|576.01||[Repealed, 2012 c 143 art 3 s 39]|
|576.011||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.01]|
|576.02||[Repealed, 1974 c 394 s 12]|
|576.04||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.02]|
|576.05||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.03]|
|576.06||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.04]|
|576.07||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.05]|
|576.08||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.06]|
|576.09||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.07]|
|576.10||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.08]|
|576.11||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.09]|
|576.12||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.10]|
|576.121||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.11]|
|576.122||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.12]|
|576.123||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.13]|
|576.13||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.14]|
|576.14||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.15]|
|576.141||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.16]|
|576.142||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.17]|
|576.143||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.18]|
|576.144||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.19]|
|576.15||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.20]|
|576.16||MS 2010 [Renumbered 578.21]|
|576.22||APPLICABILITY OF CHAPTER AND OF COMMON LAW.|
|576.23||POWERS OF THE COURT.|
|576.24||TYPES OF RECEIVERSHIPS.|
|576.25||APPOINTMENT OF RECEIVERS; RECEIVERSHIP NOT A TRUST.|
|576.26||ELIGIBILITY OF RECEIVER.|
|576.28||IMMUNITY; DISCOVERY FROM RECEIVER.|
|576.29||POWERS AND DUTIES OF RECEIVERS; GENERALLY.|
|576.30||RECEIVER AS LIEN CREDITOR; REAL PROPERTY RECORDING; SUBSEQUENT SALES OF REAL PROPERTY.|
|576.31||DUTIES OF RESPONDENT.|
|576.32||EMPLOYMENT AND COMPENSATION OF PROFESSIONALS.|
|576.33||SCHEDULES OF PROPERTY AND CLAIMS.|
|576.35||NOTICES, MOTIONS, AND ORDERS.|
|576.36||RECORDS; INTERIM REPORTS.|
|576.37||REMOVAL OF RECEIVERS.|
|576.38||TERMINATION OF RECEIVERSHIPS; FINAL REPORT.|
|576.39||ACTIONS BY OR AGAINST RECEIVER OR RELATING TO RECEIVERSHIP PROPERTY.|
|576.40||TURNOVER OF PROPERTY.|
|576.46||SALES FREE AND CLEAR OF LIEN IN GENERAL RECEIVERSHIPS.|
|576.47||ABANDONMENT OF PROPERTY.|
|576.48||LIENS AGAINST AFTER-ACQUIRED PROPERTY.|
|576.50||OBJECTION TO AND ALLOWANCE OF CLAIMS.|
|576.51||PRIORITY OF CLAIMS.|
|576.52||INTEREST ON UNSECURED CLAIMS.|
(a) The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context requires otherwise.
(b) "Court" means the district court in which the receivership is pending unless the context requires otherwise.
(c) "Entity" means a person other than a natural person.
(d) "Executory contract" means a contract, including a lease, where the obligations of both the respondent and the other party to the contract are unperformed to the extent that the failure of either party to complete performance of its obligations would constitute a material breach of the contract, thereby excusing the other party's performance of its obligations under the contract.
(e) "Foreign receiver" means a receiver appointed in any foreign jurisdiction.
(f) "Foreign jurisdiction" means any state or federal jurisdiction other than that of this state.
(g) "General receiver" means the receiver appointed in a general receivership.
(h) "General receivership" means a receivership over all or substantially all of the nonexempt property of a respondent for the purpose of liquidation and distribution to creditors and other parties in interest, including, without limitation, a receivership resulting from the appointment of a receiver pursuant to section 302A.753, 308A.945, 308B.935, 317A.753, or 322B.836.
(i) "Lien" means a charge against or interest in property to secure payment of a debt or the performance of an obligation, including any mortgage or security interest.
(j) "Limited receiver" means the receiver appointed in a limited receivership.
(k) "Limited receivership" means a receivership other than a general receivership.
(l) "Party" means a person who is a party within the meaning of the Minnesota Rules of Civil Procedure in the action in which a receiver is appointed.
(m) "Party in interest" includes the respondent, any equity security holder in the respondent, any person with an ownership interest in or lien on receivership property, and, in a general receivership, any creditor of the respondent.
(n) "Person" has the meaning given it in section 645.44 and shall include limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships, and other entities recognized under the laws of this state.
(o) "Property" means all of respondent's right, title, and interest, both legal and equitable, in real and personal property, regardless of the manner by which any of the same were or are acquired. Property includes, but is not limited to, any proceeds, products, offspring, rents, or profits of or from the property. Property does not include: (1) any power that the respondent may exercise solely for the benefit of another person, or (2) property impressed with a trust except to the extent that the respondent has a residual interest.
(p) "Receiver" means a person appointed by the court as the court's agent, and subject to the court's direction, to take possession of, manage, and, if authorized by this chapter or order of the court, dispose of receivership property.
(q) "Receivership" means the case in which the receiver is appointed, and, as the context requires, the proceeding in which the receiver takes possession of, manages, or disposes of the respondent's property.
(r) "Receivership property" means (1) in the case of a general receivership, all or substantially all of the nonexempt property of the respondent, or (2) in the case of a limited receivership, that property of the respondent identified in the order appointing the receiver, or in any subsequent order.
(s) "Respondent" means the person over whose property the receiver is appointed.
(t) "State agent" and "state agency" means any office, department, division, bureau, board, commission, or other agency of the state of Minnesota or of any subdivision thereof, or any individual acting in an official capacity on behalf of any state agent or state agency.
