if convicted and certifies that belief
to the court at or before the time of arraignment or pretrial hearing, and the court approves of
the certification motion. The defendant's consent to the certification is not required. When an
offense is certified as a petty misdemeanor under this section, the defendant's eligibility for
court-appointed counsel must be evaluated as though the offense were a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 1a.[Repealed, 1993 c 326 art 4 s 40]
    Subd. 2. Certain violations excepted. Subdivision 1 does not apply to a misdemeanor
violation of section 169A.20; 609.224; 609.2242; 609.226; 609.324, subdivision 3; 609.52; or
617.23, or an ordinance that conforms in substantial part to any of those sections. A violation
described in this subdivision must be treated as a misdemeanor unless the defendant consents to
the certification of the violation as a petty misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3. Use of conviction for enhancement. Notwithstanding any other law, a conviction
for a violation that was originally charged as a misdemeanor and was treated as a petty
misdemeanor under subdivision 1 or the Rules of Criminal Procedure may not be used as the basis
for charging a subsequent violation as a gross misdemeanor rather than a misdemeanor.
History: 1987 c 329 s 6; 1992 c 513 art 4 s 48; 1995 c 259 art 3 s 8; 2000 c 478 art 2 s 7
609.132 CONTINUANCE FOR DISMISSAL.
The decision to offer or agree to a continuance of a criminal prosecution is an exercise of
prosecutorial discretion resting solely with the prosecuting attorney.
History: 1994 c 636 art 2 s 15
609.135 STAY OF IMPOSITION OR EXECUTION OF SENTENCE.
    Subdivision 1. Terms and conditions. (a) Except when a sentence of life imprisonment is
required by law, or when a mandatory minimum sentence is required by section 609.11, any court
may stay imposition or execution of sentence and:
(1) may order intermediate sanctions without placing the defendant on probation; or
(2) may place the defendant on probation with or without supervision and on the terms the
court prescribes, including intermediate sanctions when practicable. The court may order the
supervision to be under the probation officer of the court, or, if there is none and the conviction
is for a felony or gross misdemeanor, by the commissioner of corrections, or in any case by
some other suitable and consenting person. Unless the court directs otherwise, state parole and
probation agents and probation officers may impose community work service or probation
violation sanctions, consistent with section 243.05, subdivision 1; sections 244.196 to 244.199; or
401.02, subdivision 5.
No intermediate sanction may be ordered performed at a location that fails to observe
applicable requirements or standards of chapter 181A or 182, or any rule promulgated under them.
(b) For purposes of this subdivision, subdivision 6, and section 609.14, the term "intermediate
sanctions" includes but is not limited to incarceration in a local jail or workhouse, home detention,
electronic monitoring, intensive probation, sentencing to service, reporting to a day reporting
center, chemical dependency or mental health treatment or counseling, restitution, fines, day-fines,
community work service, work service in a restorative justice program, work in lieu of or to work
off fines and, with the victim's consent, work in lieu of or to work off restitution.
(c) A court may not stay the revocation of the driver's license of a person convicted of
violating the provisions of section 169A.20.
    Subd. 1a. Failure to pay restitution or fine. If the court orders payment of restitution or
a fine as a condition of probation and if the defendant fails to pay the restitution or a fine in
accordance with the payment schedule or structure established by the court or the probation
officer, the prosecutor or the defendant's probation officer may, on the prosecutor's or the officer's
own motion or at the request of the victim, ask the court to hold a hearing to determine whether
or not the conditions of probation should be changed or probation should be revoked. The
defendant's probation officer shall ask for the hearing if the restitution or fine ordered has not
been paid prior to 60 days before the term of probation expires. The court shall schedule and hold
this hearing and take appropriate action, including action under subdivision 2, paragraph (g),
before the defendant's term of probation expires.
    Subd. 1b.[Repealed, 1987 c 384 art 1 s 52]
    Subd. 1c. Failure to complete court-ordered treatment. If the court orders a defendant to
undergo treatment as a condition of probation and if the defendant fails to successfully complete
treatment at least 60 days before the term of probation expires, the prosecutor or the defendant's
probation officer may ask the court to hold a hearing to determine whether the conditions of
probation should be changed or probation should be revoked. The court shall schedule and hold
this hearing and take appropriate action, including action under subdivision 2, paragraph (h),
before the defendant's term of probation expires.
    Subd. 2. Stay of sentence maximum periods. (a) If the conviction is for a felony other than
section 609.21, subdivision 2, 2a, or 4, the stay shall be for not more than four years or the
maximum period for which the sentence of imprisonment might have been imposed, whichever
is longer.
(b) If the conviction is for a gross misdemeanor violation of section 169A.20 or 609.21,
subdivision 2b
, or for a felony described in section 609.21, subdivision 2, 2a, or 4, the stay shall
be for not more than six years. The court shall provide for unsupervised probation for the last
year of the stay unless the court finds that the defendant needs supervised probation for all or
part of the last year.
(c) If the conviction is for a gross misdemeanor not specified in paragraph (b), the stay
shall be for not more than two years.
(d) If the conviction is for any misdemeanor under section 169A.20; 609.746, subdivision
1
; 609.79; or 617.23; or for a misdemeanor under section 609.2242 or 609.224, subdivision
1
, in which the victim of the crime was a family or household member as defined in section
518B.01, the stay shall be for not more than two years. The court shall provide for unsupervised
probation for the second year of the stay unless the court finds that the defendant needs supervised
probation for all or part of the second year.
(e) If the conviction is for a misdemeanor not specified in paragraph (d), the stay shall be
for not more than one year.
(f) The defendant shall be discharged six months after the term of the stay expires, unless
the stay has been revoked or extended under paragraph (g), or the defendant has already been
discharged.
(g) Notwithstanding the maximum periods specified for stays of sentences under paragraphs
(a) to (f), a court may extend a defendant's term of probation for up to one year if it finds, at a
hearing conducted under subdivision 1a, that:
(1) the defendant has not paid court-ordered restitution or a fine in accordance with the
payment schedule or structure; and
(2) the defendant is likely to not pay the restitution or fine the defendant owes before the
term of probation expires.
This one-year extension of probation for failure to pay restitution or a fine may be extended by
the court for up to one additional year if the court finds, at another hearing conducted under
subdivision 1a, that the defendant still has not paid the court-ordered restitution or fine that
the defendant owes.
(h) Notwithstanding the maximum periods specified for stays of sentences under paragraphs
(a) to (f), a court may extend a defendant's term of probation for up to three years if it finds, at a
hearing conducted under subdivision 1c, that:
(1) the defendant has failed to complete court-ordered treatment successfully; and
(2) the defendant is likely not to complete court-ordered treatment before the term of
probation expires.
    Subd. 3. Motor vehicle offense report. The court shall report to the commissioner of public
safety any stay of imposition or execution granted in the case of a conviction for an offense in
which a motor vehicle, as defined in section 169.01, subdivision 3, is used.
    Subd. 4. Jail as condition of probation. The court may, as a condition of probation, require
the defendant to serve up to one year incarceration in a county jail, a county regional jail, a
county workfarm, county workhouse or other local correctional facility, or require the defendant
to pay a fine, or both. The court may allow the defendant the work release privileges of section
631.425 during the period of incarceration.
    Subd. 5. Assaulting spouse stay conditions. If a person is convicted of assaulting a spouse
or other person with whom the person resides, and the court stays imposition or execution
of sentence and places the defendant on probation, the court must condition the stay upon the
defendant's participation in counseling or other appropriate programs selected by the court.
    Subd. 5a. Domestic abuse victims; electronic monitoring. (a) Until the commissioner of
corrections has adopted standards governing electronic monitoring devices used to protect victims
of domestic abuse, the court, as a condition of a stay of imposition or execution of a sentence,
may not order an offender convicted of a crime described in paragraph (b) to use an electronic
monitoring device to protect a victim's safety.
(b) This subdivision applies to the following crimes, if committed by the defendant against a
family or household member as defined in section 518B.01, subdivision 2:
(1) violations of orders for protection issued under chapter 518B;
(2) assault in the first, second, third, or fifth degree under section 609.221, 609.222, 609.223,
or 609.224; or domestic assault under section 609.2242;
(3) criminal damage to property under section 609.595;
(4) disorderly conduct under section 609.72;
(5) harassing telephone calls under section 609.79;
(6) burglary under section 609.582;
(7) trespass under section 609.605;
(8) criminal sexual conduct in the first, second, third, fourth, or fifth degree under section
609.342, 609.343, 609.344, 609.345, or 609.3451; and
(9) terroristic threats under section 609.713.
(c) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), the judges in the Tenth Judicial District may order, as a
condition of a stay of imposition or execution of a sentence, a defendant convicted of a crime
described in paragraph (b), to use an electronic monitoring device to protect the victim's safety.
The judges shall make data on the use of electronic monitoring devices to protect a victim's safety
in the Tenth Judicial District available to the commissioner of corrections to evaluate and to aid in
development of standards for the use of devices to protect victims of domestic abuse.
    Subd. 6. Preference for intermediate sanctions. A court staying imposition or execution
of a sentence that does not include a term of incarceration as a condition of the stay shall order
other intermediate sanctions where practicable.
    Subd. 7. Demand of execution of sentence. An offender may not demand execution of
sentence in lieu of a stay of imposition or execution of sentence if the offender will serve less
than nine months at the state institution. This subdivision does not apply to an offender who
will be serving the sentence consecutively or concurrently with a previously imposed executed
felony sentence.
    Subd. 8. Fine and surcharge collection. A defendant's obligation to pay court-ordered
fines, surcharges, court costs, and fees shall survive for a period of six years from the date of the
expiration of the defendant's stayed sentence for the offense for which the fines, surcharges, court
costs, and fees were imposed, or six years from the imposition or due date of the fines, surcharges,
court costs, and fees, whichever is later. Nothing in this subdivision extends the period of a
defendant's stay of sentence imposition or execution.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.135; 1971 c 244 s 2; 1976 c 341 s 3; 1977 c 349 s 1; 1977 c
355 s 6; 1978 c 723 art 2 s 4; 1978 c 724 s 1; 1981 c 9 s 2; 1981 c 227 s 8; 1983 c 264 s 9; 1984 c
610 s 3,4; 1985 c 242 s 4; 1986 c 372 s 5; 1986 c 435 s 7-9; 1986 c 444; 1986 c 463 s 3; 1987 c
220 s 1; 1989 c 21 s 3; 1989 c 253 s 1; 1990 c 579 s 3,4; 1991 c 272 s 6; 1991 c 279 s 27,28;
1992 c 570 art 1 s 25; 1992 c 571 art 1 s 10; art 6 s 11,12; 1993 c 326 art 10 s 12,13; art 13 s 24;
1994 c 615 s 24; 1995 c 226 art 2 s 11; 1995 c 259 art 3 s 9,10; 1996 c 408 art 7 s 4; 1997 c
239 art 3 s 7; art 5 s 8,9; 1Sp1997 c 2 s 62; 1998 c 367 art 7 s 10; 1999 c 194 s 9; 2000 c 478
art 2 s 7; 1Sp2003 c 2 art 6 s 5; art 9 s 18
609.1351 PETITION FOR CIVIL COMMITMENT.
When a court sentences a person under section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, 609.345,
609.3453, or 609.3455, subdivision 3a, the court shall make a preliminary determination whether
in the court's opinion a petition under section 253B.185 may be appropriate and include the
determination as part of the sentencing order. If the court determines that a petition may
be appropriate, the court shall forward its preliminary determination along with supporting
documentation to the county attorney.
History: 1989 c 290 art 4 s 9; 1992 c 571 art 3 s 7; 1Sp1994 c 1 art 2 s 32; 1998 c 367 art 6
s 15; 2005 c 136 art 4 s 5; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 47
609.1352 [Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16]
609.14 REVOCATION OF STAY.
    Subdivision 1. Grounds. (a) When it appears that the defendant has violated any of the
conditions of probation or intermediate sanction, or has otherwise been guilty of misconduct
which warrants the imposing or execution of sentence, the court may without notice revoke the
stay and direct that the defendant be taken into immediate custody.
(b) When it appears that the defendant violated any of the conditions of probation during the
term of the stay, but the term of the stay has since expired, the defendant's probation officer or
the prosecutor may ask the court to initiate probation revocation proceedings under the Rules of
Criminal Procedure at any time within six months after the expiration of the stay. The court also
may initiate proceedings under these circumstances on its own motion. If proceedings are initiated
within this six-month period, the court may conduct a revocation hearing and take any action
authorized under rule 27.04 at any time during or after the six-month period.
(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 609.135 or any law to the contrary, after
proceedings to revoke the stay have been initiated by a court order revoking the stay and directing
either that the defendant be taken into custody or that a summons be issued in accordance with
paragraph (a), the proceedings to revoke the stay may be concluded and the summary hearing
provided by subdivision 2 may be conducted after the expiration of the stay or after the six-month
period set forth in paragraph (b). The proceedings to revoke the stay shall not be dismissed on
the basis that the summary hearing is conducted after the term of the stay or after the six-month
period. The ability or inability to locate or apprehend the defendant prior to the expiration of the
stay or during or after the six-month period shall not preclude the court from conducting the
summary hearing unless the defendant demonstrates that the delay was purposefully caused by
the state in order to gain an unfair advantage.
    Subd. 2. Notification of grounds for revocation. The defendant shall thereupon be notified
in writing and in such manner as the court directs of the grounds alleged to exist for revocation
of the stay of imposition or execution of sentence. If such grounds are brought in issue by the
defendant, a summary hearing shall be held thereon at which the defendant is entitled to be heard
and to be represented by counsel.
    Subd. 3. Sentence. If any of such grounds are found to exist the court may:
(1) if imposition of sentence was previously stayed, again stay sentence or impose sentence
and stay the execution thereof, and in either event place the defendant on probation or order
intermediate sanctions pursuant to section 609.135, or impose sentence and order execution
thereof; or
(2) if sentence was previously imposed and execution thereof stayed, continue such stay
and place the defendant on probation or order intermediate sanctions in accordance with the
provisions of section 609.135, or order execution of the sentence previously imposed.
    Subd. 4. Restoration to liberty. If none of such grounds are found to exist, the defendant
shall be restored to liberty under the previous order of the court.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.14; 1984 c 610 s 5,6; 1986 c 444; 1990 c 579 s 5; 1993 c
326 art 10 s 14; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 17
609.145 CREDIT FOR PRIOR IMPRISONMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Prior imprisonment reduction. When a person has been imprisoned
pursuant to a conviction which is set aside and is thereafter convicted of a crime growing out of
the same act or omission, the period of imprisonment to which the person is sentenced is reduced
by the period of the prior imprisonment and the time earned thereby in diminution of sentence.
    Subd. 2. Reduction for time served before commitment to commissioner. A sentence
of imprisonment upon conviction of a felony is reduced by the period of confinement of the
defendant following the conviction and before the defendant's commitment to the commissioner
of corrections for execution of sentence unless the court otherwise directs.
    Subd. 3. Credit. When a person is to be committed to the commissioner, the person's
probation officer must provide to the court, prior to the sentencing hearing, the amount of time
the person has in credit for prior imprisonment. The court must pronounce credit for prior
imprisonment at the time of sentencing.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.145; 1978 c 723 art 1 s 14; 1986 c 444; 1Sp2003 c 2 art 5 s 11
609.15 MULTIPLE SENTENCES.
    Subdivision 1. Concurrent, consecutive sentences; specification requirement. (a)
Except as provided in paragraph (c), when separate sentences of imprisonment are imposed
on a defendant for two or more crimes, whether charged in a single indictment or information
or separately, or when a person who is under sentence of imprisonment in this state is being
sentenced to imprisonment for another crime committed prior to or while subject to such former
sentence, the court in the later sentences shall specify whether the sentences shall run concurrently
or consecutively. If the court does not so specify, the sentences shall run concurrently.
(b) When a court imposes sentence for a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor offense and
specifies that the sentence shall run consecutively to any other sentence, the court may order
the defendant to serve time in custody for the consecutive sentence in addition to any time in
custody the defendant may be serving for any other offense, including probationary jail time or
imprisonment for any felony offense.
(c) An inmate of a state prison who is convicted of committing an assault within the
correctional facility is subject to the consecutive sentencing provisions of section 609.2232.
    Subd. 2. Limit on sentences; misdemeanor and gross misdemeanor. If the court specifies
that the sentence shall run consecutively and all of the sentences are for misdemeanors, the total of
the sentences shall not exceed one year. If the sentences are for a gross misdemeanor and one or
more misdemeanors, the total of the sentences shall not exceed two years. If all of the sentences
are for gross misdemeanors, the total of the sentences shall not exceed four years.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.15; 1992 c 571 art 2 s 8; 1993 c 326 art 13 s 26; 1994 c 615
s 25; 1997 c 239 art 3 s 8; art 9 s 35; 1Sp1997 c 2 s 63; 1999 c 194 s 10
609.152 [Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16]
609.153 INCREASED PENALTIES FOR CERTAIN MISDEMEANORS.
    Subdivision 1. Application. This section applies to the following misdemeanor-level
crimes: sections 152.093 (manufacture or delivery of drug paraphernalia prohibited); 152.095
(advertisement of drug paraphernalia prohibited); 609.324 (prostitution); 609.3243 (loitering with
intent to participate in prostitution); 609.546
(motor vehicle tampering); 609.595 (damage to
property); and 609.66 (dangerous weapons); misdemeanor-level violations of section 609.605
(trespass); and violations of local ordinances prohibiting the unlawful sale or possession of
controlled substances.
    Subd. 2. Custodial arrest. Notwithstanding Rule 6.01 of the Rules of Criminal Procedure,
a peace officer acting without a warrant who has decided to proceed with the prosecution of a
person for committing a crime described in subdivision 1 may arrest and take the person into
custody if the officer has reason to believe the person has a prior conviction for any crime
described in subdivision 1.
    Subd. 3. Increased penalty. Notwithstanding the statutory maximum penalty otherwise
applicable to the offense, a person who commits a misdemeanor-level crime described in
subdivision 1 is guilty of a gross misdemeanor if the court determines at the time of sentencing
that the person has two or more prior convictions in this or any other state for any of the crimes
described in subdivision 1.
    Subd. 4. Notice to complaining witness. A prosecuting authority who is responsible for
filing charges against or prosecuting a person arrested under the circumstances described in
subdivision 2 shall make reasonable efforts to notify the complaining witness of the final outcome
of the criminal proceeding that resulted from the arrest including, where appropriate, the decision
to dismiss or not file charges against the arrested person.
History: 1997 c 239 art 3 s 9; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 14
609.155 [Repealed, 1978 c 723 art 1 s 19]
609.16 [Repealed, 1978 c 723 art 1 s 19]
609.165 RESTORATION OF CIVIL RIGHTS; POSSESSION OF FIREARMS.
    Subdivision 1. Restoration. When a person has been deprived of civil rights by reason of
conviction of a crime and is thereafter discharged, such discharge shall restore the person to all
civil rights and to full citizenship, with full right to vote and hold office, the same as if such
conviction had not taken place, and the order of discharge shall so provide.
    Subd. 1a. Certain convicted felons ineligible to possess firearms. The order of discharge
must provide that a person who has been convicted of a crime of violence, as defined in section
624.712, subdivision 5, is not entitled to ship, transport, possess, or receive a firearm for the
remainder of the person's lifetime. Any person who has received such a discharge and who
thereafter has received a relief of disability under United States Code, title 18, section 925, or
whose ability to possess firearms has been restored under subdivision 1d, shall not be subject to
the restrictions of this subdivision.
    Subd. 1b. Violation and penalty. (a) Any person who has been convicted of a crime of
violence, as defined in section 624.712, subdivision 5, and who ships, transports, possesses, or
receives a firearm, commits a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 15
years or to payment of a fine of not more than $30,000, or both.
(b) A conviction and sentencing under this section shall be construed to bar a conviction and
sentencing for a violation of section 624.713, subdivision 2.
(c) The criminal penalty in paragraph (a) does not apply to any person who has received a
relief of disability under United States Code, title 18, section 925, or whose ability to possess
firearms has been restored under subdivision 1d.
    Subd. 1c.[Repealed, 1999 c 61 s 2]
    Subd. 1d. Judicial restoration of ability to possess a firearm by a felon. A person
prohibited by state law from shipping, transporting, possessing, or receiving a firearm because of
a conviction or a delinquency adjudication for committing a crime of violence may petition a
court to restore the person's ability to possess, receive, ship, or transport firearms and otherwise
deal with firearms.
The court may grant the relief sought if the person shows good cause to do so and the person
has been released from physical confinement.
If a petition is denied, the person may not file another petition until three years have elapsed
without the permission of the court.
    Subd. 2. Discharge. The discharge may be:
(1) by order of the court following stay of sentence or stay of execution of sentence; or
(2) upon expiration of sentence.
    Subd. 3. Applicability. This section does not apply to a forfeiture of and disqualification
for public office as provided in section 609.42, subdivision 2.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.165; 1973 c 654 s 15; 1975 c 271 s 6; 1978 c 723 art 1
s 15; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 276 s 1; 1994 c 636 art 3 s 9; 1996 c 408 art 4 s 7; 1998 c 376 s 5;
2003 c 28 art 3 s 3-5; 2005 c 83 s 1
609.166 [Repealed, 1996 c 408 art 9 s 10]
609.167 [Repealed, 1996 c 408 art 9 s 10]
609.168 [Repealed, 1996 c 408 art 9 s 10]

ANTICIPATORY CRIMES

609.17 ATTEMPTS.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined. Whoever, with intent to commit a crime, does an act which is
a substantial step toward, and more than preparation for, the commission of the crime is guilty of
an attempt to commit that crime, and may be punished as provided in subdivision 4.
    Subd. 2. Act defined. An act may be an attempt notwithstanding the circumstances under
which it was performed or the means employed to commit the crime intended or the act itself
were such that the commission of the crime was not possible, unless such impossibility would
have been clearly evident to a person of normal understanding.
    Subd. 3. Defense. It is a defense to a charge of attempt that the crime was not committed
because the accused desisted voluntarily and in good faith and abandoned the intention to commit
the crime.
    Subd. 4. Penalties. Whoever attempts to commit a crime may be sentenced as follows:
(1) If the maximum sentence provided for the crime is life imprisonment, to not more than
20 years; or
(2) For any other attempt, to not more than one-half of the maximum imprisonment or fine
or both provided for the crime attempted, but such maximum in any case shall not be less than
imprisonment for 90 days or a fine of $100.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.17; 1986 c 444
609.175 CONSPIRACY.
    Subdivision 1. To cause arrest or prosecution. Whoever conspires with another to cause
a third person to be arrested or prosecuted on a criminal charge knowing the charge to be false
is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 2. To commit crime. Whoever conspires with another to commit a crime and in
furtherance of the conspiracy one or more of the parties does some overt act in furtherance of
such conspiracy may be sentenced as follows:
(1) If the crime intended is a misdemeanor, by a sentence to imprisonment for not more than
90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than $300, or both; or
(2) If the crime intended is murder in the first degree or treason, to imprisonment for not
more than 20 years; or
(3) If the crime intended is any other felony or a gross misdemeanor, to imprisonment or to
payment of a fine of not more than one-half the imprisonment or fine provided for that felony or
gross misdemeanor or both.
    Subd. 3. Application of section jurisdiction. This section applies if:
(1) The defendant in this state conspires with another outside of this state; or
(2) The defendant outside of this state conspires with another in this state; or
(3) The defendant outside of this state conspires with another outside of this state and an
overt act in furtherance of the conspiracy is committed within this state by either of them; or
(4) The defendant in this state conspires with another in this state.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.175; 1971 c 23 s 37,38; 1975 c 279 s 1

HOMICIDE AND SUICIDE

609.18 DEFINITION.
For the purposes of sections 609.185, 609.19, 609.2661, and 609.2662, "premeditation"
means to consider, plan or prepare for, or determine to commit, the act referred to prior to
its commission.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.18; 1986 c 388 s 2
609.184 [Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16]
609.185 MURDER IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
(a) Whoever does any of the following is guilty of murder in the first degree and shall be
sentenced to imprisonment for life:
(1) causes the death of a human being with premeditation and with intent to effect the death
of the person or of another;
(2) causes the death of a human being while committing or attempting to commit criminal
sexual conduct in the first or second degree with force or violence, either upon or affecting
the person or another;
(3) causes the death of a human being with intent to effect the death of the person or
another, while committing or attempting to commit burglary, aggravated robbery, kidnapping,
arson in the first or second degree, a drive-by shooting, tampering with a witness in the first
degree, escape from custody, or any felony violation of chapter 152 involving the unlawful sale
of a controlled substance;
(4) causes the death of a peace officer or a guard employed at a Minnesota state or local
correctional facility, with intent to effect the death of that person or another, while the peace
officer or guard is engaged in the performance of official duties;
(5) causes the death of a minor while committing child abuse, when the perpetrator has
engaged in a past pattern of child abuse upon a child and the death occurs under circumstances
manifesting an extreme indifference to human life;
(6) causes the death of a human being while committing domestic abuse, when the
perpetrator has engaged in a past pattern of domestic abuse upon the victim or upon another
family or household member and the death occurs under circumstances manifesting an extreme
indifference to human life; or
(7) causes the death of a human being while committing, conspiring to commit, or attempting
to commit a felony crime to further terrorism and the death occurs under circumstances
manifesting an extreme indifference to human life.
(b) For purposes of paragraph (a), clause (5), "child abuse" means an act committed against a
minor victim that constitutes a violation of the following laws of this state or any similar laws
of the United States or any other state: section 609.221; 609.222; 609.223; 609.224; 609.2242;
609.342; 609.343; 609.344; 609.345; 609.377; 609.378; or 609.713.
(c) For purposes of paragraph (a), clause (6), "domestic abuse" means an act that:
(1) constitutes a violation of section 609.221, 609.222, 609.223, 609.224, 609.2242,
609.342, 609.343, 609.344, 609.345, 609.713, or any similar laws of the United States or any
other state; and
(2) is committed against the victim who is a family or household member as defined in
section 518B.01, subdivision 2, paragraph (b).
(d) For purposes of paragraph (a), clause (7), "further terrorism" has the meaning given
in section 609.714, subdivision 1.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.185; 1975 c 374 s 1; 1981 c 227 s 9; 1986 c 444; 1988 c
662 s 2; 1989 c 290 art 2 s 11; 1990 c 583 s 4; 1992 c 571 art 4 s 5; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 19; 1995
c 244 s 12; 1995 c 259 art 3 s 12; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 7; 2000 c 437 s 5; 2002 c 401 art 1 s
15; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 10
609.19 MURDER IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Intentional murder; drive-by shootings. Whoever does either of the
following is guilty of murder in the second degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not
more than 40 years:
(1) causes the death of a human being with intent to effect the death of that person or
another, but without premeditation or
(2) causes the death of a human being while committing or attempting to commit a drive-by
shooting in violation of section 609.66, subdivision 1e, under circumstances other than those
described in section 609.185, clause (3).
    Subd. 2. Unintentional murders. Whoever does either of the following is guilty of
unintentional murder in the second degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than 40 years:
(1) causes the death of a human being, without intent to effect the death of any person, while
committing or attempting to commit a felony offense other than criminal sexual conduct in the
first or second degree with force or violence or a drive-by shooting; or
(2) causes the death of a human being without intent to effect the death of any person, while
intentionally inflicting or attempting to inflict bodily harm upon the victim, when the perpetrator is
restrained under an order for protection and the victim is a person designated to receive protection
under the order. As used in this clause, "order for protection" includes an order for protection
issued under chapter 518B; a harassment restraining order issued under section 609.748; a court
order setting conditions of pretrial release or conditions of a criminal sentence or juvenile court
disposition; a restraining order issued in a marriage dissolution action; and any order issued by a
court of another state or of the United States that is similar to any of these orders.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.19; 1981 c 227 s 10; 1992 c 571 art 4 s 6; 1995 c 226 art 2 s
16; 1996 c 408 art 4 s 8; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 8
609.195 MURDER IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
(a) Whoever, without intent to effect the death of any person, causes the death of another by
perpetrating an act eminently dangerous to others and evincing a depraved mind, without regard
for human life, is guilty of murder in the third degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than 25 years.
(b) Whoever, without intent to cause death, proximately causes the death of a human being
by, directly or indirectly, unlawfully selling, giving away, bartering, delivering, exchanging,
distributing, or administering a controlled substance classified in schedule I or II, is guilty of
murder in the third degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 25 years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $40,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.195; 1977 c 130 s 3; 1981 c 227 s 11; 1987 c 176 s 1
609.196 [Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16]
609.20 MANSLAUGHTER IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
Whoever does any of the following is guilty of manslaughter in the first degree and may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 15 years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $30,000, or both:
(1) intentionally causes the death of another person in the heat of passion provoked by
such words or acts of another as would provoke a person of ordinary self-control under like
circumstances, provided that the crying of a child does not constitute provocation;
(2) violates section 609.224 and causes the death of another or causes the death of another in
committing or attempting to commit a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor offense with such
force and violence that death of or great bodily harm to any person was reasonably foreseeable,
and murder in the first or second degree was not committed thereby;
(3) intentionally causes the death of another person because the actor is coerced by threats
made by someone other than the actor's coconspirator and which cause the actor reasonably to
believe that the act performed by the actor is the only means of preventing imminent death to
the actor or another;
(4) proximately causes the death of another, without intent to cause death by, directly or
indirectly, unlawfully selling, giving away, bartering, delivering, exchanging, distributing, or
administering a controlled substance classified in schedule III, IV, or V; or
(5) causes the death of another in committing or attempting to commit a violation of section
609.377 (malicious punishment of a child), and murder in the first, second, or third degree is not
committed thereby.
As used in this section, a "person of ordinary self-control" does not include a person under
the influence of intoxicants or a controlled substance.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.20; 1981 c 227 s 12; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 3; 1986 c 444; 1987
c 176 s 2; 1988 c 604 s 1; 1995 c 244 s 13; 1996 c 408 art 3 s 13
609.205 MANSLAUGHTER IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
A person who causes the death of another by any of the following means is guilty of
manslaughter in the second degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten
years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both:
(1) by the person's culpable negligence whereby the person creates an unreasonable risk, and
consciously takes chances of causing death or great bodily harm to another; or
(2) by shooting another with a firearm or other dangerous weapon as a result of negligently
believing the other to be a deer or other animal; or
(3) by setting a spring gun, pit fall, deadfall, snare, or other like dangerous weapon or
device; or
(4) by negligently or intentionally permitting any animal, known by the person to have
vicious propensities or to have caused great or substantial bodily harm in the past, to run
uncontrolled off the owner's premises, or negligently failing to keep it properly confined; or
(5) by committing or attempting to commit a violation of section 609.378 (neglect or
endangerment of a child), and murder in the first, second, or third degree is not committed thereby.
If proven by a preponderance of the evidence, it shall be an affirmative defense to criminal
liability under clause (4) that the victim provoked the animal to cause the victim's death.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.205; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 294 s 6; 1986 c 444;
1989 c 290 art 6 s 5; 1995 c 244 s 14
609.21 CRIMINAL VEHICULAR HOMICIDE AND INJURY.
    Subdivision 1. Criminal vehicular homicide. A person is guilty of criminal vehicular
homicide resulting in death and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or
to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both, if the person causes the death of a human
being not constituting murder or manslaughter as a result of operating a motor vehicle:
(1) in a grossly negligent manner;
(2) in a negligent manner while under the influence of:
(i) alcohol;
(ii) a controlled substance; or
(iii) any combination of those elements;
(3) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more;
(4) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more, as measured within two hours of
the time of driving;
(5) in a negligent manner while knowingly under the influence of a hazardous substance;
(6) in a negligent manner while any amount of a controlled substance listed in schedule I or
II, other than marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinols, is present in the person's body; or
(7) where the driver who causes the accident leaves the scene of the accident in violation of
section 169.09, subdivision 1 or 6.
    Subd. 2. Resulting in great bodily harm. A person is guilty of criminal vehicular operation
resulting in great bodily harm and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years
or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both, if the person causes great bodily harm
to another, not constituting attempted murder or assault, as a result of operating a motor vehicle:
(1) in a grossly negligent manner;
(2) in a negligent manner while under the influence of:
(i) alcohol;
(ii) a controlled substance; or
(iii) any combination of those elements;
(3) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more;
(4) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more, as measured within two hours of
the time of driving;
(5) in a negligent manner while knowingly under the influence of a hazardous substance;
(6) in a negligent manner while any amount of a controlled substance listed in schedule I or
II, other than marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinols, is present in the person's body; or
(7) where the driver who causes the accident leaves the scene of the accident in violation of
section 169.09, subdivision 1 or 6.
    Subd. 2a. Resulting in substantial bodily harm. A person is guilty of criminal vehicular
operation resulting in substantial bodily harm and may be sentenced to imprisonment of not more
than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both, if the person causes
substantial bodily harm to another, as a result of operating a motor vehicle;
(1) in a grossly negligent manner;
(2) in a negligent manner while under the influence of:
(i) alcohol;
(ii) a controlled substance; or
(iii) any combination of those elements;
(3) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more;
(4) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more, as measured within two hours of
the time of driving;
(5) in a negligent manner while knowingly under the influence of a hazardous substance;
(6) in a negligent manner while any amount of a controlled substance listed in schedule I or
II, other than marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinols, is present in the person's body; or
(7) where the driver who causes the accident leaves the scene of the accident in violation of
section 169.09, subdivision 1 or 6.
    Subd. 2b. Resulting in bodily harm. A person is guilty of criminal vehicular operation
resulting in bodily harm and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both, if the person causes bodily harm to another, as
a result of operating a motor vehicle:
(1) in a grossly negligent manner;
(2) in a negligent manner while under the influence of:
(i) alcohol;
(ii) a controlled substance; or
(iii) any combination of those elements;
(3) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more;
(4) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more, as measured within two hours of
the time of driving;
(5) in a negligent manner while knowingly under the influence of a hazardous substance;
(6) in a negligent manner while any amount of a controlled substance listed in schedule I or
II, other than marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinols, is present in the person's body; or
(7) where the driver who causes the accident leaves the scene of the accident in violation of
section 169.09, subdivision 1 or 6.
    Subd. 3. Resulting in death to an unborn child. A person is guilty of criminal vehicular
operation resulting in death to an unborn child and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not
more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both, if the person causes
the death of an unborn child as a result of operating a motor vehicle:
(1) in a grossly negligent manner;
(2) in a negligent manner while under the influence of:
(i) alcohol;
(ii) a controlled substance; or
(iii) any combination of those elements;
(3) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more;
(4) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more, as measured within two hours of
the time of driving;
(5) in a negligent manner while knowingly under the influence of a hazardous substance;
(6) in a negligent manner while any amount of a controlled substance listed in schedule I or
II, other than marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinols, is present in the person's body; or
(7) where the driver who causes the accident leaves the scene of the accident in violation of
section 169.09, subdivision 1 or 6.
A prosecution for or conviction of a crime under this subdivision is not a bar to conviction of
or punishment for any other crime committed by the defendant as part of the same conduct.
    Subd. 4. Resulting in injury to unborn child. A person is guilty of criminal vehicular
operation resulting in injury to an unborn child and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not
more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both, if the person
causes great bodily harm to an unborn child who is subsequently born alive, as a result of
operating a motor vehicle:
(1) in a grossly negligent manner;
(2) in a negligent manner while under the influence of:
(i) alcohol;
(ii) a controlled substance; or
(iii) any combination of those elements;
(3) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more;
(4) while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more, as measured within two hours of
the time of driving;
(5) in a negligent manner while knowingly under the influence of a hazardous substance;
(6) in a negligent manner while any amount of a controlled substance listed in schedule I or
II, other than marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinols, is present in the person's body; or
(7) where the driver who causes the accident leaves the scene of the accident in violation of
section 169.09, subdivision 1 or 6.
A prosecution for or conviction of a crime under this subdivision is not a bar to conviction of
or punishment for any other crime committed by the defendant as part of the same conduct.
    Subd. 4a. Affirmative defense. It shall be an affirmative defense to a charge under
subdivision 1, clause (6); 2, clause (6); 2a, clause (6); 2b, clause (6); 3, clause (6); or 4, clause (6),
that the defendant used the controlled substance according to the terms of a prescription issued for
the defendant in accordance with sections 152.11 and 152.12.
    Subd. 5. Definitions. For purposes of this section, the terms defined in this subdivision have
the meanings given them.
(a) "Motor vehicle" has the meaning given in section 609.52, subdivision 1.
(b) "Controlled substance" has the meaning given in section 152.01, subdivision 4.
(c) "Hazardous substance" means any chemical or chemical compound that is listed as a
hazardous substance in rules adopted under chapter 182.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.21; 1983 c 12 s 1; 1984 c 622 s 24,25; 1984 c 628 art 3 s
4,11; 1986 c 388 s 3,4; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 6,7; art 10 s 7; 1990 c 602 art 4 s 1; 1996 c 408 art
3 s 14-18; 1996 c 442 s 33; 2004 c 283 s 13
609.215 SUICIDE.
    Subdivision 1. Aiding suicide. Whoever intentionally advises, encourages, or assists another
in taking the other's own life may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 15 years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $30,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Aiding attempted suicide. Whoever intentionally advises, encourages, or assists
another who attempts but fails to take the other's own life may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than seven years or to payment of a fine of not more than $14,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Acts or omissions not considered aiding suicide or aiding attempted suicide. (a)
A health care provider, as defined in section 145B.02, subdivision 6, who administers, prescribes,
or dispenses medications or procedures to relieve another person's pain or discomfort, even if the
medication or procedure may hasten or increase the risk of death, does not violate this section
unless the medications or procedures are knowingly administered, prescribed, or dispensed to
cause death.
(b) A health care provider, as defined in section 145B.02, subdivision 6, who withholds or
withdraws a life-sustaining procedure in compliance with chapter 145B or 145C or in accordance
with reasonable medical practice does not violate this section.
    Subd. 4. Injunctive relief. A cause of action for injunctive relief may be maintained against
any person who is reasonably believed to be about to violate or who is in the course of violating
this section by any person who is:
(1) the spouse, parent, child, or sibling of the person who would commit suicide;
(2) an heir or a beneficiary under a life insurance policy of the person who would commit
suicide;
(3) a health care provider of the person who would commit suicide;
(4) a person authorized to prosecute or enforce the laws of this state; or
(5) a legally appointed guardian or conservator of the person who would have committed
suicide.
    Subd. 5. Civil damages. A person given standing by subdivision 4, clause (1), (2), or (5),
or the person who would have committed suicide, in the case of an attempt, may maintain a
cause of action against any person who violates or who attempts to violate subdivision 1 or 2 for
compensatory damages and punitive damages as provided in section 549.20. A person described
in subdivision 4, clause (4), may maintain a cause of action against a person who violates or
attempts to violate subdivision 1 or 2 for a civil penalty of up to $50,000 on behalf of the state. An
action under this subdivision may be brought whether or not the plaintiff had prior knowledge
of the violation or attempt.
    Subd. 6. Attorney fees. Reasonable attorney fees shall be awarded to the prevailing plaintiff
in a civil action brought under subdivision 4 or 5.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.215; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444; 1992 c 577 s
6-9; 1998 c 399 s 37

CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON

609.22 [Repealed, 1979 c 258 s 25]
609.221 ASSAULT IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Great bodily harm. Whoever assaults another and inflicts great bodily
harm may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine
of not more than $30,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Use of deadly force against peace officer or correctional employee. (a) Whoever
assaults a peace officer or correctional employee by using or attempting to use deadly force
against the officer or employee while the officer or employee is engaged in the performance of
a duty imposed by law, policy, or rule may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20
years or to payment of a fine of not more than $30,000, or both.
(b) A person convicted of assaulting a peace officer or correctional employee as described in
paragraph (a) shall be committed to the commissioner of corrections for not less than ten years,
nor more than 20 years. A defendant convicted and sentenced as required by this paragraph is not
eligible for probation, parole, discharge, work release, or supervised release, until that person
has served the full term of imprisonment as provided by law, notwithstanding the provisions of
sections 241.26, 242.19, 243.05, 244.04, 609.12, and 609.135. Notwithstanding section 609.135,
the court may not stay the imposition or execution of this sentence.
(c) As used in this subdivision:
(1) "correctional employee" means an employee of a public or private prison, jail, or
workhouse;
(2) "deadly force" has the meaning given in section 609.066, subdivision 1; and
(3) "peace officer" has the meaning given in section 626.84, subdivision 1.
History: 1979 c 258 s 4; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 8; 1997 c 239 art 3 s 10
609.222 ASSAULT IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Dangerous weapon. Whoever assaults another with a dangerous weapon
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than seven years or to payment of a fine of not
more than $14,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Dangerous weapon; substantial bodily harm. Whoever assaults another with a
dangerous weapon and inflicts substantial bodily harm may be sentenced to imprisonment for not
more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both.
History: 1979 c 258 s 5; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 53 s 1; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 9; 1992
c 571 art 4 s 7
609.223 ASSAULT IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Substantial bodily harm. Whoever assaults another and inflicts substantial
bodily harm may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a
fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Past pattern of child abuse. Whoever assaults a minor may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or
both, if the perpetrator has engaged in a past pattern of child abuse against the minor. As used in
this subdivision, "child abuse" has the meaning given it in section 609.185, clause (5).
    Subd. 3. Felony; victim under four. Whoever assaults a victim under the age of four, and
causes bodily harm to the child's head, eyes, or neck, or otherwise causes multiple bruises to the
body, is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or
to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1979 c 258 s 6; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 10; 1990 c 542 s 17;
1994 c 636 art 2 s 20
609.2231 ASSAULT IN THE FOURTH DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Peace officers. Whoever physically assaults a peace officer licensed under
section 626.845, subdivision 1, when that officer is effecting a lawful arrest or executing any other
duty imposed by law is guilty of a gross misdemeanor and may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both. If the assault
inflicts demonstrable bodily harm or the person intentionally throws or otherwise transfers bodily
fluids or feces at or onto the officer, the person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $6,000, or
both.
    Subd. 2. Firefighters and emergency medical personnel. Whoever assaults any of the
following persons and inflicts demonstrable bodily harm is guilty of a felony and may be
sentenced to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $4,000, or both:
(1) a member of a municipal or volunteer fire department or emergency medical services
personnel unit in the performance of the member's duties; or
(2) a physician, nurse, or other person providing health care services in a hospital emergency
department.
    Subd. 2a. Certain Department of Natural Resources employees. Whoever assaults and
inflicts demonstrable bodily harm on an employee of the Department of Natural Resources who is
engaged in forest fire activities is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3. Correctional employees; probation officers. Whoever commits either of the
following acts against an employee of a correctional facility as defined in section 241.021,
subdivision 1
, paragraph (f), or against a probation officer or other qualified person employed in
supervising offenders while the employee, officer, or person is engaged in the performance of a
duty imposed by law, policy, or rule is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more than $4,000, or both:
(1) assaults the employee and inflicts demonstrable bodily harm; or
(2) intentionally throws or otherwise transfers bodily fluids or feces at or onto the employee.
    Subd. 3a. Secure treatment facility personnel. (a) As used in this subdivision, "secure
treatment facility" has the meaning given in section 253B.02, subdivision 18a.
(b) Whoever, while committed under section 253B.185 or Minnesota Statutes 1992, section
526.10, commits either of the following acts against an employee or other individual who provides
care or treatment at a secure treatment facility while the person is engaged in the performance of a
duty imposed by law, policy, or rule is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more than $4,000, or both:
(1) assaults the person and inflicts demonstrable bodily harm; or
(2) intentionally throws or otherwise transfers bodily fluids or feces at or onto the person.
(c) The court shall commit a person convicted of violating paragraph (b) to the custody of
the commissioner of corrections for not less than one year and one day. The court may not, on
its own motion or the prosecutor's motion, sentence a person without regard to this paragraph.
A person convicted and sentenced as required by this paragraph is not eligible for probation,
parole, discharge, work release, or supervised release, until that person has served the full term
of imprisonment as provided by law, notwithstanding the provisions of sections 241.26, 242.19,
243.05, 244.04, 609.12, and 609.135.
(d) Notwithstanding the statutory maximum sentence provided in paragraph (b), when
a court sentences a person to the custody of the commissioner of corrections for a violation of
paragraph (b), the court shall provide that after the person has completed the sentence imposed,
the commissioner shall place the person on conditional release for five years. The terms of
conditional release are governed by sections 244.05 and 609.109.
    Subd. 4. Assaults motivated by bias. (a) Whoever assaults another because of the victim's
or another's actual or perceived race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, disability as defined
in section 363A.03, age, or national origin may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than
one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
(b) Whoever violates the provisions of paragraph (a) within five years of a previous
conviction under paragraph (a) is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not
more than one year and a day or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
    Subd. 5. School official. Whoever assaults a school official while the official is engaged
in the performance of the official's duties, and inflicts demonstrable bodily harm, is guilty of
a gross misdemeanor. As used in this subdivision, "school official" includes teachers, school
administrators, and other employees of a public or private school.
    Subd. 6. Public employees with mandated duties. A person is guilty of a gross
misdemeanor who:
(1) assaults an agricultural inspector, occupational safety and health investigator, child
protection worker, public health nurse, animal control officer, or probation or parole officer while
the employee is engaged in the performance of a duty mandated by law, court order, or ordinance;
(2) knows that the victim is a public employee engaged in the performance of the official
public duties of the office; and
(3) inflicts demonstrable bodily harm.
    Subd. 7. Community crime prevention group members. (a) A person is guilty of a gross
misdemeanor who:
(1) assaults a community crime prevention group member while the member is engaged in
neighborhood patrol;
(2) should reasonably know that the victim is a community crime prevention group member
engaged in neighborhood patrol; and
(3) inflicts demonstrable bodily harm.
(b) As used in this subdivision, "community crime prevention group" means a community
group focused on community safety and crime prevention that:
(1) is organized for the purpose of discussing community safety and patrolling community
neighborhoods for criminal activity;
(2) is designated and trained by the local law enforcement agency as a community crime
prevention group; or
(3) interacts with local law enforcement regarding community safety issues.
History: 1983 c 169 s 1; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 185 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 252 s 9;
1989 c 261 s 1; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 11; 1991 c 121 s 1; 1991 c 279 s 29; 1992 c 571 art 4 s 8; 1994
c 636 art 2 s 21; 1996 c 408 art 3 s 19,20; 1997 c 180 s 5; 1997 c 239 art 9 s 36; 2000 c 441 s 1;
1Sp2003 c 2 art 8 s 8; 2004 c 184 s 1,2; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 11; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 15
609.2232 CONSECUTIVE SENTENCES FOR ASSAULTS COMMITTED BY STATE
PRISON INMATES.
If an inmate of a state correctional facility is convicted of violating section 609.221, 609.222,
609.223, 609.2231, or 609.224, while confined in the facility, the sentence imposed for the assault
shall be executed and run consecutively to any unexpired portion of the offender's earlier sentence.
The inmate is not entitled to credit against the sentence imposed for the assault for time served in
confinement for the earlier sentence. The inmate shall serve the sentence for the assault in a state
correctional facility even if the assault conviction was for a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor.
History: 1997 c 239 art 9 s 37
609.224 ASSAULT IN THE FIFTH DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Misdemeanor. Whoever does any of the following commits an assault and is
guilty of a misdemeanor:
(1) commits an act with intent to cause fear in another of immediate bodily harm or death; or
(2) intentionally inflicts or attempts to inflict bodily harm upon another.
    Subd. 2. Gross misdemeanor. (a) Whoever violates the provisions of subdivision 1 against
the same victim within ten years of a previous qualified domestic violence-related offense
conviction or adjudication of delinquency is guilty of a gross misdemeanor and may be sentenced
to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or
both.
(b) Whoever violates the provisions of subdivision 1 within three years of a previous
qualified domestic violence-related offense conviction or adjudication of delinquency is guilty of
a gross misdemeanor and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
(c) A caregiver, as defined in section 609.232, who is an individual and who violates the
provisions of subdivision 1 against a vulnerable adult, as defined in section 609.232, is guilty of
a gross misdemeanor and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Firearms. (a) When a person is convicted of a violation of this section or section
609.221, 609.222, or 609.223, the court shall determine and make written findings on the record
as to whether:
(1) the defendant owns or possesses a firearm; and
(2) the firearm was used in any way during the commission of the assault.
(b) Except as otherwise provided in section 609.2242, subdivision 3, paragraph (c), a person
is not entitled to possess a pistol if the person has been convicted after August 1, 1992, of assault
in the fifth degree if the offense was committed within three years of a previous conviction under
sections 609.221 to 609.224, unless three years have elapsed from the date of conviction and,
during that time, the person has not been convicted of any other violation of section 609.224.
Property rights may not be abated but access may be restricted by the courts. A person who
possesses a pistol in violation of this paragraph is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 4. Felony. (a) Whoever violates the provisions of subdivision 1 against the same
victim within ten years of the first of any combination of two or more previous qualified domestic
violence-related offense convictions or adjudications of delinquency is guilty of a felony and
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or payment of a fine of not
more than $10,000, or both.
(b) Whoever violates the provisions of subdivision 1 within three years of the first of any
combination of two or more previous qualified domestic violence-related offense convictions or
adjudications of delinquency is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not
more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1979 c 258 s 7; 1983 c 169 s 2; 1985 c 159 s 1; 1987 c 329 s 7; 1992 c 537 s 1,2;
1992 c 571 art 6 s 13; 1993 c 326 art 2 s 11,12; 1Sp1993 c 5 s 2,3; 1994 c 636 art 3 s 10; 1995 c
229 art 2 s 1; 1995 c 259 art 3 s 13,14; 1996 c 408 art 3 s 21,22; 2000 c 437 s 6,7; 1Sp2001 c 8
art 10 s 8,9; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 16,17
609.2241 KNOWING TRANSFER OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings
given:
(a) "Communicable disease" means a disease or condition that causes serious illness, serious
disability, or death; the infectious agent of which may pass or be carried from the body of one
person to the body of another through direct transmission.
(b) "Direct transmission" means predominately sexual or bloodborne transmission.
(c) "A person who knowingly harbors an infectious agent" refers to a person who receives
from a physician or other health professional:
(1) advice that the person harbors an infectious agent for a communicable disease;
(2) educational information about behavior which might transmit the infectious agent; and
(3) instruction of practical means of preventing such transmission.
(d) "Transfer" means to engage in behavior that has been demonstrated epidemiologically to
be a mode of direct transmission of an infectious agent which causes the communicable disease.
(e) "Sexual penetration" means any of the acts listed in section 609.341, subdivision 12,
when the acts described are committed without the use of a latex or other effective barrier.
    Subd. 2. Crime. It is a crime, which may be prosecuted under section 609.17, 609.185,
609.19, 609.221, 609.222, 609.223, 609.2231, or 609.224, for a person who knowingly harbors an
infectious agent to transfer, if the crime involved:
(1) sexual penetration with another person without having first informed the other person
that the person has a communicable disease;
(2) transfer of blood, sperm, organs, or tissue, except as deemed necessary for medical
research or if disclosed on donor screening forms; or
(3) sharing of nonsterile syringes or needles for the purpose of injecting drugs.
    Subd. 3. Affirmative defense. It is an affirmative defense to prosecution, if it is proven by a
preponderance of the evidence, that:
(1) the person who knowingly harbors an infectious agent for a communicable disease took
practical means to prevent transmission as advised by a physician or other health professional; or
(2) the person who knowingly harbors an infectious agent for a communicable disease is a
health care provider who was following professionally accepted infection control procedures.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to be a defense to a criminal prosecution that
does not allege a violation of subdivision 2.
    Subd. 4. Health Department data. Data protected by section 13.3805, subdivision 1, and
information collected as part of a Health Department investigation under sections 144.4171 to
144.4186 may not be accessed or subpoenaed by law enforcement authorities or prosecutors
without the consent of the subject of the data.
History: 1995 c 226 art 2 s 17; 1999 c 227 s 22
609.2242 DOMESTIC ASSAULT.
    Subdivision 1. Misdemeanor. Whoever does any of the following against a family or
household member as defined in section 518B.01, subdivision 2, commits an assault and is
guilty of a misdemeanor:
(1) commits an act with intent to cause fear in another of immediate bodily harm or death; or
(2) intentionally inflicts or attempts to inflict bodily harm upon another.
    Subd. 2. Gross misdemeanor. Whoever violates subdivision 1 within ten years of a previous
qualified domestic violence-related offense conviction or adjudication of delinquency against a
family or household member as defined in section 518B.01, subdivision 2, is guilty of a gross
misdemeanor and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of
a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Domestic assaults; firearms. (a) When a person is convicted of a violation of this
section or section 609.221, 609.222, 609.223, 609.224, or 609.2247, the court shall determine and
make written findings on the record as to whether:
(1) the assault was committed against a family or household member, as defined in section
518B.01, subdivision 2;
(2) the defendant owns or possesses a firearm; and
(3) the firearm was used in any way during the commission of the assault.
(b) If the court determines that the assault was of a family or household member, and that the
offender owns or possesses a firearm and used it in any way during the commission of the assault,
it shall order that the firearm be summarily forfeited under section 609.5316, subdivision 3.
(c) When a person is convicted of assaulting a family or household member and is
determined by the court to have used a firearm in any way during commission of the assault,
the court may order that the person is prohibited from possessing any type of firearm for any
period longer than three years or for the remainder of the person's life. A person who violates this
paragraph is guilty of a gross misdemeanor. At the time of the conviction, the court shall inform
the defendant whether and for how long the defendant is prohibited from possessing a firearm and
that it is a gross misdemeanor to violate this paragraph. The failure of the court to provide this
information to a defendant does not affect the applicability of the firearm possession prohibition
or the gross misdemeanor penalty to that defendant.
(d) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c), when a person is convicted of a violation
of this section or section 609.224 and the court determines that the victim was a family or
household member, the court shall inform the defendant that the defendant is prohibited from
possessing a pistol for three years from the date of conviction and that it is a gross misdemeanor
offense to violate this prohibition. The failure of the court to provide this information to a
defendant does not affect the applicability of the pistol possession prohibition or the gross
misdemeanor penalty to that defendant.
(e) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c), a person is not entitled to possess a
pistol if the person has been convicted after August 1, 1992, of domestic assault under this
section or assault in the fifth degree under section 609.224 and the assault victim was a family or
household member as defined in section 518B.01, subdivision 2, unless three years have elapsed
from the date of conviction and, during that time, the person has not been convicted of any
other violation of this section or section 609.224. Property rights may not be abated but access
may be restricted by the courts. A person who possesses a pistol in violation of this paragraph
is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 4. Felony. Whoever violates the provisions of this section or section 609.224,
subdivision 1
, within ten years of the first of any combination of two or more previous qualified
domestic violence-related offense convictions or adjudications of delinquency is guilty of a
felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or payment of a fine
of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1995 c 259 art 3 s 15; 2000 c 437 s 8,9; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 10 s 10,11; 2005 c 136 art
17 s 12; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 18,19
609.2243 SENTENCING; REPEAT DOMESTIC ASSAULT.
    Subdivision 1. Gross misdemeanor. A person convicted of gross misdemeanor domestic
assault under section 609.2242, subdivision 2, shall be sentenced to a minimum of 20 days
imprisonment, at least 96 hours of which must be served consecutively. The court may stay
execution of the minimum sentence required under this subdivision on the condition that the
person sentenced complete anger therapy or counseling and fulfill any other condition, as ordered
by the court; provided, however, that the court shall revoke the stay of execution and direct the
person to be taken into immediate custody if it appears that the person failed to attend or complete
the ordered therapy or counseling, or violated any other condition of the stay of execution. If the
court finds at the revocation hearing required under section 609.14, subdivision 2, that the person
failed to attend or complete the ordered therapy, or violated any other condition of the stay of
execution, the court shall order execution of the sentence previously imposed.
    Subd. 2. Felony. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b), in determining an
appropriate disposition for felony domestic assault under section 609.2242, subdivision 4, the
court shall presume that a stay of execution with at least a 45-day period of incarceration as a
condition of probation shall be imposed. If the court imposes a stay of execution with a period of
incarceration as a condition of probation, at least 15 days must be served consecutively.
(b) If the defendant's criminal history score, determined according to the Sentencing
Guidelines, indicates a presumptive executed sentence, that sentence shall be imposed unless the
court departs from the Sentencing Guidelines pursuant to section 244.10. A stay of imposition
of sentence under this paragraph may be granted only if accompanied by a statement on the
record of the reasons for it.
History: 1996 c 408 art 3 s 23
609.2244 PRESENTENCE DOMESTIC ABUSE INVESTIGATIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Investigation. A presentence domestic abuse investigation must be conducted
and a report submitted to the court by the corrections agency responsible for conducting the
investigation when:
(1) a defendant is convicted of an offense described in section 518B.01, subdivision 2;
(2) a defendant is arrested for committing an offense described in section 518B.01,
subdivision 2
, but is convicted of another offense arising out of the same circumstances
surrounding the arrest; or
(3) a defendant is convicted of a violation against a family or household member of: (a) an
order for protection under section 518B.01; (b) a harassment restraining order under section
609.748; (c) section 609.79, subdivision 1; or (d) section 609.713, subdivision 1.
    Subd. 2. Report. (a) The Department of Corrections shall establish minimum standards for
the report, including the circumstances of the offense, impact on the victim, the defendant's
prior record, characteristics and history of alcohol and chemical use problems, and amenability
to domestic abuse programs. The report is classified as private data on individuals as defined in
section 13.02, subdivision 12. Victim impact statements are confidential.
(b) The report must include:
(1) a recommendation on any limitations on contact with the victim and other measures to
ensure the victim's safety;
(2) a recommendation for the defendant to enter and successfully complete domestic abuse
programming and any aftercare found necessary by the investigation, including a specific
recommendation for the defendant to complete a domestic abuse counseling program or domestic
abuse educational program under section 518B.02;
(3) a recommendation for chemical dependency evaluation and treatment as determined by
the evaluation whenever alcohol or drugs were found to be a contributing factor to the offense;
(4) recommendations for other appropriate remedial action or care or a specific explanation
why no level of care or action is recommended; and
(5) consequences for failure to abide by conditions set up by the court.
    Subd. 3. Corrections agents standards; rules; investigation time limits. A domestic abuse
investigation required by this section must be conducted by the local Corrections Department or
the commissioner of corrections. The corrections agent shall have access to any police reports or
other law enforcement data relating to the current offense or previous offenses that are necessary
to complete the evaluation. A corrections agent conducting an investigation under this section
may not have any direct or shared financial interest or referral relationship resulting in shared
financial gain with a treatment provider. An appointment for the defendant to undergo the
investigation must be made by the court, a court services probation officer, or court administrator
as soon as possible.
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 8 art 10 s 20]
History: 1996 c 408 art 3 s 24; 1997 c 239 art 7 s 18; 1998 c 367 art 5 s 6,7; 1Sp2001
c 8 art 10 s 12
609.2245 FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION; PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. Except as otherwise permitted in subdivision 2, whoever knowingly
circumcises, excises, or infibulates, in whole or in part, the labia majora, labia minora, or clitoris
of another is guilty of a felony. Consent to the procedure by a minor on whom it is performed or
by the minor's parent is not a defense to a violation of this subdivision.
    Subd. 2. Permitted activities. A surgical procedure is not a violation of subdivision 1 if
the procedure:
(1) is necessary to the health of the person on whom it is performed and is performed by:
(i) a physician licensed under chapter 147; (ii) a physician in training under the supervision of
a licensed physician; or (iii) a certified nurse midwife practicing within the nurse midwife's
legal scope of practice; or
(2) is performed on a person who is in labor or who has just given birth and is performed for
medical purposes connected with that labor or birth: (i) by a physician licensed under chapter 147;
(ii) a physician in training under the supervision of a licensed physician; or (iii) a certified nurse
midwife practicing within the nurse midwife's legal scope of practice.
History: 1994 c 636 art 2 s 22; 1997 c 239 art 3 s 11
609.2246 TATTOOS; MINORS.
    Subdivision 1. Requirements. No person under the age of 18 may receive a tattoo unless the
person provides written parental consent to the tattoo. The consent must include both the custodial
and noncustodial parents, where applicable.
    Subd. 2. Definition. For the purposes of this section, "tattoo" means an indelible mark or
figure fixed on the body by insertion of pigment under the skin or by production of scars.
    Subd. 3. Penalty. A person who provides a tattoo to a minor in violation of this section
is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1996 c 408 art 3 s 25
609.2247 DOMESTIC ASSAULT BY STRANGULATION.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the
meanings given.
(b) "Family or household members" has the meaning given in section 518B.01, subdivision 2.
(c) "Strangulation" means intentionally impeding normal breathing or circulation of the blood
by applying pressure on the throat or neck or by blocking the nose or mouth of another person.
    Subd. 2. Crime. Unless a greater penalty is provided elsewhere, whoever assaults a family or
household member by strangulation is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both.
History: 2005 c 136 art 17 s 13
609.225 [Repealed, 1979 c 258 s 25]
609.226 HARM CAUSED BY A DOG.
    Subdivision 1. Great or substantial bodily harm. A person who causes great or substantial
bodily harm to another by negligently or intentionally permitting any dog to run uncontrolled
off the owner's premises, or negligently failing to keep it properly confined is guilty of a
misdemeanor. A person who is convicted of a second or subsequent violation of this section
involving the same dog is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 2. Dangerous dogs. If the owner of a dangerous dog, as defined under section 347.50,
subdivision 2
, has been convicted of a misdemeanor under section 347.55, and the same dog
causes bodily injury to a person other than the owner, the owner is guilty of a gross misdemeanor
and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not
more than $3,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Defense. If proven by a preponderance of the evidence, it shall be an affirmative
defense to liability under subdivision 1 or 2 that the victim provoked the dog to cause the victim's
bodily harm.
    Subd. 4. Harm to service animal caused by dog; crime, mandatory restitution. (a) As
used in this subdivision, "service animal" means an animal individually trained or being trained to
do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability.
(b) A person who negligently or intentionally (1) permits the person's dog to run uncontrolled
off the person's premises, or (2) fails to keep the person's dog properly confined or controlled; and
as a result the dog causes bodily harm to a service animal or otherwise renders a service animal
unable to perform its duties, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
(c) The court shall order a person convicted of violating this subdivision to pay restitution
for the costs and expenses resulting from the crime. Costs and expenses include, but are not
limited to, the service animal user's loss of income, veterinary expenses, transportation costs, and
other expenses of temporary replacement assistance services, and service animal replacement or
retraining costs incurred by a school, agency, or individual. If the court finds that the convicted
person is indigent, the court may reduce the amount of restitution to a reasonable level or order it
paid in installments.
(d) This subdivision does not preclude a person from seeking any available civil remedies for
an act that violates this subdivision.
History: 1985 c 294 s 7; 1988 c 711 s 8; 1989 c 37 s 13; 2004 c 159 s 1,2
609.227 DANGEROUS ANIMALS DESTROYED.
When a person has been charged with a violation of section 609.205, clause (4), or 609.226,
subdivision 2
or 3, or a gross misdemeanor violation of section 609.226, subdivision 1, the
court shall order that the animal which caused the death or injury be seized by the appropriate
local law enforcement agency. The animal shall be killed in a proper and humane manner if
the person has been convicted of the crime for which the animal was seized. The owner of the
animal shall pay the cost of confining and killing the animal. This section shall not preempt local
ordinances with more restrictive provisions.
History: 1985 c 294 s 8; 1988 c 711 s 9
609.228 GREAT BODILY HARM CAUSED BY DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS.
Whoever proximately causes great bodily harm by, directly or indirectly, unlawfully selling,
giving away, bartering, delivering, exchanging, distributing, or administering a controlled
substance classified in schedule I or II may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten
years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both.
History: 1987 c 176 s 3
609.229 CRIME COMMITTED FOR BENEFIT OF A GANG.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. As used in this section, "criminal gang" means any ongoing
organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that:
(1) has, as one of its primary activities, the commission of one or more of the offenses
listed in section 609.11, subdivision 9;
(2) has a common name or common identifying sign or symbol; and
(3) includes members who individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a
pattern of criminal activity.
    Subd. 2. Crimes. A person who commits a crime for the benefit of, at the direction of, in
association with, or motivated by involvement with a criminal gang, with the intent to promote,
further, or assist in criminal conduct by gang members is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced
as provided in subdivision 3.
    Subd. 3. Penalty. (a) If the crime committed in violation of subdivision 2 is a felony,
the statutory maximum for the crime is five years longer than the statutory maximum for the
underlying crime. If the crime committed in violation of subdivision 2 is a felony, and the victim
of the crime is a child under the age of 18 years, the statutory maximum for the crime is ten years
longer than the statutory maximum for the underlying crime.
(b) If the crime committed in violation of subdivision 2 is a misdemeanor, the person
is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
(c) If the crime committed in violation of subdivision 2 is a gross misdemeanor, the person
is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $15,000, or both.
    Subd. 4. Mandatory minimum sentence. (a) Unless a longer mandatory minimum sentence
is otherwise required by law, or the court imposes a longer aggravated durational departure, or a
longer prison sentence is presumed under the Sentencing Guidelines and imposed by the court, a
person convicted of a crime described in subdivision 3, paragraph (a), shall be committed to the
custody of the commissioner of corrections for not less than one year plus one day.
(b) Any person convicted and sentenced as required by paragraph (a) is not eligible for
probation, parole, discharge, work release, or supervised release until that person has served the
full term of imprisonment as provided by law, notwithstanding the provisions of sections 242.19,
243.05, 244.04, 609.12, and 609.135.
History: 1991 c 279 s 30; 1993 c 326 art 13 s 29; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 9-11; 2005 c 136
art 17 s 14
609.23 MISTREATMENT OF PERSONS CONFINED.
Whoever, being in charge of or employed in any institution, whether public or private,
intentionally abuses or ill-treats any person confined therein who is mentally or physically
disabled or who is involuntarily confined therein by order of court or other duly constituted
authority may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine
of not more than $3,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.23; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.231 MISTREATMENT OF RESIDENTS OR PATIENTS.
Whoever, being in charge of or employed in any facility required to be licensed under the
provisions of sections 144.50 to 144.58, or 144A.02, intentionally abuses, ill-treats, or culpably
neglects any patient or resident therein to the patient's or resident's physical detriment may be
sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than
$3,000, or both.
History: 1973 c 688 s 9; 1976 c 173 s 60; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.232 CRIMES AGAINST VULNERABLE ADULTS; DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. As used in sections 609.2325, 609.233, 609.2335, and 609.234, the
terms defined in this section have the meanings given.
    Subd. 2. Caregiver. "Caregiver" means an individual or facility who has responsibility for the
care of a vulnerable adult as a result of a family relationship, or who has assumed responsibility
for all or a portion of the care of a vulnerable adult voluntarily, by contract, or by agreement.
    Subd. 3. Facility. (a) "Facility" means a hospital or other entity required to be licensed
under sections 144.50 to 144.58; a nursing home required to be licensed to serve adults under
section 144A.02; a home care provider licensed or required to be licensed under section 144A.46;
a residential or nonresidential facility required to be licensed to serve adults under sections
245A.01 to 245A.16; or a person or organization that exclusively offers, provides, or arranges for
personal care assistant services under the medical assistance program as authorized under sections
256B.04, subdivision 16, 256B.0625, subdivision 19a, 256B.0651, and 256B.0653 to 256B.0656.
(b) For home care providers and personal care attendants, the term "facility" refers to the
provider or person or organization that exclusively offers, provides, or arranges for personal care
services, and does not refer to the client's home or other location at which services are rendered.
    Subd. 4. Immediately. "Immediately" means as soon as possible, but no longer than 24 hours
from the time of initial knowledge that the incident occurred has been received.
    Subd. 5. Legal authority. "Legal authority" includes, but is not limited to:
(1) a fiduciary obligation recognized elsewhere in law, including pertinent regulations;
(2) a contractual obligation; or
(3) documented consent by a competent person.
    Subd. 6. Maltreatment. "Maltreatment" means any of the following:
(1) abuse under section 609.2325;
(2) neglect under section 609.233; or
(3) financial exploitation under section 609.2335.
    Subd. 7. Operator. "Operator" means any person whose duties and responsibilities evidence
actual control of administrative activities or authority for the decision making of or by a facility.
    Subd. 8. Person. "Person" means any individual, corporation, firm, partnership, incorporated
and unincorporated association, or any other legal, professional, or commercial entity.
    Subd. 9. Report. "Report" means a statement concerning all the circumstances surrounding
the alleged or suspected maltreatment, as defined in this section, of a vulnerable adult which are
known to the reporter at the time the statement is made.
    Subd. 10. Therapeutic conduct. "Therapeutic conduct" means the provision of program
services, health care, or other personal care services done in good faith in the interests of the
vulnerable adult by: (1) an individual, facility or employee, or person providing services in a
facility under the rights, privileges, and responsibilities conferred by state license, certification,
or registration; or (2) a caregiver.
    Subd. 11. Vulnerable adult. "Vulnerable adult" means any person 18 years of age or older
who:
(1) is a resident inpatient of a facility;
(2) receives services at or from a facility required to be licensed to serve adults under
sections 245A.01 to 245A.15, except that a person receiving outpatient services for treatment
of chemical dependency or mental illness, or one who is committed as a sexual psychopathic
personality or as a sexually dangerous person under chapter 253B, is not considered a vulnerable
adult unless the person meets the requirements of clause (4);
(3) receives services from a home care provider required to be licensed under section
144A.46; or from a person or organization that exclusively offers, provides, or arranges for
personal care assistant services under the medical assistance program as authorized under
sections 256B.04, subdivision 16, 256B.0625, subdivision 19a, 256B.0651, and 256B.0653 to
256B.0656; or
(4) regardless of residence or whether any type of service is received, possesses a physical or
mental infirmity or other physical, mental, or emotional dysfunction:
(i) that impairs the individual's ability to provide adequately for the individual's own care
without assistance, including the provision of food, shelter, clothing, health care, or supervision;
and
(ii) because of the dysfunction or infirmity and the need for assistance, the individual has an
impaired ability to protect the individual from maltreatment.
History: 1995 c 229 art 2 s 2
609.2325 CRIMINAL ABUSE.
    Subdivision 1. Crimes. (a) A caregiver who, with intent to produce physical or mental
pain or injury to a vulnerable adult, subjects a vulnerable adult to any aversive or deprivation
procedure, unreasonable confinement, or involuntary seclusion, is guilty of criminal abuse and
may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 3.
This paragraph does not apply to therapeutic conduct.
(b) A caregiver, facility staff person, or person providing services in a facility who engages
in sexual contact or penetration, as defined in section 609.341, under circumstances other than
those described in sections 609.342 to 609.345, with a resident, patient, or client of the facility is
guilty of criminal abuse and may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 3.
    Subd. 2. Exemptions. For the purposes of this section, a vulnerable adult is not abused for
the sole reason that:
(1) the vulnerable adult or a person with authority to make health care decisions for the
vulnerable adult under sections 144.651, 144A.44, chapter 145B, 145C, or 252A, or sections
253B.03 or 524.5-101 to 524.5-502, refuses consent or withdraws consent, consistent with that
authority and within the boundary of reasonable medical practice, to any therapeutic conduct,
including any care, service, or procedure to diagnose, maintain, or treat the physical or mental
condition of the vulnerable adult or, where permitted under law, to provide nutrition and hydration
parenterally or through intubation; this paragraph does not enlarge or diminish rights otherwise
held under law by:
(i) a vulnerable adult or a person acting on behalf of a vulnerable adult, including an involved
family member, to consent to or refuse consent for therapeutic conduct; or
(ii) a caregiver to offer or provide or refuse to offer or provide therapeutic conduct;
(2) the vulnerable adult, a person with authority to make health care decisions for the
vulnerable adult, or a caregiver in good faith selects and depends upon spiritual means or prayer
for treatment or care of disease or remedial care of the vulnerable adult in lieu of medical care,
provided that this is consistent with the prior practice or belief of the vulnerable adult or with the
expressed intentions of the vulnerable adult; or
(3) the vulnerable adult, who is not impaired in judgment or capacity by mental or emotional
dysfunction or undue influence, engages in consensual sexual contact with: (i) a person, including
a facility staff person, when a consensual sexual personal relationship existed prior to the
caregiving relationship; or (ii) a personal care attendant, regardless of whether the consensual
sexual personal relationship existed prior to the caregiving relationship.
    Subd. 3. Penalties. (a) A person who violates subdivision 1, paragraph (a), may be sentenced
as follows:
(1) if the act results in the death of a vulnerable adult, imprisonment for not more than 15
years or payment of a fine of not more than $30,000, or both;
(2) if the act results in great bodily harm, imprisonment for not more than ten years or
payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both;
(3) if the act results in substantial bodily harm or the risk of death, imprisonment for not
more than five years or payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both; or
(4) in other cases, imprisonment for not more than one year or payment of a fine of not
more than $3,000, or both.
(b) A person who violates subdivision 1, paragraph (b), may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
History: 1995 c 229 art 2 s 3; 1996 c 408 art 10 s 11; 2004 c 146 art 3 s 43
609.233 CRIMINAL NEGLECT.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. A caregiver or operator who intentionally neglects a vulnerable adult
or knowingly permits conditions to exist that result in the abuse or neglect of a vulnerable adult is
guilty of a gross misdemeanor. For purposes of this section, "abuse" has the meaning given in
section 626.5572, subdivision 2, and "neglect" means a failure to provide a vulnerable adult with
necessary food, clothing, shelter, health care, or supervision.
    Subd. 2. Exemptions. A vulnerable adult is not neglected for the sole reason that:
(1) the vulnerable adult or a person with authority to make health care decisions for the
vulnerable adult under sections 144.651, 144A.44, 253B.03, or 524.5-101 to 524.5-502, or chapter
145B, 145C, or 252A, refuses consent or withdraws consent, consistent with that authority and
within the boundary of reasonable medical practice, to any therapeutic conduct, including any
care, service, or procedure to diagnose, maintain, or treat the physical or mental condition of the
vulnerable adult or, where permitted under law, to provide nutrition and hydration parenterally or
through intubation; this paragraph does not enlarge or diminish rights otherwise held under law by:
(i) a vulnerable adult or a person acting on behalf of a vulnerable adult, including an involved
family member, to consent to or refuse consent for therapeutic conduct; or
(ii) a caregiver to offer or provide or refuse to offer or provide therapeutic conduct;
(2) the vulnerable adult, a person with authority to make health care decisions for the
vulnerable adult, or a caregiver in good faith selects and depends upon spiritual means or prayer
for treatment or care of disease or remedial care of the vulnerable adult in lieu of medical care,
provided that this is consistent with the prior practice or belief of the vulnerable adult or with the
expressed intentions of the vulnerable adult; or
(3) the vulnerable adult, who is not impaired in judgment or capacity by mental or emotional
dysfunction or undue influence, engages in consensual sexual contact with: (i) a person including
a facility staff person when a consensual sexual personal relationship existed prior to the
caregiving relationship; or (ii) a personal care attendant, regardless of whether the consensual
sexual personal relationship existed prior to the caregiving relationship.
History: 1995 c 229 art 2 s 4; 2004 c 146 art 3 s 44
609.2335 FINANCIAL EXPLOITATION OF A VULNERABLE ADULT.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. Whoever does any of the following acts commits the crime of
financial exploitation:
(1) in breach of a fiduciary obligation recognized elsewhere in law, including pertinent
regulations, contractual obligations, documented consent by a competent person, or the
obligations of a responsible party under section 144.6501 intentionally fails to use the financial
resources of the vulnerable adult to provide food, clothing, shelter, health care, therapeutic
conduct, or supervision for the vulnerable adult; or
(2) in the absence of legal authority:
(i) acquires possession or control of an interest in funds or property of a vulnerable adult
through the use of undue influence, harassment, or duress; or
(ii) forces, compels, coerces, or entices a vulnerable adult against the vulnerable adult's will
to perform services for the profit or advantage of another.
    Subd. 2. Defenses. Nothing in this section requires a facility or caregiver to provide financial
management or supervise financial management for a vulnerable adult except as otherwise
required by law.
    Subd. 3. Criminal penalties. A person who violates subdivision 1, clause (1) or (2), item (i),
may be sentenced as provided in section 609.52, subdivision 3. A person who violates subdivision
1, clause (2), item (ii), may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
History: 1995 c 229 art 2 s 5
609.2336 DECEPTIVE OR UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES; ELDERLY OR DISABLED
VICTIMS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. As used in this section:
(1) "charitable solicitation law violation" means a violation of sections 309.50 to 309.61;
(2) "consumer fraud law violation" means a violation of sections 325F.68 to 325F.70;
(3) "deceptive trade practices law violation" means a violation of sections 325D.43 to
325D.48;
(4) "false advertising law violation" means a violation of section 325F.67;
(5) "disabled person" means a person who has an impairment of physical or mental function
or emotional status that substantially limits one or more major life activities;
(6) "major life activities" means functions such as caring for oneself, performing manual
tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and working; and
(7) "senior citizen" means a person who is 65 years of age or older.
    Subd. 2. Crime. It is a gross misdemeanor for any person to commit a charitable solicitation
law violation, a consumer fraud law violation, a deceptive trade practices law violation, or a false
advertising law violation if the person knows or has reason to know that the person's conduct:
(1) is directed at one or more disabled persons or senior citizens; and
(2) will cause or is likely to cause a disabled person or a senior citizen to suffer loss or
encumbrance of a primary residence, principal employment or other major source of income,
substantial loss of property set aside for retirement or for personal or family care and maintenance,
substantial loss of pension, retirement plan, or government benefits, or substantial loss of other
assets essential to the victim's health or welfare.
    Subd. 3. Prosecutorial jurisdiction. The attorney general has statewide jurisdiction
to prosecute violations of this section. This jurisdiction is concurrent with that of the local
prosecuting authority responsible for prosecuting gross misdemeanors in the place where the
violation was committed.
History: 1997 c 239 art 3 s 12; 2005 c 56 s 1
609.234 FAILURE TO REPORT.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. Any mandated reporter who is required to report under section
626.557, who knows or has reason to believe that a vulnerable adult is being or has been
maltreated, as defined in section 626.5572, subdivision 15, and who does any of the following is
guilty of a misdemeanor:
(1) intentionally fails to make a report;
(2) knowingly provides information which is false, deceptive, or misleading; or
(3) intentionally fails to provide all of the material circumstances surrounding the incident
which are known to the reporter when the report is made.
    Subd. 2. Increased penalty. It is a gross misdemeanor for a person who is mandated to
report under section 626.557, who knows or has reason to believe that a vulnerable adult is
being or has been maltreated, as defined in section 626.5572, subdivision 15, to intentionally fail
to make a report if:
(1) the person knows the maltreatment caused or contributed to the death or great bodily
harm of a vulnerable adult; and
(2) the failure to report causes or contributes to the death or great bodily harm of a vulnerable
adult or protects the mandated reporter's interests.
History: 1995 c 229 art 2 s 6
609.235 USE OF DRUGS TO INJURE OR FACILITATE CRIME.
Whoever administers to another or causes another to take any poisonous, stupefying,
overpowering, narcotic or anesthetic substance with intent thereby to injure or to facilitate the
commission of a crime may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.235; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.24 SIMPLE ROBBERY.
Whoever, having knowledge of not being entitled thereto, takes personal property from the
person or in the presence of another and uses or threatens the imminent use of force against any
person to overcome the person's resistance or powers of resistance to, or to compel acquiescence
in, the taking or carrying away of the property is guilty of robbery and may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.24; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.245 AGGRAVATED ROBBERY.
    Subdivision 1. First degree. Whoever, while committing a robbery, is armed with a
dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned in a manner to lead the victim to reasonably
believe it to be a dangerous weapon, or inflicts bodily harm upon another, is guilty of aggravated
robbery in the first degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $35,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Second degree. Whoever, while committing a robbery, implies, by word or act,
possession of a dangerous weapon, is guilty of aggravated robbery in the second degree and
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 15 years or to payment of a fine of not
more than $30,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.245; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1988 c 712 s 5; 1994 c 636
art 2 s 23
609.25 KIDNAPPING.
    Subdivision 1. Acts constituting. Whoever, for any of the following purposes, confines or
removes from one place to another, any person without the person's consent or, if the person is
under the age of 16 years, without the consent of the person's parents or other legal custodian, is
guilty of kidnapping and may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 2:
(1) to hold for ransom or reward for release, or as shield or hostage; or
(2) to facilitate commission of any felony or flight thereafter; or
(3) to commit great bodily harm or to terrorize the victim or another; or
(4) to hold in involuntary servitude.
    Subd. 2. Sentence. Whoever violates subdivision 1 may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the victim is released in a safe place without great bodily harm, to imprisonment for not
more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $35,000, or both; or
(2) if the victim is not released in a safe place, or if the victim suffers great bodily harm
during the course of the kidnapping, or if the person kidnapped is under the age of 16, to
imprisonment for not more than 40 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $50,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.25; 1979 c 258 s 8; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444;
1994 c 636 art 2 s 24
609.251 DOUBLE JEOPARDY; KIDNAPPING.
Notwithstanding section 609.04, a prosecution for or conviction of the crime of kidnapping
is not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed during the time of
the kidnapping.
History: 1983 c 139 s 2; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 16
609.255 FALSE IMPRISONMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. As used in this section, the following term has the meaning given
it unless specific content indicates otherwise.
"Caretaker" means an individual who has responsibility for the care of a child as a result of a
family relationship, or who has assumed responsibility for all or a portion of the care of a child.
    Subd. 2. Intentional restraint. Whoever, knowingly lacking lawful authority to do so,
intentionally confines or restrains someone else's child under the age of 18 years without consent
of the child's parent or legal custodian, or any other person without the person's consent, is guilty
of false imprisonment and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Unreasonable restraint of children. A parent, legal guardian, or caretaker who
intentionally subjects a child under the age of 18 years to unreasonable physical confinement or
restraint by means including but not limited to, tying, locking, caging, or chaining for a prolonged
period of time and in a cruel manner which is excessive under the circumstances, is guilty of
unreasonable restraint of a child and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one
year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both. If the confinement or restraint
results in substantial bodily harm, that person may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than five years or to payment of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.255; 1983 c 217 s 2; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444;
1988 c 655 s 1; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 12
609.26 DEPRIVING ANOTHER OF CUSTODIAL OR PARENTAL RIGHTS.
    Subdivision 1. Prohibited acts. Whoever intentionally does any of the following acts may
be charged with a felony and, upon conviction, may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 6:
(1) conceals a minor child from the child's parent where the action manifests an intent
substantially to deprive that parent of parental rights or conceals a minor child from another
person having the right to parenting time or custody where the action manifests an intent to
substantially deprive that person of rights to parenting time or custody;
(2) takes, obtains, retains, or fails to return a minor child in violation of a court order which
has transferred legal custody under chapter 260, 260B, or 260C to the commissioner of human
services, a child-placing agency, or the local social services agency;
(3) takes, obtains, retains, or fails to return a minor child from or to the parent in violation of
a court order, where the action manifests an intent substantially to deprive that parent of rights to
parenting time or custody;
(4) takes, obtains, retains, or fails to return a minor child from or to a parent after
commencement of an action relating to child parenting time or custody but prior to the issuance
of an order determining custody or parenting time rights, where the action manifests an intent
substantially to deprive that parent of parental rights;
(5) retains a child in this state with the knowledge that the child was removed from another
state in violation of any of the above provisions;
(6) refuses to return a minor child to a parent or lawful custodian and is at least 18 years old
and more than 24 months older than the child;
(7) causes or contributes to a child being a habitual truant as defined in section 260C.007,
subdivision 19
, and is at least 18 years old and more than 24 months older than the child;
(8) causes or contributes to a child being a runaway as defined in section 260C.007,
subdivision 28
, and is at least 18 years old and more than 24 months older than the child; or
(9) is at least 18 years old and resides with a minor under the age of 16 without the consent
of the minor's parent or lawful custodian.
    Subd. 2. Defenses. It is an affirmative defense if a person charged under subdivision 1
proves that:
(1) the person reasonably believed the action taken was necessary to protect the child from
physical or sexual assault or substantial emotional harm;
(2) the person reasonably believed the action taken was necessary to protect the person
taking the action from physical or sexual assault;
(3) the action taken is consented to by the parent, stepparent, or legal custodian seeking
prosecution, but consent to custody or specific parenting time is not consent to the action of
failing to return or concealing a minor child; or
(4) the action taken is otherwise authorized by a court order issued prior to the violation of
subdivision 1.
The defenses provided in this subdivision are in addition to and do not limit other defenses
available under this chapter or chapter 611.
    Subd. 2a. Original intent clarified. To the extent that it states that subdivision 2 creates
affirmative defenses to a charge under this section, subdivision 2 clarifies the original intent of the
legislature in enacting Laws 1984, chapter 484, section 2, and does not change the substance of
this section. Subdivision 2 does not modify or alter any convictions entered under this section
before August 1, 1988.
    Subd. 3. Venue. A person who violates this section may be prosecuted and tried either
in the county in which the child was taken, concealed, or detained or in the county of lawful
residence of the child.
    Subd. 4. Return of child; costs. A child who has been concealed, obtained, or retained in
violation of this section shall be returned to the person having lawful custody of the child or shall
be taken into custody pursuant to section 260C.175, subdivision 1, paragraph (b), clause (2). In
addition to any sentence imposed, the court may assess any expense incurred in returning the
child against any person convicted of violating this section. The court may direct the appropriate
county welfare agency to provide counseling services to a child who has been returned pursuant
to this subdivision.
    Subd. 5. Dismissal of charge. A felony charge brought under this section shall be dismissed
if:
(a) the person voluntarily returns the child within 48 hours after taking, detaining, or failing
to return the child in violation of this section; or
(b)(1) the person taking the action and the child have not left the state of Minnesota; and (2)
within a period of seven days after taking the action, (i) a motion or proceeding under chapter
518, 518A, 518B, 518C, or 518D is commenced by the person taking the action, or (ii) the
attorney representing the person taking the action has consented to service of process by the
party whose rights are being deprived, for any motion or action pursuant to chapter 518, 518A,
518B, 518C, or 518D.
Clause (a) does not apply if the person returns the child as a result of being located by
law enforcement authorities.
This subdivision does not prohibit the filing of felony charges or an offense report before the
expiration of the 48 hours.
    Subd. 6. Penalty. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) and subdivision 5,
whoever violates this section may be sentenced as follows:
(1) to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$4,000, or both; or
(2) to imprisonment for not more than four years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$8,000, or both, if the court finds that:
(i) the defendant committed the violation while possessing a dangerous weapon or caused
substantial bodily harm to effect the taking;
(ii) the defendant abused or neglected the child during the concealment, detention, or
removal of the child;
(iii) the defendant inflicted or threatened to inflict physical harm on a parent or lawful
custodian of the child or on the child with intent to cause the parent or lawful custodian to
discontinue criminal prosecution;
(iv) the defendant demanded payment in exchange for return of the child or demanded
to be relieved of the financial or legal obligation to support the child in exchange for return
of the child; or
(v) the defendant has previously been convicted under this section or a similar statute of
another jurisdiction.
(b) A violation of subdivision 1, clause (7), is a gross misdemeanor. The county attorney
shall prosecute violations of subdivision 1, clause (7).
    Subd. 7. Reporting of deprivation of parental rights. Any violation of this section shall be
reported pursuant to section 626.556, subdivision 3a.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.26; 1967 c 570 s 1; 1979 c 263 s 1; 1984 c 484 s 2; 1984 c
654 art 5 s 58; 1985 c 227 s 1,2; 1986 c 444; 1986 c 445 s 1,2; 1986 c 463 s 4,5; 1987 c 246 s
1-3; 1988 c 523 s 1; 1989 c 290 art 7 s 3,4; 1991 c 285 s 10; 1994 c 631 s 31; 1994 c 636 art 2 s
25,26; 1999 c 86 art 1 s 78; 1999 c 139 art 4 s 2; 2000 c 444 art 2 s 45,46; 2001 c 178 art 1 s
44; 2002 c 379 art 1 s 105; 2005 c 164 s 29; 1Sp2005 c 7 s 28
609.265 ABDUCTION.
Whoever, for the purpose of marriage, takes a person under the age of 18 years, without the
consent of the parents, guardian or other person having legal custody of such person is guilty of
abduction and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a
fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.265; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11

CRIMES AGAINST UNBORN CHILDREN

609.266 DEFINITIONS.
The definitions in this subdivision apply to sections 609.21, subdivisions 3 and 4, and
609.2661 to 609.2691:
(a) "Unborn child" means the unborn offspring of a human being conceived, but not yet born.
(b) "Whoever" does not include the pregnant woman.
History: 1986 c 388 s 5
609.2661 MURDER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
Whoever does any of the following is guilty of murder of an unborn child in the first degree
and must be sentenced to imprisonment for life:
(1) causes the death of an unborn child with premeditation and with intent to effect the death
of the unborn child or of another;
(2) causes the death of an unborn child while committing or attempting to commit criminal
sexual conduct in the first or second degree with force or violence, either upon or affecting
the mother of the unborn child or another; or
(3) causes the death of an unborn child with intent to effect the death of the unborn child or
another while committing or attempting to commit burglary, aggravated robbery, kidnapping,
arson in the first or second degree, tampering with a witness in the first degree, or escape from
custody.
History: 1986 c 388 s 6
609.2662 MURDER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
Whoever does either of the following is guilty of murder of an unborn child in the second
degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 40 years:
(1) causes the death of an unborn child with intent to effect the death of that unborn child or
another, but without premeditation; or
(2) causes the death of an unborn child, without intent to effect the death of any unborn child
or person, while committing or attempting to commit a felony offense other than criminal sexual
conduct in the first or second degree with force or violence.
History: 1986 c 388 s 7
609.2663 MURDER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
Whoever, without intent to effect the death of any unborn child or person, causes the death of
an unborn child by perpetrating an act eminently dangerous to others and evincing a depraved
mind, without regard for human or fetal life, is guilty of murder of an unborn child in the third
degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 25 years.
History: 1986 c 388 s 8
609.2664 MANSLAUGHTER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
Whoever does any of the following is guilty of manslaughter of an unborn child in the first
degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 15 years or to payment of a fine
of not more than $30,000, or both:
(1) intentionally causes the death of an unborn child in the heat of passion provoked by
such words or acts of another as would provoke a person of ordinary self-control under like
circumstances;
(2) causes the death of an unborn child in committing or attempting to commit a misdemeanor
or gross misdemeanor offense with such force or violence that death of or great bodily harm to
any person or unborn child was reasonably foreseeable, and murder of an unborn child in the first
or second degree was not committed thereby; or
(3) intentionally causes the death of an unborn child because the actor is coerced by threats
made by someone other than the actor's coconspirator and which cause the actor to reasonably
believe that the act performed by the actor is the only means of preventing imminent death to
the actor or another.
History: 1986 c 388 s 9; 1986 c 444
609.2665 MANSLAUGHTER OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
A person who causes the death of an unborn child by any of the following means is guilty of
manslaughter of an unborn child in the second degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both:
(1) by the actor's culpable negligence whereby the actor creates an unreasonable risk and
consciously takes chances of causing death or great bodily harm to an unborn child or a person;
(2) by shooting the mother of the unborn child with a firearm or other dangerous weapon as a
result of negligently believing her to be a deer or other animal;
(3) by setting a spring gun, pit fall, deadfall, snare, or other like dangerous weapon or
device; or
(4) by negligently or intentionally permitting any animal, known by the person to have
vicious propensities or to have caused great or substantial bodily harm in the past, to run
uncontrolled off the owner's premises, or negligently failing to keep it properly confined.
If proven by a preponderance of the evidence, it shall be an affirmative defense to criminal
liability under clause (4) that the mother of the unborn child provoked the animal to cause the
unborn child's death.
History: 1986 c 388 s 10; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 13
609.267 ASSAULT OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
Whoever assaults a pregnant woman and inflicts great bodily harm on an unborn child who
is subsequently born alive may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 15 years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $30,000, or both.
History: 1986 c 388 s 11; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 14
609.2671 ASSAULT OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
Whoever assaults a pregnant woman and inflicts substantial bodily harm on an unborn child
who is subsequently born alive may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or
to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
As used in this section, "substantial bodily harm" includes the birth of the unborn child prior
to 37 weeks gestation if the child weighs 2,500 grams or less at the time of birth. "Substantial
bodily harm" does not include the inducement of the unborn child's birth when done for bona
fide medical purposes.
History: 1986 c 388 s 12; 1989 c 20 s 1
609.2672 ASSAULT OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
Whoever does any of the following commits an assault of an unborn child in the third
degree and is guilty of a misdemeanor:
(1) commits an act with intent to cause fear in a pregnant woman of immediate bodily
harm or death to the unborn child; or
(2) intentionally inflicts or attempts to inflict bodily harm on an unborn child who is
subsequently born alive.
History: 1986 c 388 s 13
609.268 INJURY OR DEATH OF AN UNBORN CHILD IN COMMISSION OF CRIME.
    Subdivision 1. Death of an unborn child. Whoever, in the commission of a felony or
in a violation of section 609.224, 609.2242, 609.23, 609.231, 609.2325, or 609.233, causes
the death of an unborn child is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than 15 years or to payment of a fine not more than $30,000, or both. As used in this
subdivision, "felony" does not include a violation of sections 609.185 to 609.21, 609.221 to
609.2231, or 609.2661 to 609.2665.
    Subd. 2. Injury to an unborn child. Whoever, in the commission of a felony or in a
violation of section 609.23, 609.231, 609.2325 or 609.233, causes great or substantial bodily harm
to an unborn child who is subsequently born alive, is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced
to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000,
or both. As used in this subdivision, "felony" does not include a violation of sections 609.21,
609.221 to 609.2231, or 609.267 to 609.2672.
History: 1986 c 388 s 14; 1995 c 229 art 4 s 17,18; 1995 c 259 art 3 s 16
609.269 EXCEPTION.
Sections 609.2661 to 609.268 do not apply to any act described in section 145.412.
History: 1986 c 388 s 15
609.2691 OTHER CONVICTIONS NOT BARRED.
Notwithstanding section 609.04, a prosecution for or conviction under sections 609.2661
to 609.268 is not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed by the
defendant as part of the same conduct.
History: 1986 c 388 s 16

CRIMES OF COMPULSION

609.27 COERCION.
    Subdivision 1. Acts constituting. Whoever orally or in writing makes any of the following
threats and thereby causes another against the other's will to do any act or forbear doing a lawful
act is guilty of coercion and may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 2:
(1) a threat to unlawfully inflict bodily harm upon, or hold in confinement, the person
threatened or another, when robbery or attempt to rob is not committed thereby; or
(2) a threat to unlawfully inflict damage to the property of the person threatened or another; or
(3) a threat to unlawfully injure a trade, business, profession, or calling; or
(4) a threat to expose a secret or deformity, publish a defamatory statement, or otherwise to
expose any person to disgrace or ridicule; or
(5) a threat to make or cause to be made a criminal charge, whether true or false; provided,
that a warning of the consequences of a future violation of law given in good faith by a peace
officer or prosecuting attorney to any person shall not be deemed a threat for the purposes
of this section.
    Subd. 2. Sentence. Whoever violates subdivision 1 may be sentenced as follows:
(1) to imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than
$1,000, or both if neither the pecuniary gain received by the violator nor the loss suffered by the
person threatened or another as a result of the threat exceeds $300, or the benefits received or
harm sustained are not susceptible of pecuniary measurement; or
(2) to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$10,000, or both, if such pecuniary gain or loss is more than $300 but less than $2,500; or
(3) to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$20,000, or both, if such pecuniary gain or loss is $2,500, or more.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.27; 1971 c 23 s 40; 1977 c 355 s 7; 1983 c 359 s 87; 1984 c
628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.275 ATTEMPT TO COERCE.
Whoever makes a threat within the meaning of section 609.27, subdivision 1, clauses (1)
to (5), but fails to cause the intended act or forbearance, commits an attempt to coerce and may
be punished as provided in section 609.17.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.275
609.28 INTERFERING WITH RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCE.
    Subdivision 1. Interference. Whoever, by threats or violence, intentionally prevents another
person from performing any lawful act enjoined upon or recommended to the person by the
religion which the person professes is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 2. Physical interference prohibited. A person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor
who intentionally and physically obstructs any individual's access to or egress from a religious
establishment. This subdivision does not apply to the exclusion of a person from the establishment
at the request of an official of the religious organization.
    Subd. 3. Definition. For purposes of subdivision 2, a "religious establishment" is a building
used for worship services by a religious organization and clearly identified as such by a posted
sign or other means.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.28; 1971 c 23 s 41; 1986 c 444; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 27

