122A.40 EMPLOYMENT; CONTRACTS; TERMINATION.
Subdivision 1. Teacher defined.
A principal, supervisor, and classroom teacher and any
other professional employee required to hold a license from the state department shall be deemed
to be a "teacher" within the meaning of this section. A superintendent is a "teacher" only for
purposes of subdivisions 3 and 19.
Subd. 2. Nonprovisional license defined.
For purposes of this section, "nonprovisional
license" means an entrance, continuing, or life license.
Subd. 3. Hiring, dismissing.
School boards must hire or dismiss teachers at duly called
meetings. Where a husband and wife, brother and sister, or two brothers or sisters, constitute a
quorum, no contract employing a teacher shall be made or authorized except upon the unanimous
vote of the full board. A teacher related by blood or marriage, within the fourth degree, computed
by the civil law, to a board member shall not be employed except by a unanimous vote of the
full board. The initial employment of the teacher in the district must be by written contract,
signed by the teacher and by the chair and clerk. All subsequent employment of the teacher
in the district must be by written contract, signed by the teacher and by the chair and clerk,
except where there is a master agreement covering the employment of the teacher. Contracts for
teaching or supervision of teaching can be made only with qualified teachers. A teacher shall
not be required to reside within the employing district as a condition to teaching employment
or continued teaching employment.
Subd. 4. Employment in supervisory positions.
Notwithstanding other law, a teacher, as
defined in section
, does not have a right to employment in a district as an assistant
superintendent, as a principal defined in section
, as a confidential or supervisory
employee defined in section
, or in a position that is a promotion from the position
currently held, based on seniority, seniority date, or order of employment by the district. This
provision shall not alter the reinstatement rights of an individual who is placed on leave from an
assistant superintendent, principal or assistant principal, or supervisory or confidential employee
position pursuant to this chapter.
Subd. 5. Probationary period.
(a) The first three consecutive years of a teacher's first
teaching experience in Minnesota in a single district is deemed to be a probationary period of
employment, and after completion thereof, the probationary period in each district in which
the teacher is thereafter employed shall be one year. The school board must adopt a plan for
written evaluation of teachers during the probationary period. Evaluation must occur at least
three times each year for a teacher performing services on 120 or more school days, at least two
times each year for a teacher performing services on 60 to 119 school days, and at least one
time each year for a teacher performing services on fewer than 60 school days. Days devoted
to parent-teacher conferences, teachers' workshops, and other staff development opportunities
and days on which a teacher is absent from school must not be included in determining the
number of school days on which a teacher performs services. Except as otherwise provided in
paragraph (b), during the probationary period any annual contract with any teacher may or may
not be renewed as the school board shall see fit. However, the board must give any such teacher
whose contract it declines to renew for the following school year written notice to that effect
before July 1. If the teacher requests reasons for any nonrenewal of a teaching contract, the board
must give the teacher its reason in writing, including a statement that appropriate supervision was
furnished describing the nature and the extent of such supervision furnished the teacher during the
employment by the board, within ten days after receiving such request. The school board may,
after a hearing held upon due notice, discharge a teacher during the probationary period for cause,
effective immediately, under section
(b) A board must discharge a probationary teacher, effective immediately, upon receipt of
notice under section
122A.20, subdivision 1
, paragraph (b), that the teacher's license has been
revoked due to a conviction for child abuse or sexual abuse.
(c) A probationary teacher whose first three years of consecutive employment are
interrupted for active military service and who promptly resumes teaching consistent with
federal reemployment timelines for uniformed service personnel under United States Code, title
38, section 4312(e), is considered to have a consecutive teaching experience for purposes of
(d) A probationary teacher must complete at least 60 days of teaching service each year
during the probationary period. Days devoted to parent-teacher conferences, teachers' workshops,
and other staff development opportunities and days on which a teacher is absent from school do
not count as days of teaching service under this paragraph.
Subd. 6. Peer review for probationary teachers.
A school board and an exclusive
representative of the teachers in the district must develop a probationary teacher peer review
process through joint agreement.
Subd. 7. Termination of contract after probationary period.