(u) "Time of appointment" means the date and time specified in the first order of appointment of a receiver or, if the date and time are not specified in the order of appointment, the date and time that the court ruled on the motion for the appointment of a receiver. Time of appointment does not mean any subsequent date or time, including the execution of a written order, the filing or docketing of a written order, or the posting of a bond.
(v) "Utility" means a person providing any service regulated by the Public Utilities Commission.
(a) This chapter applies to receiverships provided for in section 576.25, subdivisions 2 to 6, and to receiverships:
(1) pursuant to section 193.147, in connection with a mortgage on an armory;
(2) pursuant to section 223.17, subdivision 8, paragraph (b), in connection with a defaulting grain buyer;
(3) pursuant to section 232.22, subdivision 7, paragraph (c), in connection with a defaulting public grain warehouse;
(4) pursuant to section 296A.22, in connection with nonpayment of tax;
(5) pursuant to sections 302A.751, 302A.753, 308A.941, 308A.945, 308B.931, 308B.935, 317A.751, 317A.753, 322B.833, and 322B.836, or in an action relating to the dissolution of a foreign entity with property within the state;
(6) pursuant to section 321.0703, in connection with the rights of a creditor of a partner or transferee;
(7) pursuant to section 322.22, in connection with the rights of creditors of limited partners;
(8) pursuant to section 323A.0504, in connection with a partner's transferable interest;
(9) pursuant to section 453.55, in connection with bonds and notes;
(10) pursuant to section 453A.05, in connection with bonds and notes;
(11) pursuant to section 513.47, in connection with a proceeding for relief with respect to a transfer fraudulent as to a creditor or creditors;
(12) pursuant to section 514.06, in connection with the severance of a building and resale;
(13) pursuant to section 515.23, in connection with an action by a unit owners' association to foreclose a lien for nonpayment of delinquent assessments against condominium units;
(14) pursuant to section 518A.71, in connection with the failure to pay, or to provide security for, maintenance or support payments;
(15) pursuant to section 559.17, in connection with assignments of rents; however, any receiver appointed under section 559.17 shall be a limited receiver, and the court shall apply the provisions of this chapter to the extent not inconsistent with section 559.17;
(16) pursuant to section 571.84, in connection with a garnishee in possession of property subject to a garnishment proceeding;
(17) pursuant to section 575.05, in connection with property applied to judgment;
(18) pursuant to section 575.06, in connection with adverse claimants;
(19) pursuant to sections 582.05 to 582.10, in connection with mortgage foreclosures; however, any receiver appointed under sections 582.05 to 582.10 shall be a limited receiver, and the court shall apply the provisions of this chapter to the extent not inconsistent with sections 582.05 to 582.10;
(20) pursuant to section 609.904, in connection with criminal penalties; or
(21) pursuant to section 609.907, in connection with preservation of property subject to forfeiture.
(b) This chapter does not apply to any receivership in which the receiver is a state agency or in which the receiver is appointed, controlled, or regulated by a state agency unless otherwise provided by law.
(c) In receiverships not specifically referenced in paragraph (a) or (b), the court, in its discretion, may apply provisions of this chapter to the extent not inconsistent with the statutes establishing the receiverships.
(d) Unless explicitly displaced by this chapter, the provisions of other statutory law and the principles of common law remain in full force and effect and supplement the provisions of this chapter.
The court has the exclusive authority to direct the receiver and the authority over all receivership property wherever located including, without limitation, authority to determine all controversies relating to the collection, preservation, improvement, disposition, and distribution of receivership property, and all matters otherwise arising in or relating to the receivership, the receivership property, the exercise of the receiver's powers, or the performance of the receiver's duties.
A receivership may be either a limited receivership or a general receivership. Any receivership which is based upon the enforcement of an assignment of rents or leases, or the foreclosure of a mortgage lien, judgment lien, mechanic's lien, or other lien pursuant to which the respondent or any holder of a lien would have a statutory right of redemption, shall be a limited receivership. If the order appointing the receiver does not specify whether the receivership is a limited receivership or a general receivership, the receivership shall be a limited receivership unless and until the court by later order designates the receivership as a general receivership, notwithstanding that pursuant to section 576.25, subdivision 8, a receiver may have control over all the property of the respondent. At any time, the court may order a general receivership to be converted to a limited receivership and a limited receivership to be converted to a general receivership.
A receiver may be appointed under this chapter whether or not the motion for appointment of a receiver is combined with, or is ancillary to, an action seeking a money judgment.
Except where judgment for failure to answer may be had without application to the court, a limited receiver may be appointed before judgment to protect any party to an action who demonstrates an apparent right to property that is the subject of the action and is in the possession of an adverse party, and that the property or its rents and profits are in danger of loss or material impairment.
A limited or general receiver may be appointed in a judgment or after judgment to carry the judgment into effect, to preserve property pending an appeal, or when an execution has been returned unsatisfied and the judgment debtor refuses to apply the property in satisfaction of the judgment.
In addition to those situations specifically provided for in statute, a limited or general receiver may be appointed when a corporation or other entity is dissolved, insolvent, in imminent danger of insolvency, or has forfeited its corporate rights and in like cases of the property within the state of foreign corporations and other entities.
(a) A limited receiver shall be appointed at any time after the commencement of mortgage foreclosure proceedings under chapter 580 or 581 and before the end of the period for redemption, if the mortgage being foreclosed:
(1) secures an original principal amount of $100,000 or more or is a lien upon residential real estate containing more than four dwelling units; and
(2) is not a lien upon property that was entirely homesteaded, residential real estate containing four or fewer dwelling units where at least one unit is homesteaded; or agricultural property.