SEXUAL AND LABOR TRAFFICKING CRIMES

609.281 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Generally. As used in sections 609.281 to 609.284, the following terms
have the meanings given.
    Subd. 2. Blackmail. "Blackmail" means a threat to expose any fact or alleged fact tending to
cause shame or to subject any person to hatred, contempt, or ridicule.
    Subd. 3. Debt bondage. "Debt bondage" means the status or condition of a debtor arising
from a pledge by the debtor of the debtor's personal services or those of a person under the
debtor's control as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is
not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are
not respectively limited and defined.
    Subd. 4. Forced labor or services. "Forced labor or services" means labor or services that
are performed or provided by another person and are obtained or maintained through an actor's:
(1) threat, either implicit or explicit, scheme, plan, or pattern, or other action intended to
cause a person to believe that, if the person did not perform or provide the labor or services, that
person or another person would suffer bodily harm or physical restraint;
(2) physically restraining or threatening to physically restrain a person;
(3) abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process;
(4) knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing any actual or
purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government
identification document, of another person; or
(5) use of blackmail.
    Subd. 5. Labor trafficking. "Labor trafficking" means the recruitment, transportation,
transfer, harboring, enticement, provision, obtaining, or receipt of a person by any means, whether
a United States citizen or foreign national, for the purpose of:
(1) debt bondage or forced labor or services;
(2) slavery or practices similar to slavery; or
(3) the removal of organs through the use of coercion or intimidation.
    Subd. 6. Labor trafficking victim. "Labor trafficking victim" means a person subjected to
the practices in subdivision 5.
History: 2005 c 136 art 17 s 15
609.282 LABOR TRAFFICKING.
    Subdivision 1. Individuals under age 18. Whoever knowingly engages in the labor
trafficking of an individual who is under the age of 18 is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $40,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Other offenses. Whoever knowingly engages in the labor trafficking of another is
guilty of a crime and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 15 years or to payment
of a fine of not more than $30,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Consent or age of victim not a defense. In a prosecution under this section the
consent or age of the victim is not a defense.
History: 2005 c 136 art 17 s 16; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 20
609.283 UNLAWFUL CONDUCT WITH RESPECT TO DOCUMENTS IN
FURTHERANCE OF LABOR OR SEX TRAFFICKING.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined. Unless the person's conduct constitutes a violation of section
609.282, a person who knowingly destroys, conceals, removes, confiscates, or possesses any
actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported
government identification document, of another person:
(1) in the course of a violation of section 609.282 or 609.322;
(2) with intent to violate section 609.282 or 609.322; or
(3) to prevent or restrict or to attempt to prevent or restrict, without lawful authority, a
person's liberty to move or travel, in order to maintain the labor or services of that person, when
the person is or has been a victim of a violation of section 609.282 or 609.322;
is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 2.
    Subd. 2. Penalties. A person who violates subdivision 1 may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the crime involves a victim under the age of 18, to imprisonment for not more than ten
years or to payment of a fine of $20,000, or both; or
(2) in other cases, to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine
of not more than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Consent or age of victim not a defense. In a prosecution under this section the
consent or age of the victim is not a defense.
History: 2005 c 136 art 17 s 17; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 21
609.284 LABOR OR SEX TRAFFICKING CRIMES; DEFENSES; CIVIL LIABILITY;
CORPORATE LIABILITY.
    Subdivision 1. Consent or age of victim not a defense. In an action under this section the
consent or age of the victim is not a defense.
    Subd. 2. Civil liability. A labor trafficking victim may bring a cause of action against a
person who violates section 609.282 or 609.283. The court may award damages, including
punitive damages, reasonable attorney fees, and other litigation costs reasonably incurred by the
victim. This remedy is in addition to potential criminal liability.
    Subd. 3. Corporate liability. If a corporation or other business enterprise is convicted of
violating section 609.282, 609.283, or 609.322, in addition to the criminal penalties described in
those sections and other remedies provided elsewhere in law, the court may, when appropriate:
(1) order its dissolution or reorganization;
(2) order the suspension or revocation of any license, permit, or prior approval granted
to it by a state agency; or
(3) order the surrender of its charter if it is organized under Minnesota law or the revocation
of its certificate to conduct business in Minnesota if it is not organized under Minnesota law.
History: 2005 c 136 art 17 s 18

SEX CRIMES

609.29 [Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13]
609.291 [Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13]
609.292 [Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13]
609.293 SODOMY.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. "Sodomy" means carnally knowing any person by the anus or
by or with the mouth.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1977 c 130 s 10]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1977 c 130 s 10]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1977 c 130 s 10]
    Subd. 5. Consensual acts. Whoever, in cases not coming within the provisions of sections
609.342 or 609.344, voluntarily engages in or submits to an act of sodomy with another may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more
than $3,000, or both.
History: 1967 c 507 s 4; 1977 c 130 s 4; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.294 BESTIALITY.
Whoever carnally knows a dead body or an animal or bird is guilty of bestiality, which is
a misdemeanor. If knowingly done in the presence of another the person may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000 or both.
History: 1967 c 507 s 5; 1971 c 23 s 42; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.295 [Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13]
609.296 [Repealed, 1975 c 374 s 13]
609.31 LEAVING THE STATE TO EVADE ESTABLISHMENT OF PATERNITY.
Whoever with intent to evade proceedings to establish his paternity leaves the state knowing
that a woman with whom he has had sexual intercourse is pregnant or has given birth within the
previous 60 days to a living child may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than two years
or to payment of a fine of not more than $4,000, or both.
History: 1967 c 507 s 8; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.32 [Repealed, 1979 c 255 s 9]
609.321 PROSTITUTION; DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. For the purposes of sections 609.321 to 609.325, the following terms
have the meanings given.
    Subd. 2. Business of prostitution. "Business of prostitution" means any arrangement
between or organization of two or more persons, acting other than as prostitutes or patrons, who
commit acts punishable under sections 609.321 to 609.324.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 2 s 33]
    Subd. 4. Patron. "Patron" means an individual who hires or offers or agrees to hire another
individual to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.
    Subd. 5. Place of prostitution. "Place of prostitution" means a house or other place where
prostitution is practiced.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 2 s 33]
    Subd. 7. Promotes the prostitution of an individual. "Promotes the prostitution of an
individual" means any of the following wherein the person knowingly:
(1) solicits or procures patrons for a prostitute; or
(2) provides, leases or otherwise permits premises or facilities owned or controlled by the
person to aid the prostitution of an individual; or
(3) owns, manages, supervises, controls, keeps or operates, either alone or with others, a
place of prostitution to aid the prostitution of an individual; or
(4) owns, manages, supervises, controls, operates, institutes, aids or facilitates, either alone
or with others, a business of prostitution to aid the prostitution of an individual; or
(5) admits a patron to a place of prostitution to aid the prostitution of an individual;
(6) transports an individual from one point within this state to another point either within or
without this state, or brings an individual into this state to aid the prostitution of the individual; or
(7) engages in the sex trafficking of an individual.
    Subd. 7a. Sex trafficking. "Sex trafficking" means receiving, recruiting, enticing, harboring,
providing, or obtaining by any means an individual to aid in the prostitution of the individual.
    Subd. 7b. Sex trafficking victim. "Sex trafficking victim" means a person subjected to the
practices in subdivision 7a.
    Subd. 8. Prostitute. "Prostitute" means an individual who engages in prostitution.
    Subd. 9. Prostitution. "Prostitution" means engaging or offering or agreeing to engage for
hire in sexual penetration or sexual contact.
    Subd. 10. Sexual contact. "Sexual contact" means any of the following acts, if the acts can
reasonably be construed as being for the purpose of satisfying the actor's sexual impulses:
(i) the intentional touching by an individual of a prostitute's intimate parts; or
(ii) the intentional touching by a prostitute of another individual's intimate parts.
    Subd. 11. Sexual penetration. "Sexual penetration" means any of the following acts, if
for the purpose of satisfying sexual impulses: sexual intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, anal
intercourse, or any intrusion however slight into the genital or anal openings of an individual's
body by any part of another individual's body or any object used for the purpose of satisfying
sexual impulses. Emission of semen is not necessary.
    Subd. 12. Public place. A "public place" means a public street or sidewalk, a pedestrian
skyway system as defined in section 469.125, subdivision 4, a hotel, motel, or other place of
public accommodation, a place licensed to sell intoxicating liquor, wine, nonintoxicating malt
beverages, or food, or a motor vehicle located on a public street, alley, or parking lot ordinarily
used by or available to the public though not used as a matter of right and a driveway connecting
such a parking lot with a street or highway.
History: 1979 c 255 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 291 s 242; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 19-23
609.322 SOLICITATION, INDUCEMENT, AND PROMOTION OF PROSTITUTION.
    Subdivision 1. Individuals under age 18. Whoever, while acting other than as a prostitute or
patron, intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $40,000, or both:
(1) solicits or induces an individual under the age of 18 years to practice prostitution;
(2) promotes the prostitution of an individual under the age of 18 years; or
(3) receives profit, knowing or having reason to know that it is derived from the prostitution,
or the promotion of the prostitution, of an individual under the age of 18 years.
    Subd. 1a. Other offenses. Whoever, while acting other than as a prostitute or patron,
intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 15
years or to payment of a fine of not more than $30,000, or both:
(1) solicits or induces an individual to practice prostitution; or
(2) promotes the prostitution of an individual; or
(3) receives profit, knowing or having reason to know that it is derived from the prostitution,
or the promotion of the prostitution, of an individual.
    Subd. 1b. Exceptions. Subdivisions 1, clause (3), and 1a, clause (3), do not apply to:
(1) a minor who is dependent on an individual acting as a prostitute and who may have
benefited from or been supported by the individual's earnings derived from prostitution; or
(2) a parent over the age of 55 who is dependent on an individual acting as a prostitute, who
may have benefited from or been supported by the individual's earnings derived from prostitution,
and who did not know that the earnings were derived from prostitution; or
(3) the sale of goods or services to a prostitute in the ordinary course of a lawful business.
    Subd. 1c. Aggregation of cases. Acts by the defendant in violation of any one or more of
the provisions in this section within any six-month period may be aggregated and the defendant
charged accordingly in applying the provisions of this section; provided that when two or more
offenses are committed by the same person in two or more counties, the accused may be
prosecuted in any county in which one of the offenses was committed for all of the offenses
aggregated under this paragraph.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 2 s 33]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 2 s 33]
History: 1979 c 255 s 2; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 448 s 2; 1992 c 571 art 4 s 9; 1998 c
367 art 2 s 12-14; 2000 c 431 s 2; 1Sp2003 c 2 art 10 s 1
609.323 [Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 2 s 33]
609.3232 PROTECTIVE ORDER AUTHORIZED; PROCEDURES; PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Order for protection. Any parent or guardian who knows or has reason to
believe that a person, while acting as other than a prostitute or patron, is inducing, coercing,
soliciting, or promoting the prostitution of the parent or guardian's minor child, or is offering or
providing food, shelter, or other subsistence for the purpose of enabling the parent or guardian's
minor child to engage in prostitution, may seek an order for protection in the manner provided
in this section.
    Subd. 2. Court jurisdiction. An application for relief under this section shall be filed in the
juvenile court. Actions under this section shall be given docket priority by the court.
    Subd. 3. Contents of petition. A petition for relief shall allege the existence of a
circumstance or circumstances described in subdivision 1, and shall be accompanied by an
affidavit made under oath stating the specific facts and circumstances from which relief is sought.
The court shall provide simplified forms and clerical assistance to help with the writing and
filing of a petition under this section.
    Subd. 4. Hearing on application; notice. (a) Upon receipt of the petition, the court shall
order a hearing which shall be held no later than 14 days from the date of the order. Personal
service shall be made upon the respondent not less than five days before the hearing. In the event
that personal service cannot be completed in time to give the respondent the minimum notice
required under this paragraph, the court may set a new hearing date.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a), service may be made by one week
published notice, as provided under section 645.11, provided the petitioner files with the court an
affidavit stating that an attempt at personal service made by a sheriff was unsuccessful because
the respondent is avoiding service by concealment or otherwise, and that a copy of the petition
and notice of hearing has been mailed to the respondent at the respondent's residence or that the
residence is not known to the petitioner. Service under this paragraph is complete seven days
after publication. The court shall set a new hearing date if necessary to allow the respondent the
five-day minimum notice required under paragraph (a).
    Subd. 5. Relief by the court. Upon notice and hearing, the court may order the respondent to
return the minor child to the residence of the child's parents or guardian, and may order that the
respondent cease and desist from committing further acts described in subdivision 1 and cease
to have further contact with the minor child. Any relief granted by the court in the order for
protection shall be for a fixed period of time determined by the court.
    Subd. 6. Service of order. Any order issued under this section shall be served personally on
the respondent. Upon the request of the petitioner, the court shall order the sheriff to assist in the
execution or service of the order for protection.
    Subd. 7. Violation of order for protection. (a) A violation of an order for protection shall
constitute contempt of court and be subject to the penalties provided under chapter 588.
(b) Any person who willfully fails to return a minor child as required by an order for
protection issued under this section commits an act which manifests an intent substantially to
deprive the parent or guardian of custodial rights within the meaning of section 609.26, clause (3).
History: 1986 c 448 s 4
609.324 OTHER PROSTITUTION CRIMES; PATRONS, PROSTITUTES, AND
INDIVIDUALS HOUSING INDIVIDUALS ENGAGED IN PROSTITUTION;
PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Engaging in, hiring, or agreeing to hire a minor to engage in prostitution;
penalties. (a) Whoever intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $40,000, or both:
(1) engages in prostitution with an individual under the age of 13 years; or
(2) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual under the age of 13 years to engage in
sexual penetration or sexual contact.
(b) Whoever intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both:
(1) engages in prostitution with an individual under the age of 16 years but at least 13 years; or
(2) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual under the age of 16 years but at least 13
years to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.
(c) Whoever intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both:
(1) engages in prostitution with an individual under the age of 18 years but at least 16 years; or
(2) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual under the age of 18 years but at least 16
years to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.
    Subd. 1a. Housing an unrelated minor engaged in prostitution; penalties. Any person,
other than one related by blood, adoption, or marriage to the minor, who permits a minor to reside,
temporarily or permanently, in the person's dwelling without the consent of the minor's parents
or guardian, knowing or having reason to know that the minor is engaging in prostitution may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more
than $3,000, or both; except that, this subdivision does not apply to residential placements made,
sanctioned, or supervised by a public or private social service agency.
    Subd. 2. Solicitation or acceptance of solicitation to engage in prostitution; penalty.
Whoever solicits or accepts a solicitation to engage for hire in sexual penetration or sexual contact
while in a public place may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000 or both. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision
4, a person who is convicted of violating this subdivision while acting as a patron must, at a
minimum, be sentenced to pay a fine of at least $1,500.
    Subd. 3. Engaging in, hiring, or agreeing to hire an adult to engage in prostitution;
penalties. Whoever intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000, or both:
(1) engages in prostitution with an individual 18 years of age or above; or
(2) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual 18 years of age or above to engage in sexual
penetration or sexual contact. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 4, a person who is
convicted of violating clause (1) or (2) while acting as a patron must, at a minimum, be sentenced
to pay a fine of at least $500.
Whoever violates the provisions of this subdivision within two years of a previous conviction
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more
than $3,000, or both. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 4, a person who is convicted of
a gross misdemeanor violation of this subdivision while acting as a patron, must, at a minimum,
be sentenced as follows:
(1) to pay a fine of at least $1,500; and
(2) to serve 20 hours of community work service.
The court may waive the mandatory community work service if it makes specific, written
findings that the community work service is not feasible or appropriate under the circumstances
of the case.
    Subd. 4. Community service in lieu of minimum fine. The court may order a person
convicted of violating subdivision 2 or 3 to perform community work service in lieu of all or
a portion of the minimum fine required under those subdivisions if the court makes specific,
written findings that the convicted person is indigent or that payment of the fine would create
undue hardship for the convicted person or that person's immediate family. Community work
service ordered under this subdivision is in addition to any mandatory community work service
ordered under subdivision 3.
    Subd. 5. Use of motor vehicle to patronize prostitutes; driving record notation. When a
court sentences a person convicted of violating this section while acting as a patron, the court
shall determine whether the person used a motor vehicle during the commission of the offense.
If the court finds that the person used a motor vehicle during the commission of the offense, it
shall forward its finding to the commissioner of public safety who shall record the finding on the
person's driving record. The finding is classified as private data on individuals, as defined in
section 13.02, subdivision 12.
History: 1979 c 255 s 4; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 448 s 5,6; 1990 c 463 s 1-4; 1Sp2003
c 2 art 10 s 5; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.3241 PENALTY ASSESSMENT AUTHORIZED.
When a court sentences an adult convicted of violating section 609.322 or 609.324, while
acting other than as a prostitute, the court shall impose an assessment of not less than $250 and
not more than $500 for a violation of section 609.324, subdivision 2, or a misdemeanor violation
of section 609.324, subdivision 3; otherwise the court shall impose an assessment of not less than
$500 and not more than $1,000. The mandatory minimum portion of the assessment is to be used
for the purposes described in section 626.558, subdivision 2a, and is in addition to the surcharge
required by section 357.021, subdivision 6. Any portion of the assessment imposed in excess of
the mandatory minimum amount shall be forwarded to the general fund and is appropriated
annually to the commissioner of public safety. The commissioner, with the assistance of the
General Crime Victims Advisory Council, shall use money received under this section for grants
to agencies that provide assistance to individuals who have stopped or wish to stop engaging in
prostitution. Grant money may be used to provide these individuals with medical care, child care,
temporary housing, and educational expenses.
History: 1986 c 448 s 7; 1990 c 463 s 5; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 28; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 32;
art 8 s 11; 1Sp2003 c 2 art 10 s 2
609.3242 PROSTITUTION CRIMES COMMITTED IN SCHOOL OR PARK ZONES;
INCREASED PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. As used in this section:
(1) "park zone" has the meaning given in section 152.01, subdivision 12a; and
(2) "school zone" has the meaning given in section 152.01, subdivision 14a, and also
includes school bus stops established by a school board under section 123B.88, while school
children are waiting for the bus.
    Subd. 2. Increased penalties. Any person who commits a violation of section 609.324 while
acting other than as a prostitute while in a school or park zone may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the crime committed is a felony, the statutory maximum for the crime is three years
longer than the statutory maximum for the underlying crime;
(2) if the crime committed is a gross misdemeanor, the person is guilty of a felony and may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $4,000, or both; and
(3) if the crime committed is a misdemeanor, the person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
History: 1998 c 367 art 2 s 15; 1998 c 397 art 11 s 3
609.3243 LOITERING WITH INTENT TO PARTICIPATE IN PROSTITUTION.
A person who loiters in a public place with intent to participate in prostitution is guilty of
a misdemeanor.
History: 2005 c 136 art 17 s 24
609.325 DEFENSES.
    Subdivision 1. No defense; solicited; not engaged. It shall be no defense to a prosecution
under section 609.322 that an individual solicited or induced to practice prostitution or whose
prostitution was promoted, did not actually engage in prostitution.
    Subd. 2. Consent no defense. Consent or mistake as to age shall be no defense to
prosecutions under section 609.322 or 609.324.
    Subd. 3. No defense; prior prostitution. It shall be no defense to actions under section
609.322 that the individual solicited or induced to practice prostitution, or whose prostitution was
promoted, had engaged in prostitution prior to that solicitation, inducement, or promotion.
    Subd. 4. Affirmative defense. It is an affirmative defense to a charge under section 609.324
if the defendant proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the defendant is a labor trafficking
victim, as defined in section 609.281, or a sex trafficking victim, as defined in section 609.321,
and that the defendant committed the act only under compulsion by another who by explicit
or implicit threats created a reasonable apprehension in the mind of the defendant that if the
defendant did not commit the act, the person would inflict bodily harm upon the defendant.
History: 1979 c 255 s 5; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 29; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 32; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 25
609.326 EVIDENCE.
The marital privilege provided for in section 595.02 shall not apply in any proceeding
under section 609.322.
History: 1979 c 255 s 6; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 32
609.33 DISORDERLY HOUSE.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. For the purpose of this section, "disorderly house" means a
building, dwelling, place, establishment, or premises in which actions or conduct habitually
occur in violation of laws relating to:
(1) the sale of intoxicating liquor or 3.2 percent malt liquor;
(2) gambling;
(3) prostitution as defined in section 609.321, subdivision 9, or acts relating to prostitution; or
(4) the sale or possession of controlled substances as defined in section 152.01, subdivision 4.
    Subd. 2. Prohibiting owning or operating a disorderly house. No person may own, lease,
operate, manage, maintain, or conduct a disorderly house, or invite or attempt to invite others to
visit or remain in the disorderly house. A violation of this subdivision is a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3. Mandatory minimum penalties. (a) If a person is convicted of a first violation of
subdivision 2, in addition to any sentence of imprisonment authorized by subdivision 2 which the
court may impose, the court shall impose a fine of not less than $300 nor more than $3,000.
(b) If a person is convicted of a second violation of subdivision 2, in addition to any sentence
of imprisonment authorized by subdivision 2 which the court may impose, the court shall impose
a fine of not less than $500 nor more than $3,000.
(c) If a person is convicted of a third or subsequent violation of subdivision 2, in addition to
any sentence of imprisonment authorized by subdivision 2 which the court may impose, the court
shall impose a fine of not less than $1,000 nor more than $3,000.
    Subd. 4. Evidence. Evidence of unlawful sales of intoxicating liquor or 3.2 percent malt
liquor, of unlawful possession or sale of controlled substances, of prostitution or acts relating to
prostitution, or of gambling or acts relating to gambling, is prima facie evidence of the existence
of a disorderly house. Evidence of sales of intoxicating liquor or 3.2 percent malt liquor between
the hours of 1:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m., while a person is within a disorderly house, is prima facie
evidence that the person knew it to be a disorderly house.
    Subd. 5. Local regulation. Subdivisions 1 to 4 do not prohibit or restrict a local
governmental unit from imposing more restrictive provisions.
    Subd. 6. Pretrial release. When a person is charged under this section with owning or
leasing a disorderly house, the court may require as a condition of pretrial release that the
defendant bring an eviction action against a lessee who has violated the covenant not to allow
drugs established by section 504B.171.
History: 1967 c 507 s 10; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 277 s 1; 1989 c 77 s 1; 1991 c 193 s
3; 1991 c 249 s 31; 1999 c 199 art 2 s 33; 2003 c 2 art 2 s 18
609.34 FORNICATION.
When any man and single woman have sexual intercourse with each other, each is guilty of
fornication, which is a misdemeanor.
History: 1967 c 507 s 11; 1971 c 23 s 43
609.341 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. For the purposes of sections 609.341 to 609.351, the terms in this
section have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2. Actor. "Actor" means a person accused of criminal sexual conduct.
    Subd. 3. Force. "Force" means the infliction, attempted infliction, or threatened infliction
by the actor of bodily harm or commission or threat of any other crime by the actor against the
complainant or another, which (a) causes the complainant to reasonably believe that the actor has
the present ability to execute the threat and (b) if the actor does not have a significant relationship
to the complainant, also causes the complainant to submit.
    Subd. 4. Consent. (a) "Consent" means words or overt actions by a person indicating a
freely given present agreement to perform a particular sexual act with the actor. Consent does not
mean the existence of a prior or current social relationship between the actor and the complainant
or that the complainant failed to resist a particular sexual act.
(b) A person who is mentally incapacitated or physically helpless as defined by this section
cannot consent to a sexual act.
(c) Corroboration of the victim's testimony is not required to show lack of consent.
    Subd. 5. Intimate parts. "Intimate parts" includes the primary genital area, groin, inner
thigh, buttocks, or breast of a human being.
    Subd. 6. Mentally impaired. "Mentally impaired" means that a person, as a result of
inadequately developed or impaired intelligence or a substantial psychiatric disorder of thought or
mood, lacks the judgment to give a reasoned consent to sexual contact or to sexual penetration.
    Subd. 7. Mentally incapacitated. "Mentally incapacitated" means that a person under the
influence of alcohol, a narcotic, anesthetic, or any other substance, administered to that person
without the person's agreement, lacks the judgment to give a reasoned consent to sexual contact
or sexual penetration.
    Subd. 8. Personal injury. "Personal injury" means bodily harm as defined in section 609.02,
subdivision 7
, or severe mental anguish or pregnancy.
    Subd. 9. Physically helpless. "Physically helpless" means that a person is (a) asleep or
not conscious, (b) unable to withhold consent or to withdraw consent because of a physical
condition, or (c) unable to communicate nonconsent and the condition is known or reasonably
should have been known to the actor.
    Subd. 10. Position of authority. "Position of authority" includes but is not limited to any
person who is a parent or acting in the place of a parent and charged with any of a parent's rights,
duties or responsibilities to a child, or a person who is charged with any duty or responsibility for
the health, welfare, or supervision of a child, either independently or through another, no matter
how brief, at the time of the act. For the purposes of subdivision 11, "position of authority"
includes a psychotherapist.
    Subd. 11. Sexual contact. (a) "Sexual contact," for the purposes of sections 609.343,
subdivision 1
, clauses (a) to (f), and 609.345, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (e), and (h) to (m),
includes any of the following acts committed without the complainant's consent, except in those
cases where consent is not a defense, and committed with sexual or aggressive intent:
(i) the intentional touching by the actor of the complainant's intimate parts, or
(ii) the touching by the complainant of the actor's, the complainant's, or another's intimate
parts effected by a person in a position of authority, or by coercion, or by inducement if the
complainant is under 13 years of age or mentally impaired, or
(iii) the touching by another of the complainant's intimate parts effected by coercion or by a
person in a position of authority, or
(iv) in any of the cases above, the touching of the clothing covering the immediate area
of the intimate parts.
(b) "Sexual contact," for the purposes of sections 609.343, subdivision 1, clauses (g) and (h),
and 609.345, subdivision 1, clauses (f) and (g), includes any of the following acts committed with
sexual or aggressive intent:
(i) the intentional touching by the actor of the complainant's intimate parts;
(ii) the touching by the complainant of the actor's, the complainant's, or another's intimate
parts;
(iii) the touching by another of the complainant's intimate parts; or
(iv) in any of the cases listed above, touching of the clothing covering the immediate area
of the intimate parts.
(c) "Sexual contact with a person under 13" means the intentional touching of the
complainant's bare genitals or anal opening by the actor's bare genitals or anal opening with
sexual or aggressive intent or the touching by the complainant's bare genitals or anal opening of
the actor's or another's bare genitals or anal opening with sexual or aggressive intent.
    Subd. 12. Sexual penetration. "Sexual penetration" means any of the following acts
committed without the complainant's consent, except in those cases where consent is not a
defense, whether or not emission of semen occurs:
(1) sexual intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, or anal intercourse; or
(2) any intrusion however slight into the genital or anal openings:
(i) of the complainant's body by any part of the actor's body or any object used by the actor
for this purpose;
(ii) of the complainant's body by any part of the body of the complainant, by any part of
the body of another person, or by any object used by the complainant or another person for this
purpose, when effected by a person in a position of authority, or by coercion, or by inducement
if the child is under 13 years of age or mentally impaired; or
(iii) of the body of the actor or another person by any part of the body of the complainant or
by any object used by the complainant for this purpose, when effected by a person in a position
of authority, or by coercion, or by inducement if the child is under 13 years of age or mentally
impaired.
    Subd. 13. Complainant. "Complainant" means a person alleged to have been subjected to
criminal sexual conduct, but need not be the person who signs the complaint.
    Subd. 14. Coercion. "Coercion" means the use by the actor of words or circumstances
that cause the complainant reasonably to fear that the actor will inflict bodily harm upon the
complainant or another, or the use by the actor of confinement, or superior size or strength, against
the complainant that causes the complainant to submit to sexual penetration or contact against the
complainant's will. Proof of coercion does not require proof of a specific act or threat.
    Subd. 15. Significant relationship. "Significant relationship" means a situation in which
the actor is:
(1) the complainant's parent, stepparent, or guardian;
(2) any of the following persons related to the complainant by blood, marriage, or adoption:
brother, sister, stepbrother, stepsister, first cousin, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece, grandparent,
great-grandparent, great-uncle, great-aunt; or
(3) an adult who jointly resides intermittently or regularly in the same dwelling as the
complainant and who is not the complainant's spouse.
    Subd. 16. Patient. "Patient" means a person who seeks or obtains psychotherapeutic services.
    Subd. 17. Psychotherapist. "Psychotherapist" means a person who is or purports to be a
physician, psychologist, nurse, chemical dependency counselor, social worker, marriage and
family therapist, licensed professional counselor, or other mental health service provider; or
any other person, whether or not licensed by the state, who performs or purports to perform
psychotherapy.
    Subd. 18. Psychotherapy. "Psychotherapy" means the professional treatment, assessment, or
counseling of a mental or emotional illness, symptom, or condition.
    Subd. 19. Emotionally dependent. "Emotionally dependent" means that the nature
of the former patient's emotional condition and the nature of the treatment provided by the
psychotherapist are such that the psychotherapist knows or has reason to know that the former
patient is unable to withhold consent to sexual contact or sexual penetration by the psychotherapist.
    Subd. 20. Therapeutic deception. "Therapeutic deception" means a representation by
a psychotherapist that sexual contact or sexual penetration by the psychotherapist is consistent
with or part of the patient's treatment.
    Subd. 21. Special transportation. "Special transportation service" means motor vehicle
transportation provided on a regular basis by a public or private entity or person that is intended
exclusively or primarily to serve individuals who are vulnerable adults or disabled. Special
transportation service includes, but is not limited to, service provided by buses, vans, taxis,
and volunteers driving private automobiles.
    Subd. 22. Predatory crime. "Predatory crime" means a felony violation of section 609.185
(first-degree murder), 609.19 (second-degree murder), 609.195 (third-degree murder), 609.20
(first-degree manslaughter), 609.205 (second-degree manslaughter), 609.221 (first-degree assault),
609.222 (second-degree assault), 609.223 (third-degree assault), 609.24 (simple robbery), 609.245
(aggravated robbery), 609.25 (kidnapping), 609.255 (false imprisonment), 609.498 (tampering
with a witness), 609.561 (first-degree arson), or 609.582, subdivision 1 (first-degree burglary).
History: 1975 c 374 s 2; 1977 c 130 s 8; 1979 c 258 s 9-11; 1981 c 51 s 1; 1982 c 385 s 1;
1982 c 469 s 9; 1984 c 525 s 3; 1984 c 588 s 5,6; 1985 c 24 s 3,4; 1985 c 286 s 14; 1985 c 297
s 1-5; 1986 c 351 s 6,7; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 198 s 1-3; 1987 c 347 art 1 s 22; 1988 c 413 s 1;
1989 c 290 art 4 s 11; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 17-19; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 30-33; 1995 c 226 art 2 s 18;
1998 c 367 art 3 s 5,6; 2001 c 210 s 21; 2002 c 379 art 1 s 106; 2002 c 381 s 1; 2003 c 118 s
22; 2005 c 56 s 1; 2005 c 136 art 2 s 10,11
609.342 CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined. A person who engages in sexual penetration with another
person, or in sexual contact with a person under 13 years of age as defined in section 609.341,
subdivision 11
, paragraph (c), is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the first degree if any of
the following circumstances exists:
(a) the complainant is under 13 years of age and the actor is more than 36 months older
than the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the
complainant is a defense;
(b) the complainant is at least 13 years of age but less than 16 years of age and the
actor is more than 48 months older than the complainant and in a position of authority over
the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the
complainant is a defense;
(c) circumstances existing at the time of the act cause the complainant to have a reasonable
fear of imminent great bodily harm to the complainant or another;
(d) the actor is armed with a dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned in a manner
to lead the complainant to reasonably believe it to be a dangerous weapon and uses or threatens to
use the weapon or article to cause the complainant to submit;
(e) the actor causes personal injury to the complainant, and either of the following
circumstances exist:
(i) the actor uses force or coercion to accomplish sexual penetration; or
(ii) the actor knows or has reason to know that the complainant is mentally impaired,
mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless;
(f) the actor is aided or abetted by one or more accomplices within the meaning of section
609.05, and either of the following circumstances exists:
(i) an accomplice uses force or coercion to cause the complainant to submit; or
(ii) an accomplice is armed with a dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned in a
manner to lead the complainant reasonably to believe it to be a dangerous weapon and uses or
threatens to use the weapon or article to cause the complainant to submit;
(g) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant and the complainant was under
16 years of age at the time of the sexual penetration. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age
nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense; or
(h) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant, the complainant was under 16
years of age at the time of the sexual penetration, and:
(i) the actor or an accomplice used force or coercion to accomplish the penetration;
(ii) the complainant suffered personal injury; or
(iii) the sexual abuse involved multiple acts committed over an extended period of time.
Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is
a defense.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 609.109 or 609.3455, a person
convicted under subdivision 1 may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 30 years or to
a payment of a fine of not more than $40,000, or both.
(b) Unless a longer mandatory minimum sentence is otherwise required by law or the
Sentencing Guidelines provide for a longer presumptive executed sentence, the court shall
presume that an executed sentence of 144 months must be imposed on an offender convicted of
violating this section. Sentencing a person in a manner other than that described in this paragraph
is a departure from the Sentencing Guidelines.
(c) A person convicted under this section is also subject to conditional release under section
609.3455.
    Subd. 3. Stay. Except when imprisonment is required under section 609.109 or 609.3455, if
a person is convicted under subdivision 1, clause (g), the court may stay imposition or execution
of the sentence if it finds that:
(a) a stay is in the best interest of the complainant or the family unit; and
(b) a professional assessment indicates that the offender has been accepted by and can
respond to a treatment program.
If the court stays imposition or execution of sentence, it shall include the following as
conditions of probation:
(1) incarceration in a local jail or workhouse;
(2) a requirement that the offender complete a treatment program; and
(3) a requirement that the offender have no unsupervised contact with the complainant until
the offender has successfully completed the treatment program unless approved by the treatment
program and the supervising correctional agent.
History: 1975 c 374 s 3; 1981 c 51 s 2; 1983 c 204 s 1; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 24 s
5; 1985 c 286 s 15; 1986 c 444; 1989 c 290 art 4 s 12; 1992 c 571 art 1 s 14; 1994 c 636 art
2 s 34; 1995 c 186 s 99; 1998 c 367 art 3 s 7; art 6 s 15; 2000 c 311 art 4 s 2; 2000 c 437 s
10; 2005 c 136 art 2 s 12,13
609.343 CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined. A person who engages in sexual contact with another person
is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the second degree if any of the following circumstances
exists:
(a) the complainant is under 13 years of age and the actor is more than 36 months older
than the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the
complainant is a defense. In a prosecution under this clause, the state is not required to prove
that the sexual contact was coerced;
(b) the complainant is at least 13 but less than 16 years of age and the actor is more than 48
months older than the complainant and in a position of authority over the complainant. Neither
mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense;
(c) circumstances existing at the time of the act cause the complainant to have a reasonable
fear of imminent great bodily harm to the complainant or another;
(d) the actor is armed with a dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned in a manner
to lead the complainant to reasonably believe it to be a dangerous weapon and uses or threatens to
use the dangerous weapon to cause the complainant to submit;
(e) the actor causes personal injury to the complainant, and either of the following
circumstances exist:
(i) the actor uses force or coercion to accomplish the sexual contact; or
(ii) the actor knows or has reason to know that the complainant is mentally impaired,
mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless;
(f) the actor is aided or abetted by one or more accomplices within the meaning of section
609.05, and either of the following circumstances exists:
(i) an accomplice uses force or coercion to cause the complainant to submit; or
(ii) an accomplice is armed with a dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned in a
manner to lead the complainant to reasonably believe it to be a dangerous weapon and uses or
threatens to use the weapon or article to cause the complainant to submit;
(g) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant and the complainant was under
16 years of age at the time of the sexual contact. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor
consent to the act by the complainant is a defense; or
(h) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant, the complainant was under 16
years of age at the time of the sexual contact, and:
(i) the actor or an accomplice used force or coercion to accomplish the contact;
(ii) the complainant suffered personal injury; or
(iii) the sexual abuse involved multiple acts committed over an extended period of time.
Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is
a defense.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 609.109 or 609.3455, a person
convicted under subdivision 1 may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 25 years or to
a payment of a fine of not more than $35,000, or both.
(b) Unless a longer mandatory minimum sentence is otherwise required by law or the
Sentencing Guidelines provide for a longer presumptive executed sentence, the court shall
presume that an executed sentence of 90 months must be imposed on an offender convicted of
violating subdivision 1, clause (c), (d), (e), (f), or (h). Sentencing a person in a manner other than
that described in this paragraph is a departure from the Sentencing Guidelines.
(c) A person convicted under this section is also subject to conditional release under section
609.3455.
    Subd. 3. Stay. Except when imprisonment is required under section 609.109 or 609.3455, if
a person is convicted under subdivision 1, clause (g), the court may stay imposition or execution
of the sentence if it finds that:
(a) a stay is in the best interest of the complainant or the family unit; and
(b) a professional assessment indicates that the offender has been accepted by and can
respond to a treatment program.
If the court stays imposition or execution of sentence, it shall include the following as
conditions of probation:
(1) incarceration in a local jail or workhouse;
(2) a requirement that the offender complete a treatment program; and
(3) a requirement that the offender have no unsupervised contact with the complainant until
the offender has successfully completed the treatment program unless approved by the treatment
program and the supervising correctional agent.
History: 1975 c 374 s 4; 1979 c 258 s 12; 1981 c 51 s 3; 1983 c 204 s 2; 1984 c 628 art 3 s
11; 1985 c 24 s 6; 1985 c 286 s 16; 1986 c 444; 1989 c 290 art 4 s 13; 1992 c 571 art 1 s 15; 1998
c 367 art 3 s 8; art 6 s 15; 2000 c 437 s 11; 2002 c 381 s 2; 2005 c 136 art 2 s 14,15
609.344 CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined. A person who engages in sexual penetration with
another person is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the third degree if any of the following
circumstances exists:
(a) the complainant is under 13 years of age and the actor is no more than 36 months older
than the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by
the complainant shall be a defense;
(b) the complainant is at least 13 but less than 16 years of age and the actor is more than 24
months older than the complainant. In any such case it shall be an affirmative defense, which
must be proved by a preponderance of the evidence, that the actor believes the complainant to be
16 years of age or older. If the actor in such a case is no more than 48 months but more than 24
months older than the complainant, the actor may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than five years. Consent by the complainant is not a defense;
(c) the actor uses force or coercion to accomplish the penetration;
(d) the actor knows or has reason to know that the complainant is mentally impaired,
mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless;
(e) the complainant is at least 16 but less than 18 years of age and the actor is more than 48
months older than the complainant and in a position of authority over the complainant. Neither
mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense;
(f) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant and the complainant was at
least 16 but under 18 years of age at the time of the sexual penetration. Neither mistake as to the
complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense;
(g) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant, the complainant was at least 16
but under 18 years of age at the time of the sexual penetration, and:
(i) the actor or an accomplice used force or coercion to accomplish the penetration;
(ii) the complainant suffered personal injury; or
(iii) the sexual abuse involved multiple acts committed over an extended period of time.
Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is
a defense;
(h) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a patient of the psychotherapist
and the sexual penetration occurred:
(i) during the psychotherapy session; or
(ii) outside the psychotherapy session if an ongoing psychotherapist-patient relationship
exists.
Consent by the complainant is not a defense;
(i) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a former patient of the
psychotherapist and the former patient is emotionally dependent upon the psychotherapist;
(j) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a patient or former patient and the
sexual penetration occurred by means of therapeutic deception. Consent by the complainant is
not a defense;
(k) the actor accomplishes the sexual penetration by means of deception or false
representation that the penetration is for a bona fide medical purpose. Consent by the complainant
is not a defense;
(1) the actor is or purports to be a member of the clergy, the complainant is not married to
the actor, and:
(i) the sexual penetration occurred during the course of a meeting in which the complainant
sought or received religious or spiritual advice, aid, or comfort from the actor in private; or
(ii) the sexual penetration occurred during a period of time in which the complainant was
meeting on an ongoing basis with the actor to seek or receive religious or spiritual advice, aid, or
comfort in private. Consent by the complainant is not a defense;
(m) the actor is an employee, independent contractor, or volunteer of a state, county, city,
or privately operated adult or juvenile correctional system, including, but not limited to, jails,
prisons, detention centers, or work release facilities, and the complainant is a resident of a facility
or under supervision of the correctional system. Consent by the complainant is not a defense; or
(n) the actor provides or is an agent of an entity that provides special transportation service,
the complainant used the special transportation service, and the sexual penetration occurred
during or immediately before or after the actor transported the complainant. Consent by the
complainant is not a defense.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. Except as otherwise provided in section 609.3455, a person convicted
under subdivision 1 may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 15 years or to a payment
of a fine of not more than $30,000, or both. A person convicted under this section is also subject
to conditional release under section 609.3455.
    Subd. 3. Stay. Except when imprisonment is required under section 609.109 or 609.3455, if
a person is convicted under subdivision 1, clause (f), the court may stay imposition or execution
of the sentence if it finds that:
(a) a stay is in the best interest of the complainant or the family unit; and
(b) a professional assessment indicates that the offender has been accepted by and can
respond to a treatment program.
If the court stays imposition or execution of sentence, it shall include the following as
conditions of probation:
(1) incarceration in a local jail or workhouse;
(2) a requirement that the offender complete a treatment program; and
(3) a requirement that the offender have no unsupervised contact with the complainant until
the offender has successfully completed the treatment program unless approved by the treatment
program and the supervising correctional agent.
History: 1975 c 374 s 5; 1979 c 258 s 13; 1983 c 204 s 3; 1984 c 588 s 7; 1984 c 628 art
3 s 11; 1985 c 24 s 7; 1985 c 286 s 17; 1985 c 297 s 6; 1986 c 351 s 8; 1986 c 444; 1Sp1986
c 3 art 1 s 80; 1987 c 94 s 1; 1989 c 290 art 4 s 14; 1992 c 571 art 1 s 16,17; 1993 c 326 art
4 s 20; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 35; 1998 c 367 art 3 s 9; art 6 s 15; 2000 c 437 s 12; 2001 c 210 s
22; 2002 c 381 s 3; 2005 c 136 art 2 s 16,17
609.345 CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE FOURTH DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined. A person who engages in sexual contact with another person
is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the fourth degree if any of the following circumstances
exists:
(a) the complainant is under 13 years of age and the actor is no more than 36 months older
than the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age or consent to the act by the
complainant is a defense. In a prosecution under this clause, the state is not required to prove
that the sexual contact was coerced;
(b) the complainant is at least 13 but less than 16 years of age and the actor is more than 48
months older than the complainant or in a position of authority over the complainant. Consent by
the complainant to the act is not a defense. In any such case, it shall be an affirmative defense
which must be proved by a preponderance of the evidence that the actor believes the complainant
to be 16 years of age or older;
(c) the actor uses force or coercion to accomplish the sexual contact;
(d) the actor knows or has reason to know that the complainant is mentally impaired,
mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless;
(e) the complainant is at least 16 but less than 18 years of age and the actor is more than 48
months older than the complainant and in a position of authority over the complainant. Neither
mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense;
(f) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant and the complainant was at
least 16 but under 18 years of age at the time of the sexual contact. Neither mistake as to the
complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense;
(g) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant, the complainant was at least 16
but under 18 years of age at the time of the sexual contact, and:
(i) the actor or an accomplice used force or coercion to accomplish the contact;
(ii) the complainant suffered personal injury; or
(iii) the sexual abuse involved multiple acts committed over an extended period of time.
Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is
a defense;
(h) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a patient of the psychotherapist and
the sexual contact occurred:
(i) during the psychotherapy session; or
(ii) outside the psychotherapy session if an ongoing psychotherapist-patient relationship
exists. Consent by the complainant is not a defense;
(i) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a former patient of the
psychotherapist and the former patient is emotionally dependent upon the psychotherapist;
(j) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a patient or former patient and
the sexual contact occurred by means of therapeutic deception. Consent by the complainant is
not a defense;
(k) the actor accomplishes the sexual contact by means of deception or false representation
that the contact is for a bona fide medical purpose. Consent by the complainant is not a defense;
(1) the actor is or purports to be a member of the clergy, the complainant is not married to
the actor, and:
(i) the sexual contact occurred during the course of a meeting in which the complainant
sought or received religious or spiritual advice, aid, or comfort from the actor in private; or
(ii) the sexual contact occurred during a period of time in which the complainant was
meeting on an ongoing basis with the actor to seek or receive religious or spiritual advice, aid, or
comfort in private. Consent by the complainant is not a defense;
(m) the actor is an employee, independent contractor, or volunteer of a state, county, city,
or privately operated adult or juvenile correctional system, including, but not limited to, jails,
prisons, detention centers, or work release facilities, and the complainant is a resident of a facility
or under supervision of the correctional system. Consent by the complainant is not a defense; or
(n) the actor provides or is an agent of an entity that provides special transportation service,
the complainant used the special transportation service, the complainant is not married to the
actor, and the sexual contact occurred during or immediately before or after the actor transported
the complainant. Consent by the complainant is not a defense.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. Except as otherwise provided in section 609.3455, a person convicted
under subdivision 1 may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to a
payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both. A person convicted under this section is also
subject to conditional release under section 609.3455.
    Subd. 3. Stay. Except when imprisonment is required under section 609.109 or 609.3455, if
a person is convicted under subdivision 1, clause (f), the court may stay imposition or execution
of the sentence if it finds that:
(a) a stay is in the best interest of the complainant or the family unit; and
(b) a professional assessment indicates that the offender has been accepted by and can
respond to a treatment program.
If the court stays imposition or execution of sentence, it shall include the following as
conditions of probation:
(1) incarceration in a local jail or workhouse;
(2) a requirement that the offender complete a treatment program; and
(3) a requirement that the offender have no unsupervised contact with the complainant until
the offender has successfully completed the treatment program unless approved by the treatment
program and the supervising correctional agent.
History: 1975 c 374 s 6; 1976 c 124 s 9; 1979 c 258 s 14; 1981 c 51 s 4; 1983 c 204 s 4;
1984 c 588 s 8; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 24 s 8; 1985 c 286 s 18; 1985 c 297 s 7; 1986 c 351
s 9; 1986 c 444; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 81; 1987 c 94 s 2; 1989 c 290 art 4 s 15; 1992 c 571 art 1 s
18,19; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 21; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 36; 1998 c 367 art 3 s 10; art 6 s 15; 2000 c 437 s
13; 2001 c 210 s 23; 2002 c 381 s 4; 2005 c 136 art 2 s 18,19
609.3451 CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT IN THE FIFTH DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined. A person is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the fifth
degree:
(1) if the person engages in nonconsensual sexual contact; or
(2) the person engages in masturbation or lewd exhibition of the genitals in the presence of a
minor under the age of 16, knowing or having reason to know the minor is present.
For purposes of this section, "sexual contact" has the meaning given in section 609.341,
subdivision 11
, paragraph (a), clauses (i) and (iv), but does not include the intentional touching
of the clothing covering the immediate area of the buttocks. Sexual contact also includes the
intentional removal or attempted removal of clothing covering the complainant's intimate parts or
undergarments, and the nonconsensual touching by the complainant of the actor's intimate parts,
effected by the actor, if the action is performed with sexual or aggressive intent.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. A person convicted under subdivision 1 may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than one year or to a payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Felony. A person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both, if the
person violates subdivision 1, clause (2), after having been previously convicted of or adjudicated
delinquent for violating subdivision 1, clause (2); section 617.23, subdivision 2, clause (1); or
a statute from another state in conformity with subdivision 1, clause (2), or section 617.23,
subdivision 2
, clause (1).
History: 1988 c 529 s 2; 1990 c 492 s 1; 1995 c 226 art 2 s 19; 1996 c 408 art 3 s 26,27;
1998 c 367 art 3 s 11
609.3452 [Renumbered 609.3457]
609.3453 CRIMINAL SEXUAL PREDATORY CONDUCT.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined. A person is guilty of criminal sexual predatory conduct if the
person commits a predatory crime that was motivated by the offender's sexual impulses or was
part of a predatory pattern of behavior that had criminal sexual conduct as its goal.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. (a) Except as provided in section 609.3455, the statutory maximum
sentence for a violation of subdivision 1 is: (1) 25 percent longer than for the underlying
predatory crime; or (2) 50 percent longer than for the underlying predatory crime, if the violation
is committed by a person with a previous sex offense conviction, as defined in section 609.3455,
subdivision 1
.
(b) In addition to the sentence imposed under paragraph (a), the person may also be
sentenced to the payment of a fine of not more than $20,000.
(c) A person convicted under this section is also subject to conditional release under section
609.3455.
History: 2005 c 136 art 2 s 20
609.3455 DANGEROUS SEX OFFENDERS; LIFE SENTENCES; CONDITIONAL
RELEASE.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the
meanings given.
(b) "Conviction" includes a conviction as an extended jurisdiction juvenile under section
260B.130 for a violation of, or an attempt to violate, section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, or
609.3453, if the adult sentence has been executed.
(c) "Extreme inhumane conditions" mean situations where, either before or after the sexual
penetration or sexual contact, the offender knowingly causes or permits the complainant to be
placed in a situation likely to cause the complainant severe ongoing mental, emotional, or
psychological harm, or causes the complainant's death.
(d) A "heinous element" includes:
(1) the offender tortured the complainant;
(2) the offender intentionally inflicted great bodily harm upon the complainant;
(3) the offender intentionally mutilated the complainant;
(4) the offender exposed the complainant to extreme inhumane conditions;
(5) the offender was armed with a dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned in a
manner to lead the complainant to reasonably believe it to be a dangerous weapon and used or
threatened to use the weapon or article to cause the complainant to submit;
(6) the offense involved sexual penetration or sexual contact with more than one victim;
(7) the offense involved more than one perpetrator engaging in sexual penetration or sexual
contact with the complainant; or
(8) the offender, without the complainant's consent, removed the complainant from one place
to another and did not release the complainant in a safe place.
(e) "Mutilation" means the intentional infliction of physical abuse designed to cause serious
permanent disfigurement or permanent or protracted loss or impairment of the functions of any
bodily member or organ, where the offender relishes the infliction of the abuse, evidencing
debasement or perversion.
(f) A conviction is considered a "previous sex offense conviction" if the offender was
convicted and sentenced for a sex offense before the commission of the present offense.
(g) A conviction is considered a "prior sex offense conviction" if the offender was convicted
of committing a sex offense before the offender has been convicted of the present offense,
regardless of whether the offender was convicted for the first offense before the commission of
the present offense, and the convictions involved separate behavioral incidents.
(h) "Sex offense" means any violation of, or attempt to violate, section 609.342, 609.343,
609.344, 609.345, 609.3451, 609.3453, or any similar statute of the United States, this state, or
any other state.
(i) "Torture" means the intentional infliction of extreme mental anguish, or extreme
psychological or physical abuse, when committed in an especially depraved manner.
(j) An offender has "two previous sex offense convictions" only if the offender was
convicted and sentenced for a sex offense committed after the offender was earlier convicted
and sentenced for a sex offense and both convictions preceded the commission of the present
offense of conviction.
    Subd. 2. Mandatory life sentence without release for particularly egregious first-time
and repeat offenders. (a) Notwithstanding the statutory maximum penalty otherwise applicable
to the offense, the court shall sentence a person convicted under section 609.342, subdivision
1
, paragraph (c), (d), (e), (f), or (h); or 609.343, subdivision 1, paragraph (c), (d), (e), (f), or
(h), to life without the possibility of release if:
(1) the factfinder determines that two or more heinous elements exist; or
(2) the person has a previous sex offense conviction for a violation of section 609.342,
609.343, or 609.344, and the fact finder determines that a heinous element exists for the present
offense.
(b) A factfinder may not consider a heinous element if it is an element of the underlying
specified violation of section 609.342 or 609.343. In addition, when determining whether two or
more heinous elements exist, the factfinder may not use the same underlying facts to support a
determination that more than one element exists.
    Subd. 3. Mandatory life sentence for egregious first-time offenders. (a) Notwithstanding
the statutory maximum penalty otherwise applicable to the offense, the court shall sentence a
person to imprisonment for life if the person is convicted under section 609.342, subdivision 1,
paragraph (c), (d), (e), (f), or (h), or 609.343, subdivision 1, paragraph (c), (d), (e), (f), or (h); and
the factfinder determines that a heinous element exists.
(b) The factfinder may not consider a heinous element if it is an element of the underlying
specified violation of section 609.342 or 609.343.
    Subd. 3a. Mandatory sentence for certain engrained offenders. (a) A court shall commit a
person to the commissioner of corrections for a period of time that is not less than double the
presumptive sentence under the sentencing guidelines and not more than the statutory maximum,
or if the statutory maximum is less than double the presumptive sentence, for a period of time that
is equal to the statutory maximum, if:
(1) the court is imposing an executed sentence on a person convicted of committing or
attempting to commit a violation of section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, 609.345, or 609.3453;
(2) the factfinder determines that the offender is a danger to public safety; and
(3) the factfinder determines that the offender's criminal sexual behavior is so engrained
that the risk of reoffending is great without intensive psychotherapeutic intervention or other
long-term treatment or supervision extending beyond the presumptive term of imprisonment
and supervised release.
(b) The factfinder shall base its determination that the offender is a danger to public safety on
any of the following factors:
(1) the crime involved an aggravating factor that would justify a durational departure from
the presumptive sentence under the sentencing guidelines;
(2) the offender previously committed or attempted to commit a predatory crime or a
violation of section 609.224 or 609.2242, including:
(i) an offense committed as a juvenile that would have been a predatory crime or a violation
of section 609.224 or 609.2242 if committed by an adult; or
(ii) a violation or attempted violation of a similar law of any other state or the United
States; or
(3) the offender planned or prepared for the crime prior to its commission.
(c) As used in this section, "predatory crime" has the meaning given in section 609.341,
subdivision 22.
    Subd. 4. Mandatory life sentence; repeat offenders. (a) Notwithstanding the statutory
maximum penalty otherwise applicable to the offense, the court shall sentence a person to
imprisonment for life if the person is convicted of violating section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344,
609.345, or 609.3453 and:
(1) the person has two previous sex offense convictions;
(2) the person has a previous sex offense conviction and:
(i) the factfinder determines that the present offense involved an aggravating factor that
would provide grounds for an upward durational departure under the sentencing guidelines other
than the aggravating factor applicable to repeat criminal sexual conduct convictions;
(ii) the person received an upward durational departure from the sentencing guidelines for
the previous sex offense conviction; or
(iii) the person was sentenced under this section or Minnesota Statutes 2004, section
609.108, for the previous sex offense conviction; or
(3) the person has two prior sex offense convictions, and the factfinder determines that the
prior convictions and present offense involved at least three separate victims, and:
(i) the factfinder determines that the present offense involved an aggravating factor that
would provide grounds for an upward durational departure under the sentencing guidelines other
than the aggravating factor applicable to repeat criminal sexual conduct convictions;
(ii) the person received an upward durational departure from the sentencing guidelines for
one of the prior sex offense convictions; or
(iii) the person was sentenced under this section or Minnesota Statutes 2004, section 609.108,
for one of the prior sex offense convictions.
(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), a court may not sentence a person to imprisonment for
life for a violation of section 609.345, unless the person's previous or prior sex offense convictions
that are being used as the basis for the sentence are for violations of section 609.342, 609.343,
609.344, or 609.3453, or any similar statute of the United States, this state, or any other state.
    Subd. 5. Life sentences; minimum term of imprisonment. At the time of sentencing
under subdivision 3 or 4, the court shall specify a minimum term of imprisonment, based on the
sentencing guidelines or any applicable mandatory minimum sentence, that must be served before
the offender may be considered for supervised release.
    Subd. 6. Mandatory ten-year conditional release term. Notwithstanding the statutory
maximum sentence otherwise applicable to the offense and unless a longer conditional release
term is required in subdivision 7, when a court commits an offender to the custody of the
commissioner of corrections for a violation of section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, 609.345, or
609.3453, the court shall provide that, after the offender has completed the sentence imposed, the
commissioner shall place the offender on conditional release for ten years, minus the time the
offender served on supervised release.
    Subd. 7. Mandatory lifetime conditional release term. (a) When a court sentences an
offender under subdivision 3 or 4, the court shall provide that, if the offender is released from
prison, the commissioner of corrections shall place the offender on conditional release for the
remainder of the offender's life.
(b) Notwithstanding the statutory maximum sentence otherwise applicable to the offense,
when the court commits an offender to the custody of the commissioner of corrections for a
violation of section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, 609.345, or 609.3453, and the offender has
a previous or prior sex offense conviction, the court shall provide that, after the offender has
completed the sentence imposed, the commissioner shall place the offender on conditional release
for the remainder of the offender's life.
(c) Notwithstanding paragraph (b), an offender may not be placed on lifetime conditional
release for a violation of section 609.345, unless the offender's previous or prior sex offense
conviction is for a violation of section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, or 609.3453, or any similar
statute of the United States, this state, or any other state.
    Subd. 8. Terms of conditional release; applicable to all sex offenders. (a) The provisions
of this subdivision relating to conditional release apply to all sex offenders sentenced to prison for
a violation of section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, 609.345, or 609.3453. Except as provided in this
subdivision, conditional release of sex offenders is governed by provisions relating to supervised
release. The commissioner of corrections may not dismiss an offender on conditional release from
supervision until the offender's conditional release term expires.
(b) The conditions of release may include successful completion of treatment and aftercare
in a program approved by the commissioner, satisfaction of the release conditions specified in
section 244.05, subdivision 6, and any other conditions the commissioner considers appropriate.
The commissioner shall develop a plan to pay the cost of treatment of a person released under
this subdivision. The plan may include co-payments from offenders, third-party payers, local
agencies, or other funding sources as they are identified. This section does not require the
commissioner to accept or retain an offender in a treatment program. Before the offender is placed
on conditional release, the commissioner shall notify the sentencing court and the prosecutor in
the jurisdiction where the offender was sentenced of the terms of the offender's conditional
release. The commissioner also shall make reasonable efforts to notify the victim of the offender's
crime of the terms of the offender's conditional release. If the offender fails to meet any condition
of release, the commissioner may revoke the offender's conditional release and order that the
offender serve all or a part of the remaining portion of the conditional release term in prison.
History: 2005 c 136 art 2 s 21; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 22,23; art 4 s 14
609.3456 USE OF POLYGRAPHS FOR SEX OFFENDERS ON PROBATION OR
CONDITIONAL RELEASE.
(a) A court may order as an intermediate sanction under section 609.135 and the
commissioner of corrections may order as a condition of release under section 244.05 or 609.3455
that an offender under supervision for a sex offense submit to polygraphic examinations to ensure
compliance with the terms of probation or conditions of release.
(b) The court or commissioner may order the offender to pay all or a portion of the costs of
the examinations. The fee may be waived if the offender is indigent or if payment would result
in an economic hardship to the offender's immediate family.
History: 2005 c 136 art 3 s 24
609.3457 SEX OFFENDER ASSESSMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Assessment required. When a person is convicted of a sex offense, the
court shall order an independent professional assessment of the offender's need for sex offender
treatment to be completed before sentencing. The court may waive the assessment if: (1) the
Sentencing Guidelines provide a presumptive prison sentence for the offender, or (2) an adequate
assessment was conducted prior to the conviction. An assessor providing an assessment for the
court must be experienced in the evaluation and treatment of sex offenders.
    Subd. 1a. Repeat offenders; mandatory assessment. When a person is convicted of a
felony-level sex offense, and the person has previously been convicted of a sex offense regardless
of the penalty level, the court shall order a sex offender assessment to be completed by the
Minnesota security hospital. The assessment must contain the facts upon which the assessment
conclusion is based, with reference to the offense history of the offender or the severity of the
current offense, the social history of the offender, and the results of an examination of the
offender's mental status unless the offender refuses to be examined. The assessment conclusion
may not be based on testing alone. Upon completion, the assessment must be forwarded to
the court and the commissioner of corrections. The court shall consider the assessment when
sentencing the offender and, if applicable, when making the preliminary determination regarding
the appropriateness of a civil commitment petition under section 609.1351.
    Subd. 2. Access to data. Notwithstanding section 13.384, 13.85, 144.335, 260B.171,
260C.171, or 626.556, the assessor has access to the following private or confidential data on the
person if access is relevant and necessary for the assessment:
(1) medical data under section 13.384;
(2) corrections and detention data under section 13.85;
(3) health records under section 144.335;
(4) juvenile court records under sections 260B.171 and 260C.171; and
(5) local welfare agency records under section 626.556.
Data disclosed under this section may be used only for purposes of the assessment and may
not be further disclosed to any other person, except as authorized by law.
    Subd. 3. Treatment order. If the assessment indicates that the offender is in need of and
amenable to sex offender treatment, the court shall include in the sentence a requirement that the
offender undergo treatment, unless the court sentences the offender to prison.
    Subd. 4. Definition. As used in this section, "sex offense" means a violation of section
609.342; 609.343; 609.344; 609.345; 609.3451; 609.746, subdivision 1; 609.79; or 617.23; or
another offense arising out of a charge based on one or more of those sections.
History: 1992 c 571 art 1 s 20; 1999 c 139 art 4 s 2; 1999 c 227 s 22; 2001 c 210 s 24-26;
2004 c 228 art 1 s 66; 2005 c 136 art 3 s 23; art 4 s 11
609.346 [Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 6 s 16]
609.3461 [Renumbered 609.117]
609.347 EVIDENCE IN CRIMINAL SEXUAL CONDUCT CASES.
    Subdivision 1. Victim testimony; corroboration unnecessary. In a prosecution under
sections 609.109, 609.342 to 609.3451, or 609.3453, the testimony of a victim need not be
corroborated.
    Subd. 2. Showing of resistance unnecessary. In a prosecution under sections 609.109,
609.342 to 609.3451, or 609.3453, there is no need to show that the victim resisted the accused.
    Subd. 3. Previous sexual conduct. In a prosecution under sections 609.109, 609.342 to
609.3451, 609.3453, or 609.365, evidence of the victim's previous sexual conduct shall not be
admitted nor shall any reference to such conduct be made in the presence of the jury, except by
court order under the procedure provided in subdivision 4. The evidence can be admitted only
if the probative value of the evidence is not substantially outweighed by its inflammatory or
prejudicial nature and only in the circumstances set out in paragraphs (a) and (b). For the evidence
to be admissible under paragraph (a), subsection (i), the judge must find by a preponderance of
the evidence that the facts set out in the accused's offer of proof are true. For the evidence to be
admissible under paragraph (a), subsection (ii) or paragraph (b), the judge must find that the
evidence is sufficient to support a finding that the facts set out in the accused's offer of proof are
true, as provided under Rule 901 of the Rules of Evidence.
(a) When consent of the victim is a defense in the case, the following evidence is admissible:
(i) evidence of the victim's previous sexual conduct tending to establish a common scheme
or plan of similar sexual conduct under circumstances similar to the case at issue. In order to find
a common scheme or plan, the judge must find that the victim made prior allegations of sexual
assault which were fabricated; and
(ii) evidence of the victim's previous sexual conduct with the accused.
(b) When the prosecution's case includes evidence of semen, pregnancy, or disease at the
time of the incident or, in the case of pregnancy, between the time of the incident and trial,
evidence of specific instances of the victim's previous sexual conduct is admissible solely to show
the source of the semen, pregnancy, or disease.
    Subd. 4. Accused offer of evidence. The accused may not offer evidence described in
subdivision 3 except pursuant to the following procedure:
(a) A motion shall be made by the accused at least three business days prior to trial, unless
later for good cause shown, setting out with particularity the offer of proof of the evidence that the
accused intends to offer, relative to the previous sexual conduct of the victim;
(b) If the court deems the offer of proof sufficient, the court shall order a hearing out of the
presence of the jury, if any, and in such hearing shall allow the accused to make a full presentation
of the offer of proof;
(c) At the conclusion of the hearing, if the court finds that the evidence proposed to be
offered by the accused regarding the previous sexual conduct of the victim is admissible under
subdivision 3 and that its probative value is not substantially outweighed by its inflammatory or
prejudicial nature, the court shall make an order stating the extent to which evidence is admissible.
The accused may then offer evidence pursuant to the order of the court;
(d) If new information is discovered after the date of the hearing or during the course of trial,
which may make evidence described in subdivision 3 admissible, the accused may make an offer
of proof pursuant to clause (a) and the court shall order an in camera hearing to determine whether
the proposed evidence is admissible by the standards herein.
    Subd. 5. Prohibiting instructing jury on certain points. In a prosecution under sections
609.109, 609.342 to 609.3451, or 609.3453, the court shall not instruct the jury to the effect that:
(a) It may be inferred that a victim who has previously consented to sexual intercourse with
persons other than the accused would be therefore more likely to consent to sexual intercourse
again; or
(b) The victim's previous or subsequent sexual conduct in and of itself may be considered in
determining the credibility of the victim; or
(c) Criminal sexual conduct is a crime easily charged by a victim but very difficult to
disprove by an accused because of the heinous nature of the crime; or
(d) The jury should scrutinize the testimony of the victim any more closely than it should
scrutinize the testimony of any witness in any felony prosecution.
    Subd. 6. Psychotherapy evidence. (a) In a prosecution under sections 609.109, 609.342 to
609.3451, or 609.3453, involving a psychotherapist and patient, evidence of the patient's personal
or medical history is not admissible except when:
(1) the accused requests a hearing at least three business days prior to trial and makes an
offer of proof of the relevancy of the history; and
(2) the court finds that the history is relevant and that the probative value of the history
outweighs its prejudicial value.
(b) The court shall allow the admission only of specific information or examples of conduct
of the victim that are determined by the court to be relevant. The court's order shall detail the
information or conduct that is admissible and no other evidence of the history may be introduced.
(c) Violation of the terms of the order is grounds for mistrial but does not prevent the retrial
of the accused.
    Subd. 7. Effect of statute on rules. Rule 412 of the Rules of Evidence is superseded to the
extent of its conflict with this section.
History: 1975 c 374 s 8; 1984 c 588 s 10; 1985 c 297 s 8; 1986 c 351 s 12; 1986 c 444;
1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 72; 1987 c 114 s 1; 1997 c 239 art 5 s 10; 1998 c 367 art 6 s 8-12; 2005
c 136 art 4 s 6
609.3471 RECORDS PERTAINING TO VICTIM IDENTITY CONFIDENTIAL.
Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, no data contained in records or reports
relating to petitions, complaints, or indictments issued pursuant to section 609.342, 609.343,
609.344, 609.345, or 609.3453, which specifically identifies a victim who is a minor shall be
accessible to the public, except by order of the court. Nothing in this section authorizes denial of
access to any other data contained in the records or reports, including the identity of the defendant.
History: 1984 c 573 s 9; 1985 c 119 s 1; 1986 c 351 s 13; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 73; 1987 c
331 s 9; 1992 c 571 art 1 s 26; 1993 c 13 art 1 s 49; 2005 c 136 art 4 s 7
609.348 MEDICAL PURPOSES; EXCLUSION.
Sections 609.109, 609.342 to 609.3451, and 609.3453 do not apply to sexual penetration
or sexual contact when done for a bona fide medical purpose.
History: 1975 c 374 s 9; 1981 c 273 s 5; 1986 c 351 s 14; 1998 c 367 art 6 s 13; 2005
c 136 art 4 s 8
609.349 VOLUNTARY RELATIONSHIPS.
A person does not commit criminal sexual conduct under sections 609.342, clauses (a)
and (b), 609.343, clauses (a) and (b), 609.344, clauses (a), (b), (d), (e), and (n), and 609.345,
clauses (a), (b), (d), (e), and (n), if the actor and complainant were adults cohabiting in an ongoing
voluntary sexual relationship at the time of the alleged offense, or if the complainant is the actor's
legal spouse, unless the couple is living apart and one of them has filed for legal separation or
dissolution of the marriage. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit or restrain the
prosecution for any other offense committed by one legal spouse against the other.
History: 1975 c 374 s 10; 1978 c 772 s 62; 1980 c 544 s 2; 1986 c 351 s 15; 1986 c 444;
2002 c 381 s 5
609.35 COSTS OF MEDICAL EXAMINATION.
(a) Costs incurred by a county, city, or private hospital or other emergency medical facility
or by a private physician for the examination of a victim of criminal sexual conduct when the
examination is performed for the purpose of gathering evidence shall be paid by the county in
which the criminal sexual conduct occurred. These costs include, but are not limited to, full cost
of the rape kit examination, associated tests relating to the complainant's sexually transmitted
disease status, and pregnancy status.
(b) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the duties, responsibilities, or liabilities
of any insurer, whether public or private. However, a county may seek insurance reimbursement
from the victim's insurer only if authorized by the victim. This authorization may only be sought
after the examination is performed. When seeking this authorization, the county shall inform the
victim that if the victim does not authorize this, the county is required by law to pay for the
examination and that the victim is in no way liable for these costs or obligated to authorize
the reimbursement.
(c) The applicability of this section does not depend upon whether the victim reports the
offense to law enforcement or the existence or status of any investigation or prosecution.
History: 1975 c 374 s 11; 1981 c 273 s 6; 1986 c 351 s 16; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 75; 2002
c 381 s 6; 2003 c 116 s 3
609.351 APPLICABILITY TO PAST AND PRESENT PROSECUTIONS.
Except for section 609.347, crimes committed prior to August 1, 1975, are not affected by
its provisions.
History: 1975 c 374 s 12
609.352 SOLICITATION OF CHILDREN TO ENGAGE IN SEXUAL CONDUCT.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. As used in this section:
(a) "child" means a person 15 years of age or younger;
(b) "sexual conduct" means sexual contact of the individual's primary genital area, sexual
penetration as defined in section 609.341, or sexual performance as defined in section 617.246; and
(c) "solicit" means commanding, entreating, or attempting to persuade a specific person in
person, by telephone, by letter, or by computerized or other electronic means.
    Subd. 2. Prohibited act. A person 18 years of age or older who solicits a child or someone
the person reasonably believes is a child to engage in sexual conduct with intent to engage in
sexual conduct is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than
three years, or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Defenses. Mistake as to age is not a defense to a prosecution under this section.
History: 1986 c 445 s 3; 2000 c 311 art 4 s 3,4
609.353 JURISDICTION.
A violation or attempted violation of section 609.342, 609.343, 609.344, 609.345, 609.3451,
609.3453, or 609.352 may be prosecuted in any jurisdiction in which the violation originates or
terminates.
History: 2000 c 311 art 4 s 5; 2005 c 136 art 4 s 9