(a) A teacher who has
completed a probationary period in any district, and who has not been discharged or advised of a
refusal to renew the teacher's contract under subdivision 5, shall elect to have a continuing contract
with such district where contract terms and conditions, including salary and salary increases, are
established based either on the length of the school calendar or an extended school calendar under
. Thereafter, the teacher's contract must remain in full force and effect, except as
modified by mutual consent of the board and the teacher, until terminated by a majority roll call
vote of the full membership of the board prior to April 1 upon one of the grounds specified in
subdivision 9 or July 1 upon one of the grounds specified in subdivision 10 or 11, or until the
teacher is discharged pursuant to subdivision 13, or by the written resignation of the teacher
submitted prior to April 1. If an agreement as to the terms and conditions of employment for the
succeeding school year has not been adopted pursuant to the provisions of sections
prior to March 1, the teacher's right of resignation is extended to the 30th calendar day
following the adoption of said contract in compliance with section
179A.20, subdivision 5
written resignation by the teacher is effective as of June 30 if submitted prior to that date and the
teachers' right of resignation for the school year then beginning shall cease on July 15. Before a
teacher's contract is terminated by the board, the board must notify the teacher in writing and state
its ground for the proposed termination in reasonable detail together with a statement that the
teacher may make a written request for a hearing before the board within 14 days after receipt of
such notification. If the grounds are those specified in subdivision 9 or 13, the notice must also
state a teacher may request arbitration under subdivision 15. Within 14 days after receipt of this
notification the teacher may make a written request for a hearing before the board or an arbitrator
and it shall be granted upon reasonable notice to the teacher of the date set for hearing, before final
action is taken. If no hearing is requested within such period, it shall be deemed acquiescence by
the teacher to the board's action. Such termination shall take effect at the close of the school year in
which the contract is terminated in the manner aforesaid. Such contract may be terminated at any
time by mutual consent of the board and the teacher and this section does not affect the powers of
a board to suspend, discharge, or demote a teacher under and pursuant to other provisions of law.
(b) A teacher electing to have a continuing contract based on the extended school calendar
must participate in staff development training under subdivision 7a and
shall receive an increased base salary.
Subd. 7a. Additional staff development and salary.
(a) A teacher electing to have a
continuing contract based on the extended school calendar under section
participate in a total number of staff development days where the total number of such days
equals the difference between the total number of days of student instruction and 240 days.
Staff development includes peer mentoring, peer gathering, continuing education, professional
development, or other training. A school board may schedule such days throughout the calendar
year. Staff development programs provided during such days shall enable teachers to achieve the
staff development outcomes under section
122A.60, subdivision 3
(b) A public employer and the exclusive representative of the teachers must include
terms in the collective bargaining agreement for all teachers who participate in additional staff
development days under paragraph (a) that increase base salaries.
Subd. 8. Peer review for continuing contract teachers.
A school board and an exclusive
representative of the teachers in the district shall develop a peer review process for continuing
contract teachers through joint agreement.
Subd. 9. Grounds for termination.
A continuing contract may be terminated, effective at
the close of the school year, upon any of the following grounds:
(b) Neglect of duty, or persistent violation of school laws, rules, regulations, or directives;
(c) Conduct unbecoming a teacher which materially impairs the teacher's educational
(d) Other good and sufficient grounds rendering the teacher unfit to perform the teacher's
A contract must not be terminated upon one of the grounds specified in clause (a), (b), (c), or
(d), unless the teacher fails to correct the deficiency after being given written notice of the specific
items of complaint and reasonable time within which to remedy them.
Subd. 10. Negotiated unrequested leave of absence.
The school board and the exclusive
bargaining representative of the teachers may negotiate a plan providing for unrequested leave
of absence without pay or fringe benefits for as many teachers as may be necessary because of
discontinuance of position, lack of pupils, financial limitations, or merger of classes caused
by consolidation of districts. Failing to successfully negotiate such a plan, the provisions of
subdivision 11 shall apply. The negotiated plan must not include provisions which would result
in the exercise of seniority by a teacher holding a provisional license, other than a vocational
education license, contrary to the provisions of subdivision 11, clause (c), or the reinstatement
of a teacher holding a provisional license, other than a vocational education license, contrary to
the provisions of subdivision 11, clause (e). The provisions of section
do not apply
for the purposes of this subdivision.
Subd. 11. Unrequested leave of absence.