The foreclosing mortgagee or the purchaser at foreclosure sale may at any time bring an action in the district court of the county in which the mortgaged property or any part thereof is located for the appointment of a receiver; provided, however, if the foreclosure is by action under chapter 581, a separate action need not be filed.
(b) The court shall appoint a receiver upon a showing that the mortgagor has breached a covenant contained in the mortgage relating to any of the following:
(1) application of tenant security deposits as required by section 504B.178;
(2) payment when due of prior or current real estate taxes or special assessments with respect to the mortgaged property or the periodic escrow for the payment of the taxes or special assessments;
(3) payment when due of premiums for insurance of the type required by the mortgage or the periodic escrow for the payment of the premiums; or
(4) keeping of the covenants required of a landlord or licensor pursuant to section 504B.161, subdivision 1.
(c) The receiver shall be or shall retain an experienced property manager.
(d) The receiver shall collect the rents, profits, and all other income of any kind. The receiver, after providing for payment of its reasonable fees and expenses, shall, to the extent possible and in the order determined by the receiver to preserve the value of the mortgaged property:
(1) manage the mortgaged property so as to prevent waste;
(2) execute contracts and leases within the period of the receivership, or beyond the period of the receivership if approved by the court;
(3) pay the expenses listed in paragraph (b), clauses (1) to (3);
(4) pay all expenses for normal maintenance of the mortgaged property; and
(5) perform the terms of any assignment of rents that complies with section 559.17, subdivision 2.
(e) The purchaser at a foreclosure sale shall have the right, at any time and without limitation as provided in section 582.03, to advance money to the receiver to pay any or all of the expenses that the receiver should otherwise pay if cash were available from the mortgaged property. Sums so advanced, with interest, shall be a part of the sum required to be paid to redeem from the sale. The sums shall be proved by the affidavit of the purchaser, an agent, or attorney, stating the expenses and describing the mortgaged property. The affidavit shall be furnished to the sheriff in the manner of expenses claimed under section 582.03.
(f) Any sums collected that remain in the possession of the receiver at the termination of the receivership shall, in the event the termination of the receivership is due to the reinstatement of the mortgage debt or redemption of the mortgaged property by the mortgagor, be paid to the mortgagor; and in the event termination of the receivership occurs at the end of the period of redemption without redemption by the mortgagor or any other party entitled to redeem, interest accrued upon the sale price pursuant to section 580.23 or 581.10 shall be paid to the purchaser at the foreclosure sale. Any net sum remaining shall be paid to the mortgagor, except if the receiver was enforcing an assignment of rents that complies with section 559.17, subdivision 2, in which case any net sum remaining shall be paid pursuant to the terms of the assignment.
(g) This subdivision applies to all mortgages executed on or after August 1, 1977, and to amendments or modifications thereto, and to amendments or modifications made on or after August 1, 1977, to mortgages executed before August 1, 1977, if the amendment or modification is duly recorded and is for the principal purpose of curing a default.
A receiver may be appointed in other cases as are provided by law, or in accord with existing practice, except as otherwise prescribed.
The court may appoint a receiver upon a motion with notice to the respondent, to all other parties in the action, and to parties in interest and other persons as the court may require. Notice shall also be given to any judgment creditor who is seeking the appointment of a receiver in any other action. A motion to appoint a general receiver shall be treated as a dispositive motion. The court may appoint a receiver ex parte or on shortened notice on a temporary basis if it is clearly shown that an emergency exists requiring the immediate appointment of a receiver. In that event, the court shall set a hearing as soon as practicable and at the subsequent hearing, the burdens of proof shall be as would be applicable to a motion made on notice that is not expedited.
The order appointing the receiver or subsequent order shall describe the receivership property with particularity appropriate to the circumstances. If the order does not so describe the receivership property, until further order of the court, the receiver shall have control over all of the respondent's nonexempt property.
The order appointing the receiver does not create a trust.
Unless otherwise prohibited by law or prior order, any person, whether or not a resident of this state, may serve as a receiver, provided that the court, in its order appointing the receiver, makes written conclusions based in the record that the person proposed as receiver:
(1) is qualified to serve as receiver and as an officer of the court; and
(2) is independent as to the parties and the underlying dispute.
(a) In determining whether a proposed receiver is qualified to serve as receiver and as an officer of the court, the court shall consider any relevant information, including, but not limited to, whether:
(1) the proposed receiver has knowledge and experience sufficient to perform the duties of receiver;
(2) the proposed receiver has the financial ability to post the bond required by section 578.06;
(3) the proposed receiver or any insider of the proposed receiver has been previously disqualified from serving as receiver and the reasons for disqualification;
(4) the proposed receiver or any insider of the proposed receiver has been convicted of a felony or other crime involving moral turpitude; and
(5) the proposed receiver or any insider of the proposed receiver has been found liable in a civil court for fraud, breach of fiduciary duty, civil theft, or similar misconduct.
(b) For the purposes of this subdivision, "insider" includes:
(1) if the proposed receiver is a corporation, an officer or director of the corporation, or a person in control of the proposed receiver; and
(2) if the proposed receiver is a partnership, a general or limited partner of the partnership, or a person in control of the proposed receiver.