CRIMES AGAINST THE FAMILY

609.355 BIGAMY.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. In this section "cohabit" means to live together under the
representation or appearance of being married.
    Subd. 2. Acts constituting. Whoever does any of the following is guilty of bigamy and
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not
more than $10,000, or both:
(1) knowingly having a prior marriage that is not dissolved, contracts a marriage in this
state; or
(2) contracts a marriage with another in this state with knowledge that the prior marriage of
the other is not dissolved; or
(3) marries another outside this state with knowledge that either of them has a prior marriage
that has not been dissolved, and then cohabits with the other in this state.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.355; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.36 ADULTERY.
    Subdivision 1. Acts constituting. When a married woman has sexual intercourse with a man
other than her husband, whether married or not, both are guilty of adultery and may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Limitations. No prosecution shall be commenced under this section except on
complaint of the husband or the wife, except when such husband or wife is insane, nor after
one year from the commission of the offense.
    Subd. 3. Defense. It is a defense to violation of this section if the marital status of the woman
was not known to the defendant at the time of the act of adultery.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.36; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.364 [Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24]
609.3641 [Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24]
609.3642 [Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24]
609.3643 [Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24]
609.3644 [Repealed, 1985 c 286 s 24]
609.365 INCEST.
Whoever has sexual intercourse with another nearer of kin to the actor than first cousin,
computed by rules of the civil law, whether of the half or the whole blood, with knowledge of the
relationship, is guilty of incest and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.365; 1986 c 444
609.37 [Repealed, 1993 c 340 s 60]
609.375 NONSUPPORT OF SPOUSE OR CHILD.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined. Whoever is legally obligated to provide care and support to a
spouse or child, whether or not the child's custody has been granted to another, and knowingly
omits and fails to do so is guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Gross misdemeanor violation. A person who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of
a gross misdemeanor and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both, if:
(1) the violation continues for a period in excess of 90 days but not more than 180 days; or
(2) the person is in arrears in court-ordered child support or maintenance payments, or
both, in an amount equal to or greater than six times but less than nine times the person's total
monthly support and maintenance payments.
    Subd. 2a. Felony violation. A person who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of a felony and
upon conviction may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment
of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both, if:
(1) the violation continues for a period in excess of 180 days; or
(2) the person is in arrears in court-ordered child support or maintenance payments, or
both, in an amount equal to or greater than nine times the person's total monthly support and
maintenance payments.
    Subd. 2b. Attempt to obtain contempt order as prerequisite to prosecution. A person
may not be charged with violating this section unless there has been an attempt to obtain a court
order holding the person in contempt for failing to pay support or maintenance under chapter 518
or 518A. This requirement is satisfied by a showing that reasonable attempts have been made at
service of the order.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1997 c 203 art 6 s 93; 1997 c 245 art 1 s 34]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1997 c 203 art 6 s 93; 1997 c 245 art 1 s 34]
    Subd. 5. Venue. A person who violates this section may be prosecuted and tried in the county
in which the support obligor resides or in the county in which the obligee or the child resides.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1997 c 203 art 6 s 93; 1997 c 245 art 1 s 34]
    Subd. 7. Conditions of work release; probation violation. Upon conviction under this
section, a defendant may obtain work release only upon the imposition of an automatic income
withholding order, and may be required to post a bond in avoidance of jail time and conditioned
upon payment of all child support owed. Nonpayment of child support is a violation of any
probation granted following conviction under subdivision 2a.
    Subd. 8. Defense. It is an affirmative defense to criminal liability under this section if the
defendant proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the omission and failure to provide care
and support were with lawful excuse.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.375; 1971 c 23 s 44; 1971 c 507 s 1; 1976 c 2 s 151; 1981 c
31 s 19; 1993 c 340 s 54,55; 1994 c 630 art 11 s 17-20; 1995 c 257 art 3 s 15; 1997 c 245 art 1 s
31; 2001 c 158 s 7-11; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72; 2005 c 164 s 29; 1Sp2005 c 7 s 28
609.3751 DISCHARGE AND DISMISSAL.
    Subdivision 1. Applicability. A person is eligible for a discharge and dismissal under this
section, if the person:
(1) has not been previously convicted of a felony under the laws of this state or elsewhere;
(2) has not been previously convicted of a violation of section 609.375 or of a similar offense
in this state or elsewhere;
(3) has not previously participated in or completed a diversion program relating to a charge
of violating section 609.375; and
(4) has not previously been placed on probation without a judgment of guilty for violation
of section 609.375.
    Subd. 2. Procedure. For a person eligible under subdivision 1 who is charged with violating
section 609.375, the court may after trial or upon a plea of guilty, without entering a judgment
of guilty and with the consent of the person, defer further proceedings and place the person on
probation upon such reasonable conditions as it may require and for a period not to exceed
the maximum sentence provided for the violation. At a minimum, the conditions must require
the defendant to:
(1) provide the public authority responsible for child support enforcement with an affidavit
attesting to the defendant's present address, occupation, employer, current income, assets, and
account information, as defined in section 13B.06; and
(2) execute a written payment agreement regarding both current support and arrearages
that is approved by the court.
In determining whether to approve a payment agreement under clause (2), the court shall
apply the provisions of chapter 518A consistent with the obligor's ability to pay.
    Subd. 3. Violation. Upon violation of a condition of the probation, including a failure to
comply with the written payment agreement approved by the court under subdivision 2, clause
(2), the court may enter an adjudication of guilt and proceed as otherwise provided in law.
    Subd. 4. Early dismissal. The court may, in its discretion, dismiss the proceedings against
the person and discharge the person from probation before the expiration of the maximum period
prescribed for the person's probation but may do so only if the full amount of any arrearages
has been brought current.
    Subd. 5. Dismissal; record. (a) For purposes of this subdivision, "not public" has the
meaning given in section 13.02, subdivision 8a.
(b) If during the period of probation the person does not violate any of the conditions of the
probation, then upon expiration of the period the court shall discharge the person and dismiss the
proceedings against that person. Discharge and dismissal under this subdivision shall be without
court adjudication of guilt, but a not public record of it shall be retained by the Bureau of Criminal
Apprehension for the purpose of use by the courts in determining the merits of subsequent
proceedings against the person. The not public record may also be opened only upon court
order for purposes of a criminal investigation, prosecution, or sentencing. Upon request by law
enforcement, prosecution, or corrections authorities, the bureau shall notify the requesting party of
the existence of the not public record and the right to seek a court order to open it pursuant to this
section. The court shall forward a record of any discharge and dismissal under this section to the
bureau which shall make and maintain the not public record of it as provided under this section.
The discharge or dismissal shall not be deemed a conviction for purposes of disqualifications or
disabilities imposed by law upon conviction of a crime or for any other purpose.
History: 2001 c 158 s 12; 2005 c 164 s 29; 1Sp2005 c 7 s 28
609.376 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Terms defined. For the purposes of sections 609.255 and 609.376 to 609.38,
the following terms have the meanings given unless specific content indicates otherwise.
    Subd. 2. Child. "Child" means any person under the age of 18 years.
    Subd. 3. Caretaker. "Caretaker" means an individual who has responsibility for the care of a
child as a result of a family relationship or who has assumed responsibility for all or a portion
of the care of a child.
    Subd. 4. Complainant. "Complainant" means a person alleged to have been a victim of a
violation of section 609.255, subdivision 3, 609.377, or 609.378, but need not be the person
who signs the complaint.
History: 1983 c 217 s 3
609.377 MALICIOUS PUNISHMENT OF A CHILD.
    Subdivision 1. Malicious punishment. A parent, legal guardian, or caretaker who, by an
intentional act or a series of intentional acts with respect to a child, evidences unreasonable force
or cruel discipline that is excessive under the circumstances is guilty of malicious punishment of a
child and may be sentenced as provided in subdivisions 2 to 6.
    Subd. 2. Gross misdemeanor. If the punishment results in less than substantial bodily harm,
the person may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine
of not more than $3,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Enhancement to a felony. Whoever violates the provisions of subdivision 2 during
the time period between a previous conviction or adjudication for delinquency under this section
or sections 609.221 to 609.2231, 609.224, 609.2242, 609.342 to 609.345, or 609.713, and the end
of five years following discharge from sentence or disposition for that conviction or adjudication
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine of $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 4. Felony; child under age four. If the punishment is to a child under the age of
four and causes bodily harm to the head, eyes, neck, or otherwise causes multiple bruises to
the body, the person may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine
of $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 5. Felony; substantial bodily harm. If the punishment results in substantial bodily
harm, the person may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment
of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 6. Felony; great bodily harm. If the punishment results in great bodily harm, the
person may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine
of not more than $20,000, or both.
History: 1983 c 217 s 4; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1988 c 655 s 2; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 16; 1990 c
542 s 18; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 37; 2000 c 437 s 14
609.378 NEGLECT OR ENDANGERMENT OF A CHILD.
    Subdivision 1. Persons guilty of neglect or endangerment. (a) Neglect. (1) A parent,
legal guardian, or caretaker who willfully deprives a child of necessary food, clothing, shelter,
health care, or supervision appropriate to the child's age, when the parent, guardian, or caretaker
is reasonably able to make the necessary provisions and the deprivation harms or is likely to
substantially harm the child's physical, mental, or emotional health is guilty of neglect of a child
and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not
more than $3,000, or both. If the deprivation results in substantial harm to the child's physical,
mental, or emotional health, the person may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five
years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both. If a parent, guardian, or caretaker
responsible for the child's care in good faith selects and depends upon spiritual means or prayer
for treatment or care of disease or remedial care of the child, this treatment or care is "health
care," for purposes of this clause.
(2) A parent, legal guardian, or caretaker who knowingly permits the continuing physical or
sexual abuse of a child is guilty of neglect of a child and may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
(b) Endangerment. A parent, legal guardian, or caretaker who endangers the child's person
or health by:
(1) intentionally or recklessly causing or permitting a child to be placed in a situation likely
to substantially harm the child's physical, mental, or emotional health or cause the child's death; or
(2) knowingly causing or permitting the child to be present where any person is selling,
manufacturing, possessing immediate precursors or chemical substances with intent to
manufacture, or possessing a controlled substance, as defined in section 152.01, subdivision
4
, in violation of section 152.021, 152.022, 152.023, 152.024, or 152.0262; is guilty of child
endangerment and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of
a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
If the endangerment results in substantial harm to the child's physical, mental, or emotional
health, the person may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment
of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
This paragraph does not prevent a parent, legal guardian, or caretaker from causing
or permitting a child to engage in activities that are appropriate to the child's age, stage of
development, and experience, or from selecting health care as defined in subdivision 1, paragraph
(a).
(c) Endangerment by firearm access. A person who intentionally or recklessly causes a
child under 14 years of age to be placed in a situation likely to substantially harm the child's
physical health or cause the child's death as a result of the child's access to a loaded firearm is
guilty of child endangerment and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year
or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
If the endangerment results in substantial harm to the child's physical health, the person
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not
more than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Defenses. It is a defense to a prosecution under subdivision 1, paragraph (a),
clause (2), or paragraph (b), that at the time of the neglect or endangerment there was a
reasonable apprehension in the mind of the defendant that acting to stop or prevent the neglect or
endangerment would result in substantial bodily harm to the defendant or the child in retaliation.
History: 1983 c 217 s 5; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1989 c 282 art 2 s 199; 1992 c 571 art 4 s
11; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 22; 2002 c 314 s 6; 2005 c 136 art 7 s 21
609.3785 UNHARMED NEWBORNS LEFT AT HOSPITALS; AVOIDANCE OF
PROSECUTION.
A person may leave a newborn with a hospital employee at a hospital in this state without
being subjected to prosecution for that act, provided that:
(1) the newborn was born within 72 hours of being left at the hospital, as determined within a
reasonable degree of medical certainty;
(2) the newborn is left in an unharmed condition; and
(3) in cases where the person leaving the newborn is not the newborn's mother, the person
has the mother's approval to do so.
History: 2000 c 421 s 3
609.379 PERMITTED ACTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Reasonable force. Reasonable force may be used upon or toward the person
of a child without the child's consent when the following circumstance exists or the actor
reasonably believes it to exist:
(a) when used by a parent, legal guardian, teacher, or other caretaker of a child or pupil, in
the exercise of lawful authority, to restrain or correct the child or pupil; or
(b) when used by a teacher or other member of the instructional, support, or supervisory staff
of a public or nonpublic school upon or toward a child when necessary to restrain the child from
self-injury or injury to any other person or property.
    Subd. 2. Applicability. This section applies to sections 260B.425, 260C.425, 609.255,
609.376, 609.378, and 626.556.
History: 1983 c 217 s 6; 1985 c 266 s 4; 1986 c 444; 1990 c 542 s 19; 1999 c 139 art 4 s 2
609.38 STAYED SENTENCE.
For any violation of section 609.255, subdivision 3, 609.377, or 609.378 for which the
Sentencing Guidelines establish a presumptive executed sentence, the court may stay imposition
or execution of the sentence if it finds that a stay is in the best interest of the complainant or
the family unit and that the defendant is willing to participate in any necessary or appropriate
treatment. In determining an appropriate sentence when there is a family relationship between
the complainant and the defendant, the court shall be guided by the policy of preserving and
strengthening the family unit whenever possible.
History: 1983 c 217 s 7

CRIMES AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT

609.385 TREASON.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. "Levying war" includes an act of war or an insurrection of several
persons with intent to prevent, by force and intimidation, the execution of a statute of the state,
or to force its repeal. It does not include either a conspiracy to commit an act of war or a single
instance of resistance for a private purpose to the execution of a law.
    Subd. 2. Acts constituting. Any person owing allegiance to this state who does either of the
following is guilty of treason against this state and shall be sentenced to life imprisonment:
(1) levies war against this state; or
(2) adheres to the enemies of this state, giving them aid and comfort.
    Subd. 3. Testimony required. No person shall be convicted of treason except on the
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on the person's confession in open court.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.385; 1986 c 444
609.39 MISPRISION OF TREASON.
Whoever, owing allegiance to this state and having knowledge of the commission of treason
against this state, does not, as soon as may be, disclose and make it known to the governor or
a judge of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, or district court, is guilty of misprision of
treason against this state and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.39; 1983 c 247 s 208; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.395 STATE MILITARY FORCES; INTERFERING WITH, OBSTRUCTING, OR
OTHER.
Whoever, when the United States is at war, does either of the following may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $35,000, or both:
(1) intentionally makes or conveys false reports or statements with intent to interfere with the
operation or success of the military or naval forces of this state; or
(2) intentionally causes or incites insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty in the
military or naval forces of this state, or obstructs the recruiting or enlistment service of this state.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.395; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.396 UNAUTHORIZED PRESENCE AT CAMP RIPLEY.
    Subdivision 1. Misdemeanor. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if the person intentionally
and without authorization of the adjutant general enters or is present on the Camp Ripley Military
Reservation.
    Subd. 2. Felony. A person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to not more than five
years imprisonment or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both, if:
(1) the person intentionally enters or is present in an area at the Camp Ripley Military
Reservation that is posted by order of the adjutant general as restricted for weapon firing or
other hazardous military activity; and
(2) the person knows that doing so creates a risk of death, bodily harm, or serious property
damage.
History: 1989 c 5 s 3; 1989 c 290 art 7 s 12
609.40 FLAGS.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. In this section "flag" means anything which is or purports to be
the Stars and Stripes, the United States shield, the United States coat of arms, the Minnesota state
flag, or a copy, picture, or representation of any of them.
    Subd. 2. Acts prohibited. Whoever does any of the following is guilty of a misdemeanor:
(1) intentionally and publicly mutilates, defiles, or casts contempt upon the flag; or
(2) places on or attaches to the flag any word, mark, design, or advertisement not properly a
part of such flag or exposes to public view a flag so altered; or
(3) manufactures or exposes to public view an article of merchandise or a wrapper or
receptacle for merchandise upon which the flag is depicted; or
(4) uses the flag for commercial advertising purposes.
    Subd. 3. Exceptions. This section does not apply to flags depicted on written or printed
documents or periodicals or on stationery, ornaments, pictures, or jewelry, provided there are not
unauthorized words or designs on such flags and provided the flag is not connected with any
advertisement.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.40; 1971 c 23 s 45
609.405 [Repealed, 1987 c 10 s 1]
609.41 FALSE TAX STATEMENT.
Whoever, in making any statement, oral or written, which is required or authorized by law to
be made as a basis of imposing, reducing, or abating any tax or assessment, intentionally makes
any statement as to any material matter which the maker of the statement knows is false may be
sentenced, unless otherwise provided by law, to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.41; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444

CRIMES AFFECTING PUBLICOFFICER OR EMPLOYEE

609.415 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. As used in sections 609.415 to 609.465, and 609.515,
(1) "Public officer" means:
(a) an executive or administrative officer of the state or of a county, municipality or other
subdivision or agency of the state;
(b) a member of the legislature or of a governing board of a county, municipality, or other
subdivision of the state, or other governmental instrumentality within the state;
(c) a judicial officer;
(d) a hearing officer;
(e) a law enforcement officer; or
(f) any other person exercising the functions of a public officer.
(2) "Public employee" means a person employed by or acting for the state or a county,
municipality, or other subdivision or governmental instrumentality of the state for the purpose of
exercising their respective powers and performing their respective duties, and who is not a public
officer. Public employee includes a member of a charter commission.
(3) "Judicial officer" means a judge, court commissioner, referee, or any other person
appointed by a judge or court to hear or determine a cause or controversy.
(4) "Hearing officer" means any person authorized by law or private agreement to hear or
determine a cause or controversy who is not a judicial officer.
(5) "Political subdivision" means a county, town, statutory or home rule charter city, school
district, special service district, or other municipal corporation of the state of Minnesota.
    Subd. 2. Deemed officer or employee. A person who has been elected, appointed, or
otherwise designated as a public officer or public employee is deemed such officer or employee
although the person has not yet qualified therefor or entered upon the duties thereof.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.415; 1983 c 359 s 88; 1986 c 444; 1992 c 592 s 16; 2002
c 352 s 13
609.42 BRIBERY.
    Subdivision 1. Acts constituting. Whoever does any of the following is guilty of bribery
and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not
more than $20,000, or both:
(1) offers, gives, or promises to give, directly or indirectly, to any person who is a public
officer or employee any benefit, reward or consideration to which the person is not legally entitled
with intent thereby to influence the person's performance of the powers or duties as such officer
or employee; or
(2) being a public officer or employee, requests, receives or agrees to receive, directly or
indirectly, any such benefit, reward or consideration upon the understanding that it will have
such an influence; or
(3) offers, gives, or promises to give, directly or indirectly any such benefit, reward, or
consideration to a person who is a witness or about to become a witness in a proceeding before a
judicial or hearing officer, with intent that the person's testimony be influenced thereby, or that the
person will not appear at the proceeding; or
(4) as a person who is, or is about to become such witness requests, receives, or agrees to
receive, directly or indirectly, any such benefit, reward, or consideration upon the understanding
that the person's testimony will be so influenced, or that the person will not appear at the
proceeding; or
(5) accepts directly or indirectly a benefit, reward or consideration upon an agreement or
understanding, express or implied, that the acceptor will refrain from giving information that may
lead to the prosecution of a crime or purported crime or that the acceptor will abstain from,
discontinue, or delay prosecution therefor, except in a case where a compromise is allowed by law.
    Subd. 2. Forfeiture of office. Any public officer who is convicted of violating or attempting
to violate subdivision 1 shall forfeit the public officer's office and be forever disqualified from
holding public office under the state.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.42; 1976 c 178 s 2; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.425 CORRUPTLY INFLUENCING LEGISLATOR.
Whoever by menace, deception, concealment of facts, or other corrupt means, attempts
to influence the vote or other performance of duty of any member of the legislature or person
elected thereto may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment
of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.425; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.43 MISCONDUCT OF PUBLIC OFFICER OR EMPLOYEE.
A public officer or employee who does any of the following, for which no other sentence is
specifically provided by law, may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both:
(1) intentionally fails or refuses to perform a known mandatory, nondiscretionary, ministerial
duty of the office or employment within the time or in the manner required by law; or
(2) in the capacity of such officer or employee, does an act knowing it is in excess of lawful
authority or knowing it is forbidden by law to be done in that capacity; or
(3) under pretense or color of official authority intentionally and unlawfully injures another
in the other's person, property, or rights; or
(4) in the capacity of such officer or employee, makes a return, certificate, official report, or
other like document having knowledge it is false in any material respect.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.43; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.435 OFFICER NOT FILING SECURITY.
Whoever intentionally performs the functions of a public officer without having executed
and duly filed the required security is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.435; 1971 c 23 s 46
609.44 PUBLIC OFFICE; ILLEGALLY ASSUMING; NONSURRENDER.
Whoever intentionally and without lawful right thereto, exercises a function of a public
office or, having held such office and the right thereto having ceased, refuses to surrender the
office or its seal, books, papers, or other incidents to a successor or other authority entitled
thereto may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine
of not more than $3,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.44; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.445 FAILURE TO PAY OVER STATE FUNDS.
Whoever receives money on behalf of or for the account of the state or any of its agencies
or subdivisions and intentionally refuses or omits to pay the same to the state or its agency or
subdivision entitled thereto, or to an officer or agent authorized to receive the same, may be
sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $10,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.445; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 17
609.45 PUBLIC OFFICER; UNAUTHORIZED COMPENSATION.
Whoever is a public officer or public employee and under color of office or employment
intentionally asks, receives or agrees to receive a fee or other compensation in excess of that
allowed by law or where no such fee or compensation is allowed, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.45; 1971 c 23 s 47; 1986 c 444
609.455 PERMITTING FALSE CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT.
A public officer or employee who audits, allows, or pays any claim or demand made upon
the state or subdivision thereof or other governmental instrumentality within the state which the
public officer or employee knows is false or fraudulent in whole or in part, may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or
both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.455; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.456 REPORTING TO STATE AUDITOR AND LEGISLATIVE AUDITOR
REQUIRED.
    Subdivision 1. State auditor. Whenever a public employee or public officer of a political
subdivision or charter commission discovers evidence of theft, embezzlement, unlawful use
of public funds or property, or misuse of public funds by a charter commission or any person
authorized to expend public funds, the employee or officer shall promptly report to law
enforcement and shall promptly report in writing to the state auditor a detailed description of the
alleged incident or incidents. Notwithstanding chapter 13 or any other statute related to the
classification of government data, the public employee or public officer shall provide data or
information related to the alleged incident or incidents to the state auditor and law enforcement,
including data classified as not public.
    Subd. 2. Legislative auditor. Whenever an employee or officer of the state, University of
Minnesota, or other organization listed in section 3.971, subdivision 6, discovers evidence of
theft, embezzlement, or unlawful use of public funds or property, the employee or officer shall,
except when to do so would knowingly impede or otherwise interfere with an ongoing criminal
investigation, promptly report in writing to the legislative auditor a detailed description of the
alleged incident or incidents.
History: 1992 c 592 s 17; 1999 c 99 s 21,23; 2002 c 352 s 14
609.46 [Repealed, 1983 c 359 s 151]
609.465 PRESENTING FALSE CLAIMS TO PUBLIC OFFICER OR BODY.
Whoever, with intent to defraud, presents a claim or demand, with knowledge that it is false
in whole or in part, for audit, allowance or payment to a public officer or body authorized to
make such audit, allowance or payment is guilty of an attempt to commit theft of public funds
and may be sentenced accordingly.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.465; 1986 c 444
609.466 MEDICAL ASSISTANCE FRAUD.
Any person who, with the intent to defraud, presents a claim for reimbursement, a cost report
or a rate application, relating to the payment of medical assistance funds pursuant to chapter
256B, to the state agency, which is false in whole or in part, is guilty of an attempt to commit theft
of public funds and may be sentenced accordingly.
History: 1976 c 188 s 5
609.47 INTERFERENCE WITH PROPERTY IN OFFICIAL CUSTODY.
Whoever intentionally takes, damages, or destroys any personal property held in custody by
an officer or other person under process of law may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.47; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.475 IMPERSONATING OFFICER.
Whoever falsely impersonates a police or military officer or public official with intent to
mislead another into believing that the impersonator is actually such officer or official is guilty of
a misdemeanor.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.475; 1971 c 23 s 49; 1986 c 444