The board may place on unrequested leave
of absence, without pay or fringe benefits, as many teachers as may be necessary because of
discontinuance of position, lack of pupils, financial limitations, or merger of classes caused by
consolidation of districts. The unrequested leave is effective at the close of the school year. In
placing teachers on unrequested leave, the board is governed by the following provisions:
(a) The board may place probationary teachers on unrequested leave first in the inverse order
of their employment. A teacher who has acquired continuing contract rights must not be placed on
unrequested leave of absence while probationary teachers are retained in positions for which the
teacher who has acquired continuing contract rights is licensed;
(b) Teachers who have acquired continuing contract rights shall be placed on unrequested
leave of absence in fields in which they are licensed in the inverse order in which they were
employed by the school district. In the case of equal seniority, the order in which teachers who
have acquired continuing contract rights shall be placed on unrequested leave of absence in
fields in which they are licensed is negotiable;
(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of clause (b), a teacher is not entitled to exercise any
seniority when that exercise results in that teacher being retained by the district in a field for
which the teacher holds only a provisional license, as defined by the board of teaching, unless
that exercise of seniority results in the placement on unrequested leave of absence of another
teacher who also holds a provisional license in the same field. The provisions of this clause
do not apply to vocational education licenses;
(d) Notwithstanding clauses (a), (b) and (c), if the placing of a probationary teacher on
unrequested leave before a teacher who has acquired continuing rights, the placing of a teacher
who has acquired continuing contract rights on unrequested leave before another teacher who
has acquired continuing contract rights but who has greater seniority, or the restriction imposed
by the provisions of clause (c) would place the district in violation of its affirmative action
program, the district may retain the probationary teacher, the teacher with less seniority, or the
provisionally licensed teacher;
(e) Teachers placed on unrequested leave of absence must be reinstated to the positions from
which they have been given leaves of absence or, if not available, to other available positions in
the school district in fields in which they are licensed. Reinstatement must be in the inverse order
of placement on leave of absence. A teacher must not be reinstated to a position in a field in which
the teacher holds only a provisional license, other than a vocational education license, while
another teacher who holds a nonprovisional license in the same field remains on unrequested
leave. The order of reinstatement of teachers who have equal seniority and who are placed on
unrequested leave in the same school year is negotiable;
(f) Appointment of a new teacher must not be made while there is available, on unrequested
leave, a teacher who is properly licensed to fill such vacancy, unless the teacher fails to advise the
school board within 30 days of the date of notification that a position is available to that teacher
who may return to employment and assume the duties of the position to which appointed on a
future date determined by the board;
(g) A teacher placed on unrequested leave of absence may engage in teaching or any other
occupation during the period of this leave;
(h) The unrequested leave of absence must not impair the continuing contract rights of a
teacher or result in a loss of credit for previous years of service;
(i) The unrequested leave of absence of a teacher who is placed on unrequested leave of
absence and who is not reinstated shall continue for a period of five years, after which the right to
reinstatement shall terminate. The teacher's right to reinstatement shall also terminate if the teacher
fails to file with the board by April 1 of any year a written statement requesting reinstatement;
(j) The same provisions applicable to terminations of probationary or continuing contracts in
subdivisions 5 and 7 must apply to placement on unrequested leave of absence;
(k) Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to impair the rights of teachers placed on
unrequested leave of absence to receive unemployment benefits if otherwise eligible.
Subd. 12. Suspension and leave of absence for health reasons.
Affliction with active
tuberculosis or other communicable disease, mental illness, drug or alcoholic addiction, or other
serious incapacity shall be grounds for temporary suspension and leave of absence while the
teacher is suffering from such disability. Unless the teacher consents, such action must be taken
only upon evidence that suspension is required from a physician who has examined the teacher.
The physician must be competent in the field involved and must be selected by the teacher from
a list of three provided by the school board, and the examination must be at the expense of the
school district. A copy of the report of the physician shall be furnished the teacher upon request. If
the teacher fails to submit to the examination within the prescribed time, the board may discharge
the teacher, effective immediately. In the event of mental illness, if the teacher submits to such
an examination and the examining physician's or psychiatrist's statement is unacceptable to the
teacher or the board, a panel of three physicians or psychiatrists must be selected to examine the
teacher at the board's expense. The board and the teacher shall each select a member of this panel,
and these two members shall select a third member. The panel must examine the teacher and
submit a statement of its findings and conclusions to the board. Upon receipt and consideration of
the statement from the panel the board may suspend the teacher. The board must notify the teacher
in writing of such suspension and the reasons therefor. During the leave of absence, the district
must pay the teacher sick leave benefits up to the amount of unused accumulated sick leave, and
after it is exhausted, the district may in its discretion pay additional benefits. The teacher must be
reinstated to the teacher's position upon evidence from such a physician of sufficient recovery to
be capable of resuming performance of duties in a proper manner. In the event that the teacher
does not qualify for reinstatement within 12 months after the date of suspension, the continuing
disability may be a ground for discharge under subdivision 13.