(a) In determining whether a proposed receiver is independent as to the parties and the underlying dispute, the court shall consider any relevant information, including, but not limited to:
(1) the nature and extent of any relationship that the proposed receiver has to the parties and the property proposed as receivership property including, without limitation, whether the proposed receiver is a party to the action, a family member of a party to the action, or an officer, director, member, employee, or owner of or controls a party to the action;
(2) whether the proposed receiver has any interest materially adverse to the interests of any of the parties to the action;
(3) whether the proposed receiver has any material financial or pecuniary interest, other than receiver compensation allowed by court order, in the outcome of the underlying dispute, including any proposed contingent or success fee compensation arrangement; and
(4) whether the proposed receiver is a debtor, secured or unsecured creditor, lienor of, or holder of any equity interest in, any of the parties to the action of the receivership property.
(b) In evaluating all information, the court may exercise its discretion and need not consider any single item of information to be determinative of independence. Without limiting the generality of the preceding sentence, the proposed receiver shall not be disqualified solely because the proposed receiver was appointed receiver in other unrelated matters involving any of the parties to the matter in which the appointment is sought, or the proposed receiver has been engaged by any of the parties to the action in matters unrelated to the underlying action.
The proposed receiver, the parties, and prospective parties in interest may provide any information relevant to the qualifications, independence, and the selection of the receiver.
2012 c 143 art 1 s 6; art 3 s 38
After appointment, a receiver shall give a bond in the sum, nature, and with the conditions that the court shall order in its discretion consistent with section 574.11. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the receiver's bond shall be conditioned on the receiver's faithful discharge of its duties in accordance with the orders of the court and the laws of this state. The receiver shall execute a bond with a surety authorized to write bonds in the state.
(a) The receiver shall be entitled to all defenses and immunities provided at common law for acts or omissions within the scope of the receiver's appointment.
(b) No person other than a successor receiver duly appointed by the court shall have a right of action against a receiver to recover receivership property or the value thereof.
(c) A party or party in interest may conduct discovery of the receiver concerning any matter relating to the receiver's administration of the receivership property after obtaining an order authorizing the discovery.
(a) A receiver, whether general or limited, shall have the following powers in addition to those specifically conferred by this chapter or otherwise by statute, rule, or order of the court:
(1) the power to collect, control, manage, conserve, and protect receivership property;
(2) the power to incur and pay expenses incidental to the receiver's exercise of the powers or otherwise in the performance of the receiver's duties;
(3) the power to assert rights, claims, causes of action, or defenses that relate to receivership property; and
(4) the power to seek and obtain instruction from the court with respect to any matter relating to the receivership property, the exercise of the receiver's powers, or the performance of the receiver's duties.
(b) In addition to the powers provided in paragraph (a), a general receiver shall have the power:
(1) to (i) assert, or when authorized by the court, to release, any rights, claims, causes of action, or defenses of the respondent to the extent any rights, claims, causes of action, or defenses are receivership property; (ii) maintain in the receiver's name or in the name of the respondent any action to enforce any right, claim, cause of action, or defense; and (iii) intervene in actions in which the respondent is a party for the purpose of exercising the powers under this clause or requesting transfer of venue of the action to the court;
(3) to compel any person, including the respondent, and any party, by subpoena pursuant to Rule 45 of the Minnesota Rules of Civil Procedure, to give testimony or to produce and permit inspection and copying of designated books, documents, electronically stored information, or tangible things with respect to receivership property or any other matter that may affect the administration of the receivership;
(4) to operate any business constituting receivership property in the ordinary course of the business, including using, selling, or leasing property of the business or otherwise constituting receivership property; incurring and payment of expenses of the business or other receivership property; and hiring employees and appointing officers to act on behalf of the business;
(5) if authorized by an order of the court following notice and a hearing, to use, improve, sell, or lease receivership property other than in the ordinary course of business; and
A receiver, whether general or limited, shall have the duties specifically conferred by this chapter or otherwise by statute, rule, or order of the court.
Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the court may modify the powers and duties of a receiver provided by this section.
As of the time of appointment, the receiver shall have the powers and priority as if it were a creditor that obtained a judicial lien at the time of appointment pursuant to sections 548.09 and 550.10 on all of the receivership property, subject to satisfying the recording requirements as to real property described in subdivision 2.
If any interest in real property is included in the receivership property, a notice of lis pendens shall be recorded as soon as practicable with the county recorder or registrar of titles, as appropriate, of the county in which the real property is located. The priority of the receiver as lien creditor against real property shall be from the time of recording of the notice of lis pendens, except as to persons with actual or implied knowledge of the appointment under section 507.34.
The following documents are prima facie evidence of the authority to sell and convey the real property:
(1) the notice of lis pendens;
(2) a court order certified by the court administrator authorizing the receiver to sell, or cause the respondent to sell, real property; and
(3) a deed executed by the receiver, or by the respondent if authorized by the court.
The court may also require a motion for an order for sale of the real property or a motion for an order confirming sale of the real property.
The respondent shall:
(1) assist and cooperate fully with the receiver in the administration of the receivership and the receivership property and the discharge of the receiver's duties, and comply with all orders of the court;
(2) immediately upon the receiver's appointment, deliver to the receiver all of the receivership property in the respondent's possession, custody, or control, including, but not limited to, all books and records, electronic data, passwords, access codes, statements of accounts, deeds, titles or other evidence of ownership, financial statements, and all other papers and documents related to the receivership property;
(3) supply to the receiver information as requested relating to the administration of the receivership and the receivership property, including information necessary to complete any reports or other documents that the receiver may be required to file; and
(4) remain responsible for the filing of all tax returns, including those returns applicable to periods which include those in which the receivership is in effect.