CRIMES AGAINST THEADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

609.48 PERJURY.
    Subdivision 1. Acts constituting. Whoever makes a false material statement not believing it
to be true in any of the following cases is guilty of perjury and may be sentenced as provided in
subdivision 4:
(1) in or for an action, hearing or proceeding of any kind in which the statement is required
or authorized by law to be made under oath or affirmation; or
(2) in any writing which is required or authorized by law to be under oath or affirmation; or
(3) in any other case in which the penalties for perjury are imposed by law and no specific
sentence is otherwise provided.
    Subd. 2. Defenses not available. It is not a defense to a violation of this section that:
(1) the oath or affirmation was taken or administered in an irregular manner; or
(2) the declarant was not competent to give the statement; or
(3) the declarant did not know that the statement was material or believed it to be immaterial;
or
(4) the statement was not used or, if used, did not affect the proceeding for which it was
made; or
(5) the statement was inadmissible under the law of evidence.
    Subd. 3. Inconsistent statements. When the declarant has made two inconsistent statements
under such circumstances that one or the other must be false and not believed by the declarant
when made, it shall be sufficient for conviction under this section to charge and the jury to find
that, without determining which, one or the other of such statements was false and not believed
by the declarant. The period of limitations for prosecution under this subdivision runs from the
first such statement.
    Subd. 4. Sentence. Whoever violates this section may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the false statement was made upon the trial of a felony charge, or upon an application
for an explosives license or use permit, to imprisonment for not more than seven years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $14,000, or both; or
(2) in all other cases, to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine
of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.48; 1971 c 845 s 16; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444;
1989 c 290 art 6 s 18
609.485 ESCAPE FROM CUSTODY.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. "Escape" includes departure without lawful authority and failure
to return to custody following temporary leave granted for a specific purpose or limited period.
    Subd. 2. Acts prohibited. Whoever does any of the following may be sentenced as provided
in subdivision 4:
(1) escapes while held pursuant to a lawful arrest, in lawful custody on a charge or conviction
of a crime, or while held in lawful custody on an allegation or adjudication of a delinquent act;
(2) transfers to another, who is in lawful custody on a charge or conviction of a crime, or
introduces into an institution in which the latter is confined, anything usable in making such
escape, with intent that it shall be so used;
(3) having another in lawful custody on a charge or conviction of a crime, intentionally
permits the other to escape;
(4) escapes while in a facility designated under section 253B.18, subdivision 1, pursuant
to a court commitment order after a finding of not guilty by reason of mental illness or mental
deficiency of a crime against the person, as defined in section 253B.02, subdivision 4a.
Notwithstanding section 609.17, no person may be charged with or convicted of an attempt to
commit a violation of this clause;
(5) escapes while in or under the supervision of a facility designated under section 253B.18,
subdivision 1
, pursuant to a court hold or commitment order under section 253B.185 or Minnesota
Statutes 1992, section 526.10; or
(6) escapes while on pass status or provisional discharge according to section 253B.18.
For purposes of clause (1), "escapes while held in lawful custody" includes absconding from
electronic monitoring or absconding after removing an electronic monitoring device from the
person's body.
    Subd. 3. Exceptions. This section does not apply to a person who is free on bail or who is
on parole or probation, or subject to a stayed sentence or stayed execution of sentence, unless
the person (1) has been taken into actual custody upon revocation of the parole, probation, or
stay of the sentence or execution of sentence, (2) is in custody in a county jail or workhouse
as a condition of a stayed sentence, or (3) is subject to electronic monitoring as a condition
of parole, probation, or supervised release.
    Subd. 3a. Dismissal of charge. A felony charge brought under subdivision 2, clause (4)
shall be dismissed if the person charged voluntarily returns to the facility within 30 days after
a reasonable effort has been made to provide written notice to the person that failure to return
within 30 days may result in felony charges being filed.
    Subd. 4. Sentence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 3a, whoever violates this
section may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the person who escapes is in lawful custody for a felony, to imprisonment for not more
than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both;
(2) if the person who escapes is in lawful custody after a finding of not guilty by reason of
mental illness or mental deficiency of a crime against the person, as defined in section 253B.02,
subdivision 4a
, to imprisonment for not more than one year and one day or to payment of a fine
of not more than $3,000, or both;
(3) if the person who escapes is in lawful custody for a gross misdemeanor or misdemeanor,
or if the person who escapes is in lawful custody on an allegation or adjudication of a delinquent
act, to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000,
or both;
(4) if the person who escapes is under civil commitment under section 253B.18, to
imprisonment for not more than one year and one day or to payment of a fine of not more than
$3,000, or both; or
(5) if the person who escapes is under a court hold, civil commitment, or supervision under
section 253B.185 or Minnesota Statutes 1992, section 526.10, to imprisonment for not more than
five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
(b) If the escape was a violation of subdivision 2, clause (1), (2), or (3), and was effected
by violence or threat of violence against a person, the sentence may be increased to not more
than twice those permitted in paragraph (a), clauses (1) and (3).
(c) Unless a concurrent term is specified by the court, a sentence under this section shall
be consecutive to any sentence previously imposed or which may be imposed for any crime or
offense for which the person was in custody when the person escaped.
(d) Notwithstanding paragraph (c), if a person who was committed to the commissioner of
corrections under section 260B.198 escapes from the custody of the commissioner while 18 years
of age, the person's sentence under this section shall commence on the person's 19th birthday
or on the person's date of discharge by the commissioner of corrections, whichever occurs first.
However, if the person described in this clause is convicted under this section after becoming
19 years old and after having been discharged by the commissioner, the person's sentence shall
commence upon imposition by the sentencing court.
(e) Notwithstanding paragraph (c), if a person who is in lawful custody on an allegation or
adjudication of a delinquent act while 18 years of age escapes from a local juvenile correctional
facility, the person's sentence under this section begins on the person's 19th birthday or on the
person's date of discharge from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court, whichever occurs first.
However, if the person described in this paragraph is convicted after becoming 19 years old and
after discharge from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court, the person's sentence begins upon
imposition by the sentencing court.
(f) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), any person who escapes or absconds from electronic
monitoring or removes an electric monitoring device from the person's body is guilty of a crime
and shall be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to a payment of a fine of not
more than $3,000, or both. A person in lawful custody for a violation of section 609.185, 609.19,
609.195, 609.20, 609.205, 609.21, 609.221, 609.222, 609.223, 609.2231, 609.342, 609.343,
609.344, 609.345, or 609.3451 who escapes or absconds from electronic monitoring or removes
an electronic monitoring device while under sentence may be sentenced to imprisonment for not
more than five years or to a payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.485; 1969 c 248 s 1; 1971 c 23 s 50; 1982 c 557 s 10; 1984 c
628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 385 s 1-3; 1986 c 444; 1988 c 515 s 2,3; 1990 c 499 s 7,8; 1994 c 636 art 2 s
38,39; 1995 c 226 art 2 s 20,21; 1996 c 305 art 1 s 120,121; 1996 c 408 art 3 s 28,29; 1999 c 139
art 4 s 2; 2000 c 441 s 2,3; 2002 c 314 s 7,8; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 26,27; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 24,25
609.486 COMMISSION OF CRIME WHILE WEARING OR POSSESSING A
BULLET-RESISTANT VEST.
A person who commits or attempts to commit a gross misdemeanor or felony while wearing
or possessing a bullet-resistant vest is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be sentenced
to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000,
or both. Notwithstanding section 609.04, a prosecution for or conviction under this section is
not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed by the defendant as
part of the same conduct.
As used in this section, "bullet-resistant vest" means a bullet-resistant garment that provides
ballistic and trauma protection.
History: 1990 c 439 s 1
609.487 FLEEING A PEACE OFFICER IN A MOTOR VEHICLE.
    Subdivision 1. Flee; definition. For purposes of this section, the term "flee" means to
increase speed, extinguish motor vehicle headlights or taillights, refuse to stop the vehicle, or
use other means with intent to attempt to elude a peace officer following a signal given by any
peace officer to the driver of a motor vehicle.
    Subd. 2. Peace officer; definition. For purposes of this section, "peace officer" means:
(1) an employee of a political subdivision or state law enforcement agency who is licensed
by the Minnesota Board of Peace Officer Standards and Training, charged with the prevention
and detection of crime and the enforcement of the general criminal laws of the state and who
has the full power of arrest, and shall also include the Minnesota State Patrol and Minnesota
conservation officers;
(2) an employee of a law enforcement agency of a federally recognized tribe, as defined in
United States Code, title 25, section 450b(e), who is licensed by the Minnesota Board of Peace
Officer Standards and Training; or
(3) a member of a duly organized state, county, or municipal law enforcement unit of another
state charged with the duty to prevent and detect crime and generally enforce criminal laws,
and granted full powers of arrest.
    Subd. 2a. Motor vehicle; definition. For purposes of this section, "motor vehicle" has the
meaning given it in section 169.01, subdivision 3, and includes a snowmobile, as defined in
section 84.81, off-road recreational vehicles as defined in section 169A.03, subdivision 16, and
motorboats as defined in section 169A.03, subdivision 13.
    Subd. 3. Fleeing an officer. Whoever by means of a motor vehicle flees or attempts to
flee a peace officer who is acting in the lawful discharge of an official duty, and the perpetrator
knows or should reasonably know the same to be a peace officer, is guilty of a felony and may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years and one day or to payment of a fine
of not more than $5,000, or both.
    Subd. 4. Fleeing an officer; death; bodily injury. Whoever flees or attempts to flee by
means of a motor vehicle a peace officer who is acting in the lawful discharge of an official
duty, and the perpetrator knows or should reasonably know the same to be a peace officer, and
who in the course of fleeing causes the death of a human being not constituting murder or
manslaughter or any bodily injury to any person other than the perpetrator may be sentenced to
imprisonment as follows:
(a) if the course of fleeing results in death, to imprisonment for not more than 40 years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $80,000, or both; or
(b) if the course of fleeing results in great bodily harm, to imprisonment for not more than
seven years or to payment of a fine of not more than $14,000, or both; or
(c) if the course of fleeing results in substantial bodily harm, to imprisonment for not more
than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 5. Revocation; fleeing peace officer offense. When a person is convicted of operating
a motor vehicle in violation of subdivision 3 or 4, or an ordinance in conformity with those
subdivisions, the court shall notify the commissioner of public safety and order the commissioner
to revoke the driver's license of the person.
    Subd. 6. Fleeing, other than vehicle. Whoever, for the purpose of avoiding arrest, detention,
or investigation, or in order to conceal or destroy potential evidence related to the commission
of a crime, attempts to evade or elude a peace officer, who is acting in the lawful discharge of
an official duty, by means of running, hiding, or by any other means except fleeing in a motor
vehicle, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1981 c 37 s 2; 1981 c 312 s 4; 1984 c 445 s 2,3; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1984 c
655 art 1 s 78; 1986 c 444; 1988 c 712 s 6; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 19; 1990 c 449 s 1; 1996 c 408
art 3 s 30; 1997 c 226 s 44; 1997 c 239 art 3 s 13; 1Sp1997 c 2 s 64; 2000 c 411 s 1,2; 2000 c
478 art 2 s 7; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 8 s 23; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 28
609.49 RELEASE, FAILURE TO APPEAR.
    Subdivision 1. Felony offenders. (a) A person charged with or convicted of a felony
and released from custody, with or without bail or recognizance, who intentionally fails to
appear when required after having been notified that a failure to appear for a court appearance
is a criminal offense, or after having been released on an order or condition that the releasee
personally appear when required with respect to the charge or conviction, is guilty of a crime
for failure to appear and may be sentenced to not more than one-half of the maximum term of
imprisonment or fine, or both, provided for the underlying crime for which the person failed to
appear, but this maximum sentence shall, in no case, be less than a term of imprisonment of one
year and one day or a fine of $1,500, or both.
(b) A felony charge under this subdivision may be filed upon the person's nonappearance.
However, the charge must be dismissed if the person who fails to appear voluntarily surrenders
within 48 hours after the time required for appearance. This paragraph does not apply if the
offender appears as a result of being apprehended by law enforcement authorities.
    Subd. 1a. Juvenile offenders. (a) A person who intentionally fails to appear for a juvenile
court disposition is guilty of a felony if:
(1) the person was prosecuted in juvenile court for an offense that would have been a felony
if committed by an adult;
(2) the juvenile court made findings pursuant to an admission in court or after trial;
(3) the person was released from custody on condition that the person appear in the juvenile
court for a disposition in connection with the offense; and
(4) the person was notified that failure to appear is a criminal offense.
(b) A person who violates the provisions of this subdivision is guilty of a felony and may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Gross misdemeanor and misdemeanor offenders. A person charged with a gross
misdemeanor or misdemeanor who intentionally fails to appear in court for trial on the charge
after having been notified that a failure to appear for a court appearance is a criminal offense, or
after having been released on an order or condition that the releasee personally appear for trial
when required with respect to the charge, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3. Affirmative defense. If proven by a preponderance of the evidence, it is an
affirmative defense to a violation of subdivision 1, 1a, or 2 that the person's failure to appear in
court as required was due to circumstances beyond the person's control.
    Subd. 4. Prosecution. A violation of this section is prosecuted by the prosecuting authority
who was responsible for prosecuting the offense in connection with which the person failed to
appear in court.
    Subd. 5. Reimbursement for costs. Upon conviction of a defendant for a violation of
subdivision 1 or 2, the court may order as part of the sentence that the defendant pay the costs
incurred by the prosecuting authority or governmental agency due to the defendant's failure to
appear. The court may order this payment in addition to any other penalty authorized by law
which it may impose. A defendant shall pay the entire amount of any restitution ordered and fine
imposed before paying costs ordered under this subdivision. The order for payment of these costs
may be enforced in the same manner as the sentence, or by execution against property. When
collected, the costs must be paid into the treasury of the county of conviction.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.49; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444; 1989 c 333 s 4; 1994
c 576 s 47,48; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 16; 1999 c 28 s 1-3
609.491 FAILURE TO APPEAR; PETTY MISDEMEANOR.
    Subdivision 1. Considered guilty plea. If a person fails to appear in court on a charge that is
a petty misdemeanor, the failure to appear is considered a plea of guilty and waiver of the right
to trial, unless the person appears in court within ten days and shows that the person's failure to
appear was due to circumstances beyond the person's control.
    Subd. 2. Notice. A complaint charging a person with a petty misdemeanor must include a
conspicuous notice of the provisions of subdivision 1.
History: 1989 c 333 s 5
609.493 SOLICITATION OF MENTALLY IMPAIRED PERSONS.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. A person is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced as provided in
subdivision 2 if the person solicits a mentally impaired person to commit a criminal act.
    Subd. 2. Sentence. (a) A person who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of a misdemeanor if
the intended criminal act is a misdemeanor, and is guilty of a gross misdemeanor if the intended
criminal act is a gross misdemeanor.
(b) A person who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of a felony if the intended criminal act is a
felony, and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one-half the statutory maximum
term for the intended criminal act or to payment of a fine of not more than one-half the maximum
fine for the intended criminal act, or both.
    Subd. 3. Definitions. As used in this section:
(1) "mentally impaired person" means a person who, as a result of inadequately developed or
impaired intelligence or a substantial psychiatric disorder of thought or mood, lacks the judgment
to give a reasoned consent to commit the criminal act; and
(2) "solicit" means commanding, entreating, or attempting to persuade a specific person.
History: 1993 c 326 art 4 s 23
609.494 SOLICITATION OF JUVENILES.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. A person is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced as provided in
subdivision 2 if the person is an adult and solicits or conspires with a minor to commit a crime or
delinquent act or is an accomplice to a minor in the commission of a crime or delinquent act.
    Subd. 2. Sentence. (a) A person who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of a misdemeanor if the
intended criminal act is a misdemeanor or would be a misdemeanor if committed by an adult, and
is guilty of a gross misdemeanor if the intended criminal act is a gross misdemeanor or would be a
gross misdemeanor if committed by an adult.
(b) A person who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of a felony if the intended criminal act is a
felony or would be a felony if committed by an adult, and may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than one-half the statutory maximum term for the intended criminal act or to payment of
a fine of not more than one-half the maximum fine for the intended criminal act, or both.
    Subd. 3. Multiple sentences. Notwithstanding section 609.04, a prosecution for or
conviction under this section is not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime
committed by the defendant as part of the same conduct.
    Subd. 4. Consecutive sentences. Notwithstanding any provision of the Sentencing
Guidelines, the court may provide that a sentence imposed for a violation of this section shall
run consecutively to any sentence imposed for the intended criminal act. A decision by the court
to impose consecutive sentences under this subdivision is not a departure from the Sentencing
Guidelines.
    Subd. 5. Definition. "Solicit" means commanding, entreating, or attempting to persuade a
specific person.
History: 1991 c 279 s 31; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 24
609.495 AIDING AN OFFENDER.
    Subdivision 1. Definition of crime. (a) Whoever harbors, conceals, aids, or assists by word
or acts another whom the actor knows or has reason to know has committed a crime under the
laws of this or another state or of the United States with intent that such offender shall avoid
or escape from arrest, trial, conviction, or punishment, may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both if the crime
committed or attempted by the other person is a felony.
(b) Whoever knowingly harbors, conceals, or aids a person who is on probation, parole, or
supervised release because of a felony level conviction and for whom an arrest and detention
order has been issued, with intent that the person evade or escape being taken into custody under
the order, may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years or to payment of a fine
of not more than $5,000, or both. As used in this paragraph, "arrest and detention order" means a
written order to take and detain a probationer, parolee, or supervised releasee that is issued under
section 243.05, subdivision 1; 244.19, subdivision 4; or 401.02, subdivision 4.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1996 c 408 art 3 s 40]
    Subd. 3. Obstructing investigation. Whoever intentionally aids another person whom the
actor knows or has reason to know has committed a criminal act, by destroying or concealing
evidence of that crime, providing false or misleading information about that crime, receiving the
proceeds of that crime, or otherwise obstructing the investigation or prosecution of that crime
is an accomplice after the fact and may be sentenced to not more than one-half of the statutory
maximum sentence of imprisonment or to payment of a fine of not more than one-half of the
maximum fine that could be imposed on the principal offender for the crime of violence. For
purposes of this subdivision, "criminal act" means an act that is a crime listed in section 609.11,
subdivision 9
, under the laws of this or another state, or of the United States, and also includes
an act that would be a criminal act if committed by an adult.
    Subd. 4. Taking responsibility for criminal acts. (a) Unless the person is convicted of
the underlying crime, a person who assumes responsibility for a criminal act with the intent to
obstruct, impede, or prevent a criminal investigation may be sentenced to not more than one-half
of the statutory maximum sentence of imprisonment or to payment of a fine of not more than
one-half of the maximum fine that could be imposed on the principal offender for the criminal act.
(b) Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to impair the right of any individual
or group to engage in speech protected by the United States Constitution or the Minnesota
Constitution.
    Subd. 5. Venue. An offense committed under subdivision 1 or 3 may be prosecuted in:
(1) the county where the aiding or obstructing behavior occurred; or
(2) the county where the underlying criminal act occurred.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.495; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 25;
1997 c 239 art 3 s 14; art 9 s 51; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 8 s 24,25; 2002 c 348 s 2; 2006 c 260 art 1 s 26
609.496 CONCEALING CRIMINAL PROCEEDS.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. A person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced under subdivision
2 if the person:
(1) conducts a transaction involving a monetary instrument or instruments with a value
exceeding $5,000; and
(2) knows or has reason to know that the monetary instrument or instruments represent the
proceeds of, or are derived from the proceeds of, the commission of a felony under this chapter
or chapter 152 or an offense in another jurisdiction that would be a felony under this chapter or
chapter 152 if committed in Minnesota.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. A person convicted under subdivision 1 may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than ten years, or to payment of a fine of not more than $100,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Monetary instrument. For purposes of this section, "monetary instrument" means
United States currency and coin; the currency and coin of a foreign country; a bank check,
cashier's check, traveler's check, money order, stock, investment security, or negotiable instrument
in bearer form or otherwise in the form by which title to the instrument passes upon delivery;
gold, silver, or platinum bullion or coins; and diamonds, emeralds, rubies, or sapphires.
    Subd. 4. Payment of reasonable attorney fees. Subdivision 1 does not preclude the
payment or receipt of reasonable attorney fees.
History: 1989 c 286 s 3
609.497 ENGAGING IN A BUSINESS OF CONCEALING CRIMINAL PROCEEDS.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. A person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced under subdivision
2 if the person knowingly initiates, organizes, plans, finances, directs, manages, supervises, or
otherwise engages in a business that has as a primary or secondary purpose concealing money or
property that was gained as a direct result of the commission of a felony under this chapter or
chapter 152, or of an offense committed in another jurisdiction that would be a felony under this
chapter or chapter 152 if committed in Minnesota.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. A person convicted under subdivision 1 may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than 20 years, or to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000,000, or both.
History: 1989 c 286 s 4
609.4971 WARNING SUBJECT OF INVESTIGATION.
Whoever, having knowledge that a subpoena has been issued under sections 8.16 and 388.23,
and with intent to obstruct, impede, or prevent the investigation for which the subpoena was
issued, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the issuance of the subpoena or the production of
the documents to a person, may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1989 c 336 art 2 s 4
609.4975 WARNING SUBJECT OF SURVEILLANCE OR SEARCH.
    Subdivision 1. Electronic communication. Whoever, having knowledge that an
investigative or law enforcement officer has been authorized or has applied for authorization
under chapter 626A to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication, and with intent to
obstruct, impede, or prevent interception, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible
interception to a person, may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. Pen register. Whoever, having knowledge that an investigative or law enforcement
officer has been authorized or has applied for authorization under chapter 626A to install and
use a pen register or a trap and trace device, and with intent to obstruct, impede, or prevent the
purposes for which the installation and use is being made, gives notice or attempts to give notice
of the installation or use to any person, may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five
years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Search warrant. Whoever, having knowledge that a peace officer has been issued
or has applied for the issuance of a search warrant, and with intent to obstruct, impede, or prevent
the search, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the search or search warrant to any person,
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not
more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1989 c 336 art 2 s 3; 1990 c 426 art 2 s 1
609.498 TAMPERING WITH A WITNESS.
    Subdivision 1. Tampering with a witness in the first degree. Whoever does any of the
following is guilty of tampering with a witness in the first degree and may be sentenced as
provided in subdivision 1a:
(a) intentionally prevents or dissuades or intentionally attempts to prevent or dissuade by
means of force or threats of injury to any person or property, a person who is or may become a
witness from attending or testifying at any trial, proceeding, or inquiry authorized by law;
(b) by means of force or threats of injury to any person or property, intentionally coerces
or attempts to coerce a person who is or may become a witness to testify falsely at any trial,
proceeding, or inquiry authorized by law;
(c) intentionally causes injury or threatens to cause injury to any person or property in
retaliation against a person who was summoned as a witness at any trial, proceeding, or inquiry
authorized by law, within a year following that trial, proceeding, or inquiry or within a year
following the actor's release from incarceration, whichever is later;
(d) intentionally prevents or dissuades or attempts to prevent or dissuade, by means of
force or threats of injury to any person or property, a person from providing information to law
enforcement authorities concerning a crime;
(e) by means of force or threats of injury to any person or property, intentionally coerces or
attempts to coerce a person to provide false information concerning a crime to law enforcement
authorities; or
(f) intentionally causes injury or threatens to cause injury to any person or property in
retaliation against a person who has provided information to law enforcement authorities
concerning a crime within a year of that person providing the information or within a year of the
actor's release from incarceration, whichever is later.
    Subd. 1a. Penalty. Whoever violates subdivision 1 may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than five years or to payment of a fine not to exceed $10,000.
    Subd. 1b. Aggravated first-degree witness tampering. (a) A person is guilty of aggravated
first-degree witness tampering if the person causes or, by means of an implicit or explicit credible
threat, threatens to cause great bodily harm or death to another in the course of committing any
of the following acts intentionally:
(1) preventing or dissuading or attempting to prevent or dissuade a person who is or may
become a witness from attending or testifying at any criminal trial or proceeding;
(2) coercing or attempting to coerce a person who is or may become a witness to testify
falsely at any criminal trial or proceeding;
(3) retaliating against a person who was summoned as a witness at any criminal trial or
proceeding within a year following that trial or proceeding or within a year following the actor's
release from incarceration, whichever is later;
(4) preventing or dissuading or attempting to prevent or dissuade a person from providing
information to law enforcement authorities concerning a crime;
(5) coercing or attempting to coerce a person to provide false information concerning a crime
to law enforcement authorities; or
(6) retaliating against any person who has provided information to law enforcement
authorities concerning a crime within a year of that person providing the information or within a
year of the actor's release from incarceration, whichever is later.
(b) A person convicted of committing any act prohibited by paragraph (a) may be sentenced
to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $30,000, or
both.
    Subd. 2. Tampering with a witness in the second degree. Whoever does any of the
following is guilty of tampering with a witness in the second degree and may be sentenced as
provided in subdivision 3:
(a) intentionally prevents or dissuades or intentionally attempts to prevent or dissuade by
means of any act described in section 609.27, subdivision 1, clause (3), (4), or (5), a person who
is or may become a witness from attending or testifying at any trial, proceeding, or inquiry
authorized by law;
(b) by means of any act described in section 609.27, subdivision 1, clause (3), (4), or (5),
intentionally coerces or attempts to coerce a person who is or may become a witness to testify
falsely at any trial, proceeding, or inquiry authorized by law;
(c) intentionally prevents or dissuades or attempts to prevent or dissuade by means of any
act described in section 609.27, subdivision 1, clause (3), (4), or (5), a person from providing
information to law enforcement authorities concerning a crime; or
(d) by means of any act described in section 609.27, subdivision 1, clause (3), (4), or (5),
intentionally coerces or attempts to coerce a person to provide false information concerning a
crime to law enforcement authorities.
    Subd. 3. Sentence. Whoever violates subdivision 2 may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than one year or to payment of a fine not to exceed $3,000.
    Subd. 4. No bar to conviction. Notwithstanding section 609.035 or 609.04, a prosecution for
or conviction of the crime of aggravated first-degree witness tampering is not a bar to conviction
of or punishment for any other crime.
History: 1976 c 178 s 1; 1983 c 262 art 2 s 6; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1987 c 194 s 1,2; 1995
c 244 s 18; 1997 c 239 art 3 s 15,16
609.50 OBSTRUCTING LEGAL PROCESS, ARREST, OR FIREFIGHTING.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. Whoever intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced as
provided in subdivision 2:
(1) obstructs, hinders, or prevents the lawful execution of any legal process, civil or criminal,
or apprehension of another on a charge or conviction of a criminal offense;
(2) obstructs, resists, or interferes with a peace officer while the officer is engaged in the
performance of official duties;
(3) interferes with or obstructs a firefighter while the firefighter is engaged in the performance
of official duties;
(4) interferes with or obstructs a member of an ambulance service personnel crew, as defined
in section 144E.001, subdivision 3a, who is providing, or attempting to provide, emergency
care; or
(5) by force or threat of force endeavors to obstruct any employee of the Department of
Revenue while the employee is lawfully engaged in the performance of official duties for the
purpose of deterring or interfering with the performance of those duties.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. A person convicted of violating subdivision 1 may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if (i) the person knew or had reason to know that the act created a risk of death,
substantial bodily harm, or serious property damage; or (ii) the act caused death, substantial
bodily harm, or serious property damage; or (iii) the act involved the intentional disarming of a
peace officer by taking or attempting to take the officer's firearm from the officer's possession
without the officer's consent; to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine
of not more than $10,000, or both;
(2) if the act was accompanied by force or violence or the threat thereof, and is not otherwise
covered by clause (1), to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of
not more than $3,000, or both; or
(3) in other cases, to imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not
more than $1,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.50; 1969 c 1013 s 1; 1971 c 23 s 51; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11;
1986 c 444; 1986 c 470 s 18; 1988 c 584 s 1; 1989 c 5 s 4; 1991 c 103 s 1; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 17;
2004 c 228 art 1 s 72; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 29
609.501 FUNERAL OR BURIAL SERVICE; PROHIBITED ACTS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) For purposes of this section, the following terms have the
meanings given.
(b) "Family or household" has the meaning given to family or household member in section
518B.01, subdivision 2.
(c) "Funeral ceremony" has the meaning given in section 149A.02, subdivision 18.
(d) "Funeral procession" means two or more motor vehicles that identify themselves by using
regular lights and by keeping themselves in close formation, one of which contains the body of a
deceased person, enroute to or from a funeral ceremony or a graveside service.
(e) "Graveside service" has the meaning given in section 149A.02, subdivision 24.
(f) "Memorial service" has the meaning given in section 149A.02, subdivision 28.
(g) "Targeted residential picketing" has the meaning given in section 609.748, subdivision 1,
paragraph (c), but does not require more than one act or that acts be committed on more than one
occasion.
    Subd. 2. Crime to disrupt. (a) Whoever does any of the following is guilty of a
misdemeanor:
(1) with intent to disrupt a funeral ceremony, graveside service, or memorial service, protests
or pickets within 500 feet of the burial site or the entrance to a facility or location being used for
the service or ceremony, within one hour prior to, during, or one hour following the service or
ceremony;
(2) with intent to disrupt a funeral procession, impedes or attempts to impede a vehicle
that is part of the procession;
(3) intentionally blocks or attempts to block access to a funeral ceremony, graveside service,
or memorial service; or
(4) knowingly engages in targeted residential picketing at the home or domicile of any
surviving member of the deceased person's family or household on the date of the funeral
ceremony, graveside service, or memorial service.
(b) Whoever is convicted of a violation of paragraph (a) following a previous conviction
for a violation of paragraph (a) or a similar statute from another state or the United States
is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3. Civil remedy. A person who violates subdivision 2 is liable to a surviving member
of the deceased person's family or household for damages caused by the violation. A surviving
member of the deceased person's family or household may also bring an action for injunctive
relief and other appropriate relief or remedial compensation. In an action brought under this
subdivision, a prevailing plaintiff may recover attorney fees.
History: 2006 c 195 s 1
609.502 INTERFERENCE WITH DEAD BODY; REPORTING.
    Subdivision 1. Concealing evidence. Whoever interferes with the body or scene of death
with intent to mislead the coroner or conceal evidence is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 2. Failure to report. (a) A person in charge of a cemetery who has knowledge that the
body of a deceased person interred in the cemetery has been unlawfully removed shall:
(1) immediately report the occurrence to local law enforcement authorities; and
(2) inform the next of kin of the deceased person, if known, within three business days of
the discovery of the body's removal unless the person making the report has been instructed in
writing by law enforcement authorities that informing the next of kin would compromise an
active law enforcement investigation.
(b) A person who violates either clause (1) or (2) is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1976 c 257 s 2; 1990 c 402 s 2
609.505 FALSELY REPORTING CRIME.
    Subdivision 1. False reporting. Whoever informs a law enforcement officer that a crime has
been committed or otherwise provides information to an on-duty peace officer, knowing that the
person is a peace officer, regarding the conduct of others, knowing that it is false and intending
that the officer shall act in reliance upon it, is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person who is convicted
a second or subsequent time under this section is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 2. Reporting police misconduct. (a) Whoever informs, or causes information to
be communicated to, a peace officer, whose responsibilities include investigating or reporting
police misconduct, that a peace officer, as defined in section 626.84, subdivision 1, paragraph
(c), has committed an act of police misconduct, knowing that the information is false, is guilty
of a crime and may be sentenced as follows:
(1) up to the maximum provided for a misdemeanor if the false information does not allege a
criminal act; or
(2) up to the maximum provided for a gross misdemeanor if the false information alleges
a criminal act.
(b) The court shall order any person convicted of a violation of this subdivision to make
full restitution of all reasonable expenses incurred in the investigation of the false allegation
unless the court makes a specific written finding that restitution would be inappropriate under
the circumstances. A restitution award may not exceed $3,000.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.505; 1971 c 23 s 52; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 26; 2005 c 136
art 17 s 30
609.5051 CRIMINAL ALERT NETWORK; DISSEMINATION OF FALSE OR
MISLEADING INFORMATION PROHIBITED.
Whoever uses the criminal alert network under section 299A.61 to disseminate information
regarding the commission of a crime knowing that it is false or misleading, is guilty of a
misdemeanor.
History: 1995 c 226 art 4 s 22; 1995 c 244 s 19
609.506 PROHIBITING GIVING PEACE OFFICER FALSE NAME.
    Subdivision 1. Misdemeanor. Whoever with intent to obstruct justice gives a fictitious name
other than a nickname, or gives a false date of birth, or false or fraudulently altered identification
card to a peace officer, as defined in section 626.84, subdivision 1, paragraph (c), when that officer
makes inquiries incident to a lawful investigatory stop or lawful arrest, or inquiries incident to
executing any other duty imposed by law, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 2. Name of another; gross misdemeanor. Whoever with intent to obstruct justice
gives the name and date of birth of another person to a peace officer, as defined in subdivision
1, when the officer makes inquiries incident to a lawful investigatory stop or lawful arrest, or
inquiries incident to executing any other duty imposed by law, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3. Fictitious name; gross misdemeanor. Whoever in any criminal proceeding with
intent to obstruct justice gives a fictitious name, other than a nickname, or gives a false date of
birth to a court official is guilty of a misdemeanor. Whoever in any criminal proceeding with
intent to obstruct justice gives the name and date of birth of another person to a court official is
guilty of a gross misdemeanor. "Court official" includes a judge, referee, court administrator, or
any employee of the court.
History: 1987 c 127 s 1; 1988 c 681 s 17; 1989 c 209 art 1 s 45; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 40
609.507 FALSELY REPORTING CHILD ABUSE.
A person is guilty of a misdemeanor who:
(1) informs another person that a person has committed sexual abuse, physical abuse, or
neglect of a child, as defined in section 626.556, subdivision 2;
(2) knows that the allegation is false or is without reason to believe that the alleged abuser
committed the abuse or neglect; and
(3) has the intent that the information influence a child custody hearing.
History: 1988 c 662 s 3
609.508 FALSE INFORMATION TO FINANCIAL INSTITUTION.
A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if the person informs a financial institution, orally or
in writing, that one or more of the person's blank checks or debit cards have been lost or stolen,
knowing or having reason to know that the information is false.
History: 2000 c 354 s 2
609.51 SIMULATING LEGAL PROCESS.
    Subdivision 1. Acts prohibited. Whoever does any of the following is guilty of a
misdemeanor:
(1) sends or delivers to another any document which simulates a summons, complaint, or
court process with intent thereby to induce payment of a claim; or
(2) prints, distributes, or offers for sale any such document knowing or intending that it
shall be so used.
    Subd. 2. Exceptions. This section does not prohibit the printing, distribution or sale of blank
forms of legal documents for use in judicial proceedings.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.51; 1971 c 23 s 53
609.515 MISCONDUCT OF JUDICIAL OR HEARING OFFICER.
Whoever does any of the following, when the act is not in violation of section 609.42, is
guilty of a misdemeanor:
(1) Being a judicial or hearing officer, does either of the following:
(a) agrees with or promises another to determine a cause or controversy or issue pending
or to be brought before the officer for or against any party; or
(b) intentionally obtains or receives and uses information relating thereto contrary to the
regular course of the proceeding.
(2) Induces a judicial or hearing officer to act contrary to the provisions of this section.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.515; 1971 c 23 s 54; 1986 c 444