Subd. 13. Immediate discharge.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b), a board
may discharge a continuing-contract teacher, effective immediately, upon any of the following
(1) immoral conduct, insubordination, or conviction of a felony;
(2) conduct unbecoming a teacher which requires the immediate removal of the teacher from
classroom or other duties;
(3) failure without justifiable cause to teach without first securing the written release of
the school board;
(4) gross inefficiency which the teacher has failed to correct after reasonable written notice;
(5) willful neglect of duty; or
(6) continuing physical or mental disability subsequent to a 12 months leave of absence and
inability to qualify for reinstatement in accordance with subdivision 12.
For purposes of this paragraph, conduct unbecoming a teacher includes an unfair
discriminatory practice described in section
Prior to discharging a teacher under this paragraph, the board must notify the teacher in
writing and state its ground for the proposed discharge in reasonable detail. Within ten days after
receipt of this notification the teacher may make a written request for a hearing before the board
and it shall be granted before final action is taken. The board may, however, suspend a teacher
with pay pending the conclusion of such hearing and determination of the issues raised in the
hearing after charges have been filed which constitute ground for discharge.
(b) A board must discharge a continuing-contract teacher, effective immediately, upon
receipt of notice under section
122A.20, subdivision 1
, paragraph (b), that the teacher's license
has been revoked due to a conviction for child abuse or sexual abuse.
Subd. 14. Hearing procedures.
Any hearing held pursuant to this section must be held upon
appropriate and timely notice to the teacher, and any hearing held pursuant to subdivision 9 or 13
must be private or public at the discretion of the teacher. A hearing held pursuant to subdivision
11 must be public and may be consolidated by the school board. At the hearing, the board and
the teacher may each be represented by counsel at each party's own expense, and such counsel
may examine and cross-examine witnesses and present arguments. The board must first present
evidence to sustain the grounds for termination or discharge and then receive evidence presented
by the teacher. Each party may then present rebuttal evidence. Dismissal of the teacher must
be based upon substantial and competent evidence in the record. All witnesses shall be sworn
upon oath administered by the presiding officer of the board. The clerk of the board shall issue
subpoenas for witnesses or the production of records pertinent to the grounds upon the request of
either the board or the teacher. The board must employ a court reporter to record the proceedings
at the hearing, and either party may obtain a transcript of the hearing at its own expense.
Subd. 15. Hearing and determination by arbitrator.
A teacher whose termination is
proposed under subdivision 7 on grounds specified in subdivision 9, or whose discharge is
proposed under subdivision 13, may elect a hearing before an arbitrator instead of the school
board. The hearing is governed by this subdivision.
(a) The teacher must make a written request for a hearing before an arbitrator within 14 days
after receiving notification of proposed termination on grounds specified in subdivision 9 or
within ten days of receiving notification of proposed discharge under subdivision 13. If a request
for a hearing does not specify that the hearing be before an arbitrator, it is considered to be a
request for a hearing before the school board.
(b) If the teacher and the school board are unable to mutually agree on an arbitrator, the
board must request from the bureau of mediation services a list of five persons to serve as an
arbitrator. If the matter to be heard is a proposed termination on grounds specified in subdivision
9, arbitrators on the list must be available to hear the matter and make a decision within a time
frame that will allow the board to comply with all statutory timelines relating to termination. If
the teacher and the board are unable to mutually agree on an arbitrator from the list provided, the
parties shall alternately strike names from the list until the name of one arbitrator remains. The
person remaining after the striking procedure must be the arbitrator. If the parties are unable to
agree on who shall strike the first name, the question must be decided by a flip of a coin. The
teacher and the school board must share equally the costs and fees of the arbitrator.
(c) The arbitrator shall determine, by a preponderance of the evidence, whether the grounds
for termination or discharge specified in subdivision 9 or 13 exist to support the proposed
termination or discharge. A lesser penalty than termination or discharge may be imposed by the
arbitrator only to the extent that either party proposes such lesser penalty in the proceeding. In
making the determination, the arbitration proceeding is governed by sections
and by the collective bargaining agreement applicable to the teacher.