(a) To represent or assist the receiver in carrying out the receiver's duties, the receiver may employ attorneys, accountants, appraisers, auctioneers, and other professionals that do not hold or represent an interest adverse to the receivership.
(b) This section does not require prior court approval for the retention of professionals. However, any professional to be retained shall provide the receiver with a disclosure of any potential conflicts of interest, and the professional or the receiver shall file with the court a notice of the retention and of the proposed compensation. Any party in interest may bring a motion for disapproval of any retention within 21 days after the filing of the notice of retention.
(c) A person is not disqualified for employment under this section solely because of the person's employment by, representation of, or other relationship with the receiver, respondent, a creditor, or other party in interest if the court determines that the employment is appropriate.
(a) The receiver and any professional retained by the receiver shall be paid by the receiver from the receivership property in the same manner as other expenses of administration and without separate orders, but subject to the procedures, safeguards, and reporting that the court may order.
(b) Except to the extent fees and expenses have been approved by the court, or as to parties in interest who are deemed to have waived the right to object, any interim payments of fees and expenses to the receiver are subject to approval in connection with the receiver's final report pursuant to section 576.38.
(a) The court may order the respondent or a general receiver to file under oath to the best of its actual knowledge:
(1) a schedule of all receivership property and exempt property of the respondent, describing, as of the time of appointment: (i) the location of the property and, if real property, a legal description thereof; (ii) a description of all liens to which the property is subject; and (iii) an estimated value of the property; and
(2) a schedule of all creditors and taxing authorities and regulatory authorities which supervise the respondent, their mailing addresses, the amount and nature of their claims, whether the claims are secured by liens of any kind, and whether the claims are disputed.
(b) The court may order inventories and appraisals if appropriate to the receivership.
In a general receivership, unless the court orders otherwise, the receiver shall give notice of the receivership to all creditors and other parties in interest actually known to the receiver by mail or other means of transmission within 21 days after the time of appointment. The notice of the receivership shall include the time of appointment and the names and addresses of the respondent, the receiver, and the receiver's attorney, if any.
Any party in interest may make an appearance in a receivership by filing a written notice of appearance, including the name, mailing address, fax number, e-mail address, if any, and telephone number of the party in interest and its attorney, if any, and by serving a copy on the receiver and the receiver's attorney, if any. It is not necessary for a party in interest to be joined as a party to be heard in the receivership. A proof of claim does not constitute a written notice of appearance.
From time to time the receiver shall file an updated master service list consisting of the names, mailing addresses, and, where available, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the respondent, the receiver, all persons joined as parties in the receivership, all persons known by the receiver to have asserted any ownership or lien in receivership property, all persons who have filed a notice of appearance in accordance with this section, and their attorneys, if any.
Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, an order shall be sought by a motion brought in compliance with the Minnesota Rules of Civil Procedure and the General Rules of Practice for the District Courts.
Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a motion shall be served as provided in the Minnesota Rules of Civil Procedure, unless the court orders otherwise, on all persons on the master service list, all persons who have asserted an ownership interest or lien in receivership property that is the subject of the motion, all persons who are identified in the motion as directly affected by the relief requested, and other persons as the court may direct.
Any request for relief against a state agency shall be served as provided in the Minnesota Rules of Civil Procedure, unless the court orders otherwise, on the specific state agency and on the Office of the Attorney General.
Where a provision in this chapter, an order issued in the receivership, or a court rule requires an objection or other response to a motion or application within a specific time, and no objection or other response is interposed, the court may grant the relief requested without a hearing.
Where a provision of this chapter permits, as to administrative matters, or where it otherwise appears that no party in interest would be materially prejudiced, the court may issue an order ex parte or based on an application without a motion, notice, or hearing.
Except as to persons entitled to be served pursuant to subdivision 4 and who were not served, an order of the court binds parties in interest and all persons who file notices of appearance, submit proofs of claim, receive written notice of the receivership, receive notice of any motion in the receivership, or who have actual knowledge of the receivership whether they are joined as parties or received notice of the specific motion or order.
The receiver shall prepare and retain appropriate business records, including records of all cash receipts and disbursements and of all receipts and distributions or other dispositions of receivership property. After due consideration of issues of confidentiality, the records may be provided by the receiver to parties in interest or shall be provided as ordered by the court.
(a) The court may order the receiver to prepare and file interim reports addressing:
(1) the activities of the receiver since the last report;
(2) cash receipts and disbursements, including payments made to professionals retained by the receiver;
(3) receipts and dispositions of receivership property; and
(4) other matters.
(b) The order may provide for the delivery of the receiver's interim reports to persons on the master service list and to other persons and may provide a procedure for objection to the interim reports, and may also provide that the failure to object constitutes a waiver of objection to matters addressed in the interim reports.
The court may remove the receiver if: (1) the receiver fails to execute and file the bond required by section 576.27; (2) the receiver resigns, refuses, or fails to serve for any reason; or (3) for other good cause.
Upon removal of the receiver, if the court determines that further administration of the receivership is required, the court shall appoint a successor receiver. Upon executing and filing a bond under section 576.27, the successor receiver shall immediately succeed the receiver so removed and shall assume the duties of receiver.