THEFT AND RELATED CRIMES

609.52 THEFT.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. In this section:
(1) "Property" means all forms of tangible property, whether real or personal, without
limitation including documents of value, electricity, gas, water, corpses, domestic animals, dogs,
pets, fowl, and heat supplied by pipe or conduit by municipalities or public utility companies and
articles, as defined in clause (4), representing trade secrets, which articles shall be deemed for
the purposes of Extra Session Laws 1967, chapter 15 to include any trade secret represented by
the article.
(2) "Movable property" is property whose physical location can be changed, including
without limitation things growing on, affixed to, or found in land.
(3) "Value" means the retail market value at the time of the theft, or if the retail market
value cannot be ascertained, the cost of replacement of the property within a reasonable time
after the theft, or in the case of a theft or the making of a copy of an article representing a trade
secret, where the retail market value or replacement cost cannot be ascertained, any reasonable
value representing the damage to the owner which the owner has suffered by reason of losing an
advantage over those who do not know of or use the trade secret. For a check, draft, or other order
for the payment of money, "value" means the amount of money promised or ordered to be paid
under the terms of the check, draft, or other order. For a theft committed within the meaning of
subdivision 2, clause (5), items (i) and (ii), if the property has been restored to the owner, "value"
means the value of the use of the property or the damage which it sustained, whichever is greater,
while the owner was deprived of its possession, but not exceeding the value otherwise provided
herein. For a theft committed within the meaning of subdivision 2, clause (9), if the property has
been restored to the owner, "value" means the rental value of the property, determined at the rental
rate contracted by the defendant or, if no rental rate was contracted, the rental rate customarily
charged by the owner for use of the property, plus any damage that occurred to the property
while the owner was deprived of its possession, but not exceeding the total retail value of the
property at the time of rental.
(4) "Article" means any object, material, device or substance, including any writing, record,
recording, drawing, sample specimen, prototype, model, photograph, microorganism, blueprint
or map, or any copy of any of the foregoing.
(5) "Representing" means describing, depicting, containing, constituting, reflecting or
recording.
(6) "Trade secret" means information, including a formula, pattern, compilation, program,
device, method, technique, or process, that:
(i) derives independent economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally
known to, and not being readily ascertainable by proper means by, other persons who can obtain
economic value from its disclosure or use, and
(ii) is the subject of efforts that are reasonable under the circumstances to maintain its secrecy.
(7) "Copy" means any facsimile, replica, photograph or other reproduction of an article, and
any note, drawing, or sketch made of or from an article while in the presence of the article.
(8) "Property of another" includes property in which the actor is co-owner or has a lien,
pledge, bailment, or lease or other subordinate interest, property transferred by the actor in
circumstances which are known to the actor and which make the transfer fraudulent as defined
in section 513.44, property possessed pursuant to a short-term rental contract, and property of a
partnership of which the actor is a member, unless the actor and the victim are husband and wife.
It does not include property in which the actor asserts in good faith a claim as a collection fee or
commission out of property or funds recovered, or by virtue of a lien, setoff, or counterclaim.
(9) "Services" include but are not limited to labor, professional services, transportation
services, electronic computer services, the supplying of hotel accommodations, restaurant
services, entertainment services, advertising services, telecommunication services, and the
supplying of equipment for use including rental of personal property or equipment.
(10) "Motor vehicle" means a self-propelled device for moving persons or property or
pulling implements from one place to another, whether the device is operated on land, rails,
water, or in the air.
    Subd. 2. Acts constituting theft. Whoever does any of the following commits theft and
may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 3:
(1) intentionally and without claim of right takes, uses, transfers, conceals or retains
possession of movable property of another without the other's consent and with intent to deprive
the owner permanently of possession of the property; or
(2) with or without having a legal interest in movable property, intentionally and without
consent, takes the property out of the possession of a pledgee or other person having a superior
right of possession, with intent thereby to deprive the pledgee or other person permanently of
the possession of the property; or
(3) obtains for the actor or another the possession, custody, or title to property of or
performance of services by a third person by intentionally deceiving the third person with a false
representation which is known to be false, made with intent to defraud, and which does defraud
the person to whom it is made. "False representation" includes without limitation:
(i) the issuance of a check, draft, or order for the payment of money, except a forged check as
defined in section 609.631, or the delivery of property knowing that the actor is not entitled to
draw upon the drawee therefor or to order the payment or delivery thereof; or
(ii) a promise made with intent not to perform. Failure to perform is not evidence of intent
not to perform unless corroborated by other substantial evidence; or
(iii) the preparation or filing of a claim for reimbursement, a rate application, or a cost
report used to establish a rate or claim for payment for medical care provided to a recipient of
medical assistance under chapter 256B, which intentionally and falsely states the costs of or actual
services provided by a vendor of medical care; or
(iv) the preparation or filing of a claim for reimbursement for providing treatment or supplies
required to be furnished to an employee under section 176.135 which intentionally and falsely
states the costs of or actual treatment or supplies provided; or
(v) the preparation or filing of a claim for reimbursement for providing treatment or supplies
required to be furnished to an employee under section 176.135 for treatment or supplies that the
provider knew were medically unnecessary, inappropriate, or excessive; or
(4) by swindling, whether by artifice, trick, device, or any other means, obtains property
or services from another person; or
(5) intentionally commits any of the acts listed in this subdivision but with intent to exercise
temporary control only and:
(i) the control exercised manifests an indifference to the rights of the owner or the restoration
of the property to the owner; or
(ii) the actor pledges or otherwise attempts to subject the property to an adverse claim; or
(iii) the actor intends to restore the property only on condition that the owner pay a reward
or buy back or make other compensation; or
(6) finds lost property and, knowing or having reasonable means of ascertaining the true
owner, appropriates it to the finder's own use or to that of another not entitled thereto without
first having made reasonable effort to find the owner and offer and surrender the property to the
owner; or
(7) intentionally obtains property or services, offered upon the deposit of a sum of money
or tokens in a coin or token operated machine or other receptacle, without making the required
deposit or otherwise obtaining the consent of the owner; or
(8) intentionally and without claim of right converts any article representing a trade secret,
knowing it to be such, to the actor's own use or that of another person or makes a copy of an article
representing a trade secret, knowing it to be such, and intentionally and without claim of right
converts the same to the actor's own use or that of another person. It shall be a complete defense
to any prosecution under this clause for the defendant to show that information comprising the
trade secret was rightfully known or available to the defendant from a source other than the
owner of the trade secret; or
(9) leases or rents personal property under a written instrument and who:
(i) with intent to place the property beyond the control of the lessor conceals or aids or abets
the concealment of the property or any part thereof; or
(ii) sells, conveys, or encumbers the property or any part thereof without the written consent
of the lessor, without informing the person to whom the lessee sells, conveys, or encumbers that
the same is subject to such lease or rental contract with intent to deprive the lessor of possession
thereof; or
(iii) does not return the property to the lessor at the end of the lease or rental term, plus agreed
upon extensions, with intent to wrongfully deprive the lessor of possession of the property; or
(iv) returns the property to the lessor at the end of the lease or rental term, plus agreed upon
extensions, but does not pay the lease or rental charges agreed upon in the written instrument,
with intent to wrongfully deprive the lessor of the agreed upon charges.
For the purposes of items (iii) and (iv), the value of the property must be at least $100.
Evidence that a lessee used a false, fictitious, or not current name, address, or place of employment
in obtaining the property or fails or refuses to return the property or pay the rental contract
charges to lessor within five days after written demand for the return has been served personally
in the manner provided for service of process of a civil action or sent by certified mail to the last
known address of the lessee, whichever shall occur later, shall be evidence of intent to violate
this clause. Service by certified mail shall be deemed to be complete upon deposit in the United
States mail of such demand, postpaid and addressed to the person at the address for the person
set forth in the lease or rental agreement, or, in the absence of the address, to the person's last
known place of residence; or
(10) alters, removes, or obliterates numbers or symbols placed on movable property for
purpose of identification by the owner or person who has legal custody or right to possession
thereof with the intent to prevent identification, if the person who alters, removes, or obliterates
the numbers or symbols is not the owner and does not have the permission of the owner to make
the alteration, removal, or obliteration; or
(11) with the intent to prevent the identification of property involved, so as to deprive the
rightful owner of possession thereof, alters or removes any permanent serial number, permanent
distinguishing number or manufacturer's identification number on personal property or possesses,
sells or buys any personal property knowing or having reason to know that the permanent serial
number, permanent distinguishing number or manufacturer's identification number has been
removed or altered; or
(12) intentionally deprives another of a lawful charge for cable television service by:
(i) making or using or attempting to make or use an unauthorized external connection
outside the individual dwelling unit whether physical, electrical, acoustical, inductive, or other
connection; or by
(ii) attaching any unauthorized device to any cable, wire, microwave, or other component
of a licensed cable communications system as defined in chapter 238. Nothing herein shall be
construed to prohibit the electronic video rerecording of program material transmitted on the
cable communications system by a subscriber for fair use as defined by Public Law 94-553,
section 107; or
(13) except as provided in paragraphs (12) and (14), obtains the services of another with the
intention of receiving those services without making the agreed or reasonably expected payment
of money or other consideration; or
(14) intentionally deprives another of a lawful charge for telecommunications service by:
(i) making, using, or attempting to make or use an unauthorized connection whether physical,
electrical, by wire, microwave, radio, or other means to a component of a local telecommunication
system as provided in chapter 237; or
(ii) attaching an unauthorized device to a cable, wire, microwave, radio, or other component
of a local telecommunication system as provided in chapter 237.
The existence of an unauthorized connection is prima facie evidence that the occupier of the
premises:
(i) made or was aware of the connection; and
(ii) was aware that the connection was unauthorized; or
(15) with intent to defraud, diverts corporate property other than in accordance with
general business purposes or for purposes other than those specified in the corporation's articles
of incorporation; or
(16) with intent to defraud, authorizes or causes a corporation to make a distribution in
violation of section 302A.551, or any other state law in conformity with it; or
(17) takes or drives a motor vehicle without the consent of the owner or an authorized agent
of the owner, knowing or having reason to know that the owner or an authorized agent of the
owner did not give consent.
    Subd. 3. Sentence. Whoever commits theft may be sentenced as follows:
(1) to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$100,000, or both, if the property is a firearm, or the value of the property or services stolen is more
than $35,000 and the conviction is for a violation of subdivision 2, clause (3), (4), (15), or (16); or
(2) to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$20,000, or both, if the value of the property or services stolen exceeds $2,500, or if the property
stolen was an article representing a trade secret, an explosive or incendiary device, or a controlled
substance listed in schedule I or II pursuant to section 152.02 with the exception of marijuana; or
(3) to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$10,000, or both, if:
(a) the value of the property or services stolen is more than $500 but not more than $2,500; or
(b) the property stolen was a controlled substance listed in schedule III, IV, or V pursuant
to section 152.02; or
(c) the value of the property or services stolen is more than $250 but not more than $500
and the person has been convicted within the preceding five years for an offense under this
section, section 256.98; 268.182; 609.24; 609.245; 609.53; 609.582, subdivision 1, 2, or 3;
609.625; 609.63; 609.631; or 609.821, or a statute from another state, the United States, or a
foreign jurisdiction, in conformity with any of those sections, and the person received a felony
or gross misdemeanor sentence for the offense, or a sentence that was stayed under section
609.135 if the offense to which a plea was entered would allow imposition of a felony or gross
misdemeanor sentence; or
(d) the value of the property or services stolen is not more than $500, and any of the
following circumstances exist:
(i) the property is taken from the person of another or from a corpse, or grave or coffin
containing a corpse; or
(ii) the property is a record of a court or officer, or a writing, instrument or record kept, filed
or deposited according to law with or in the keeping of any public officer or office; or
(iii) the property is taken from a burning, abandoned, or vacant building or upon its removal
therefrom, or from an area of destruction caused by civil disaster, riot, bombing, or the proximity
of battle; or
(iv) the property consists of public funds belonging to the state or to any political subdivision
or agency thereof; or
(v) the property stolen is a motor vehicle; or
(4) to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than
$3,000, or both, if the value of the property or services stolen is more than $250 but not more
than $500; or
(5) in all other cases where the value of the property or services stolen is $250 or less, to
imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000, or
both, provided, however, in any prosecution under subdivision 2, clauses (1), (2), (3), (4), and
(13), the value of the money or property or services received by the defendant in violation of
any one or more of the above provisions within any six-month period may be aggregated and
the defendant charged accordingly in applying the provisions of this subdivision; provided that
when two or more offenses are committed by the same person in two or more counties, the
accused may be prosecuted in any county in which one of the offenses was committed for all of
the offenses aggregated under this paragraph.
    Subd. 4. Wrongfully obtained public assistance; consideration of disqualification.
When determining the sentence for a person convicted of theft by wrongfully obtaining public
assistance, as defined in section 256.98, subdivision 1, the court shall consider the fact that, under
section 256.98, subdivision 8, the person will be disqualified from receiving public assistance as
a result of the person's conviction.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.52; 1967 c 178 s 1; Ex1967 c 15 s 1-3; 1971 c 23 s 55; 1971
c 25 s 92; 1971 c 697 s 1; 1971 c 717 s 1; 1971 c 796 s 1; 1971 c 845 s 14; 1975 c 244 s 1; 1976 c
112 s 1; 1976 c 188 s 6; 1977 c 396 s 1; 1978 c 674 s 60; 1979 c 258 s 15; 1981 c 120 s 1; 1981 c
299 s 1; 1983 c 238 s 1; 1983 c 331 s 10; 1984 c 419 s 1; 1984 c 466 s 1; 1984 c 483 s 1; 1984
c 628 art 3 s 5; 1985 c 243 s 7,8; 1986 c 378 s 1; 1986 c 435 s 10; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 254 s
9; 1987 c 329 s 8-10; 1988 c 712 s 7; 1989 c 290 art 7 s 5; 1991 c 279 s 32; 1991 c 292 art 5
s 80; 1992 c 510 art 2 s 14; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 41; 1995 c 244 s 20; 1996 c 408 art 3 s 31,32;
1997 c 66 s 79; 1997 c 239 art 3 s 17; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 18; 1999 c 76 s 1,2; 1999 c 218 s 2;
2004 c 228 art 1 s 72; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 31
609.521 POSSESSION OF SHOPLIFTING GEAR.
(a) As used in this section, an "electronic article surveillance system" means any electronic
device or devices that are designed to detect the unauthorized removal of marked merchandise
from a store.
(b) Whoever has in possession any device, gear, or instrument designed to assist in
shoplifting or defeating an electronic article surveillance system with intent to use the same to
shoplift and thereby commit theft may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three
years or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both.
History: 1975 c 314 s 1; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 8 s 26
609.523 RETURN OF STOLEN PROPERTY TO OWNERS.
    Subdivision 1. Photographic record. Photographs of property, as defined in section 609.52,
subdivision 1
, over which a person is alleged to have exerted unauthorized control or to have
otherwise obtained unlawfully, are competent evidence if the photographs are admissible into
evidence under all rules of law governing the admissibility of photographs into evidence. The
photographic record, when satisfactorily identified, is as admissible in evidence as the property
itself.
    Subd. 2. Record of property. The photographs may bear a written description of the
property alleged to have been wrongfully taken, the name of the owner of the property taken,
the name of the accused, the name of the arresting law enforcement officer, the date of the
photograph, and the signature of the photographer.
    Subd. 3. Return of property. A law enforcement agency which is holding property over
which a person is alleged to have exerted unauthorized control or to have otherwise obtained
unlawfully may return that property to its owner if:
(a) the appropriately identified photographs are filed and retained by the law enforcement
agency;
(b) satisfactory proof of ownership of the property is shown by the owner;
(c) a declaration of ownership is signed under penalty of perjury; and
(d) a receipt for the property is obtained from the owner upon delivery by the law
enforcement agency.
    Subd. 4. Examination of property. If the recovered property has a value in excess of $150,
then the owner shall retain possession for at least 14 days to allow the defense attorney to
examine the property.
History: 1982 c 539 s 1
609.525 BRINGING STOLEN GOODS INTO STATE.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. Whoever brings property into the state which the actor has stolen
outside the state, or received outside of the state knowing it to have been stolen, may be sentenced
in accordance with the provisions of section 609.52, subdivision 3. The actor may be charged,
indicted, and tried in any county, but not more than one county, into or through which the actor
has brought such property.
    Subd. 2. Defining stolen property. Property is stolen within the meaning of this section if
the act by which the owner was deprived of property was a criminal offense under the laws of the
state in which the act was committed and would constitute a theft under this chapter if the act
had been committed in this state.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.525; 1986 c 444
609.526 PRECIOUS METAL DEALERS; RECEIVING STOLEN PROPERTY.
Any precious metal dealer as defined in section 325F.731, subdivision 2, or any person
employed by a precious metal dealer as defined in section 325F.731, subdivision 2, who receives,
possesses, transfers, buys, or conceals any stolen property or property obtained by robbery,
knowing or having reason to know the property was stolen or obtained by robbery, may be
sentenced as follows:
(1) if the value of the property received, bought, or concealed is $1,000 or more, to
imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $50,000, or
both;
(2) if the value of the property received, bought, or concealed is less than $1,000 but more
than $300, to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $40,000, or both;
(3) if the value of the property received, bought, or concealed is $300 or less, to imprisonment
for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000, or both.
Any person convicted of violating this section a second or subsequent time within a period of
one year may be sentenced as provided in clause (1).
History: 1989 c 290 art 7 s 6; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.527 IDENTITY THEFT.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the
meanings given them in this subdivision.
(b) "Direct victim" means any person or entity described in section 611A.01, paragraph (b),
whose identity has been transferred, used, or possessed in violation of this section.
(c) "False pretense" means any false, fictitious, misleading, or fraudulent information or
pretense or pretext depicting or including or deceptively similar to the name, logo, Web site
address, e-mail address, postal address, telephone number, or any other identifying information of
a for-profit or not-for-profit business or organization or of a government agency, to which the
user has no legitimate claim of right.
(d) "Identity" means any name, number, or data transmission that may be used, alone or in
conjunction with any other information, to identify a specific individual or entity, including
any of the following:
(1) a name, Social Security number, date of birth, official government-issued driver's license
or identification number, government passport number, or employer or taxpayer identification
number;
(2) unique electronic identification number, address, account number, or routing code; or
(3) telecommunication identification information or access device.
(e) "Indirect victim" means any person or entity described in section 611A.01, paragraph (b),
other than a direct victim.
(f) "Loss" means value obtained, as defined in section 609.52, subdivision 1, clause (3), and
expenses incurred by a direct or indirect victim as a result of a violation of this section.
(g) "Unlawful activity" means:
(1) any felony violation of the laws of this state or any felony violation of a similar law of
another state or the United States; and
(2) any nonfelony violation of the laws of this state involving theft, theft by swindle, forgery,
fraud, or giving false information to a public official, or any nonfelony violation of a similar law
of another state or the United States.
    Subd. 2. Crime. A person who transfers, possesses, or uses an identity that is not the person's
own, with the intent to commit, aid, or abet any unlawful activity is guilty of identity theft and
may be punished as provided in subdivision 3.
    Subd. 3. Penalties. A person who violates subdivision 2 may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the offense involves a single direct victim and the total, combined loss to the direct
victim and any indirect victims is $250 or less, the person may be sentenced as provided in section
609.52, subdivision 3, clause (5);
(2) if the offense involves a single direct victim and the total, combined loss to the direct
victim and any indirect victims is more than $250 but not more than $500, the person may be
sentenced as provided in section 609.52, subdivision 3, clause (4);
(3) if the offense involves two or three direct victims or the total, combined loss to the direct
and indirect victims is more than $500 but not more than $2,500, the person may be sentenced as
provided in section 609.52, subdivision 3, clause (3);
(4) if the offense involves more than three but not more than seven direct victims, or if the
total combined loss to the direct and indirect victims is more than $2,500, the person may be
sentenced as provided in section 609.52, subdivision 3, clause (2); and
(5) if the offense involves eight or more direct victims; or if the total, combined loss to the
direct and indirect victims is more than $35,000; or if the offense is related to possession or
distribution of pornographic work in violation of section 617.246 or 617.247; the person may be
sentenced as provided in section 609.52, subdivision 3, clause (1).
    Subd. 4. Restitution; items provided to victim. (a) A direct or indirect victim of an identity
theft crime shall be considered a victim for all purposes, including any rights that accrue under
chapter 611A and rights to court-ordered restitution.
(b) The court shall order a person convicted of violating subdivision 2 to pay restitution of
not less than $1,000 to each direct victim of the offense.
(c) Upon the written request of a direct victim or the prosecutor setting forth with specificity
the facts and circumstances of the offense in a proposed order, the court shall provide to the
victim, without cost, a certified copy of the complaint filed in the matter, the judgment of
conviction, and an order setting forth the facts and circumstances of the offense.
    Subd. 5. Reporting. (a) A person who has learned or reasonably suspects that a person is
a direct victim of a crime under subdivision 2 may initiate a law enforcement investigation by
contacting the local law enforcement agency that has jurisdiction where the person resides,
regardless of where the crime may have occurred. The agency must prepare a police report of the
matter, provide the complainant with a copy of that report, and may begin an investigation of the
facts, or, if the suspected crime was committed in a different jurisdiction, refer the matter to the law
enforcement agency where the suspected crime was committed for an investigation of the facts.
(b) If a law enforcement agency refers a report to the law enforcement agency where the
crime was committed, it need not include the report as a crime committed in its jurisdiction for
purposes of information that the agency is required to provide to the commissioner of public
safety pursuant to section 299C.06.
    Subd. 5a. Crime of electronic use of false pretense to obtain identity. (a) A person who,
with intent to obtain the identity of another, uses a false pretense in an e-mail to another person or
in a Web page, electronic communication, advertisement, or any other communication on the
Internet, is guilty of a crime.
(b) Whoever commits such offense may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five
years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
(c) In a prosecution under this subdivision, it is not a defense that:
(1) the person committing the offense did not obtain the identity of another;
(2) the person committing the offense did not use the identity; or
(3) the offense did not result in financial loss or any other loss to any person.
    Subd. 6. Venue. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in section 627.01, an offense
committed under subdivision 2 or 5a may be prosecuted in:
(1) the county where the offense occurred;
(2) the county of residence or place of business of the direct victim or indirect victim; or
(3) in the case of a violation of subdivision 5a, the county of residence of the person whose
identity was obtained or sought.
    Subd. 7. Aggregation. In any prosecution under subdivision 2, the value of the money or
property or services the defendant receives or the number of direct or indirect victims within any
six-month period may be aggregated and the defendant charged accordingly in applying the
provisions of subdivision 3; provided that when two or more offenses are committed by the same
person in two or more counties, the accused may be prosecuted in any county in which one of the
offenses was committed for all of the offenses aggregated under this subdivision.
History: 1999 c 244 s 2; 2000 c 354 s 3; 2003 c 106 s 1-3; 1Sp2003 c 2 art 8 s 9; 2005
c 136 art 17 s 32-36
609.528 POSSESSION OR SALE OF STOLEN OR COUNTERFEIT CHECK;
PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings
given them in this subdivision.
(b) "Direct victim" means any person or entity described in section 611A.01, paragraph (b),
from whom a check is stolen or whose name or other identifying information is contained in
a counterfeit check.
(c) "Indirect victim" means any person or entity described in section 611A.01, paragraph (b),
other than a direct victim.
(d) "Loss" means value obtained, as defined in section 609.52, subdivision 1, clause (3), and
expenses incurred by a direct or indirect victim as a result of a violation of this section.
    Subd. 2. Crime. A person who sells, possesses, receives, or transfers a check that is stolen or
counterfeit, knowing or having reason to know the check is stolen or counterfeit, is guilty of a
crime and may be punished as provided in subdivision 3.
    Subd. 3. Penalties. A person who violates subdivision 2 may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the offense involves a single direct victim and the total, combined loss to the direct
victim and any indirect victims is $250 or less, the person may be sentenced as provided in section
609.52, subdivision 3, clause (5);
(2) if the offense involves a single direct victim and the total, combined loss to the direct
victim and any indirect victims is more than $250 but not more than $500, the person may be
sentenced as provided in section 609.52, subdivision 3, clause (4);
(3) if the offense involves two or three direct victims or the total, combined loss to the direct
and indirect victims is more than $500 but not more than $2,500, the person may be sentenced
as provided in section 609.52, subdivision 3, clause (3); and
(4) if the offense involves four or more direct victims, or if the total, combined loss to
the direct and indirect victims is more than $2,500, the person may be sentenced as provided
in section 609.52, subdivision 3, clause (2).
History: 2000 c 354 s 4
609.529 MAIL THEFT.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the
meanings given them in this subdivision.
(b) "Mail" means a letter, postal card, package, bag, or other sealed article addressed to
another.
(c) "Mail depository" means a mail box, letter box, or mail receptacle; a post office or station
of a post office; a mail route; or a postal service vehicle.
    Subd. 2. Crime. Whoever does any of the following is guilty of mail theft and may be
sentenced as provided in subdivision 3:
(1) intentionally and without claim of right removes mail from a mail depository;
(2) intentionally and without claim of right takes mail from a mail carrier;
(3) obtains custody of mail by intentionally deceiving a mail carrier, or other person who
rightfully possesses or controls the mail, with a false representation which is known to be false,
made with intent to deceive and which does deceive a mail carrier or other person who possesses
or controls the mail;
(4) intentionally and without claim of right removes the contents of mail addressed to another;
(5) intentionally and without claim of right takes mail, or the contents of mail, that has been
left for collection on or near a mail depository; or
(6) receives, possesses, transfers, buys, or conceals mail obtained by acts described in clauses
(1) to (5), knowing or having reason to know the mail was obtained illegally.
    Subd. 3. Penalties. A person convicted under subdivision 2 may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than three years or to a payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or
both.
    Subd. 4. Venue. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in section 627.01, an offense
committed under subdivision 2 may be prosecuted in:
(1) the county where the offense occurred; or
(2) the county of residence or place of business of the direct victim or indirect victim.
History: 2003 c 106 s 4
609.53 RECEIVING STOLEN PROPERTY.
    Subdivision 1. Penalty. Except as otherwise provided in section 609.526, any person who
receives, possesses, transfers, buys or conceals any stolen property or property obtained by
robbery, knowing or having reason to know the property was stolen or obtained by robbery, may
be sentenced in accordance with the provisions of section 609.52, subdivision 3.
    Subd. 1a.[Repealed, 1989 c 290 art 7 s 14]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1982 c 613 s 7]
    Subd. 2a.[Repealed, 1982 c 613 s 7]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1989 c 290 art 7 s 14]
    Subd. 3a.[Repealed, 1989 c 290 art 7 s 14]
    Subd. 4. Civil action; treble damages. Any person who has been injured by a violation
of subdivision 1 or section 609.526 may bring an action for three times the amount of actual
damages sustained by the plaintiff or $1,500, whichever is greater, and the costs of suit and
reasonable attorney's fees.
    Subd. 5. Value. In this section, "value" has the meaning defined in section 609.52,
subdivision 1
, clause (3).
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.53; 1973 c 669 s 1; 1979 c 232 s 1,2; 1981 c 333 s 14-17;
1982 c 613 s 1-4; 1984 c 483 s 2; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1987 c 384 art 1 s 46,47; 1989 c 290
art 7 s 7,8
609.531 FORFEITURES.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. For the purpose of sections 609.531 to 609.5318, the following
terms have the meanings given them.
(a) "Conveyance device" means a device used for transportation and includes, but is not
limited to, a motor vehicle, trailer, snowmobile, airplane, and vessel and any equipment attached
to it. The term "conveyance device" does not include property which is, in fact, itself stolen or
taken in violation of the law.
(b) "Weapon used" means a dangerous weapon as defined under section 609.02, subdivision
6
, that the actor used or had in possession in furtherance of a crime.
(c) "Property" means property as defined in section 609.52, subdivision 1, clause (1).
(d) "Contraband" means property which is illegal to possess under Minnesota law.
(e) "Appropriate agency" means the Bureau of Criminal Apprehension, the Minnesota
Division of Driver and Vehicle Services, the Minnesota State Patrol, a county sheriff's department,
the Three Rivers Park District park rangers, the Department of Natural Resources Division of
Enforcement, the University of Minnesota Police Department, the Department of Corrections'
Fugitive Apprehension Unit, or a city or airport police department.
(f) "Designated offense" includes:
(1) for weapons used: any violation of this chapter, chapter 152, or chapter 624;
(2) for driver's license or identification card transactions: any violation of section 171.22; and
(3) for all other purposes: a felony violation of, or a felony-level attempt or conspiracy to
violate, section 325E.17; 325E.18; 609.185; 609.19; 609.195; 609.21; 609.221; 609.222; 609.223;
609.2231; 609.24; 609.245; 609.25; 609.255; 609.282; 609.283; 609.322; 609.342, subdivision 1,
clauses (a) to (f); 609.343, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (f); 609.344, subdivision 1, clauses (a)
to (e), and (h) to (j); 609.345, subdivision 1, clauses (a) to (e), and (h) to (j); 609.352; 609.42;
609.425; 609.466; 609.485; 609.487; 609.52; 609.525; 609.527; 609.528; 609.53; 609.54;
609.551; 609.561; 609.562; 609.563; 609.582; 609.59; 609.595; 609.631; 609.66, subdivision
1e
; 609.671, subdivisions 3, 4, 5, 8, and 12; 609.687; 609.821; 609.825; 609.86; 609.88; 609.89;
609.893; 609.895; 617.246; 617.247; or a gross misdemeanor or felony violation of section
609.891 or 624.7181; or any violation of section 609.324.
(g) "Controlled substance" has the meaning given in section 152.01, subdivision 4.
    Subd. 1a. Construction. Sections 609.531 to 609.5318 must be liberally construed to carry
out the following remedial purposes:
(1) to enforce the law;
(2) to deter crime;
(3) to reduce the economic incentive to engage in criminal enterprise;
(4) to increase the pecuniary loss resulting from the detection of criminal activity; and
(5) to forfeit property unlawfully used or acquired and divert the property to law enforcement
purposes.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1988 c 665 s 17]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1988 c 665 s 17]
    Subd. 4. Seizure. Property subject to forfeiture under sections 609.531 to 609.5318 may be
seized by the appropriate agency upon process issued by any court having jurisdiction over the
property. Property may be seized without process if:
(1) the seizure is incident to a lawful arrest or a lawful search;
(2) the property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the
state in a criminal injunction or forfeiture proceeding under this chapter; or
(3) the appropriate agency has probable cause to believe that the delay occasioned by the
necessity to obtain process would result in the removal or destruction of the property and that:
(i) the property was used or is intended to be used in commission of a felony; or
(ii) the property is dangerous to health or safety.
If property is seized without process under clause (3), subclause (i), the county attorney must
institute a forfeiture action under section 609.5313 as soon as is reasonably possible.
    Subd. 5. Right to possession vests immediately; custody of seized property. All right,
title, and interest in property subject to forfeiture under sections 609.531 to 609.5318 vests in
the appropriate agency upon commission of the act or omission giving rise to the forfeiture. Any
property seized under sections 609.531 to 609.5318 is not subject to replevin, but is deemed to be
in the custody of the appropriate agency subject to the orders and decrees of the court having
jurisdiction over the forfeiture proceedings. When property is so seized, the appropriate agency
may:
(1) place the property under seal;
(2) remove the property to a place designated by it;
(3) in the case of controlled substances, require the state Board of Pharmacy to take custody
of the property and remove it to an appropriate location for disposition in accordance with law; and
(4) take other steps reasonable and necessary to secure the property and prevent waste.
    Subd. 5a. Bond by owner for possession. (a) If the owner of property that has been seized
under sections 609.531 to 609.5318 seeks possession of the property before the forfeiture action is
determined, the owner may, subject to the approval of the appropriate agency, give security or
post bond payable to the appropriate agency in an amount equal to the retail value of the seized
property. On posting the security or bond, the seized property must be returned to the owner and
the forfeiture action shall proceed against the security as if it were the seized property. This
subdivision does not apply to contraband property.
(b) If the owner of a motor vehicle that has been seized under this section seeks possession
of the vehicle before the forfeiture action is determined, the owner may surrender the vehicle's
certificate of title in exchange for the vehicle. The motor vehicle must be returned to the owner
within 24 hours if the owner surrenders the motor vehicle's certificate of title to the appropriate
agency, pending resolution of the forfeiture action. If the certificate is surrendered, the owner may
not be ordered to post security or bond as a condition of release of the vehicle. When a certificate
of title is surrendered under this provision, the agency shall notify the Department of Public
Safety and any secured party noted on the certificate. The agency shall also notify the department
and the secured party when it returns a surrendered title to the motor vehicle owner.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1988 c 665 s 17]
    Subd. 6a. Forfeiture a civil procedure; conviction results in presumption. (a) An action
for forfeiture is a civil in rem action and is independent of any criminal prosecution, except
as provided in this subdivision and section 609.5318. The appropriate agency handling the
forfeiture has the benefit of the evidentiary presumption of section 609.5314, subdivision 1, but
otherwise bears the burden of proving the act or omission giving rise to the forfeiture by clear and
convincing evidence, except that in cases arising under section 609.5312, the designated offense
may only be established by a criminal conviction.
(b) A court may not issue an order of forfeiture under section 609.5311 while the alleged
owner of the property is in custody and related criminal proceedings are pending against the
alleged owner. For forfeiture of a motor vehicle, the alleged owner is the registered owner
according to records of the Department of Public Safety. For real property, the alleged owner is the
owner of record. For other property, the alleged owner is the person notified by the prosecuting
authority in filing the forfeiture action.
History: 1984 c 625 s 1; 1985 c 160 s 2; 1Sp1985 c 16 art 2 s 15; 1986 c 351 s 17; 1986 c
444; 1986 c 446 s 4; 1987 c 267 s 2; 1988 c 665 s 5-10; 1988 c 712 s 8; 1989 c 95 s 1; 1989 c 290
art 3 s 29; 1989 c 305 s 4; 1990 c 494 s 2; 1991 c 199 art 1 s 85; 1991 c 323 s 1; 1991 c 347 art 3
s 3; 1993 c 221 s 6; 1993 c 326 art 1 s 5; art 4 s 27,28; 1994 c 636 art 3 s 11; 1999 c 142 s 1; 1999
c 244 s 3; 2000 c 354 s 5; 2004 c 295 art 1 s 16; 2005 c 82 s 12; 2005 c 136 art 13 s 8; art 17 s 37
609.5311 FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY ASSOCIATED WITH CONTROLLED
SUBSTANCES.
    Subdivision 1. Controlled substances. All controlled substances that were manufactured,
distributed, dispensed, or acquired in violation of chapter 152 are subject to forfeiture under this
section, except as provided in subdivision 3 and section 609.5316.
    Subd. 2. Associated property. (a) All property, real and personal, that has been used,
or is intended for use, or has in any way facilitated, in whole or in part, the manufacturing,
compounding, processing, delivering, importing, cultivating, exporting, transporting, or
exchanging of contraband or a controlled substance that has not been lawfully manufactured,
distributed, dispensed, and acquired is subject to forfeiture under this section, except as provided
in subdivision 3.
(b) The Department of Corrections' Fugitive Apprehension Unit shall not seize real property
for the purposes of forfeiture under paragraph (a).
    Subd. 3. Limitations on forfeiture of certain property associated with controlled
substances. (a) A conveyance device is subject to forfeiture under this section only if the retail
value of the controlled substance is $25 or more and the conveyance device is associated with a
felony-level controlled substance crime.
(b) Real property is subject to forfeiture under this section only if the retail value of the
controlled substance or contraband is $1,000 or more.
(c) Property used by any person as a common carrier in the transaction of business as a
common carrier is subject to forfeiture under this section only if the owner of the property is
a consenting party to, or is privy to, the use or intended use of the property as described in
subdivision 2.
(d) Property is subject to forfeiture under this section only if its owner was privy to the use
or intended use described in subdivision 2, or the unlawful use or intended use of the property
otherwise occurred with the owner's knowledge or consent.
(e) Forfeiture under this section of a conveyance device or real property encumbered by a
bona fide security interest is subject to the interest of the secured party unless the secured party
had knowledge of or consented to the act or omission upon which the forfeiture is based. A
person claiming a security interest bears the burden of establishing that interest by clear and
convincing evidence.
(f) Forfeiture under this section of real property is subject to the interests of a good faith
purchaser for value unless the purchaser had knowledge of or consented to the act or omission
upon which the forfeiture is based.
(g) Notwithstanding paragraphs (d), (e), and (f), property is not subject to forfeiture based
solely on the owner's or secured party's knowledge of the unlawful use or intended use of the
property if: (1) the owner or secured party took reasonable steps to terminate use of the property
by the offender; or (2) the property is real property owned by the parent of the offender, unless the
parent actively participated in, or knowingly acquiesced to, a violation of chapter 152, or the real
property constitutes proceeds derived from or traceable to a use described in subdivision 2.
(h) The Department of Correction's Fugitive Apprehension Unit shall not seize a conveyance
device or real property, for the purposes of forfeiture under paragraphs (a) to (g).
    Subd. 4. Records; proceeds. (a) All books, records, and research products and materials,
including formulas, microfilm, tapes, and data that are used, or intended for use in the manner
described in subdivision 2 are subject to forfeiture.
(b) All property, real and personal, that represents proceeds derived from or traceable to a
use described in subdivision 2 is subject to forfeiture.
History: 1988 c 665 s 11; 1989 c 290 art 3 s 30; 1989 c 305 s 5,6; 1992 c 533 s 2; 1993 c 6 s
5; 1993 c 326 art 1 s 6; 2005 c 136 art 13 s 9,10
609.5312 FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY ASSOCIATED WITH DESIGNATED
OFFENSES.
    Subdivision 1. Property subject to forfeiture. (a) All personal property is subject to
forfeiture if it was used or intended for use to commit or facilitate the commission of a designated
offense. All money and other property, real and personal, that represent proceeds of a designated
offense, and all contraband property, are subject to forfeiture, except as provided in this section.
(b) The Department of Corrections' Fugitive Apprehension Unit shall not seize real property
for the purposes of forfeiture under paragraph (a).
    Subd. 1a. Computers and related property subject to forfeiture. (a) As used in this
subdivision, "property" has the meaning given in section 609.87, subdivision 6.
(b) When a computer or a component part of a computer is used or intended for use to
commit or facilitate the commission of a designated offense, the computer and all software, data,
and other property contained in the computer are subject to forfeiture unless prohibited by the
Privacy Protection Act, United States Code, title 42, sections 2000aa to 2000aa-12, or other
state or federal law.
(c) Regardless of whether a forfeiture action is initiated following the lawful seizure of a
computer and related property, if the appropriate agency returns hardware, software, data, or other
property to the owner, the agency may charge the owner for the cost of separating contraband
from the computer or other property returned, including salary and contract costs. The agency
may not charge these costs to an owner of a computer or related property who was not privy to
the act or omission upon which the seizure was based, or who did not have knowledge of or
consent to the act or omission, if the owner:
(1) requests from the agency copies of specified legitimate data files and provides sufficient
storage media; or
(2) requests the return of a computer or other property less data storage devices on which
contraband resides.
    Subd. 2. Limitations on forfeiture of property associated with designated offenses. (a)
Property used by a person as a common carrier in the transaction of business as a common carrier
is subject to forfeiture under this section only if the owner of the property is a consenting party to,
or is privy to, the commission of a designated offense.
(b) Property is subject to forfeiture under this section only if the owner was privy to the act
or omission upon which the forfeiture is based, or the act or omission occurred with the owner's
knowledge or consent.
(c) Property encumbered by a bona fide security interest is subject to the interest of the
secured party unless the party had knowledge of or consented to the act or omission upon which
the forfeiture is based. A person claiming a security interest bears the burden of establishing
that interest by clear and convincing evidence.
(d) Notwithstanding paragraphs (b) and (c), property is not subject to forfeiture based solely
on the owner's or secured party's knowledge of the act or omission upon which the forfeiture is
based if the owner or secured party took reasonable steps to terminate use of the property by the
offender.
    Subd. 3. Vehicle forfeiture for prostitution offenses. (a) A motor vehicle is subject to
forfeiture under this subdivision if it was used to commit or facilitate, or used during the
commission of, a violation of section 609.324 or a violation of a local ordinance substantially
similar to section 609.324. A motor vehicle is subject to forfeiture under this subdivision only if
the offense is established by proof of a criminal conviction for the offense. Except as otherwise
provided in this subdivision, a forfeiture under this subdivision is governed by sections 609.531,
609.5312, and 609.5313.
(b) When a motor vehicle subject to forfeiture under this subdivision is seized in advance of
a judicial forfeiture order, a hearing before a judge or referee must be held within 96 hours of
the seizure. Notice of the hearing must be given to the registered owner within 48 hours of the
seizure. The prosecuting authority shall certify to the court, at or in advance of the hearing, that it
has filed or intends to file charges against the alleged violator for violating section 609.324 or a
local ordinance substantially similar to section 609.324. After conducting the hearing, the court
shall order that the motor vehicle be returned to the owner if:
(1) the prosecutor has failed to make the certification required by paragraph (b);
(2) the owner of the motor vehicle has demonstrated to the court's satisfaction that the
owner has a defense to the forfeiture, including but not limited to the defenses contained in
subdivision 2; or
(3) the court determines that seizure of the vehicle creates or would create an undue hardship
for members of the owner's family.
(c) If the defendant is acquitted or prostitution charges against the defendant are dismissed,
neither the owner nor the defendant is responsible for paying any costs associated with the seizure
or storage of the vehicle.
(d) A vehicle leased or rented under section 168.27, subdivision 4, for a period of 180 days
or less is not subject to forfeiture under this subdivision.
(e) For purposes of this subdivision, seizure occurs either:
(1) at the date at which personal service of process upon the registered owner is made; or
(2) at the date when the registered owner has been notified by certified mail at the address
listed in the Minnesota Department of Public Safety computerized motor vehicle registration
records.
(f) The Department of Corrections' Fugitive Apprehension Unit shall not participate in
paragraphs (a) to (e).
    Subd. 4. Vehicle forfeiture for fleeing a peace officer. (a) A motor vehicle is subject to
forfeiture under this subdivision if it was used to commit a violation of section 609.487 and
endanger life or property. A motor vehicle is subject to forfeiture under this subdivision only if
the offense is established by proof of a criminal conviction for the offense. Except as otherwise
provided in this subdivision, a forfeiture under this subdivision is governed by sections 609.531,
609.5312, 609.5313, and 609.5315, subdivision 6.
(b) When a motor vehicle subject to forfeiture under this subdivision is seized in advance of
a judicial forfeiture order, a hearing before a judge or referee must be held within 96 hours of
the seizure. Notice of the hearing must be given to the registered owner within 48 hours of the
seizure. The prosecuting authority shall certify to the court, at or in advance of the hearing, that it
has filed or intends to file charges against the alleged violator for violating section 609.487. After
conducting the hearing, the court shall order that the motor vehicle be returned to the owner if:
(1) the prosecutor has failed to make the certification required by this paragraph;
(2) the owner of the motor vehicle has demonstrated to the court's satisfaction that the
owner has a defense to the forfeiture, including but not limited to the defenses contained in
subdivision 2; or
(3) the court determines that seizure of the vehicle creates or would create an undue hardship
for members of the owner's family.
(c) If the defendant is acquitted or the charges against the defendant are dismissed, neither
the owner nor the defendant is responsible for paying any costs associated with the seizure or
storage of the vehicle.
(d) A vehicle leased or rented under section 168.27, subdivision 4, for a period of 180 days
or less is not subject to forfeiture under this subdivision.
(e) A motor vehicle that is an off-road recreational vehicle as defined in section 169A.03,
subdivision 16
, or a motorboat as defined in section 169A.03, subdivision 13, is not subject to
paragraph (b).
(f) For purposes of this subdivision, seizure occurs either:
(1) at the date at which personal service of process upon the registered owner is made; or
(2) at the date when the registered owner has been notified by certified mail at the address
listed in the Minnesota Department of Public Safety computerized motor vehicle registration
records.
(g) The Department of Corrections' Fugitive Apprehension Unit shall not seize a motor
vehicle for the purposes of forfeiture under paragraphs (a) to (f).
History: 1988 c 665 s 12; 1993 c 326 art 1 s 7; art 4 s 29; 1994 c 465 art 1 s 59; 1995 c
244 s 21; 2000 c 466 s 5; 2000 c 478 art 2 s 7; 1Sp2003 c 2 art 4 s 25,26; 2005 c 136 art 13
s 11-13; art 17 s 38
609.5313 FORFEITURE BY JUDICIAL ACTION; PROCEDURE.
The forfeiture of property under sections 609.5311 and 609.5312 is governed by this section.
A separate complaint must be filed against the property stating the act, omission, or occurrence
giving rise to the forfeiture and the date and place of the act or occurrence. The county attorney
shall notify the owner or possessor of the property of the action, if known or readily ascertainable.
The action must be captioned in the name of the county attorney or the county attorney's designee
as plaintiff and the property as defendant.
History: 1988 c 665 s 13
609.5314 ADMINISTRATIVE FORFEITURE OF CERTAIN PROPERTY SEIZED IN
CONNECTION WITH A CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES SEIZURE.
    Subdivision 1. Property subject to administrative forfeiture; presumption. (a) The
following are presumed to be subject to administrative forfeiture under this section:
(1) all money, precious metals, and precious stones found in proximity to:
(i) controlled substances;
(ii) forfeitable drug manufacturing or distributing equipment or devices; or
(iii) forfeitable records of manufacture or distribution of controlled substances;
(2) all conveyance devices containing controlled substances with a retail value of $100 or
more if possession or sale of the controlled substance would be a felony under chapter 152; and
(3) all firearms, ammunition, and firearm accessories found:
(i) in a conveyance device used or intended for use to commit or facilitate the commission of
a felony offense involving a controlled substance;
(ii) on or in proximity to a person from whom a felony amount of controlled substance is
seized; or
(iii) on the premises where a controlled substance is seized and in proximity to the controlled
substance, if possession or sale of the controlled substance would be a felony under chapter 152.
(4) The Department of Corrections' Fugitive Apprehension Unit shall not seize items listed
in clauses (2) and (3) for the purposes of forfeiture.
(b) A claimant of the property bears the burden to rebut this presumption.
    Subd. 2. Administrative forfeiture procedure. (a) Forfeiture of property described in
subdivision 1 is governed by this subdivision. When seizure occurs, or within a reasonable time
after that, all persons known to have an ownership, possessory, or security interest in seized
property must be notified of the seizure and the intent to forfeit the property. In the case of a motor
vehicle required to be registered under chapter 168, notice mailed by certified mail to the address
shown in Department of Public Safety records is deemed sufficient notice to the registered owner.
The notification to a person known to have a security interest in seized property required under
this paragraph applies only to motor vehicles required to be registered under chapter 168 and only
if the security interest is listed on the vehicle's title.
(b) Notice may otherwise be given in the manner provided by law for service of a summons
in a civil action. The notice must be in writing and contain:
(1) a description of the property seized;
(2) the date of seizure;
(3) notice of the right to obtain judicial review of the forfeiture and of the procedure
for obtaining that judicial review, printed in English, Hmong, and Spanish. Substantially the
following language must appear conspicuously: "IF YOU DO NOT DEMAND JUDICIAL
REVIEW EXACTLY AS PRESCRIBED IN MINNESOTA STATUTES, SECTION 609.5314,
SUBDIVISION 3, YOU LOSE THE RIGHT TO A JUDICIAL DETERMINATION OF
THIS FORFEITURE AND YOU LOSE ANY RIGHT YOU MAY HAVE TO THE ABOVE
DESCRIBED PROPERTY. YOU MAY NOT HAVE TO PAY THE FILING FEE FOR
THE DEMAND IF DETERMINED YOU ARE UNABLE TO AFFORD THE FEE. IF
THE PROPERTY IS WORTH $7,500 OR LESS, YOU MAY FILE YOUR CLAIM IN
CONCILIATION COURT. YOU DO NOT HAVE TO PAY THE CONCILIATION COURT
FILING FEE IF THE PROPERTY IS WORTH LESS THAN $500."
    Subd. 3. Judicial determination. (a) Within 60 days following service of a notice of seizure
and forfeiture under this section, a claimant may file a demand for a judicial determination of the
forfeiture. The demand must be in the form of a civil complaint and must be filed with the court
administrator in the county in which the seizure occurred, together with proof of service of a copy
of the complaint on the county attorney for that county, and the standard filing fee for civil actions
unless the petitioner has the right to sue in forma pauperis under section 563.01. If the value of the
seized property is $7,500 or less, the claimant may file an action in conciliation court for recovery
of the seized property. If the value of the seized property is less than $500, the claimant does not
have to pay the conciliation court filing fee. No responsive pleading is required of the county
attorney and no court fees may be charged for the county attorney's appearance in the matter.
The proceedings are governed by the Rules of Civil Procedure.
(b) The complaint must be captioned in the name of the claimant as plaintiff and the
seized property as defendant, and must state with specificity the grounds on which the claimant
alleges the property was improperly seized and the plaintiff's interest in the property seized.
Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, an action for the return of property seized under this
section may not be maintained by or on behalf of any person who has been served with a notice of
seizure and forfeiture unless the person has complied with this subdivision.
(c) If the claimant makes a timely demand for judicial determination under this subdivision,
the appropriate agency must conduct the forfeiture under section 609.531, subdivision 6a.
The limitations and defenses set forth in section 609.5311, subdivision 3, apply to the judicial
determination.
(d) If a demand for judicial determination of an administrative forfeiture is filed under
this subdivision and the court orders the return of the seized property, the court shall order that
filing fees be reimbursed to the person who filed the demand. In addition, the court may order
sanctions under section 549.211. If the court orders payment of these costs, they must be paid
from forfeited money or proceeds from the sale of forfeited property from the appropriate law
enforcement and prosecuting agencies in the same proportion as they would be distributed under
section 609.5315, subdivision 5.
History: 1988 c 665 s 14; 1989 c 290 art 3 s 31; 1991 c 323 s 2,3; 1993 c 326 art 1 s 8,9;
1997 c 213 art 2 s 5; 1999 c 225 s 3,4; 2005 c 136 art 13 s 14
609.5315 DISPOSITION OF FORFEITED PROPERTY.
    Subdivision 1. Disposition. (a) Subject to paragraph (b), if the court finds under section
609.5313, 609.5314, or 609.5318 that the property is subject to forfeiture, it shall order the
appropriate agency to do one of the following:
(1) unless a different disposition is provided under clause (3) or (4), either destroy firearms,
ammunition, and firearm accessories that the agency decides not to use for law enforcement
purposes under clause (8), or sell them to federally licensed firearms dealers, as defined in section
624.7161, subdivision 1, and distribute the proceeds under subdivision 5 or 5b;
(2) sell property that is not required to be destroyed by law and is not harmful to the public
and distribute the proceeds under subdivision 5 or 5b;
(3) sell antique firearms, as defined in section 624.712, subdivision 3, to the public and
distribute the proceeds under subdivision 5 or 5b;
(4) destroy or use for law enforcement purposes semiautomatic military-style assault
weapons, as defined in section 624.712, subdivision 7;
(5) take custody of the property and remove it for disposition in accordance with law;
(6) forward the property to the federal drug enforcement administration;
(7) disburse money as provided under subdivision 5 or 5b; or
(8) keep property other than money for official use by the agency and the prosecuting agency.
(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), the Hennepin or Ramsey County sheriff may not sell
firearms, ammunition, or firearms accessories if the policy is disapproved by the applicable
county board.
    Subd. 2. Disposition of administratively forfeited property. If property is forfeited
administratively under section 609.5314 or 609.5318 and no demand for judicial determination is
made, the appropriate agency may dispose of the property in any of the ways listed in subdivision
1.
    Subd. 3. Use by law enforcement. (a) Property kept under this section may be used only in
the performance of official duties of the appropriate agency or prosecuting agency and may not be
used for any other purpose. If an appropriate agency keeps a forfeited motor vehicle for official
use, it shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that the motor vehicle is available for use and
adaptation by the agency's officers who participate in the drug abuse resistance education program.
(b) Proceeds from the sale of property kept under this subdivision must be disbursed as
provided in subdivision 5.
    Subd. 4. Distribution of proceeds of the offense. Property that consists of proceeds derived
from or traced to the commission of a designated offense or a violation of section 609.66,
subdivision 1e
, must be applied first to payment of seizure, storage, forfeiture, and sale expenses,
and to satisfy valid liens against the property; and second, to any court-ordered restitution before
being disbursed as provided under subdivision 5.
    Subd. 5. Distribution of money. The money or proceeds from the sale of forfeited property,
after payment of seizure, storage, forfeiture, and sale expenses, and satisfaction of valid liens
against the property, must be distributed as follows:
(1) 70 percent of the money or proceeds must be forwarded to the appropriate agency for
deposit as a supplement to the agency's operating fund or similar fund for use in law enforcement;
(2) 20 percent of the money or proceeds must be forwarded to the county attorney or other
prosecuting agency that handled the forfeiture for deposit as a supplement to its operating fund or
similar fund for prosecutorial purposes; and
(3) the remaining ten percent of the money or proceeds must be forwarded within 60 days
after resolution of the forfeiture to the state treasury and credited to the general fund. Any local
police relief association organized under chapter 423 which received or was entitled to receive the
proceeds of any sale made under this section before the effective date of Laws 1988, chapter 665,
sections 1 to 17, shall continue to receive and retain the proceeds of these sales.
    Subd. 5a. Disposition of certain forfeited proceeds; prostitution. The proceeds from the
sale of motor vehicles forfeited under section 609.5312, subdivision 3, after payment of seizure,
storage, forfeiture, and sale expenses, and satisfaction of valid liens against the vehicle, shall
be distributed as follows:
(1) 40 percent of the proceeds must be forwarded to the appropriate agency for deposit as a
supplement to the agency's operating fund or similar fund for use in law enforcement;
(2) 20 percent of the proceeds must be forwarded to the city attorney or other prosecuting
agency that handled the forfeiture for deposit as a supplement to its operating fund or similar
fund for prosecutorial purposes; and
(3) the remaining 40 percent of the proceeds must be forwarded to the city treasury for
distribution to neighborhood crime prevention programs.
    Subd. 5b. Disposition of certain forfeited proceeds; trafficking of persons; report
required. (a) For forfeitures resulting from violations of section 609.282, 609.283, or 609.322,
the money or proceeds from the sale of forfeited property, after payment of seizure, storage,
forfeiture, and sale expenses, and satisfaction of valid liens against the property, must be
distributed as follows:
(1) 40 percent of the proceeds must be forwarded to the appropriate agency for deposit as a
supplement to the agency's operating fund or similar fund for use in law enforcement;
(2) 20 percent of the proceeds must be forwarded to the county attorney or other prosecuting
agency that handled the forfeiture for deposit as a supplement to its operating fund or similar
fund for prosecutorial purposes; and
(3) the remaining 40 percent of the proceeds must be forwarded to the commissioner of
public safety and are appropriated to the commissioner for distribution to crime victims services
organizations that provide services to victims of trafficking offenses.
(b) By February 15 of each year, the commissioner of public safety shall report to the
chairs and ranking minority members of the senate and house committees or divisions having
jurisdiction over criminal justice funding on the money collected under paragraph (a), clause (3).
The report must indicate the following relating to the preceding calendar year:
(1) the amount of money appropriated to the commissioner;
(2) how the money was distributed by the commissioner; and
(3) what the organizations that received the money did with it.
    Subd. 6. Reporting requirement. The appropriate agency shall provide a written record of
each forfeiture incident to the state auditor. The record shall include the amount forfeited, date,
and a brief description of the circumstances involved. The record shall also list the number of
firearms forfeited and the make, model, and serial number of each firearm forfeited. Reports shall
be made on a monthly basis in a manner prescribed by the state auditor. The state auditor shall
report annually to the legislature on the nature and extent of forfeitures.
    Subd. 7. Firearms. The agency shall make best efforts for a period of 90 days after the
seizure of an abandoned or stolen firearm to protect the firearm from harm and return it to the
lawful owner.
History: 1988 c 665 s 15; 1989 c 290 art 3 s 32; 1989 c 335 art 4 s 100; 1990 c 499 s 9;
1992 c 513 art 4 s 49; 1993 c 326 art 1 s 10-12; art 4 s 30; 1994 c 636 art 3 s 12-15; art 4 s 29;
1999 c 148 s 1,2; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 39,40
609.5316 SUMMARY FORFEITURES.
    Subdivision 1. Contraband. Except as otherwise provided in this subdivision, if the property
is contraband, the property must be summarily forfeited and either destroyed or used by the
appropriate agency for law enforcement purposes. Upon summary forfeiture, weapons used
must be destroyed by the appropriate agency unless the agency decides to use the weapons for
law enforcement purposes.
    Subd. 2. Controlled substances. (a) Controlled substances listed in schedule I that are
possessed, transferred, sold, or offered for sale in violation of chapter 152, are contraband and
must be seized and summarily forfeited. Controlled substances listed in schedule I that are seized
or come into the possession of peace officers, the owners of which are unknown, are contraband
and must be summarily forfeited.
(b) Species of plants from which controlled substances in schedules I and II may be
derived that have been planted or cultivated in violation of chapter 152 or of which the owners
or cultivators are unknown, or that are wild growths, may be seized and summarily forfeited
to the state. The appropriate agency or its authorized agent may seize the plants if the person
in occupancy or in control of land or premises where the plants are growing or being stored
fails to produce an appropriate registration or proof that the person is the holder of appropriate
registration.
    Subd. 3. Weapons, telephone cloning paraphernalia, and bullet-resistant vests. Weapons
used are contraband and must be summarily forfeited to the appropriate agency upon conviction
of the weapon's owner or possessor for a controlled substance crime; for any offense of this
chapter or chapter 624, or for a violation of an order for protection under section 518B.01,
subdivision 14
. Bullet-resistant vests, as defined in section 609.486, worn or possessed during
the commission or attempted commission of a crime are contraband and must be summarily
forfeited to the appropriate agency upon conviction of the owner or possessor for a controlled
substance crime or for any offense of this chapter. Telephone cloning paraphernalia used in a
violation of section 609.894 are contraband and must be summarily forfeited to the appropriate
agency upon a conviction. Notwithstanding this subdivision, weapons used, bullet-resistant vests
worn or possessed, and telephone cloning paraphernalia may be forfeited without a conviction
under sections 609.531 to 609.5315.
History: 1988 c 665 s 16; 1990 c 439 s 2; 1994 c 636 art 3 s 16,17; 1996 c 331 s 1; 1996
c 408 art 4 s 9
609.5317 REAL PROPERTY; SEIZURES.
    Subdivision 1. Rental property. (a) When contraband or a controlled substance
manufactured, distributed, or acquired in violation of chapter 152 is seized on residential rental
property incident to a lawful search or arrest, the county attorney shall give the notice required by
this subdivision to (1) the landlord of the property or the fee owner identified in the records of the
county assessor, and (2) the agent authorized by the owner to accept service pursuant to section
504B.181. The notice is not required during an ongoing investigation. The notice shall state what
has been seized and specify the applicable duties and penalties under this subdivision. The notice
shall state that the landlord who chooses to assign the right to bring an eviction action retains all
rights and duties, including removal of a tenant's personal property following issuance of the writ
of restitution and delivery of the writ to the sheriff for execution. The notice shall also state that
the landlord may contact the county attorney if threatened by the tenant. Notice shall be sent by
certified letter, return receipt requested, within 30 days of the seizure. If receipt is not returned,
notice shall be given in the manner provided by law for service of summons in a civil action.
(b) Within 15 days after notice of the first occurrence, the landlord shall bring, or assign
to the county attorney of the county in which the real property is located, the right to bring an
eviction action against the tenant. The assignment must be in writing on a form prepared by the
county attorney. Should the landlord choose to assign the right to bring an eviction action, the
assignment shall be limited to those rights and duties up to and including delivery of the writ of
restitution to the sheriff for execution.
(c) Upon notice of a second occurrence on any residential rental property owned by the same
landlord in the same county and involving the same tenant, and within one year after notice of the
first occurrence, the property is subject to forfeiture under sections 609.531, 609.5311, 609.5313,
and 609.5315, unless an eviction action has been commenced as provided in paragraph (b) or the
right to bring an eviction action was assigned to the county attorney as provided in paragraph (b).
If the right has been assigned and not previously exercised, or if the county attorney requests an
assignment and the landlord makes an assignment, the county attorney may bring an eviction
action rather than an action for forfeiture.
(d) The Department of Corrections' Fugitive Apprehension Unit shall not seize real property
for the purposes of forfeiture as described in paragraphs (a) to (c).
    Subd. 2. Additional remedies. Nothing in subdivision 1 prevents the county attorney from
proceeding under section 609.5311 whenever that section applies.
    Subd. 3. Defenses. It is a defense against a proceeding under subdivision 1, paragraph
(b), that the tenant had no knowledge or reason to know of the presence of the contraband or
controlled substance or could not prevent its being brought onto the property.
It is a defense against a proceeding under subdivision 1, paragraph (c), that the landlord
made every reasonable attempt to evict a tenant or to assign the county attorney the right to bring
an eviction action against the tenant, or that the landlord did not receive notice of the seizure.
    Subd. 4. Limitations. This section shall not apply if the retail value of the controlled
substance is less than $100, but this section does not subject real property to forfeiture under
section 609.5311 unless the retail value of the controlled substance is: (1) $1,000 or more; or (2)
there have been two previous controlled substance seizures involving the same tenant.
History: 1989 c 305 s 7; 1991 c 193 s 4; 1992 c 533 s 3; 1999 c 199 art 2 s 34; 2003 c 2 art
2 s 19,20; 2005 c 136 art 13 s 15
609.5318 FORFEITURE OF VEHICLES USED IN DRIVE-BY SHOOTINGS.
    Subdivision 1. Motor vehicles subject to forfeiture. (a) A motor vehicle is subject to
forfeiture under this section if the prosecutor establishes by clear and convincing evidence that the
vehicle was used in a violation of section 609.66, subdivision 1e. The prosecutor need not establish
that any individual was convicted of the violation, but a conviction of the owner for a violation of
section 609.66, subdivision 1e, creates a presumption that the vehicle was used in the violation.
(b) The Department of Corrections' Fugitive Apprehension Unit shall not seize a motor
vehicle for the purposes of forfeiture under paragraph (a).
    Subd. 2. Notice. The registered owner of the vehicle must be notified of the seizure and
intent to forfeit the vehicle within seven days after the seizure. Notice by certified mail to the
address shown in Department of Public Safety records is deemed to be sufficient notice to the
registered owner. Notice must be given in the manner required by section 609.5314, subdivision
2
, paragraph (b), and must specify that a request for a judicial determination of the forfeiture must
be made within 60 days following the service of the notice. If related criminal proceedings are
pending, the notice must also state that a request for a judicial determination of the forfeiture must
be made within 60 days following the conclusion of those proceedings.
    Subd. 3. Hearing. (a) Within 60 days following service of a notice of seizure and forfeiture,
a claimant may demand a judicial determination of the forfeiture. If a related criminal proceeding
is pending, the 60-day period begins to run at the conclusion of those proceedings. The demand
must be in the form of a civil complaint as provided in section 609.5314, subdivision 3, except as
otherwise provided in this section.
(b) If the claimant makes a timely demand for judicial determination under this subdivision,
the appropriate agency must conduct the forfeiture under subdivision 4.
    Subd. 4. Procedure. (a) If a judicial determination of the forfeiture is requested, a separate
complaint must be filed against the vehicle, stating the specific act giving rise to the forfeiture
and the date, time, and place of the act. The action must be captioned in the name of the county
attorney or the county attorney's designee as plaintiff and the property as defendant.
(b) If a demand for judicial determination of an administrative forfeiture is filed and the court
orders the return of the seized property, the court shall order that filing fees be reimbursed to the
person who filed the demand. In addition, the court may order the payment of reasonable costs,
expenses, attorney fees, and towing and storage fees. If the court orders payment of these costs,
they must be paid from forfeited money or proceeds from the sale of forfeited property from the
appropriate law enforcement and prosecuting agencies in the same proportion as they would be
distributed under section 609.5315, subdivision 5.
    Subd. 5. Limitations. (a) A vehicle used by a person as a common carrier in the transaction
of business as a common carrier is subject to forfeiture under this section only if the owner is a
consenting party to, or is privy to, the commission of the act giving rise to the forfeiture.
(b) A vehicle is subject to forfeiture under this section only if the registered owner was
privy to the act upon which the forfeiture is based, the act occurred with the owner's knowledge
or consent, or the act occurred due to the owner's gross negligence in allowing another to use
the vehicle.
(c) A vehicle encumbered by a bona fide security interest is subject to the interest of the
secured party unless the party had knowledge of or consented to the act upon which the forfeiture
is based. A person claiming a security interest bears the burden of establishing that interest
by clear and convincing evidence.
History: 1993 c 326 art 1 s 13; 1993 c 366 s 9; 2005 c 136 art 13 s 16
609.5319 FINANCIAL INSTITUTION SECURED INTEREST.
Property that is subject to a bona fide security interest, based upon a loan or other financing
arranged by a bank, credit union, or any other financial institution, is subject to the interest of the
bank, credit union, or other financial institution in any forfeiture proceeding that is based upon
a violation of any provision of this chapter or the commission of any other criminal act. The
security interest must be established by clear and convincing evidence.
History: 1996 c 408 art 11 s 7
609.532 ATTACHMENT OF DEPOSITED FUNDS.
    Subdivision 1. Attachment. Upon application by the prosecuting authority, a court may
issue an attachment order directing a financial institution to freeze some or all of the funds or
assets deposited with or held by the financial institution by or on behalf of an account holder
charged with the commission of a felony.
    Subd. 2. Application. The application of the prosecuting authority required by this section
must contain:
(1) a copy of a criminal complaint issued by a court of competent jurisdiction that alleges the
commission of a felony by the account holder;
(2) a statement of the actual financial loss caused by the account holder in the commission of
the alleged felony, if not already stated in the complaint; and
(3) identification of the account holder's name and financial institution account number.
    Subd. 3. Issuance of a court order. If the court finds that (1) there is probable cause that the
account holder was involved in the commission of a felony; (2) the accounts of the account holder
are specifically identified; (3) there was a loss of $10,000 or more as a result of the commission of
the alleged felony; and (4) it is necessary to freeze the account holder's funds or assets to ensure
eventual restitution to victims of the alleged offense, the court may order the financial institution
to freeze all or part of the account holder's deposited funds or assets so that the funds or assets
may not be withdrawn or disposed of until further order of the court.
    Subd. 4. Duty of financial institutions. Upon receipt of the order authorized by this section,
a financial institution must not permit any funds or assets that were frozen by the order to be
withdrawn or disposed of until further order of the court.
    Subd. 5. Release of funds. (a) The account holder may, upon notice and motion, have a
hearing to contest the freezing of funds or assets and to seek the release of all or part of them.
(b) The account holder is entitled to an order releasing the freeze by showing:
(1) that the account holder has posted a bond or other adequate surety, guaranteeing that,
upon conviction, adequate funds or assets will be available to pay complete restitution to victims
of the alleged offense;
(2) that there is no probable cause to believe that the account holder was involved in the
alleged offense;
(3) that the amount of funds or assets frozen is more than is necessary to pay complete
restitution to all victims of the alleged offense;
(4) that a joint account holder who is not involved in the alleged criminal activity has
deposited all or part of the funds or assets; or
(5) that the funds or assets should be returned in the interests of justice.
(c) It is not grounds for the release of funds or assets that the particular accounts frozen do not
contain funds or assets that were proceeds from or used in the commission of the alleged offense.
    Subd. 6. Disposition of funds. (a) If the account holder is convicted of a felony or a lesser
offense, the funds or assets may be used to pay complete restitution to victims of the offense. The
court may order the financial institution to remit all or part of the frozen funds or assets to the court.
(b) If the account holder is acquitted or the charges are dismissed, the court must issue an
order releasing the freeze on the funds or assets.
    Subd. 7. Time limit. The freeze permitted by this section expires 24 months after the date of
the court's initial attachment order unless the time limit is extended by the court in writing upon a
showing of good cause by the prosecution.
    Subd. 8. Notice. Within ten days after a court issues an attachment order under this section,
the prosecutor shall send a copy of the order to the account holder's last known address or to the
account holder's attorney, if known.
History: 1987 c 217 s 1
609.535 ISSUANCE OF DISHONORED CHECKS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. For the purpose of this section, the following terms have the
meanings given them.
(a) "Check" means a check, draft, order of withdrawal, or similar negotiable or nonnegotiable
instrument.
(b) "Credit" means an arrangement or understanding with the drawee for the payment of a
check.
    Subd. 2. Acts constituting. Whoever issues a check which, at the time of issuance, the
issuer intends shall not be paid, is guilty of issuing a dishonored check and may be sentenced as
provided in subdivision 2a. In addition, restitution may be ordered by the court.
    Subd. 2a. Penalties. (a) A person who is convicted of issuing a dishonored check under
subdivision 2 may be sentenced as follows:
(1) to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$10,000, or both, if the value of the dishonored check, or checks aggregated under paragraph
(b), is more than $500;
(2) to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than
$3,000, or both, if the value of the dishonored check, or checks aggregated under paragraph (b), is
more than $250 but not more than $500; or
(3) to imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than
$1,000, or both, if the value of the dishonored check, or checks aggregated under paragraph
(b), is not more than $250.
(b) In a prosecution under this subdivision, the value of dishonored checks issued by the
defendant in violation of this subdivision within any six-month period may be aggregated and the
defendant charged accordingly in applying this section. When two or more offenses are committed
by the same person in two or more counties, the accused may be prosecuted in any county in which
one of the dishonored checks was issued for all of the offenses aggregated under this paragraph.
    Subd. 3. Proof of intent. Any of the following is evidence sufficient to sustain a finding that
the person at the time the person issued the check intended it should not be paid:
(1) proof that, at the time of issuance, the issuer did not have an account with the drawee;
(2) proof that, at the time of issuance, the issuer did not have sufficient funds or credit with
the drawee and that the issuer failed to pay the check within five business days after mailing of
notice of nonpayment or dishonor as provided in this subdivision; or
(3) proof that, when presentment was made within a reasonable time, the issuer did not have
sufficient funds or credit with the drawee and that the issuer failed to pay the check within five
business days after mailing of notice of nonpayment or dishonor as provided in this subdivision.
Notice of nonpayment or dishonor that includes a citation to and a description of the
penalties in this section shall be sent by the payee or holder of the check to the maker or drawer
by certified mail, return receipt requested, or by regular mail, supported by an affidavit of service
by mailing, to the address printed on the check. Refusal by the maker or drawer of the check to
accept certified mail notice or failure to claim certified or regular mail notice is not a defense
that notice was not received.
The notice may state that unless the check is paid in full within five business days after
mailing of the notice of nonpayment or dishonor, the payee or holder of the check will or may
refer the matter to proper authorities for prosecution under this section.
An affidavit of service by mailing shall be retained by the payee or holder of the check.
    Subd. 4. Proof of lack of funds or credit. If the check has been protested, the notice of
protest is admissible as proof of presentation, nonpayment, and protest, and is evidence sufficient
to sustain a finding that there was a lack of funds or credit with the drawee.
    Subd. 5. Exceptions. This section does not apply to a postdated check or to a check given for
a past consideration, except a payroll check or a check issued to a fund for employee benefits.
    Subd. 6. Release of account information to law enforcement authorities. A drawee
shall release the information specified below to any state, county, or local law enforcement or
prosecuting authority which certifies in writing that it is investigating or prosecuting a complaint
against the drawer under this section or section 609.52, subdivision 2, clause (3)(a), and that 15
days have elapsed since the mailing of the notice of dishonor required by subdivisions 3 and 8.
This subdivision applies to the following information relating to the drawer's account:
(1) documents relating to the opening of the account by the drawer and to the closing
of the account;
(2) notices regarding nonsufficient funds, overdrafts, and the dishonor of any check drawn
on the account within a period of six months of the date of request;
(3) periodic statements mailed to the drawer by the drawee for the periods immediately prior
to, during, and subsequent to the issuance of any check which is the subject of the investigation or
prosecution; or
(4) the last known home and business addresses and telephone numbers of the drawer.
The drawee shall release all of the information described in clauses (1) to (4) that it
possesses within ten days after receipt of a request conforming to all of the provisions of this
subdivision. The drawee may not impose a fee for furnishing this information to law enforcement
or prosecuting authorities.
A drawee is not liable in a criminal or civil proceeding for releasing information in
accordance with this subdivision.
    Subd. 7. Release of account information to payee or holder. (a) A drawee shall release
the information specified in paragraph (b), clauses (1) to (3) to the payee or holder of a check
that has been dishonored who makes a written request for this information and states in writing
that the check has been dishonored and that 30 days have elapsed since the mailing of the notice
described in subdivision 8 and who accompanies this request with a copy of the dishonored
check and a copy of the notice of dishonor.
The requesting payee or holder shall notify the drawee immediately to cancel this request if
payment is made before the drawee has released this information.
(b) This subdivision applies to the following information relating to the drawer's account:
(1) whether at the time the check was issued or presented for payment the drawer had
sufficient funds or credit with the drawee, and whether at that time the account was open, closed,
or restricted for any reason and the date it was closed or restricted;
(2) the last known home address and telephone number of the drawer. The drawee may not
release the address or telephone number of the place of employment of the drawer unless the
drawer is a business entity or the place of employment is the home; and
(3) a statement as to whether the aggregated value of dishonored checks attributable to the
drawer within six months before or after the date of the dishonored check exceeds $250; for
purposes of this clause, a check is not dishonored if payment was not made pursuant to a stop
payment order.
The drawee shall release all of the information described in clauses (1) to (3) that it possesses
within ten days after receipt of a request conforming to all of the provisions of this subdivision.
The drawee may require the person requesting the information to pay the reasonable costs, not to
exceed 15 cents per page, of reproducing and mailing the requested information.
(c) A drawee is not liable in a criminal or civil proceeding for releasing information in
accordance with this subdivision.
    Subd. 8. Notice. The provisions of subdivisions 6 and 7 are not applicable unless the notice
to the maker or drawer required by subdivision 3 states that if the check is not paid in full within
five business days after mailing of the notice, the drawee will be authorized to release information
relating to the account to the payee or holder of the check and may also release this information to
law enforcement or prosecuting authorities.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.535; 1967 c 466 s 1; 1971 c 23 s 56; 1974 c 106 s 1,2; 1981
c 202 s 1; 1981 c 247 s 1-3; 1983 c 225 s 10; 1984 c 436 s 34; 1985 c 140 s 3; 1986 c 444; 1988 c
527 s 2,3; 1991 c 256 s 11-13; 1992 c 569 s 26; 1999 c 218 s 3; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.54 EMBEZZLEMENT OF PUBLIC FUNDS.
Whoever does an act which constitutes embezzlement under the provisions of Minnesota
Constitution, article XI, section 13 may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the value of the funds so embezzled is $2,500, or less, to imprisonment for not more
than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both; or
(2) if such value is more than $2,500, to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.54; 1976 c 2 s 172; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.541 PROTECTION OF LIBRARY PROPERTY.
    Subdivision 1. Damage to library materials. A person who intentionally, and without
permission from library personnel damages any books, maps, pictures, manuscripts, films, or
other property of any public library or library belonging to the state or to any political subdivision
is guilty of a petty misdemeanor.
    Subd. 2. Removal of library property. A person who intentionally, and without permission
from library personnel removes any books, maps, pictures, manuscripts, films, or other property
of any public library or library belonging to the state or to any political subdivision is guilty of
a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3. Detention of library materials. A person who detains a book, periodical, pamphlet,
film, or other property belonging to any public library, or to a library belonging to the state or
any political subdivision, for more than 60 days after notice in writing to return it, given after the
expiration of the library's stated loan period for the material, is guilty of a petty misdemeanor. The
written notice shall be sent by mail to the last known address of the person detaining the material.
The notice shall state the type of material borrowed, the title of the material, the author's name,
the library from which the material was borrowed, and the date by which the material was to have
been returned to the library. The notice shall include a statement indicating that if the material is
not returned within 60 days after the written notice the borrower will be in violation of this section.
    Subd. 4. Responsibility for prosecution for regional libraries. For regional libraries
the county attorney for the county in which the offense occurred shall prosecute violations of
subdivisions 1 to 3.
History: 1983 c 280 s 3
609.545 MISUSING CREDIT CARD TO SECURE SERVICES.
Whoever obtains the services of another by the intentional unauthorized use of a credit
card issued or purporting to be issued by an organization for use as identification in purchasing
services is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.545; 1971 c 23 s 57
609.546 MOTOR VEHICLE TAMPERING.
A person is guilty of a misdemeanor who intentionally:
(1) rides in or on a motor vehicle knowing that the vehicle was taken and is being driven by
another without the owner's permission; or
(2) tampers with or enters into or on a motor vehicle without the owner's permission.
History: 1989 c 290 art 7 s 9
609.55 [Repealed, 1989 c 290 art 7 s 14]
609.551 RUSTLING AND LIVESTOCK THEFT; PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined; stealing cattle; penalties. Whoever intentionally and
without claim of right shoots, kills, takes, uses, transfers, conceals or retains possession of live
cattle, swine or sheep or the carcasses thereof belonging to another without the other's consent
and with the intent to permanently deprive the owner thereof may be sentenced as follows:
(a) if the value of the animals which are shot, killed, taken, used, transferred, concealed or
retained exceeds $2,500, the defendant may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than
ten years, and may be fined up to $20,000;
(b) if the value of the animals which are shot, killed, taken, used, transferred, concealed or
retained exceeds $300 but is less than $2,500, the defendant may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than five years, and may be fined up to $10,000;
(c) if the value of the animals which are shot, killed, taken, used, transferred, concealed,
or retained is $300 or less, the defendant may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than
90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than $300 or both.
    Subd. 2. Crime defined; selling stolen cattle. Whoever knowingly buys, sells, transports
or otherwise handles cattle, swine or sheep illegally acquired under subdivision 1 or knowingly
aids or abets another in the violation of subdivision 1 shall be sentenced as in subdivision
1, clauses (a), (b), and (c).
    Subd. 3. Aggregation. In any prosecution under this section the value of the animals which
are shot, killed, taken, used, transferred, concealed, or retained within any six-month period may
be aggregated and the defendant charged accordingly in applying the provisions of this section.
    Subd. 4. Amount of action. Any person who has been injured by violation of this section
may bring an action for three times the amount of actual damages sustained by the plaintiff,
costs of suit and reasonable attorney's fees.
History: 1975 c 314 s 2; 1977 c 355 s 8; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.552 UNAUTHORIZED RELEASE OF ANIMALS.
A person who intentionally and without permission releases an animal lawfully confined for
science, research, commerce, or education is guilty of a misdemeanor. A second or subsequent
offense by the same person is a gross misdemeanor.
History: 1989 c 55 s 2