(d) An arbitration hearing conducted under this subdivision is a meeting for preliminary
consideration of allegations or charges within the meaning of section
13D.05, subdivision 3
paragraph (a), and must be closed, unless the teacher requests it to be open.
(e) The arbitrator's award is final and binding on the parties, subject to sections
Subd. 16. Decision.
After the hearing, the board must issue a written decision and order. If
the board orders termination of a continuing contract or discharge of a teacher, its decision must
include findings of fact based upon competent evidence in the record and must be served on the
teacher, accompanied by an order of termination or discharge, prior to April 1 in the case of a
contract termination for grounds specified in subdivision 9, prior to July 1 for grounds specified in
subdivision 10 or 11, or within ten days after conclusion of the hearing in the case of a discharge.
If the decision of the board or of a reviewing court is favorable to the teacher, the proceedings
must be dismissed and the decision entered in the board minutes, and all references to such
proceedings must be excluded from the teacher's record file.
Subd. 17. Judicial review.
The pendency of judicial proceedings must not be ground for
postponement of the effective date of the board's order, but if judicial review eventuates in
reinstatement of the teacher, the board must pay the teacher all compensation withheld as a
result of the termination or dismissal order.
Subd. 18. Exception.
This section does not apply to any district in a city of the first class.
Subd. 19. Records relating to individual teacher; access; expungement.
and files generated within a school district relating to each individual teacher must be available
to each individual teacher upon written request. Effective January 1, 1976, all evaluations and
files, wherever generated, relating to each individual teacher must be available to each individual
teacher upon written request. The teacher shall have the right to reproduce any of the contents
of the files at the teacher's expense and to submit for inclusion in the file written information in
response to any material contained therein.
A district may destroy the files as provided by law and must expunge from the teacher's file
any material found to be false or inaccurate through the grievance procedure required pursuant
179A.20, subdivision 4
. The grievance procedure promulgated by the director of the
bureau of mediation services, pursuant to section
179A.04, subdivision 3
, clause (h), applies to
those principals and supervisory employees not included in an appropriate unit as defined in
. Expungement proceedings must be commenced within the time period provided
in the collective bargaining agreement for the commencement of a grievance. If no time period
is provided in the bargaining agreement, the expungement proceedings must commence within
15 days after the teacher has knowledge of the inclusion in the teacher's file of the material
the teacher seeks to have expunged.
History: Ex1959 c 71 art 6 s 12; 1963 c 450 s 1; 1967 c 890 s 1; 1969 c 781 s 1; 1971 c 253
s 1; 1971 c 743 s 1; 1973 c 128 s 1; 1974 c 458 s 1-4; 1975 c 151 s 1; 1975 c 177 s 1; 1975 c 432
s 70; 1976 c 222 s 17,208; 1977 c 447 art 7 s 21-23; 1978 c 632 s 1,2; 1978 c 706 s 38,39; 1978
c 764 s 75,76; 1979 c 40 s 2; 1979 c 139 s 1; 1980 c 509 s 35; 1980 c 609 art 6 s 24,25; 1982
c 424 s 33; 1983 c 314 art 7 s 29-31; 1984 c 462 s 27; 1984 c 463 art 7 s 13; 1984 c 525 s 1;
1Sp1985 c 12 art 7 s 22; 1986 c 444; 1988 c 718 art 7 s 35; 1989 c 152 s 1; 1990 c 562 art 8 s 29;
1991 c 130 s 26; 1991 c 196 s 1,2; 1991 c 265 art 9 s 45-48; 1992 c 499 art 8 s 13; 1993 c 224
art 12 s 22,23; 1994 c 488 s 8; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 8 s 6; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 7 s 8; 1998 c 397 art 8 s
17-33,101; art 11 s 3; 1999 c 107 s 66; 1999 c 201 s 2,3; 1999 c 241 art 9 s 13-15; 2000 c 343 s
4; 1Sp2001 c 6 art 2 s 10,11; 2005 c 36 s 1; 1Sp2005 c 5 art 10 s 1
NOTE: Subdivision 5, as amended by Laws 2005, chapter 36, section 1, and Laws 2005,
First Special Session chapter 5, article 10, section 1, is effective retroactively from September 10,
2001, and applies to those probationary teachers absent for active military service beginning on
September 10, 2001, or later. Laws 2005, chapter 36, section 1, the effective date.