Within 14 days after removal, the receiver so removed shall file with the court and serve a report pursuant to section 576.38, subdivision 3, for matters up to the date of the removal. Upon approval of the report, the court may enter an order pursuant to section 576.38 discharging the removed receiver.
The court may discharge a receiver and terminate the receivership. If the court determines that the appointment of the receiver was procured in bad faith, the court may assess against the person who procured the receiver's appointment:
(1) all of the receiver's fees and expenses and other costs of the receivership; and
(2) any other sanctions the court deems appropriate.
Upon distribution or disposition of all receivership property, or the completion of the receiver's duties, the receiver shall file a final report and shall request that the court approve the final report and discharge the receiver.
The final report, which may incorporate by reference interim reports, shall include, in addition to any matters required by the court in the case:
(1) a description of the activities of the receiver in the conduct of the receivership;
(2) a schedule of all receivership property at the commencement of the receivership and any receivership property added thereafter;
(3) a list of expenditures, including all payments to professionals retained by the receiver;
(4) a list of any unpaid expenses incurred during the receivership;
(5) a list of all dispositions of receivership property;
(6) a list of all distributions made or proposed to be made; and
(7) if not done separately, a motion or application for approval of the payment of fees and expenses of the receiver.
The receiver shall give notice of the filing of the final report and request for discharge to all persons who have filed notices of appearance. If there is no objection within 21 days, the court may enter an order approving the final report and discharging the receiver without the necessity of a hearing.
A discharge removes all authority of the receiver, excuses the receiver from further performance of any duties, and discharges any lis pendens recorded by the receiver.
The receiver may sue in the receiver's capacity and, subject to other sections of this chapter and all immunities provided at common law, may be sued in that capacity.
Unless applicable law requires otherwise or the court orders otherwise, an action by or against the receiver or relating to the receivership or receivership property shall be commenced in the court and assigned to the judge before whom the receivership is pending.
Subject to section 576.42, a limited or general receiver may be joined or substituted as a party in any action or other proceeding that relates to receivership property that was pending at the time of appointment. Subject to other sections of this chapter, a general receiver may be joined or substituted as a party in any action or other proceeding that was pending at the time of appointment in which the respondent is a party. Pending actions may be transferred to the court upon the receiver's motion for change of venue made in the court in which the action is pending.
A judgment entered subsequent to the time of appointment against a receiver or the respondent shall not constitute a lien on receivership property, nor shall any execution issue thereon. Upon submission of a certified copy of the judgment in accordance with section 576.49, the amount of the judgment shall be treated as an allowed claim in a general receivership. A judgment against a limited receiver shall have the same effect as a judgment against the respondent, except that the judgment shall be enforceable against receivership property only to the extent ordered by the court.
Except as expressly provided in this section, and unless otherwise ordered by the court, upon demand by a receiver, any person shall turn over any receivership property that is within the possession or control of that person. Unless ordered by the court, a person in possession of receivership property pursuant to a valid lien perfected prior to the time of appointment is not required to turn over receivership property.
A receiver may seek to compel turnover of receivership property by motion in the receivership. If there exists a bona fide dispute with respect to the existence or nature of the receiver's or the respondent's interest in the property, turnover shall be sought by means of an action under section 576.39. In the absence of a bona fide dispute with respect to the receiver's or the respondent's right to possession of receivership property, the failure to relinquish possession and control to the receiver may be punishable as contempt of the court.
A receiver appointed by a court of this state may, without first seeking approval of the court, apply in any foreign jurisdiction for appointment as receiver with respect to any receivership property which is located within the foreign jurisdiction.
(a) A foreign receiver may obtain appointment by a court of this state as a receiver in an ancillary receivership with respect to any property located in or subject to the jurisdiction of the court if (1) the foreign receiver would be eligible to serve as receiver under section 576.26, and (2) the appointment is in furtherance of the foreign receiver's possession, control, or disposition of property subject to the foreign receivership and in accordance with orders of the foreign jurisdiction.
(b) The courts of this state may enter any order necessary to effectuate orders entered by the foreign jurisdiction's receivership proceeding. Unless the court orders otherwise, a receiver appointed in an ancillary receivership in this state shall have the powers and duties of a limited receiver as set forth in this chapter and shall otherwise comply with the provisions of this chapter applicable to limited receivers.
All receivership property is under the control and supervision of the court appointing the receiver.
In addition to any stay provided in this section, the court may order a stay or stays to protect receivership property and to facilitate the administration of the receivership.
Except as otherwise ordered by the court, the entry of an order appointing a receiver shall operate as a stay, applicable to all persons, of:
(1) any act to obtain possession of receivership property, or to interfere with or exercise control over receivership property, other than the commencement or continuation of a judicial, administrative, or other action or proceeding, including the issuance or use of process, to enforce any lien having priority over the rights of the receiver in receivership property; and
(2) any act to create or perfect any lien against receivership property, except by exercise of a right of setoff, to the extent that the lien secures a claim that arose before the time of appointment.
(a) Except as otherwise ordered by the court, in addition to the stay provided in subdivision 3, the entry of an order appointing a general receiver shall operate as a stay, applicable to all persons, of:
(1) the commencement or continuation of a judicial, administrative, or other action or proceeding, including the issuance or use of process, against the respondent or the receiver that was or could have been commenced before the time of appointment, or to recover a claim against the respondent that arose before the time of appointment;
(2) the commencement or continuation of a judicial, administrative, or other action or proceeding, including the issuance or use of process, to enforce any lien having priority over the rights of the receiver in receivership property.