DAMAGE OR TRESPASS TO PROPERTY

609.555 [Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10]
609.556 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. For the purposes of sections 609.556 to 609.576 and 609.611, the
terms defined in this section have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2. Property of another. "Property of another" means a building or other property,
whether real or personal, in which a person other than the accused has an interest which the
accused has no authority to defeat or impair even though the accused may also have an interest
in the building or property.
    Subd. 3. Building. "Building" in addition to its ordinary meaning includes any tent,
watercraft, structure or vehicle that is customarily used for overnight lodging of a person or
persons. If a building consists of two or more units separately secured or occupied, each unit
shall be deemed a separate building.
History: 1976 c 124 s 3; 1977 c 347 s 63
609.56 [Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10]
609.561 ARSON IN THE FIRST DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. First degree; dwelling. Whoever unlawfully by means of fire or explosives,
intentionally destroys or damages any building that is used as a dwelling at the time the act is
committed, whether the inhabitant is present therein at the time of the act or not, or any building
appurtenant to or connected with a dwelling whether the property of the actor or of another,
commits arson in the first degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20
years or to a fine of not more than $20,000, or both.
    Subd. 2. First degree; other buildings. Whoever unlawfully by means of fire or explosives,
intentionally destroys or damages any building not included in subdivision 1, whether the property
of the actor or another commits arson in the first degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than 20 years or to a fine of not more than $35,000, or both if:
(a) another person who is not a participant in the crime is present in the building at the
time and the defendant knows that; or
(b) the circumstances are such as to render the presence of such a person therein a reasonable
possibility.
    Subd. 3. First degree; flammable material. (a) Whoever unlawfully by means of fire or
explosives, intentionally destroys or damages any building not included in subdivision 1, whether
the property of the actor or another, commits arson in the first degree if a flammable material is
used to start or accelerate the fire. A person who violates this paragraph may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than 20 years or a fine of not more than $20,000, or both.
(b) As used in this subdivision:
(1) "combustible liquid" means a liquid having a flash point at or above 100 degrees
Fahrenheit;
(2) "flammable gas" means any material which is a gas at 68 degrees Fahrenheit or less and
14.7 psi of pressure and which: (i) is ignitable when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume
with air at atmospheric pressure; or (ii) has a flammable range with air at atmospheric pressure
of at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower flammable limit;
(3) "flammable liquid" means any liquid having a flash point below 100 degrees Fahrenheit
and having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at 100 degrees
Fahrenheit, but does not include intoxicating liquor as defined in section 340A.101;
(4) "flammable material" means a flammable or combustible liquid, a flammable gas, or a
flammable solid; and
(5) "flammable solid" means any of the following three types of materials:
(i) wetted explosives;
(ii) self-reactive materials that are liable to undergo heat-producing decomposition; or
(iii) readily combustible solids that may cause a fire through friction or that have a rapid
burning rate as determined by specific flammability tests.
History: 1976 c 124 s 4; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 42; 1995 c
186 s 100; 1999 c 176 s 1
609.562 ARSON IN THE SECOND DEGREE.
Whoever unlawfully by means of fire or explosives, intentionally destroys or damages
any building not covered by section 609.561, no matter what its value, or any other real or
personal property valued at more than $1,000, whether the property of the actor or another, may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $20,000, or both.
History: 1976 c 124 s 5; 1979 c 258 s 16; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 141 s 2; 1986 c
444; 1993 c 326 art 5 s 7
609.563 ARSON IN THE THIRD DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Crime. Whoever unlawfully by means of fire or explosives, intentionally
destroys or damages any real or personal property may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than five years or to payment of a fine of $10,000, or both, if:
(a) the property intended by the accused to be damaged or destroyed had a value of more
than $300 but less than $1,000; or
(b) property of the value of $300 or more was unintentionally damaged or destroyed but such
damage or destruction could reasonably have been foreseen; or
(c) the property specified in clauses (a) and (b) in the aggregate had a value of $300 or more.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1998 c 367 art 2 s 33]
History: 1976 c 124 s 6; 1977 c 355 s 9; 1979 c 258 s 17; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c
141 s 3; 1993 c 326 art 5 s 8
609.5631 ARSON IN THE FOURTH DEGREE.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) For purposes of this section, the following terms have the
meanings given.
(b) "Multiple unit residential building" means a building containing two or more apartments.
(c) "Public building" means a building such as a hotel, hospital, motel, dormitory, sanitarium,
nursing home, theater, stadium, gymnasium, amusement park building, school or other building
used for educational purposes, museum, restaurant, bar, correctional institution, place of worship,
or other building of public assembly.
    Subd. 2. Crime described. Whoever intentionally by means of fire or explosives sets fire
to or burns or causes to be burned any personal property in a multiple unit residential building
or public building and arson in the first, second, or third degree was not committed is guilty of
a gross misdemeanor and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
History: 1998 c 367 art 2 s 19; 1999 c 176 s 2
609.5632 ARSON IN THE FIFTH DEGREE.
Whoever intentionally by means of fire or explosives sets fire to or burns or causes to be
burned any real or personal property of value is guilty of a misdemeanor and may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000, or both.
History: 1998 c 367 art 2 s 20; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.5633 USE OF IGNITION DEVICES; PETTY MISDEMEANOR.
A student who uses an ignition device, including a butane or disposable lighter or matches,
inside an educational building and under circumstances where there is an obvious risk of fire,
and arson in the first, second, third, or fourth degree was not committed, is guilty of a petty
misdemeanor. This section does not apply if the student uses the device in a manner authorized
by the school.
For the purposes of this section, "student" has the meaning given in section 123B.41,
subdivision 11
.
History: 1999 c 176 s 3
609.564 EXCLUDED FIRES.
A person does not violate section 609.561, 609.562, 609.563, or 609.5641 if the person sets
a fire pursuant to a validly issued license or permit or with written permission from the fire
department of the jurisdiction where the fire occurs.
History: 1985 c 141 s 4; 1990 c 478 s 1
609.5641 WILDFIRE ARSON.
    Subdivision 1. Setting wildfires. A person is guilty of a felony who intentionally sets a fire
to burn out of control on land of another containing timber, underbrush, grass, or other vegetative
combustible material.
    Subd. 2. Possession of flammables to set wildfires. A person is guilty of a gross
misdemeanor who possesses a flammable, explosive, or incendiary device, substance, or material
with intent to use the device, substance, or material to violate subdivision 1.
    Subd. 3. Penalty; restitution. (a) A person who violates subdivision 1 may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or
both.
(b) A person who violates subdivision 2 may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
(c) In addition to the sentence otherwise authorized, the court may order a person who is
convicted of violating this section to pay fire suppression costs and damages to the owner of the
damaged land.
History: 1990 c 478 s 2
609.565 [Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10]
609.57 [Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10]
609.575 [Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10]
609.576 NEGLIGENT FIRES; DANGEROUS SMOKING.
    Subdivision 1. Negligent fire resulting in injury or property damage. Whoever is grossly
negligent in causing a fire to burn or get out of control thereby causing damage or injury to
another, and as a result of this:
(1) a human being is injured and great bodily harm incurred, is guilty of a crime and may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $10,000, or both;
(2) a human being is injured and bodily harm incurred, is guilty of a crime and may be
sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than
$3,000, or both; or
(3) property of another is injured, thereby, is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced as
follows:
(i) to imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than
$1,000, or both, if the value of the property damage is under $300;
(ii) to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than
$3,000, or both, if the value of the property damaged is at least $300 but is less than $2,500; or
(iii) to imprisonment for not more than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$5,000, or both, if the value of the property damaged is $2,500 or more.
    Subd. 2. Dangerous smoking. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if the person smokes
in the presence of explosives or inflammable materials. If a person violates this subdivision and
knows that doing so creates a risk of death or bodily harm or serious property damage, the person
is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1976 c 124 s 7; 1977 c 355 s 10; 1981 c 107 s 1; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 141
s 5; 1989 c 5 s 8; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 20; 1993 c 326 art 5 s 9; 2001 c 155 s 1; 2003 c 82 s 1
609.58 [Repealed, 1983 c 321 s 4]
609.581 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Terms defined. For purpose of sections 609.582 and 609.583 the terms
defined in this section have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2. Building. "Building" means a structure suitable for affording shelter for human
beings including any appurtenant or connected structure.
    Subd. 3. Dwelling. "Dwelling" means a building used as a permanent or temporary residence.
    Subd. 4. Enters a building without consent. "Enters a building without consent" means:
(a) to enter a building without the consent of the person in lawful possession;
(b) to enter a building by using artifice, trick, or misrepresentation to obtain consent to
enter from the person in lawful possession; or
(c) to remain within a building without the consent of the person in lawful possession.
Whoever enters a building while open to the general public does so with consent except
when consent was expressly withdrawn before entry.
History: 1983 c 321 s 1
609.582 BURGLARY.
    Subdivision 1. Burglary in the first degree. Whoever enters a building without consent
and with intent to commit a crime, or enters a building without consent and commits a crime
while in the building, either directly or as an accomplice, commits burglary in the first degree
and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of
not more than $35,000, or both, if:
(a) the building is a dwelling and another person, not an accomplice, is present in it when the
burglar enters or at any time while the burglar is in the building;
(b) the burglar possesses, when entering or at any time while in the building, any of the
following: a dangerous weapon, any article used or fashioned in a manner to lead the victim to
reasonably believe it to be a dangerous weapon, or an explosive; or
(c) the burglar assaults a person within the building or on the building's appurtenant property.
    Subd. 1a. Mandatory minimum sentence for burglary of occupied dwelling. A person
convicted of committing burglary of an occupied dwelling, as defined in subdivision 1, clause
(a), must be committed to the commissioner of corrections or county workhouse for not less
than six months.
    Subd. 2. Burglary in the second degree. Whoever enters a building without consent and
with intent to commit a crime, or enters a building without consent and commits a crime while in
the building, either directly or as an accomplice, commits burglary in the second degree and may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $20,000, or both, if:
(a) the building is a dwelling;
(b) the portion of the building entered contains a banking business or other business of
receiving securities or other valuable papers for deposit or safekeeping and the entry is with
force or threat of force;
(c) the portion of the building entered contains a pharmacy or other lawful business or
practice in which controlled substances are routinely held or stored, and the entry is forcible; or
(d) when entering or while in the building, the burglar possesses a tool to gain access to
money or property.
    Subd. 3. Burglary in the third degree. Whoever enters a building without consent and with
intent to steal or commit any felony or gross misdemeanor while in the building, or enters a
building without consent and steals or commits a felony or gross misdemeanor while in the
building, either directly or as an accomplice, commits burglary in the third degree and may be
sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 4. Burglary in the fourth degree. Whoever enters a building without consent and
with intent to commit a misdemeanor other than to steal, or enters a building without consent
and commits a misdemeanor other than to steal while in the building, either directly or as an
accomplice, commits burglary in the fourth degree and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not
more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
History: 1983 c 321 s 2; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 6; 1986 c 470 s 19; 1988 c 712 s 9-12; 1993 c
326 art 13 s 33; 1995 c 244 s 22; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 21
609.583 SENTENCING; FIRST BURGLARY OF A DWELLING.
Except as provided in section 609.582, subdivision 1a, in determining an appropriate
disposition for a first offense of burglary of a dwelling, the court shall presume that a stay of
execution with at least a 90-day period of incarceration as a condition of probation shall be
imposed unless the defendant's criminal history score determined according to the Sentencing
Guidelines indicates a presumptive executed sentence, in which case the presumptive executed
sentence shall be imposed unless the court departs from the Sentencing Guidelines pursuant
to section 244.10. A stay of imposition of sentence may be granted only if accompanied by
a statement on the record of the reasons for it. The presumptive period of incarceration may
be waived in whole or in part by the court if the defendant provides restitution or performs
community work service.
History: 1983 c 321 s 3; 1984 c 497 s 1; 1986 c 470 s 20; 1996 c 408 art 3 s 33
609.585 DOUBLE JEOPARDY.
Notwithstanding section 609.04, a prosecution for or conviction of the crime of burglary is
not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed on entering or while in
the building entered.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.585; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 31
609.586 POSSESSION OF CODE GRABBING DEVICES; PENALTY.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. As used in this section, "code grabbing device" means a device
that can receive and record the coded signal sent by the transmitter of a security or other electronic
system and can play back the signal to disarm or operate that system.
    Subd. 2. Crime. Whoever possesses a code grabbing device with intent to use the device to
commit an unlawful act may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both.
History: 1996 c 408 art 3 s 34
609.59 POSSESSION OF BURGLARY OR THEFT TOOLS.
Whoever has in possession any device, explosive, or other instrumentality with intent to use
or permit the use of the same to commit burglary or theft may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.59; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444; 1988 c 712 s 13
609.591 DAMAGE TO TIMBER OR WOOD PROCESSING AND RELATED
EQUIPMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. As used in this section and section 609.592, "timber" means trees,
whether standing or down, that will produce forest products of value including but not limited to
logs, posts, poles, bolts, pulpwood, cordwood, lumber, and decorative material.
    Subd. 2. Crime. Whoever, without claim of right or consent of the owner, drives, places, or
fastens in timber any device of iron, steel, ceramic, or other substance sufficiently hard to damage
saws or wood processing or manufacturing equipment, with the intent to hinder the logging or the
processing of timber, is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced as provided in subdivisions 3 and 4.
    Subd. 3. Penalties. A person convicted of violating subdivision 2 may be sentenced as
follows:
(1) if the violation caused great bodily harm, to imprisonment for not more than five years or
to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both;
(2) otherwise, to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not
more than $3,000, or both.
    Subd. 4. Restitution. In addition to any sentence imposed under subdivision 3, the
sentencing court may order a person convicted of violating this section, or of violating section
609.595 by damaging timber or commercial wood processing, manufacturing, or transportation
equipment to pay restitution to the owner of the damaged property.
History: 1991 c 180 s 1
609.592 POSSESSION OF TIMBER DAMAGE DEVICES.
Whoever commits any of the following acts is guilty of a misdemeanor:
(1) possesses a device of iron, steel, ceramic, or other substance sufficiently hard to damage
saws, wood processing, manufacturing, or transportation equipment, with the intent to use the
device to hinder the logging or the processing of timber; or
(2) possesses a chemical or biological substance, mechanical equipment, or tool with the
intent to use it or permit its use to damage timber processing, manufacturing, or transportation
equipment.
History: 1991 c 180 s 2
609.594 DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OF CRITICAL PUBLIC SERVICE FACILITIES,
UTILITIES, AND PIPELINES.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. As used in this section:
(1) "critical public service facility" includes railroad yards and stations, bus stations, airports,
and other mass transit facilities; oil refineries; storage areas or facilities for hazardous materials,
hazardous substances, or hazardous wastes; and bridges;
(2) "pipeline" has the meaning given in section 609.6055, subdivision 1; and
(3) "utility" includes: (i) any organization defined as a utility in section 216C.06, subdivision
18
; (ii) any telecommunications carrier or telephone company regulated under chapter 237;
and (iii) any local utility or enterprise formed for the purpose of providing electrical or gas
heating and power, telephone, water, sewage, wastewater, or other related utility service, which
is owned, controlled, or regulated by a town, a statutory or home rule charter city, a county, a
port development authority, the Metropolitan Council, a district heating authority, a regional
commission or other regional government unit, or a combination of these governmental units.
    Subd. 2. Prohibited conduct; penalty. Whoever causes damage to the physical property
of a critical public service facility, utility, or pipeline with the intent to significantly disrupt the
operation of or the provision of services by the facility, utility, or pipeline and without the consent
of one authorized to give consent, is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for
not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Detention authority; immunity. An employee or other person designated by a
critical public service facility, utility, or pipeline to ensure the provision of services by the critical
public service facility or the safe operation of the equipment or facility of the utility or pipeline
who has reasonable cause to believe that a person is violating this section may detain the person
as provided in this subdivision. The person detained must be promptly informed of the purpose of
the detention and may not be subjected to unnecessary or unreasonable force or interrogation. The
employee or other designated person must notify a peace officer promptly of the detention and
may only detain the person for a reasonable period of time. No employee or other designated
person is criminally or civilly liable for any detention that the employee or person reasonably
believed was authorized by and conducted in conformity with this subdivision.
History: 2002 c 401 art 1 s 16
609.595 DAMAGE TO PROPERTY.
    Subdivision 1. Criminal damage to property in the first degree. Whoever intentionally
causes damage to physical property of another without the latter's consent may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000,
or both, if:
(1) the damage to the property caused a reasonably foreseeable risk of bodily harm; or
(2) the property damaged belongs to a common carrier and the damage impairs the service to
the public rendered by the carrier; or
(3) the damage reduces the value of the property by more than $500 measured by the cost of
repair and replacement; or
(4) the damage reduces the value of the property by more than $250 measured by the cost of
repair and replacement and the defendant has been convicted within the preceding three years of
an offense under this subdivision or subdivision 2.
In any prosecution under clause (3), the value of any property damaged by the defendant in
violation of that clause within any six-month period may be aggregated and the defendant charged
accordingly in applying the provisions of this section; provided that when two or more offenses
are committed by the same person in two or more counties, the accused may be prosecuted in
any county in which one of the offenses was committed for all of the offenses aggregated under
this paragraph.
    Subd. 1a. Criminal damage to property in the second degree. (a) Whoever intentionally
causes damage described in subdivision 2, paragraph (a), because of the property owner's or
another's actual or perceived race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, disability as defined in
section 363A.03, age, or national origin is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than one year and a day or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
(b) In any prosecution under paragraph (a), the value of property damaged by the defendant
in violation of that paragraph within any six-month period may be aggregated and the defendant
charged accordingly in applying this section. When two or more offenses are committed by the
same person in two or more counties, the accused may be prosecuted in any county in which one
of the offenses was committed for all of the offenses aggregated under this paragraph.
    Subd. 2. Criminal damage to property in the third degree. (a) Except as otherwise
provided in subdivision 1a, whoever intentionally causes damage to another person's physical
property without the other person's consent may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both, if the damage reduces
the value of the property by more than $250 but not more than $500 as measured by the cost
of repair and replacement.
(b) Whoever intentionally causes damage to another person's physical property without the
other person's consent because of the property owner's or another's actual or perceived race, color,
religion, sex, sexual orientation, disability as defined in section 363A.03, age, or national origin
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more
than $3,000, or both, if the damage reduces the value of the property by not more than $250.
(c) In any prosecution under paragraph (a), the value of property damaged by the defendant
in violation of that paragraph within any six-month period may be aggregated and the defendant
charged accordingly in applying this section. When two or more offenses are committed by the
same person in two or more counties, the accused may be prosecuted in any county in which one
of the offenses was committed for all of the offenses aggregated under this paragraph.
    Subd. 3. Criminal damage to property in the fourth degree. Whoever intentionally causes
damage described in subdivision 2 under any other circumstances is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.595; 1971 c 23 s 60; 1977 c 355 s 11; 1979 c 258 s 18; 1984
c 421 s 1; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1987 c 329 s 11; 1989 c 261 s 2-4; 2002 c 401 art 1 s 17
609.596 KILLING OR HARMING A PUBLIC SAFETY DOG.
    Subdivision 1. Felony. It is a felony for any person to intentionally and without justification
cause the death of a police dog, a search and rescue dog, or an arson dog when the dog is involved
in law enforcement, fire, or correctional investigation or apprehension, search and rescue duties,
or the dog is in the custody of or under the control of a peace officer, a trained handler, or an
employee of a correctional facility. A person convicted under this subdivision may be sentenced
to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or
both. In lieu of a fine, the court may order the defendant to pay restitution to the owner to replace
the police dog, search and rescue dog, or arson dog, in an amount not to exceed $5,000.
    Subd. 2. Gross misdemeanor. It is a gross misdemeanor for any person to intentionally and
without justification cause substantial or great bodily harm to a police dog, search and rescue dog,
or an arson dog when the dog is involved in law enforcement, fire, or correctional investigation or
apprehension, search and rescue duties, or the dog is in the custody of or under the control of a
peace officer, a trained handler, or an employee of a correctional facility.
    Subd. 3. Definitions. As used in this section:
(1) "arson dog" means a dog that has been certified as an arson dog by a state fire or police
agency or by an independent testing laboratory;
(2) "correctional facility" has the meaning given in section 241.021, subdivision 1, paragraph
(f);
(3) "peace officer" has the meaning given in section 626.84, subdivision 1, paragraph (c); and
(4) "search and rescue dog" means a dog that is trained to locate lost or missing persons,
victims of natural or other disasters, and human bodies.
History: 1987 c 167 s 1; 1996 c 408 art 3 s 35; 1999 c 77 s 1; 2001 c 7 s 87
609.597 ASSAULTING OR HARMING A POLICE HORSE; PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. As used in this section, "police horse" means a horse that has
been trained for crowd control and other law enforcement purposes and is used to assist peace
officers in the performance of their official duties.
    Subd. 2. Crime. Whoever assaults or intentionally harms a police horse while the horse is
being used or maintained for use by a law enforcement agency is guilty of a crime and may be
sentenced as provided in subdivision 3.
    Subd. 3. Penalties. A person convicted of violating subdivision 2 may be sentenced as
follows:
(1) if a peace officer, or any other person suffers great bodily harm or death as a result of
the violation, the person may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both;
(2) if the police horse suffers death or great bodily harm as a result of the violation, or if a
peace officer suffers demonstrable bodily harm as a result of the violation, the person may be
sentenced to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $4,000, or both;
(3) if the police horse suffers demonstrable bodily harm as a result of the violation, the
person may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year and one day or to payment
of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both;
(4) if a peace officer is involuntarily unseated from the police horse or any person, other
than the peace officer, suffers demonstrable bodily harm as a result of the violation, the person
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not
more than $3,000, or both;
(5) if a violation other than one described in clauses (1) to (4) occurs, the person may be
sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than
$1,000, or both.
History: 1995 c 179 s 1; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.599 EXPOSING DOMESTIC ANIMALS TO DISEASE.
    Subdivision 1. Gross misdemeanor. (a) A person who intentionally exposes a domestic
animal to an animal disease contrary to reasonable veterinary practice, or intentionally puts a
domestic animal at risk of quarantine or destruction by actions contrary to reasonable veterinary
practice, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
(b) The provisions of paragraph (a) do not apply to a person performing academic or
industry research on domestic animals under protocols approved by an institutional animal care
and use committee.
    Subd. 2. Civil liability. A person who violates subdivision 1 is liable in a civil action for
damages in an amount three times the value of any domestic animal destroyed because it has the
disease, has been exposed to the disease agent, or is at high risk of being exposed to the disease
agent because of proximity to diseased animals.
    Subd. 3. Definition. For purposes of this section, "domestic animal" means:
(1) those species of animals that live under the husbandry of humans;
(2) livestock within the meaning of section 35.01, subdivision 3;
(3) a farm-raised deer, farm-raised game bird, or farm-raised fish; or
(4) an animal listed as a domestic animal by a rule adopted by the Department of Agriculture.
History: 2004 c 254 s 45
609.60 [Repealed, 1989 c 5 s 18]
609.605 TRESPASS.
    Subdivision 1. Misdemeanor. (a) The following terms have the meanings given them for
purposes of this section.
(i) "Premises" means real property and any appurtenant building or structure.
(ii) "Dwelling" means the building or part of a building used by an individual as a place of
residence on either a full-time or a part-time basis. A dwelling may be part of a multidwelling or
multipurpose building, or a manufactured home as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 8.
(iii) "Construction site" means the site of the construction, alteration, painting, or repair
of a building or structure.
(iv) "Owner or lawful possessor," as used in paragraph (b), clause (9), means the person on
whose behalf a building or dwelling is being constructed, altered, painted, or repaired and the
general contractor or subcontractor engaged in that work.
(v) "Posted," as used:
(A) in clause (9), means the placement of a sign at least 11 inches square in a conspicuous
place on the exterior of the building that is under construction, alteration, or repair, and additional
signs in at least two conspicuous places for each ten acres being protected. The sign must carry an
appropriate notice and the name of the person giving the notice, followed by the word "owner"
if the person giving the notice is the holder of legal title to the land on which the construction
site is located or by the word "occupant" if the person giving the notice is not the holder of legal
title but is a lawful occupant of the land; and
(B) in clause (10), means the placement of signs that:
(I) state "no trespassing" or similar terms;
(II) display letters at least two inches high;
(III) state that Minnesota law prohibits trespassing on the property; and
(IV) are posted in a conspicuous place and at intervals of 500 feet or less.
(vi) "Business licensee," as used in paragraph (b), clause (9), includes a representative of a
building trades labor or management organization.
(vii) "Building" has the meaning given in section 609.581, subdivision 2.
(b) A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if the person intentionally:
(1) permits domestic animals or fowls under the actor's control to go on the land of another
within a city;
(2) interferes unlawfully with a monument, sign, or pointer erected or marked to designate a
point of a boundary, line or a political subdivision, or of a tract of land;
(3) trespasses on the premises of another and, without claim of right, refuses to depart from
the premises on demand of the lawful possessor;
(4) occupies or enters the dwelling or locked or posted building of another, without claim
of right or consent of the owner or the consent of one who has the right to give consent, except
in an emergency situation;
(5) enters the premises of another with intent to take or injure any fruit, fruit trees, or
vegetables growing on the premises, without the permission of the owner or occupant;
(6) enters or is found on the premises of a public or private cemetery without authorization
during hours the cemetery is posted as closed to the public;
(7) returns to the property of another with the intent to abuse, disturb, or cause distress in or
threaten another, after being told to leave the property and not to return, if the actor is without
claim of right to the property or consent of one with authority to consent;
(8) returns to the property of another within one year after being told to leave the property
and not to return, if the actor is without claim of right to the property or consent of one with
authority to consent;
(9) enters the locked or posted construction site of another without the consent of the owner
or lawful possessor, unless the person is a business licensee; or
(10) enters the locked or posted aggregate mining site of another without the consent of the
owner or lawful possessor, unless the person is a business licensee.
    Subd. 2. Gross misdemeanor. Whoever trespasses upon the grounds of a facility providing
emergency shelter services for battered women, as defined under section 611A.31, subdivision 3,
or of a facility providing transitional housing for battered women and their children, without claim
of right or consent of one who has right to give consent, and refuses to depart from the grounds of
the facility on demand of one who has right to give consent, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1993 c 326 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 4. Trespasses on school property. (a) It is a misdemeanor for a person to enter or be
found in a public or nonpublic elementary, middle, or secondary school building unless the person:
(1) is an enrolled student in, a parent or guardian of an enrolled student in, or an employee of
the school or school district;
(2) has permission or an invitation from a school official to be in the building;
(3) is attending a school event, class, or meeting to which the person, the public, or a
student's family is invited; or
(4) has reported the person's presence in the school building in the manner required for
visitors to the school.
(b) It is a misdemeanor for a person to be on the roof of a public or nonpublic elementary,
middle, or secondary school building unless the person has permission from a school official to be
on the roof of the building.
(c) It is a gross misdemeanor for a group of three or more persons to enter or be found in a
public or nonpublic elementary, middle, or secondary school building unless one of the persons:
(1) is an enrolled student in, a parent or guardian of an enrolled student in, or an employee of
the school or school district;
(2) has permission or an invitation from a school official to be in the building;
(3) is attending a school event, class, or meeting to which the person, the public, or a
student's family is invited; or
(4) has reported the person's presence in the school building in the manner required for
visitors to the school.
(d) It is a misdemeanor for a person to enter or be found on school property within one year
after being told by the school principal or the principal's designee to leave the property and not to
return, unless the principal or the principal's designee has given the person permission to return
to the property. As used in this paragraph, "school property" has the meaning given in section
152.01, subdivision 14a, clauses (1) and (3).
(e) A school principal or a school employee designated by the school principal to maintain
order on school property, who has reasonable cause to believe that a person is violating this
subdivision may detain the person in a reasonable manner for a reasonable period of time pending
the arrival of a peace officer. A school principal or designated school employee is not civilly or
criminally liable for any action authorized under this paragraph if the person's action is based
on reasonable cause.
(f) A peace officer may arrest a person without a warrant if the officer has probable cause to
believe the person violated this subdivision within the preceding four hours. The arrest may be
made even though the violation did not occur in the peace officer's presence.
    Subd. 5. Certain trespass on agricultural land. (a) A person is guilty of a gross
misdemeanor if the person enters the posted premises of another on which cattle, bison, sheep,
goats, swine, horses, poultry, farmed cervidae, farmed ratitae, aquaculture stock, or other species
of domestic animals for commercial production are kept, without the consent of the owner or
lawful occupant of the land.
(b) "Domestic animal," for purposes of this section, has the meaning given in section 609.599.
(c) "Posted," as used in paragraph (a), means the placement of a sign at least 11 inches
square in a conspicuous place at each roadway entry to the premises. The sign must provide
notice of a biosecurity area and wording such as: "Biosecurity measures are in force. No entrance
beyond this point without authorization." The sign may also contain a telephone number or
a location for obtaining such authorization.
(d) The provisions of this subdivision do not apply to employees or agents of the state or
county when serving in a regulatory capacity and conducting an inspection on posted premises
where domestic animals are kept.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.605; 1971 c 23 s 62; 1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1976 c 251 s 1;
1978 c 512 s 1; 1981 c 365 s 9; 1982 c 408 s 2; 1985 c 159 s 2; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 307 s 3; 1989
c 5 s 9; 1989 c 261 s 5; 1990 c 426 art 1 s 54; 1993 c 326 art 1 s 14; art 2 s 13; art 4 s 32; 1993 c
366 s 13; 1994 c 465 art 1 s 60; 1995 c 226 art 3 s 48; 2004 c 254 s 46; 2005 c 136 art 17 s 41,42
609.6055 TRESPASS ON CRITICAL PUBLIC SERVICE FACILITY; UTILITY; OR
PIPELINE.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the
meanings given.
(b) "Critical public service facility" includes buildings and other physical structures, and
fenced in or otherwise enclosed property, of railroad yards and stations, bus stations, airports, and
other mass transit facilities; oil refineries; and storage areas or facilities for hazardous materials,
hazardous substances, or hazardous wastes. The term also includes nonpublic portions of bridges.
The term does not include railroad tracks extending beyond a critical public service facility.
(c) "Pipeline" includes an aboveground pipeline and any equipment, facility, or building
located in this state that is used to transport natural or synthetic gas, crude petroleum or petroleum
fuels or oil or their derivatives, or hazardous liquids, to or within a distribution, refining,
manufacturing, or storage facility that is located inside or outside of this state. Pipeline does not
include service lines.
(d) "Utility" includes:
(1) any organization defined as a utility in section 216C.06, subdivision 18;
(2) any telecommunications carrier or telephone company regulated under chapter 237; and
(3) any local utility or enterprise formed for the purpose of providing electrical or gas
heating and power, telephone, water, sewage, wastewater, or other related utility service, which
is owned, controlled, or regulated by a town, a statutory or home rule charter city, a county, a
port development authority, the Metropolitan Council, a district heating authority, a regional
commission or other regional government unit, or a combination of these governmental units.
The term does not include property located above buried power or telecommunications lines
or property located below suspended power or telecommunications lines, unless the property
is fenced in or otherwise enclosed.
    Subd. 2. Prohibited conduct; penalty. Whoever enters or is found upon property containing
a critical public service facility, utility, or pipeline, without claim of right or consent of one who
has the right to give consent to be on the property, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor, if:
(1) the person refuses to depart from the property on the demand of one who has the right
to give consent;
(2) within the past six months, the person had been told by one who had the right to give
consent to leave the property and not to return, unless a person with the right to give consent
has given the person permission to return; or
(3) the property is posted.
    Subd. 3. Posting. For purposes of this section, a critical public service facility, utility, or
pipeline is posted if there are signs that:
(1) state "no trespassing" or similar terms;
(2) display letters at least two inches high;
(3) state that Minnesota law prohibits trespassing on the property; and
(4) are posted in a conspicuous place and at intervals of 500 feet or less.
    Subd. 4. Detention authority; immunity. An employee or other person designated by a
critical public service facility, utility, or pipeline to ensure the provision of services by the critical
public service facility or the safe operation of the equipment or facility of the utility or pipeline
who has reasonable cause to believe that a person is violating this section may detain the person
as provided in this subdivision. The person detained must be promptly informed of the purpose of
the detention and may not be subjected to unnecessary or unreasonable force or interrogation. The
employee or other designated person must notify a peace officer promptly of the detention and
may only detain the person for a reasonable period of time. No employee or other designated
person is criminally or civilly liable for any detention that the employee or person reasonably
believed was authorized by and conducted in conformity with this subdivision.
    Subd. 5. Arrest authority. A peace officer may arrest a person without a warrant if the officer
has probable cause to believe the person violated this section within the preceding four hours. The
arrest may be made even though the violation did not occur in the presence of the peace officer.
History: 2002 c 401 art 1 s 18
609.606 UNLAWFUL OUSTER OR EXCLUSION.
A landlord, agent of the landlord, or person acting under the landlord's direction or control
who unlawfully and intentionally removes or excludes a tenant from lands or tenements or
intentionally interrupts or causes the interruption of electrical, heat, gas, or water services to the
tenant with intent to unlawfully remove or exclude the tenant from lands or tenements is guilty of
a misdemeanor.
History: 1992 c 376 art 1 s 16
609.61 [Repealed, 1976 c 124 s 10]
609.611 INSURANCE FRAUD.
    Subdivision 1. Insurance fraud prohibited. Whoever with the intent to defraud for the
purpose of depriving another of property or for pecuniary gain, commits, or permits its employees
or its agents to commit any of the following acts, is guilty of insurance fraud and may be
sentenced as provided in subdivision 3:
(a) Presents, causes to be presented, or prepares with knowledge or reason to believe
that it will be presented, by or on behalf of an insured, claimant, or applicant to an insurer,
insurance professional, or premium finance company in connection with an insurance transaction
or premium finance transaction, any information that contains a false representation as to any
material fact, or that conceals a material fact concerning any of the following:
(1) an application for, rating of, or renewal of, an insurance policy;
(2) a claim for payment or benefit under an insurance policy;
(3) a payment made according to the terms of an insurance policy;
(4) an application used in a premium finance transaction;
(b) Presents, causes to be presented, or prepares with knowledge or reason to believe that it
will be presented, to or by an insurer, insurance professional, or a premium finance company in
connection with an insurance transaction or premium finance transaction, any information that
contains a false representation as to any material fact, or that conceals a material fact, concerning
any of the following:
(1) a solicitation for sale of an insurance policy or purported insurance policy;
(2) an application for certificate of authority;
(3) the financial condition of an insurer; or
(4) the acquisition, formation, merger, affiliation, or dissolution of an insurer;
(c) Solicits or accepts new or renewal insurance risks by or for an insolvent insurer;
(d) Removes the assets or any record of assets, transactions, and affairs or any material
part thereof, from the home office or other place of business of an insurer, or from the place of
safekeeping of an insurer, or destroys or sequesters the same from the Department of Commerce.
(e) Diverts, misappropriates, converts, or embezzles funds of an insurer, insured, claimant, or
applicant for insurance in connection with:
(1) an insurance transaction;
(2) the conducting of business activities by an insurer or insurance professional; or
(3) the acquisition, formation, merger, affiliation, or dissolution of any insurer.
    Subd. 2. Statute of limitations. The applicable statute of limitations provision under
section 628.26 shall not begin to run until the insurance company or law enforcement agency is
aware of the fraud, but in no event may the prosecution be commenced later than seven years
after the act has occurred.
    Subd. 3. Sentence. Whoever violates this provision may be sentenced as provided in section
609.52, subdivision 3, based on the greater of (i) the value of property, services, or other benefit
wrongfully obtained or attempted to obtain, or (ii) the aggregate economic loss suffered by any
person as a result of the violation. A person convicted of a violation of this section must be
ordered to pay restitution to persons aggrieved by the violation. Restitution must be ordered in
addition to a fine or imprisonment but not in lieu of a fine or imprisonment.
    Subd. 4. Definitions. (a) "Insurance policy" means the written instrument in which are
set forth the terms of any certificate of insurance, binder of coverage, or contract of insurance
(including a certificate, binder, or contract issued by a state-assigned risk plan); benefit plan;
nonprofit hospital service plan; motor club service plan; or surety bond, cash bond, or any other
alternative to insurance authorized by a state's Financial Responsibility Act.
(b) "Insurance professional" means sales agents, agencies, managing general agents, brokers,
producers, claims representatives, adjusters, and third-party administrators.
(c) "Insurance transaction" means a transaction by, between, or among: (1) an insurer or a
person who acts on behalf of an insurer; and (2) an insured, claimant, applicant for insurance,
public adjuster, insurance professional, practitioner, or any person who acts on behalf of any
of the foregoing, for the purpose of obtaining insurance or reinsurance, calculating insurance
premiums, submitting a claim, negotiating or adjusting a claim, or otherwise obtaining insurance,
self-insurance, or reinsurance or obtaining the benefits thereof or therefrom.
(d) "Insurer" means a person purporting to engage in the business of insurance or authorized
to do business in the state or subject to regulation by the state, who undertakes to indemnify
another against loss, damage, or liability arising from a contingent or unknown event. Insurer
includes, but is not limited to, an insurance company; self-insurer; reinsurer; reciprocal exchange;
interinsurer; risk retention group; Lloyd's insurer; fraternal benefit society; surety; medical
service, dental, optometric, or any other similar health service plan; and any other legal entity
engaged or purportedly engaged in the business of insurance, including any person or entity that
falls within the definition of insurer found within section 60A.951, subdivision 5.
(e) "Premium" means consideration paid or payable for coverage under an insurance policy.
Premium includes any payment, whether due within the insurance policy term or otherwise, and
any deductible payment, whether advanced by the insurer or insurance professional and subject
to reimbursement by the insured or otherwise, any self-insured retention or payment, whether
advanced by the insurer or insurance professional and subject to reimbursement by the insured
or otherwise, and any collateral or security to be provided to collateralize obligations to pay
any of the above.
(f) "Premium finance company" means a person engaged or purporting to engage in the
business of advancing money, directly or indirectly, to an insurer or producer at the request
of an insured under the terms of a premium finance agreement, including but not limited to,
loan contracts, notes, agreements or obligations, wherein the insured has assigned the unearned
premiums, accrued dividends, or loss payments as security for such advancement in payment of
premiums on insurance policies only, but does not include the financing of insurance premiums
purchased in connection with the financing of goods or services.
(g) "Premium finance transaction" means a transaction by, between, or among an insured, a
producer or other party claiming to act on behalf of an insured and a third-party premium finance
company, for the purposes of purportedly or actually advancing money directly or indirectly to an
insurer or producer at the request of an insured under the terms of a premium finance agreement,
wherein the insured has assigned the unearned premiums, accrued dividends, or loan payments
as security for such advancement in payment of premiums on insurance policies only, but does
not include the financing of insurance premiums purchased in connection with the financing
of goods or services.
History: 1976 c 124 s 8; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 217 s 2; 1994 c 636 art 2
s 43; 1996 c 408 art 3 s 36
609.612 EMPLOYMENT OF RUNNERS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the
meanings given.
(b) "Public media" means telephone directories, professional directories, newspapers and
other periodicals, radio and television, billboards, and mailed or electronically transmitted written
communications that do not involve in-person contact with a specific prospective patient or client.
(c) "Runner," "capper," or "steerer" means a person who for a pecuniary gain procures
patients or clients at the direction of, or in cooperation with, a health care provider when the
person knows or has reason to know that the provider's purpose is to fraudulently perform or
obtain services or benefits under or relating to a contract of motor vehicle insurance. The term
does not include a person who procures clients through public media.
    Subd. 2. Act constituting. Whoever employs, uses, or acts as a runner, capper, or steerer is
guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years or to a
payment of a fine of not more than $6,000, or both. Charges for any services rendered by a health
care provider, who violated this section in regard to the person for whom such services were
rendered, are noncompensable and unenforceable as a matter of law.
History: 2002 c 331 s 15
609.615 DEFEATING SECURITY ON REALTY.
Whoever removes or damages real property which is subject to a mortgage, mechanic's lien,
or contract for deed, including during the period of time allowed for redemption, with intent to
impair the value of the property, without the consent of the security holder, may be sentenced
as follows:
(1) if the value of the property is impaired by $300 or less, to imprisonment for not more
than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000, or both; or
(2) if the value of the property is impaired by more than $300, to imprisonment for not more
than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.615; 1971 c 23 s 63; 1977 c 355 s 12; 1984 c 628 art 3
s 11; 1993 c 40 s 10; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.62 DEFEATING SECURITY ON PERSONALTY.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. In this section "security interest" means an interest in property
which secures payment or other performance of an obligation.
    Subd. 2. Acts constituting. Whoever, with intent to defraud, does any of the following
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years or to payment of a fine of not
more than $6,000, or both:
(1) conceals, removes, or transfers any personal property in which the actor knows that
another has a security interest; or
(2) being an obligor and knowing the location of the property refuses to disclose the same
to an obligee entitled to possession thereof.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.62; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 21
609.621 PROOF OF CONCEALMENT OF PROPERTY BY OBLIGOR OF SECURED
PROPERTY.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined; obligor conceals property. When in any prosecution under
section 609.62, it appears that there is a default in the payment of the debts secured and it further
appears that the obligor has failed or refused to reveal the location of the security, this shall be
considered sufficient evidence to sustain a finding that the obligor has removed, concealed,
or disposed of the property.
    Subd. 2. Allegation. In any prosecution under section 609.62, it is a sufficient allegation
and description of the security and the property secured to state generally that such property was
duly mortgaged or sold under a conditional sales contract, or as the case may be, giving the date
thereof and the names of the obligor and obligee.
History: 1963 c 753 art 2 s 15