(b) As to the acts specified in this subdivision, the stay shall expire 30 days after the time of appointment unless, before the expiration of the 30-day period, the receiver or other party in interest files a motion seeking an order of the court extending the stay and before the expiration of an additional 30 days following the 30-day period, the court orders the stay extended.
The court may modify any stay provided in this section upon the motion of any party in interest affected by the stay.
The entry of an order appointing a receiver does not operate as a stay of:
(1) the commencement or continuation of a criminal proceeding against the respondent;
(2) the commencement or continuation of an action or proceeding by a governmental unit to enforce its police or regulatory power;
(3) the enforcement of a judgment, other than a money judgment, obtained in an action or proceeding by a governmental unit to enforce its police or regulatory power, or with respect to any licensure of the respondent;
(4) the establishment by a governmental unit of any tax liability and any appeal thereof;
(5) the commencement or continuation of an action or proceeding to establish paternity; to establish or modify an order for alimony, maintenance, or support; or to collect alimony, maintenance, or support under any order of a court;
(6) the exercise of a right of setoff;
(7) any act to maintain or continue the perfection of a lien on, or otherwise preserve or protect rights in, receivership property, but only to the extent that the act was necessary to preserve or protect the lien or other rights as they existed as of the time of the appointment. If the act would require seizure of receivership property or commencement of an action prohibited by a stay, the continued perfection shall instead be accomplished by filing a notice in the court before which the receivership is pending and by serving the notice upon the receiver and receiver's attorney, if any, within the time fixed by law for seizure or commencement of the action;
(8) the commencement of a bankruptcy case under federal bankruptcy laws; or
(9) any other exception as provided in United States Code, title 11, section 326(b), as to the automatic stay in federal bankruptcy cases to the extent not inconsistent with any provision in this section.
A utility providing service to receivership property that has received written notice from the receiver of the appointment of the receiver may not alter, refuse, or discontinue service to the receivership property without first giving the receiver written notice of any receivership default in compliance with the utility's approved tariffs. After written notice to the utility and a hearing satisfactory to the court, the court may prohibit the alteration, refusal, or discontinuance of utility service if the receiver furnishes adequate assurance of payment for service to be provided after the time of appointment.
(a) Without necessity of a court order, the receiver may obtain unsecured credit and incur unsecured debt on behalf of the receivership, and the amounts shall be allowable as expenses of the receivership under section 576.51, subdivision 1, clause (2).
(b) Without necessity of a court order, the receiver may obtain secured financing on behalf of the receivership from any secured party under a financing facility existing at the time of the appointment.
(c) The court may authorize the receiver to obtain credit or incur indebtedness, and the court may authorize the receiver to mortgage, pledge, hypothecate, or otherwise encumber receivership property as security for repayment of any indebtedness.
Unless a court orders otherwise, a receiver succeeds to all of the rights and duties of the respondent under any executory contract. The court may condition the continued performance by the receiver on terms that are appropriate under the circumstances. Performance of an executory contract shall create a claim against the receivership to the extent of the value of the performance received by the receivership after the time of appointment. The claim shall not constitute a personal obligation of the receiver.
For good cause, the court may authorize a receiver to assign and delegate an executory contract to a third party under the same circumstances and under the same conditions as the respondent was permitted to do so pursuant to the terms of the executory contract and applicable law immediately before the time of appointment.
For good cause, the court may authorize the receiver to terminate an executory contract. The receiver's right to possess or use property or receive services pursuant to the executory contract shall terminate at the termination of the executory contract. Except as to the claim against the receivership under subdivision 1, if a termination of an executory contract constitutes a breach of the executory contract, the termination shall create a claim equal to the damages, if any, for breach of the contract as if the breach of contract had occurred immediately before the time of appointment. Any claim arising under this section for termination of an executory contract shall be presented or filed in the same manner as other claims in the receivership no later than the later of: (1) the time set for filing of claims in the receivership; or (2) 28 days after the notice by the receiver of the termination of the executory contract.
(a) The court may order that a general receiver's sale of receivership property is free and clear of all liens, except any lien for unpaid real estate taxes or assessments and liens arising under federal law, and may be free of the rights of redemption of the respondent if the rights of redemption are receivership property and the rights of redemption of the holders of any liens, regardless of whether the sale will generate proceeds sufficient to fully satisfy all liens on the property, unless either:
(1) the property is (i) real property classified as agricultural land under section 273.13, subdivision 23, or the property is a homestead under section 510.01; and (ii) each of the owners of the property has not consented to the sale following the time of appointment; or
(2) any owner of the property or holder of a lien on the property serves and files a timely objection, and the court determines that the amount likely to be realized from the sale by the objecting person is less than the objecting person would realize within a reasonable time in the absence of this sale.
(b) The receiver shall have the burden of proof to establish that the amount likely to be realized by the objecting person from the sale is equal to or more than the objecting person would realize within a reasonable time in the absence of the sale.
(c) Upon any sale free and clear of liens authorized by this section, all liens encumbering the property conveyed shall transfer and attach to the proceeds of the sale, net of reasonable expenses approved by the court incurred in the disposition of the property, in the same order, priority, and validity as the liens had with respect to the property immediately before the sale. The court may authorize the receiver to satisfy, in whole or in part, any ownership interest or lien out of the proceeds of the sale if the ownership interest or lien of any party in interest would not thereby be impaired.
If any receivership property includes an interest as a co-owner of property, the receiver shall have the rights and powers afforded by applicable state or federal law of the respondent, including but not limited to any rights of partition, but may not sell the property free and clear of the co-owner's interest in the property.
A creditor with a claim secured by a valid and perfected lien against the property to be sold may bid on the property at a sale and may offset against the purchase price part or all of the amount secured by its lien, provided that the creditor tenders cash sufficient to satisfy in full the reasonable expenses, approved by the court, incurred in the disposition of the property and all liens payable out of the proceeds of sale having priority over the lien of that creditor.
The reversal or modification on appeal of an authorization to sell property under this section does not affect the validity of a sale to a person that purchased the property in good faith, whether or not the person knew of the pendency of the appeal, unless the authorization and sale is stayed pending the appeal.
The court may authorize the receiver to abandon to the respondent any receivership property that is burdensome or is not of material value to the receivership.
Except as otherwise provided for by statute, property that becomes receivership property after the time of appointment is subject to a lien to the same extent as it would have been in the absence of the receivership.
In a general receivership, and in a limited receivership if the circumstances require, the receiver shall submit to the court a recommendation concerning a claims process appropriate to the particular receivership.
In a general receivership and, if the court orders, in a limited receivership, the court shall establish the claims process to be followed in the receivership addressing whether proofs of claim must be submitted, the form of any proofs of claim, the place where the proofs of claim must be submitted, the deadline or deadlines for submitting the proofs of claim, and other matters bearing on the claims process.
The court may authorize proofs of claim to be filed with the receiver rather than the court. The court may authorize the receiver to treat claims as allowed claims based on the amounts established in the books and records of the respondent or the schedule of claims filed pursuant to section 576.33, without necessity of formal proofs of claim.
The receiver or any party in interest may file a motion objecting to a claim and stating the grounds for the objection. The court may order that a copy of the objection be served on the persons on the master service list at least 30 days prior to the hearing. Claims allowed by court order, and claims properly submitted and not disallowed by the court shall be allowed claims and shall be entitled to share in distributions of receivership property in accordance with the priorities provided by this chapter or otherwise by law.
If the claims process does not require proofs of claim to be filed with the court, at any time after expiration of the claim-filing period and upon 14 days' written notice to the receiver, any party in interest shall have the right to examine:
(1) all claims filed with the receiver; and
(2) all books and records in the receiver's possession that provided the receiver the basis for concluding that creditors identified therein are entitled to participate in any distributions of receivership property without having to file claims.
For the purpose of allowance of claims, the court may estimate:
(1) any contingent or unliquidated claim, the fixing or liquidation of which would unduly delay the administration of the receivership; or
(2) any right to payment arising from a right to an equitable remedy.
Allowed claims shall receive distribution under this chapter in the following order of priority and, except as set forth in clause (1), on a pro rata basis:
(1) claims secured by liens on receivership property, which liens are valid and perfected before the time of appointment, to the extent of the proceeds from the disposition of the collateral in accordance with their respective priorities under otherwise applicable law, subject first to reimbursing the receiver for the reasonable and necessary expenses of preserving, protecting, or disposing of the collateral, including allowed fees and reimbursement of reasonable expenses of the receiver and professionals;
(2) actual, necessary costs and expenses incurred during the receivership, other than those expenses allowable under clause (1), including allowed fees and reimbursement of reasonable expenses of the receiver and professionals employed by the receiver under section 576.32;
(3) claims for wages, salaries, or commissions, including vacation, severance, and sick leave pay, or contributions to an employee benefit plan, earned by the claimant within the 90 days before the time of appointment or the cessation of the respondent's business, whichever occurs first, but only to the extent of the dollar amount in effect in United States Code, title 11, section 507(4);
(4) allowed unsecured claims, to the extent of the dollar amount in effect in United States Code, title 11, section 507(7), for each individual, arising from the deposit with the respondent, before the time of appointment of the receiver, of money in connection with the purchase, lease, or rental of property or the purchase of services for personal, family, or household use by individuals that were not delivered or provided;
(5) claims for arrears in amounts owing pursuant to a support order as defined in section 518A.26, subdivision 3;
(6) unsecured claims of governmental units for taxes that accrued before the time of appointment of the receiver;
(7) all other unsecured claims due as of the time of appointment, including the balance due the holders of secured claims to the extent not satisfied under clause (1); and
(8) interest pursuant to section 576.52.
If all of the amounts payable under subdivision 1 have been paid in full, any remaining receivership property shall be returned to the respondent.
To the extent that funds are available to pay holders of allowed unsecured claims in full or the amounts due as of the time of appointment, each holder shall also be entitled to receive interest, calculated from the time of appointment, at the rate set forth in the agreement evidencing the claim, or if no rate is provided, at the judgment rate that would be payable as of the time of appointment; provided however, that no holder shall be entitled to interest on that portion, if any, of its unsecured claim that is itself interest calculated from the time of appointment. If there are not sufficient funds in the receivership to pay in full the interest owed to all the holders, then the interest shall be paid pro rata.
Before any interim or final distribution is made, the receiver shall file a distribution schedule listing the proposed distributions. The distribution schedule may be filed at any time during the case or may be included in the final report.
The receiver shall give notice of the filing of the distribution schedule to all persons on the master mailing list or that have filed proofs of claim. If there is no objection within 21 days after the notice, the court may enter an order authorizing the receiver to make the distributions described in the distribution schedule without the necessity of a hearing.
In the order appointing the receiver or in subsequent orders, the court may authorize distribution of receivership property to persons with ownership interests or liens.