FORGERY AND RELATED CRIMES

609.625 AGGRAVATED FORGERY.
    Subdivision 1. Making or altering writing or object. Whoever, with intent to defraud,
falsely makes or alters a writing or object of any of the following kinds so that it purports to have
been made by another or by the maker or alterer under an assumed or fictitious name, or at another
time, or with different provisions, or by authority of one who did not give such authority, is guilty
of aggravated forgery and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both:
(1) a writing or object whereby, when genuine, legal rights, privileges, or obligations are
created, terminated, transferred, or evidenced, or any writing normally relied upon as evidence of
debt or property rights, other than a check as defined in section 609.631 or a financial transaction
card as defined in section 609.821; or
(2) an official seal or the seal of a corporation; or
(3) a public record or an official authentication or certification of a copy thereof; or
(4) an official return or certificate entitled to be received as evidence of its contents; or
(5) a court order, judgment, decree, or process; or
(6) the records or accounts of a public body, office, or officer; or
(7) the records or accounts of a bank or person, with whom funds of the state or any of its
agencies or subdivisions are deposited or entrusted, relating to such funds.
    Subd. 2. Means for false reproduction. Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, engraves,
possesses or transfers a plate or instrument for the false reproduction of a writing or object
mentioned in subdivision 1, a check as defined in section 609.631, or a financial transaction card
as defined in section 609.821, may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 1.
    Subd. 3. Uttering or possessing. Whoever, with intent to defraud, utters or possesses with
intent to utter any forged writing or object mentioned in subdivision 1, not including a check as
defined in section 609.631 or a financial transaction card as defined in section 609.821, knowing it
to have been so forged, may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 1.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.625; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 243 s 9; 1986 c 444;
1987 c 329 s 12
609.63 FORGERY.
    Subdivision 1. Crime defined; intent to defraud. Whoever, with intent to injure or defraud,
does any of the following is guilty of forgery and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both:
(1) uses a false writing, knowing it to be false, for the purpose of identification or
recommendation; or
(2) without consent, places, or possesses with intent to place, upon any merchandise an
identifying label or stamp which is or purports to be that of another craftsperson, tradesperson,
packer, or manufacturer, or disposes or possesses with intent to dispose of any merchandise
so labeled or stamped; or
(3) falsely makes or alters a membership card purporting to be that of a fraternal, business,
professional, or other association, or of any labor union, or possesses any such card knowing it
to have been thus falsely made or altered; or
(4) falsely makes or alters a writing, or possesses a falsely made or altered writing,
evidencing a right to transportation on a common carrier; or
(5) destroys, mutilates, or by alteration, false entry or omission, falsifies any record, account,
or other document relating to a private business; or
(6) without authority of law, destroys, mutilates, or by alteration, false entry, or omission,
falsifies any record, account, or other document relating to a person, corporation, or business, or
filed in the office of, or deposited with, any public office or officer; or
(7) destroys a writing or object to prevent it from being produced at a trial, hearing, or
other proceeding authorized by law.
    Subd. 2. Crime defined; forged document at trial. Whoever, with knowledge that it is
forged, offers in evidence in any trial, hearing or other proceedings authorized by law, as genuine,
any forged writing or object may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the writing or object is offered in evidence in the trial of a felony charge, to
imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000,
or both; or
(2) in all other cases, to imprisonment for not more than three years or to payment of a fine
of not more than $5,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.63; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444
609.631 CHECK FORGERY; OFFERING A FORGED CHECK.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) The definitions in this subdivision apply to this section.
(b) "Check" means a check, draft, order of withdrawal, or similar negotiable or nonnegotiable
instrument.
(c) "Property" and "services" have the meanings given in section 609.52.
    Subd. 2. Check forgery; elements. A person is guilty of check forgery and may be sentenced
under subdivision 4 if the person, with intent to defraud, does any of the following:
(1) falsely makes or alters a check so that it purports to have been made by another or by the
maker under an assumed or fictitious name, or at another time, or with different provisions, or by
the authority of one who did not give authority; or
(2) falsely endorses or alters a check so that it purports to have been endorsed by another.
    Subd. 3. Offering a forged check; elements. A person who, with intent to defraud, offers,
or possesses with intent to offer, a forged check, whether or not it is accepted, is guilty of offering
a forged check and may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 4.
    Subd. 4. Sentencing. A person who is convicted under subdivision 2 or 3 may be sentenced
as follows:
(1) to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$100,000, or both, if the forged check or checks are used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain,
property or services of more than $35,000 or the aggregate amount of the forged check or checks
is more than $35,000;
(2) to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$20,000, or both, if the forged check or checks are used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain,
property or services of more than $2,500 or the aggregate amount of the forged check or checks
is more than $2,500;
(3) to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$10,000, or both, if:
(a) the forged check or checks are used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain, property or
services of more than $250 but not more than $2,500, or the aggregate face amount of the forged
check or checks is more than $250 but not more than $2,500; or
(b) the forged check or checks are used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain, property or
services of no more than $250, or have an aggregate face value of no more than $250, and the
person has been convicted within the preceding five years for an offense under this section,
section 609.24; 609.245; 609.52; 609.53; 609.582, subdivision 1, 2, or 3; 609.625; 609.63; or
609.821, or a statute from another state in conformity with any of those sections, and the person
received a felony or gross misdemeanor sentence for the offense, or a sentence that was stayed
under section 609.135 if the offense to which a plea was entered would allow imposition of a
felony or gross misdemeanor sentence; and
(4) to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than
$3,000, or both, if the forged check or checks are used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain,
property or services of no more than $250, or the aggregate face amount of the forged check or
checks is no more than $250.
In any prosecution under this subdivision, the value of the checks forged or offered by
the defendant in violation of this subdivision within any six-month period may be aggregated
and the defendant charged accordingly in applying the provisions of this section. When two or
more offenses are committed by the same person in two or more counties, the accused may be
prosecuted in any county in which one of the checks was forged or offered for all of the offenses
aggregated under this paragraph.
History: 1987 c 329 s 13; 1988 c 712 s 14; 1989 c 290 art 7 s 10; 1999 c 218 s 4
609.632 COUNTERFEITING OF CURRENCY.
    Subdivision 1. Manufacturing; printing. Whoever, with the intent to defraud, falsely
makes, alters, prints, scans, images, or copies any United States postal money order, United
States currency, Federal Reserve note, or other obligation or security of the United States so
that it purports to be genuine or has different terms or provisions than that of the United States
Postal Service or United States Treasury is guilty of counterfeiting and may be sentenced as
provided in subdivision 4.
    Subd. 2. Means for false reproduction. Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, engraves,
possesses, or transfers a plate or instrument, computer, printer, camera, software, paper, cloth,
fabric, ink, or other material for the false reproduction of any United States postal money order,
United States currency, Federal Reserve note, or other obligation or security of the United States
is guilty of counterfeiting and may be sentenced as provided in subdivision 4.
    Subd. 3. Uttering or possessing. Whoever, with intent to defraud, utters or possesses
with intent to utter any counterfeit United States postal money order, United States currency,
Federal Reserve note, or other obligation or security of the United States, having reason to know
that the money order, currency, note, or obligation or security is forged, counterfeited, falsely
made, altered, or printed, is guilty of offering counterfeited currency and may be sentenced as
provided in subdivision 4.
    Subd. 4. Penalty. (a) A person who is convicted of violating subdivision 1 or 2 may be
sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$100,000, or both.
(b) A person who is convicted of violating subdivision 3 may be sentenced as follows:
(1) to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$100,000, or both, if the counterfeited item is used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain property or
services having a value of more than $35,000, or the aggregate face value of the counterfeited
item is more than $35,000;
(2) to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$20,000, or both, if the counterfeited item is used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain property
or services having a value of more than $5,000, or the aggregate face value of the counterfeited
item is more than $5,000;
(3) to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than
$10,000, or both, if:
(i) the counterfeited item is used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain property or services
having a value of more than $1,000 or the aggregate face value of the counterfeited item is
more than $1,000; or
(ii) the counterfeited item is used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain property or services
having a value of no more than $1,000, or the aggregate face value of the counterfeited item is
no more than $1,000, and the person has been convicted within the preceding five years for an
offense under this section, section 609.24; 609.245; 609.52; 609.53; 609.582, subdivision 1, 2, or
3; 609.625; 609.63; or 609.821, or a statute from another state or the United States in conformity
with any of those sections, and the person received a felony or gross misdemeanor sentence for
the offense, or a sentence that was stayed under section 609.135 if the offense to which a plea was
entered would allow the imposition of a felony or gross misdemeanor sentence; or
(4) to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than
$3,000, or both, if the counterfeited item is used to obtain or in an attempt to obtain property or
services having a value of no more than $1,000, or the aggregate face value of the counterfeited
item is no more than $1,000.
    Subd. 5. Aggregation; venue. In any prosecution under this section, the value of the
counterfeited United States postal money orders, United States currency, Federal Reserve notes,
or other obligations or securities of the United States, offered by the defendant in violation of this
section within any six-month period may be aggregated and the defendant charged accordingly in
applying the provisions of this section. When two or more offenses are committed by the same
person in two or more counties, the accused may be prosecuted in any county in which one of
the counterfeited items was forged, offered, or possessed, for all of the offenses aggregated
under this subdivision.
History: 2006 c 260 art 1 s 27
609.635 OBTAINING SIGNATURE BY FALSE PRETENSE.
Whoever, by false pretense, obtains the signature of another to a writing which is a subject of
forgery under section 609.625, subdivision 1, may be punished as therein provided.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.635
609.64 RECORDING, FILING OF FORGED INSTRUMENT.
Whoever intentionally presents for filing, registering, or recording, or files, registers, or
records a false or forged instrument relating to or affecting real or personal property in a public
office entitled to file, register, or record such instrument when genuine may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or
both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.64; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.645 FRAUDULENT STATEMENTS.
Whoever, with intent to injure or defraud, does any of the following may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or
both:
(1) circulates or publishes a false statement, oral or written, relating to a corporation,
association, or individual, intending thereby to give a false apparent value to securities issued or
to be issued by, or to the property of, such corporation, association, or individual; or
(2) makes a false ship's or airplane's manifest, invoice, register, or protest.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.645; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11
609.65 FALSE CERTIFICATION BY NOTARY PUBLIC.
Whoever, when acting or purporting to act as a notary public or other public officer, certifies
falsely that an instrument has been acknowledged or that any other act was performed by a party
appearing before the actor or that as such notary public or other public officer the actor performed
any other official act may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the actor so certifies with intent to injure or defraud, to imprisonment for not more than
three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $5,000, or both; or
(2) in any other case, to imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine
of not more than $1,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.65; 1971 c 23 s 64; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1986 c 444;
2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.651 STATE LOTTERY FRAUD.
    Subdivision 1. Felony. A person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced under subdivision
4 if the person does any of the following with intent to defraud the State Lottery:
(1) alters or counterfeits a state lottery ticket;
(2) knowingly presents an altered or counterfeited state lottery ticket for payment;
(3) knowingly transfers an altered or counterfeited state lottery ticket to another person; or
(4) otherwise claims a lottery prize by means of fraud, deceit, or misrepresentation.
    Subd. 2. Computer access. A person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced under
subdivision 4 if the person:
(1) obtains access to a computer database maintained by the director without the specific
authorization of the director;
(2) obtains access to a computer database maintained by a person under contract with the
director to maintain the database without the specific authorization of the director and the person
maintaining the database.
    Subd. 3. False statements. A person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced under
subdivision 4 if the person:
(1) makes a materially false or misleading statement, or a material omission, in a record
required to be submitted under chapter 349A; or
(2) makes a materially false or misleading statement, or a material omission, in information
submitted to the director of the State Lottery in a lottery retailer's application or a document
related to a bid.
    Subd. 4. Penalty. (a) A person who violates subdivision 1 or 2 may be sentenced to
imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $50,000, or both.
(b) A person who violates subdivision 1 or 2 and defrauds the State Lottery of $35,000 or
more may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of
not more than $100,000, or both.
(c) A person who violates subdivision 3 may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than
three years or to payment of a fine of not more than $25,000, or both.
History: 1989 c 334 art 3 s 16; 1989 c 356 s 36
609.652 FRAUDULENT DRIVERS' LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS;
PENALTY.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. For purposes of this section:
(1) "driver's license or identification card" means a driver's license or identification card
issued by the Driver and Vehicle Services Division of the Department of Public Safety or receipts
issued by its authorized agents or those of any state as defined in section 171.01 that issues
licenses recognized in this state for the operation of a motor vehicle or that issues identification
cards recognized in this state for the purpose of indicating a person's legal name and age;
(2) "fraudulent driver's license or identification card" means a document purporting to be a
driver's license or identification card, but that is not authentic; and
(3) "sell" means to sell, barter, deliver, exchange, distribute, or dispose of to another.
    Subd. 2. Criminal acts. (a) A person who does any of the following for consideration and
with intent to manufacture, sell, issue, publish, or pass more than one fraudulent driver's license
or identification card or to cause or permit any of the items listed in clauses (1) to (5) to be used
in forging or making more than one false or counterfeit driver's license or identification card
is guilty of a crime:
(1) has in control, custody, or possession any plate, block, press, stone, digital image,
computer software program, encoding equipment, computer optical scanning equipment, or
digital photo printer, or other implement, or any part of such an item, designed to assist in making
a fraudulent driver's license or identification card;
(2) engraves, makes, or amends, or begins to engrave, make, or amend, any plate, block,
press, stone, or other implement for the purpose of producing a fraudulent driver's license
or identification card;
(3) uses a photocopier, digital camera, photographic image, or computer software to generate
a fraudulent driver's license or identification card;
(4) has in control, custody, or possession or makes or provides paper or other material
adapted and designed for the making of a fraudulent driver's license or identification card; or
(5) prints, photographs, or in any manner makes or executes an engraved photograph, print,
or impression purporting to be a driver's license or identification card.
(b) Notwithstanding section 171.22, a person who manufactures or possesses more than one
fraudulent driver's license or identification card with intent to sell is guilty of a crime.
    Subd. 3. Penalties. A person who commits any act described in subdivision 2 is guilty of a
gross misdemeanor. A person convicted of a second or subsequent offense of this subdivision
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not
more than $10,000, or both.
History: 1Sp2001 c 8 art 8 s 27; 2006 c 212 art 1 s 19
609.655 [Repealed, 1976 c 112 s 2]

CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC SAFETY AND HEALTH

609.66 DANGEROUS WEAPONS.
    Subdivision 1. Misdemeanor and gross misdemeanor crimes. (a) Whoever does any of the
following is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced as provided in paragraph (b):
(1) recklessly handles or uses a gun or other dangerous weapon or explosive so as to
endanger the safety of another; or
(2) intentionally points a gun of any kind, capable of injuring or killing a human being and
whether loaded or unloaded, at or toward another; or
(3) manufactures or sells for any unlawful purpose any weapon known as a slungshot or
sand club; or
(4) manufactures, transfers, or possesses metal knuckles or a switch blade knife opening
automatically; or
(5) possesses any other dangerous article or substance for the purpose of being used
unlawfully as a weapon against another; or
(6) outside of a municipality and without the parent's or guardian's consent, furnishes a child
under 14 years of age, or as a parent or guardian permits the child to handle or use, outside of the
parent's or guardian's presence, a firearm or airgun of any kind, or any ammunition or explosive.
Possession of written evidence of prior consent signed by the minor's parent or guardian is a
complete defense to a charge under clause (6).
(b) A person convicted under paragraph (a) may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the act was committed in a public housing zone, as defined in section 152.01,
subdivision 19
, a school zone, as defined in section 152.01, subdivision 14a, or a park zone, as
defined in section 152.01, subdivision 12a, to imprisonment for not more than one year or to
payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both; or
(2) otherwise, including where the act was committed on residential premises within a zone
described in clause (1) if the offender was at the time an owner, tenant, or invitee for a lawful
purpose with respect to those residential premises, to imprisonment for not more than 90 days or
to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000, or both.
    Subd. 1a. Felony crimes; silencers prohibited; reckless discharge. (a) Except as otherwise
provided in subdivision 1h, whoever does any of the following is guilty of a felony and may be
sentenced as provided in paragraph (b):
(1) sells or has in possession any device designed to silence or muffle the discharge of
a firearm;
(2) intentionally discharges a firearm under circumstances that endanger the safety of
another; or
(3) recklessly discharges a firearm within a municipality.
(b) A person convicted under paragraph (a) may be sentenced as follows:
(1) if the act was a violation of paragraph (a), clause (2), or if the act was a violation of
paragraph (a), clause (1) or (3), and was committed in a public housing zone, as defined in section
152.01, subdivision 19, a school zone, as defined in section 152.01, subdivision 14a, or a park
zone, as defined in section 152.01, subdivision 12a, to imprisonment for not more than five years
or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both; or
(2) otherwise, to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not
more than $5,000, or both.
    Subd. 1b. Felony; furnishing to minors. Whoever, in any municipality of this state, furnishes
a minor under 18 years of age with a firearm, airgun, ammunition, or explosive without the prior
consent of the minor's parent or guardian or of the police department of the municipality is guilty
of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a
fine of not more than $20,000, or both. Possession of written evidence of prior consent signed by
the minor's parent or guardian is a complete defense to a charge under this subdivision.
    Subd. 1c. Felony; furnishing a dangerous weapon. Whoever recklessly furnishes a person
with a dangerous weapon in conscious disregard of a known substantial risk that the object will
be possessed or used in furtherance of a felony crime of violence is guilty of a felony and may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $20,000, or both.
    Subd. 1d. Possession on school property; penalty. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs
(c) and (e), whoever possesses, stores, or keeps a dangerous weapon or uses or brandishes a
replica firearm or a BB gun while knowingly on school property is guilty of a felony and may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $5,000, or both.
(b) Whoever possesses, stores, or keeps a replica firearm or a BB gun on school property
is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
(c) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) or (b), it is a misdemeanor for a person authorized to carry
a firearm under the provisions of a permit or otherwise to carry a firearm on or about the person's
clothes or person in a location the person knows is school property. Notwithstanding section
609.531, a firearm carried in violation of this paragraph is not subject to forfeiture.
(d) As used in this subdivision:
(1) "BB gun" means a device that fires or ejects a shot measuring .18 of an inch or less in
diameter;
(2) "dangerous weapon" has the meaning given it in section 609.02, subdivision 6;
(3) "replica firearm" has the meaning given it in section 609.713; and
(4) "school property" means:
(i) a public or private elementary, middle, or secondary school building and its improved
grounds, whether leased or owned by the school;
(ii) a child care center licensed under chapter 245A during the period children are present
and participating in a child care program;
(iii) the area within a school bus when that bus is being used by a school to transport one
or more elementary, middle, or secondary school students to and from school-related activities,
including curricular, cocurricular, noncurricular, extracurricular, and supplementary activities; and
(iv) that portion of a building or facility under the temporary, exclusive control of a public or
private school, a school district, or an association of such entities where conspicuous signs are
prominently posted at each entrance that give actual notice to persons of the school-related use.
(e) This subdivision does not apply to:
(1) active licensed peace officers;
(2) military personnel or students participating in military training, who are on-duty,
performing official duties;
(3) persons authorized to carry a pistol under section 624.714 while in a motor vehicle or
outside of a motor vehicle to directly place a firearm in, or retrieve it from, the trunk or rear
area of the vehicle;
(4) persons who keep or store in a motor vehicle pistols in accordance with section 624.714
or 624.715 or other firearms in accordance with section 97B.045;
(5) firearm safety or marksmanship courses or activities conducted on school property;
(6) possession of dangerous weapons, BB guns, or replica firearms by a ceremonial color
guard;
(7) a gun or knife show held on school property;
(8) possession of dangerous weapons, BB guns, or replica firearms with written permission
of the principal or other person having general control and supervision of the school or the
director of a child care center; or
(9) persons who are on unimproved property owned or leased by a child care center, school,
or school district unless the person knows that a student is currently present on the land for a
school-related activity.
(f) Notwithstanding section 471.634, a school district or other entity composed exclusively
of school districts may not regulate firearms, ammunition, or their respective components, when
possessed or carried by nonstudents or nonemployees, in a manner that is inconsistent with
this subdivision.
    Subd. 1e. Felony; drive-by shooting. (a) Whoever, while in or having just exited from a
motor vehicle, recklessly discharges a firearm at or toward another motor vehicle or a building
is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $6,000, or both.
(b) Any person who violates this subdivision by firing at or toward a person, or an occupied
building or motor vehicle, may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both.
(c) For purposes of this subdivision, "motor vehicle" has the meaning given in section
609.52, subdivision 1, and "building" has the meaning given in section 609.581, subdivision 2.
    Subd. 1f. Gross misdemeanor; transferring a firearm without background check. A
person, other than a federally licensed firearms dealer, who transfers a pistol or semiautomatic
military-style assault weapon to another without complying with the transfer requirements of
section 624.7132, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor if the transferee possesses or uses the weapon
within one year after the transfer in furtherance of a felony crime of violence, and if:
(1) the transferee was prohibited from possessing the weapon under section 624.713 at
the time of the transfer; or
(2) it was reasonably foreseeable at the time of the transfer that the transferee was likely to
use or possess the weapon in furtherance of a felony crime of violence.
    Subd. 1g. Felony; possession in courthouse or certain state buildings. (a) A person who
commits either of the following acts is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment
for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both:
(1) possesses a dangerous weapon, ammunition, or explosives within any courthouse
complex; or
(2) possesses a dangerous weapon, ammunition, or explosives in any state building within
the Capitol Area described in chapter 15B, other than the National Guard Armory.
(b) Unless a person is otherwise prohibited or restricted by other law to possess a dangerous
weapon, this subdivision does not apply to:
(1) licensed peace officers or military personnel who are performing official duties;
(2) persons who carry pistols according to the terms of a permit issued under section 624.714
and who so notify the sheriff or the commissioner of public safety, as appropriate;
(3) persons who possess dangerous weapons for the purpose of display as demonstrative
evidence during testimony at a trial or hearing or exhibition in compliance with advance notice
and safety guidelines set by the sheriff or the commissioner of public safety; or
(4) persons who possess dangerous weapons in a courthouse complex with the express
consent of the county sheriff or who possess dangerous weapons in a state building with the
express consent of the commissioner of public safety.
    Subd. 1h. Silencers; authorized for law enforcement and wildlife control purposes. (a)
Notwithstanding subdivision 1a, paragraph (a), clause (1), licensed peace officers may use devices
designed to silence or muffle the discharge of a firearm for tactical emergency response operations.
Tactical emergency response operations include execution of high risk search and arrest warrants,
incidents of terrorism, hostage rescue, and any other tactical deployments involving high risk
circumstances. The chief law enforcement officer of a law enforcement agency that has the need to
use silencing devices must establish and enforce a written policy governing the use of the devices.
(b) Notwithstanding subdivision 1a, paragraph (a), clause (1), until July 1, 2011, an
enforcement officer, as defined in section 97A.015, subdivision 18, a wildlife area manager,
an employee designated under section 84.0835, or a person acting under contract with the
commissioner of natural resources, at specific times and locations that are authorized by the
commissioner of natural resources may use devices designed to silence or muffle the discharge of
a firearm for wildlife control operations that require stealth. If the commissioner determines that
the use of silencing devices is necessary under this paragraph, the commissioner must:
(1) establish and enforce a written policy governing the use, possession, and transportation
of the devices;
(2) limit the number of the silencing devices maintained by the Department of Natural
Resources to no more than ten; and
(3) keep direct custody and control of the devices when the devices are not specifically
authorized for use.
    Subd. 2. Exceptions. Nothing in this section prohibits the possession of the articles
mentioned by museums or collectors of art or for other lawful purposes of public exhibition.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.66; 1971 c 23 s 66; 1983 c 359 s 89; 1986 c 444; 1990 c 439
s 3,4; 1991 c 279 s 33; 1993 c 326 art 1 s 15-17; 1994 c 576 s 49; 1994 c 636 art 3 s 18-21; 1995
c 186 s 101; 1996 c 408 art 4 s 10; 1998 c 367 art 2 s 22; 2003 c 17 s 2; 2003 c 28 art 2 s 2;
1Sp2003 c 2 art 8 s 10,11; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72; 2005 c 83 s 1,2; 2005 c 102 s 2
609.661 PENALTY FOR SET GUNS; SWIVEL GUNS.
A person who violates a provision relating to set guns or swivel guns is guilty of a gross
misdemeanor.
History: 1986 c 386 art 4 s 31
609.662 SHOOTING VICTIM; DUTY TO RENDER AID.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. As used in this section, "reasonable assistance" means aid
appropriate to the circumstances, and includes obtaining or attempting to obtain assistance from a
conservation or law enforcement officer, or from medical personnel.
    Subd. 2. Duty to render aid. (a) A person who discharges a firearm and knows or has reason
to know that the discharge has caused bodily harm to another person, shall:
(1) immediately investigate the extent of the person's injuries; and
(2) render immediate reasonable assistance to the injured person.
(b) A person who violates this subdivision is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced
as follows:
(1) if the injured person suffered death or great bodily harm as a result of the discharge, to
imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more than $4,000, or both;
(2) if the injured person suffered substantial bodily harm as a result of the discharge, to
imprisonment for not more than one year and one day or to payment of a fine of not more than
$3,000, or both;
(3) otherwise, to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not
more than $3,000, or both.
(c) Notwithstanding section 609.035 or 609.04, a prosecution for or conviction under this
subdivision is not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed by the
defendant as part of the same conduct.
    Subd. 3. Duty of witness. (a) A person who witnesses the discharge of a firearm and knows
or has reason to know that the discharge caused bodily harm to a person shall:
(1) immediately investigate the extent of the injuries; and
(2) render immediate reasonable assistance to the injured person.
(b) A person who violates this subdivision is guilty of a crime and may be sentenced
as follows:
(1) if the defendant was a companion of the person who discharged the firearm at the time
of the discharge, to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not
more than $3,000, or both;
(2) otherwise, to imprisonment for not more than 90 days or to payment of a fine of not
more than $1,000, or both.
    Subd. 4. Defense. It is an affirmative defense to a charge under this section if the defendant
proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the defendant failed to investigate or render
assistance as required under this section because the defendant reasonably perceived that these
actions could not be taken without a significant risk of bodily harm to the defendant or others.
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 1994 c 623 art 5 s 3]
History: 1991 c 243 s 2; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.663 DISPLAY OF HANDGUN AMMUNITION.
It is a petty misdemeanor to display centerfire metallic-case handgun ammunition for sale to
the public in a manner that makes the ammunition directly accessible to persons under the age of
18 years, other than employees or agents of the seller, unless the display is under observation
of the seller or the seller's employee or agent, or the seller takes reasonable steps to exclude
underage persons from the immediate vicinity of the display. Ammunition displayed in an
enclosed display case or behind a counter is not directly accessible. This section does not apply to
ammunition suitable for big game hunting.
History: 1991 c 251 s 1
609.665 SPRING GUNS.
Whoever sets a spring gun, pitfall, deadfall, snare, or other like dangerous weapon or device,
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than six months or to payment of a fine of not
more than $1,000, or both.
History: 1963 c 753 art 1 s 609.665; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
609.666 NEGLIGENT STORAGE OF FIREARMS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following words have the
meanings given.
(a) "Firearm" means a device designed to be used as a weapon, from which is expelled a
projectile by the force of any explosion or force of combustion.
(b) "Child" means a person under the age of 18 years.
(c) "Loaded" means the firearm has ammunition in the chamber or magazine, if the magazine
is in the firearm, unless the firearm is incapable of being fired by a child who is likely to gain
access to the firearm.
    Subd. 2. Access to firearms. A person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor who negligently
stores or leaves a loaded firearm in a location where the person knows, or reasonably should
know, that a child is likely to gain access, unless reasonable action is taken to secure the firearm
against access by the child.
    Subd. 3. Limitations. Subdivision 2 does not apply to a child's access to firearms that was
obtained as a result of an unlawful entry.
History: 1993 c 326 art 1 s 18; 1996 c 408 art 4 s 11
609.667 FIREARMS; REMOVAL OR ALTERATION OF SERIAL NUMBER.
Whoever commits any of the following acts may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both:
(1) obliterates, removes, changes, or alters the serial number or other identification of
a firearm;
(2) receives or possesses a firearm, the serial number or other identification of which has
been obliterated, removed, changed, or altered; or
(3) receives or possesses a firearm that is not identified by a serial number.
As used in this section, "serial number or other identification" means the serial number and
other information required under United States Code, title 26, section 5842, for the identification
of firearms.
History: 1994 c 636 art 3 s 22
609.668 EXPLOSIVE AND INCENDIARY DEVICES.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following terms have the
meanings given them.
(a) "Explosive device" means a device so articulated that an ignition by fire, friction,
concussion, chemical reaction, or detonation of any part of the device may cause such sudden
generation of highly heated gases that the resultant gaseous pressures are capable of producing
destructive effects. Explosive devices include, but are not limited to, bombs, grenades, rockets
having a propellant charge of more than four ounces, mines, and fireworks modified for other
than their intended purpose. The term includes devices that produce a chemical reaction that
produces gas capable of bursting its container and producing destructive effects. The term does
not include firearms ammunition.
(b) "Incendiary device" means a device so articulated that an ignition by fire, friction,
concussion, detonation, or other method may produce destructive effects primarily through
combustion rather than explosion. The term does not include a manufactured device or article in
common use by the general public that is designed to produce combustion for a lawful purpose,
including but not limited to matches, lighters, flares, or devices commercially manufactured
primarily for the purpose of illumination, heating, or cooking. The term does not include firearms
ammunition.
(c) "Crime of violence" has the meaning given in section 624.712, subdivision 5, and also
includes a domestic assault conviction when committed within the last three years or while an
order for protection is active against the person, whichever period is longer.
    Subd. 2. Possession by certain persons prohibited. The following persons are prohibited
from possessing or reporting an explosive device or incendiary device:
(a) a person under the age of 18 years;
(b) a person who has been convicted in this state or elsewhere of a crime of violence unless
ten years have elapsed since the person's civil rights have been restored or the sentence has
expired, whichever occurs first, and during that time the person has not been convicted of any other
crime of violence. For purposes of this section, crime of violence includes crimes in other states
or jurisdictions that would have been crimes of violence if they had been committed in this state;
(c) a person who is or has ever been confined or committed in Minnesota or elsewhere as a
person who is mentally ill, developmentally disabled, or mentally ill and dangerous to the public,
as defined in section 253B.02, to a treatment facility, unless the person possesses a certificate
of a medical doctor or psychiatrist licensed in Minnesota, or other satisfactory proof, that the
person is no longer suffering from this disability;
(d) a person who has been convicted in Minnesota or elsewhere for the unlawful use,
possession, or sale of a controlled substance other than conviction for possession of a small
amount of marijuana, as defined in section 152.01, subdivision 16, or who is or has ever been
hospitalized or committed for treatment for the habitual use of a controlled substance or
marijuana, as defined in sections 152.01 and 152.02, unless the person possesses a certificate of a
medical doctor or psychiatrist licensed in Minnesota, or other satisfactory proof, that the person
has not abused a controlled substance or marijuana during the previous two years;
(e) a person who has been confined or committed to a treatment facility in Minnesota
or elsewhere as chemically dependent, as defined in section 253B.02, unless the person has
completed treatment; and
(f) a peace officer who is informally admitted to a treatment facility under section 253B.04
for chemical dependency, unless the officer possesses a certificate from the head of the treatment
facility discharging or provisionally discharging the officer from the treatment facility.
A person who in good faith issues a certificate to a person described in this subdivision to
possess or use an incendiary or explosive device is not liable for damages resulting or arising from
the actions or misconduct with an explosive or incendiary device committed by the individual
who is the subject of the certificate.
    Subd. 3. Uses permitted. (a) The following persons may own or possess an explosive device
or incendiary device provided that subdivision 4 is complied with:
(1) law enforcement officers for use in the course of their duties;
(2) fire department personnel for use in the course of their duties;
(3) corrections officers and other personnel at correctional facilities or institutions when used
for the retention of persons convicted or accused of crime;
(4) persons possessing explosive devices or incendiary devices that although designed
as devices have been determined by the commissioner of public safety or the commissioner's
delegate, by reason of the date of manufacture, value, design, or other characteristics, to be a
collector's item, relic, museum piece, or specifically used in a particular vocation or employment,
such as the entertainment industry; and
(5) dealers and manufacturers who are federally licensed or registered.
(b) Persons listed in paragraph (a) shall also comply with the federal requirements for the
registration and licensing of destructive devices.
    Subd. 4. Report required. (a) Before owning or possessing an explosive device or
incendiary device as authorized by subdivision 3, a person shall file a written report with the
Department of Public Safety showing the person's name and address; the person's title, position,
and type of employment; a description of the explosive device or incendiary device sufficient to
enable identification of the device; the purpose for which the device will be owned or possessed;
the federal license or registration number, if appropriate; and other information as the department
may require.
(b) Before owning or possessing an explosive device or incendiary device, a dealer or
manufacturer shall file a written report with the Department of Public Safety showing the
name and address of the dealer or manufacturer; the federal license or registration number,
if appropriate; the general type and disposition of the device; and other information as the
department may require.
    Subd. 5. Exceptions. This section does not apply to:
(1) members of the armed forces of either the United States or the state of Minnesota when
for use in the course of duties;
(2) educational institutions when the devices are manufactured or used in conjunction with
an official education course or program;
(3) propellant-actuated devices, or propellant-actuated industrial tools manufactured,
imported, or distributed for their intended purpose;
(4) items that are neither designed or redesigned for use as explosive devices or incendiary
devices;
(5) governmental organizations using explosive devices or incendiary devices for agricultural
purposes or control of wildlife;
(6) governmental organizations using explosive devices or incendiary devices for official
training purposes or as items retained as evidence; or
(7) arsenals, navy yards, depots, or other establishments owned by, or operated by or on
behalf of, the United States.
    Subd. 6. Acts prohibited; penalties. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section,
whoever possesses, manufactures, transports, or stores an explosive device or incendiary device
in violation of this section may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to
payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both.
(b) Whoever legally possesses, manufactures, transports, or stores an explosive device
or incendiary device, with intent to use the device to damage property or cause injury, may
be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more
than $20,000, or both.
(c) Whoever, acting with gross disregard for human life or property, negligently causes an
explosive device or incendiary device to be discharged, may be sentenced to imprisonment for not
more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $100,000, or both.
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 2003 c 2 art 1 s 45]
History: 1994 c 636 art 5 s 15; 2002 c 221 s 47; 2005 c 56 s 1
609.669 CIVIL DISORDER.
    Subdivision 1. Prohibited acts. (a) A person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor who:
(1) teaches or demonstrates to any other person how to use or make any firearm, or explosive
or incendiary device capable of causing injury or death, knowing or having reason to know that it
will be unlawfully employed for use in, or in furtherance of, a civil disorder; or
(2) assembles with one or more persons for the purpose of training with, practicing with, or
being instructed in the use of any firearm, or explosive or incendiary device capable of causing
injury or death, with the intent that it be unlawfully employed for use in, or in furtherance of,
a civil disorder.
(b) This section does not apply to law enforcement officers engaged in the lawful
performance of the officer's official duties.
    Subd. 2. Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following terms have the meanings
given them:
(1) "civil disorder" means any public disturbance involving acts of violence by assemblages
of three or more persons, which causes an immediate danger of or results in damage or injury to
the property or person of any other individual;
(2) "firearm" means any weapon which is designed to or may readily be converted to expel
any projectile by the action of an explosive; or the frame or receiver of any such weapon;
(3) "explosive or incendiary device" has the meaning given in section 609.668, subdivision
1
; and
(4) "law enforcement officer" means any officer or employee of the United States, the state,
or any political subdivision of the state, and specifically includes members of the National Guard
and members of the armed forces of the United States.
History: 1995 c 244 s 23
609.67 MACHINE GUNS AND SHORT-BARRELED SHOTGUNS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) "Machine gun" means any firearm designed to discharge, or
capable of discharging automatically more than once by a single function of the trigger.
(b) "Shotgun" means a weapon designed, redesigned, made or remade which is intended to be
fired from the shoulder and uses the energy of the explosive in a fixed shotgun shell to fire through
a smooth bore either a number of ball shot or a single projectile for each single pull of the trigger.
(c) "Short-barreled shotgun" means a shotgun having one or more barrels less than 18 inches
in length and any weapon made from a shotgun if such weapon as modified has an overall length
less than 26 inches.
(d) "Trigger activator" means a removable manual or power driven trigger activating device
constructed and designed so that, when attached to a firearm, the rate at which the trigger may be
pulled increases and the rate of fire of the firearm increases to that of a machine gun.
(e) "Machine gun conversion kit" means any part or combination of parts designed and
intended for use in converting a weapon into a machine gun, and any combination of parts from
which a machine gun can be assembled, but does not include a spare or replacement part for a
machine gun that is possessed lawfully under section 609.67, subdivision 3.
    Subd. 2. Acts prohibited. Except as otherwise provided herein, whoever owns, possesses, or
operates a machine gun, any trigger activator or machine gun conversion kit, or a short-barreled
shotgun may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine
of not more than $10,000, or both.
    Subd. 3. Uses permitted. The following persons may own or possess a machine gun or
short-barreled shotgun provided the provisions of subdivision 4 are complied with:
(1) law enforcement officers for use in the course of their duties;
(2) chief executive officers of correctional facilities and other personnel thereof authorized
by them and persons in charge of other institutions for the retention of persons convicted or
accused of crime, for use in the course of their duties;
(3) persons possessing machine guns or short-barreled shotguns which, although designed as
weapons, have been determined by the superintendent of the Bureau of Criminal Apprehension
or the superintendent's delegate by reason of the date of manufacture, value, design or other
characteristics to be primarily collector's items, relics, museum pieces or objects of curiosity,
ornaments or keepsakes, and are not likely to be used as weapons;
(4) manufacturers of ammunition who possess and use machine guns for the sole purpose of
testing ammunition manufactured for sale to federal and state agencies or political subdivisions;
(5) dealers and manufacturers who are federally licensed to buy and sell, or manufacture
machine guns or short-barreled shotguns and who either use the machine guns or short-barreled
shotguns in peace officer training under courses approved by the Board of Peace Officer Standards
and Training, or are engaged in the sale of machine guns or short-barreled shotguns to federal and
state agencies or political subdivisions; and
(6) persons employed by the Minnesota National Guard as security guards, for use in
accordance with applicable federal military regulations.
    Subd. 4. Report required. (a) A person owning or possessing a machine gun or
short-barreled shotgun as authorized by subdivision 3, clause (1), (2), (3), or (4) shall, within
ten days after acquiring such ownership or possession, file a written report with the Bureau
of Criminal Apprehension, showing the person's name and address; the person's official title
and position, if any; a description of the machine gun or short-barreled shotgun sufficient to
enable identification thereof; the purpose for which it is owned or possessed; and such further
information as the bureau may reasonably require.
(b) A dealer or manufacturer owning or having a machine gun or short-barreled shotgun
as authorized by subdivision 3, clause (5) shall, by the