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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

Chapter 256B

Section 256B.0595

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256B.0595 Prohibitions on transfer; exceptions.

Subdivision 1. Prohibited transfers. (a) For transfers of assets made on or before August 10, 1993, if a person or the person's spouse has given away, sold, or disposed of, for less than fair market value, any asset or interest therein, except assets other than the homestead that are excluded under the supplemental security program, within 30 months before or any time after the date of institutionalization if the person has been determined eligible for medical assistance, or within 30 months before or any time after the date of the first approved application for medical assistance if the person has not yet been determined eligible for medical assistance, the person is ineligible for long-term care services for the period of time determined under subdivision 2.

(b) Effective for transfers made after August 10, 1993, a person, a person's spouse, or any person, court, or administrative body with legal authority to act in place of, on behalf of, at the direction of, or upon the request of the person or person's spouse, may not give away, sell, or dispose of, for less than fair market value, any asset or interest therein, except assets other than the homestead that are excluded under the supplemental security income program, for the purpose of establishing or maintaining medical assistance eligibility. This applies to all transfers, including those made by a community spouse after the month in which the institutionalized spouse is determined eligible for medical assistance. For purposes of determining eligibility for long-term care services, any transfer of such assets within 36 months before or any time after an institutionalized person applies for medical assistance, or 36 months before or any time after a medical assistance recipient becomes institutionalized, for less than fair market value may be considered. Any such transfer is presumed to have been made for the purpose of establishing or maintaining medical assistance eligibility and the person is ineligible for long-term care services for the period of time determined under subdivision 2, unless the person furnishes convincing evidence to establish that the transaction was exclusively for another purpose, or unless the transfer is permitted under subdivision 3 or 4. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, in the case of payments from a trust or portions of a trust that are considered transfers of assets under federal law, any transfers made within 60 months before or any time after an institutionalized person applies for medical assistance and within 60 months before or any time after a medical assistance recipient becomes institutionalized, may be considered.

(c) This section applies to transfers, for less than fair market value, of income or assets, including assets that are considered income in the month received, such as inheritances, court settlements, and retroactive benefit payments or income to which the person or the person's spouse is entitled but does not receive due to action by the person, the person's spouse, or any person, court, or administrative body with legal authority to act in place of, on behalf of, at the direction of, or upon the request of the person or the person's spouse.

(d) This section applies to payments for care or personal services provided by a relative, unless the compensation was stipulated in a notarized, written agreement which was in existence when the service was performed, the care or services directly benefited the person, and the payments made represented reasonable compensation for the care or services provided. A notarized written agreement is not required if payment for the services was made within 60 days after the service was provided.

(e) This section applies to the portion of any asset or interest that a person, a person's spouse, or any person, court, or administrative body with legal authority to act in place of, on behalf of, at the direction of, or upon the request of the person or the person's spouse, transfers to any annuity that exceeds the value of the benefit likely to be returned to the person or spouse while alive, based on estimated life expectancy using the life expectancy tables employed by the supplemental security income program to determine the value of an agreement for services for life. The commissioner may adopt rules reducing life expectancies based on the need for long-term care. This section applies to an annuity described in this paragraph purchased on or after March 1, 2002, that:

(1) is not purchased from an insurance company or financial institution that is subject to licensing or regulation by the Minnesota Department of Commerce or a similar regulatory agency of another state;

(2) does not pay out principal and interest in equal monthly installments; or

(3) does not begin payment at the earliest possible date after annuitization.

(f) For purposes of this section, long-term care services include services in a nursing facility, services that are eligible for payment according to section 256B.0625, subdivision 2, because they are provided in a swing bed, intermediate care facility for persons with mental retardation, and home and community-based services provided pursuant to sections 256B.0915, 256B.092, and 256B.49. For purposes of this subdivision and subdivisions 2, 3, and 4, "institutionalized person" includes a person who is an inpatient in a nursing facility or in a swing bed, or intermediate care facility for persons with mental retardation or who is receiving home and community-based services under sections 256B.0915, 256B.092, and 256B.49.

Subd. 1a. Repealed, 2001 c 203 s 19

Subd. 1b. Prohibited transfers. (a) Notwithstanding any contrary provisions of this section, this subdivision applies to transfers involving recipients of medical assistance that are made on or after July 1, 2003, and to all transfers involving persons who apply for medical assistance on or after July 1, 2003, if the transfer occurred within 72 months before the person applies for medical assistance, except that this subdivision does not apply to transfers made prior to July 1, 2003. A person, a person's spouse, or any person, court, or administrative body with legal authority to act in place of, on behalf of, at the direction of, or upon the request of the person or the person's spouse, may not give away, sell, dispose of, or reduce ownership or control of any income, asset, or interest therein for less than fair market value for the purpose of establishing or maintaining medical assistance eligibility. This applies to all transfers, including those made by a community spouse after the month in which the institutionalized spouse is determined eligible for medical assistance. For purposes of determining eligibility for medical assistance services, any transfer of such income or assets for less than fair market value within 72 months before or any time after a person applies for medical assistance may be considered. Any such transfer is presumed to have been made for the purpose of establishing or maintaining medical assistance eligibility, and the person is ineligible for medical assistance services for the period of time determined under subdivision 2b, unless the person furnishes convincing evidence to establish that the transaction was exclusively for another purpose or unless the transfer is permitted under subdivision 3b or 4b.

Convincing evidence of any one of the following facts shall establish that a gift that is a charitable contribution to an organization described in section 170(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, was made exclusively for a purpose other than establishing or maintaining medical assistance eligibility, unless at the time of the gift the donor or donor's spouse was receiving long-term care services, was advised by a medical professional of the need for long-term care services, or was a medical assistance applicant or recipient:

(1) the donor made one or more gifts to the same donee organization more than 180 days prior to the date of the gift in question; or

(2) the gift was made to an organization for which the donor had provided volunteer services, acknowledged in writing by the organization, prior to the date of the gift.

A person may alternatively establish with other convincing evidence that a charitable gift was made exclusively for a purpose other than establishing or maintaining medical assistance eligibility.

(b) This section applies to transfers to trusts. The commissioner shall determine valid trust purposes under this section. Assets placed into a trust that is not for a valid purpose shall always be considered available for the purposes of medical assistance eligibility, regardless of when the trust is established.

(c) This section applies to transfers of income or assets for less than fair market value, including assets that are considered income in the month received, such as inheritances, court settlements, and retroactive benefit payments or income to which the person or the person's spouse is entitled but does not receive due to action by the person, the person's spouse, or any person, court, or administrative body with legal authority to act in place of, on behalf of, at the direction of, or upon the request of the person or the person's spouse.

(d) This section applies to payments for care or personal services provided by a relative, unless the compensation was stipulated in a notarized written agreement that was in existence when the service was performed, the care or services directly benefited the person, and the payments made represented reasonable compensation for the care or services provided. A notarized written agreement is not required if payment for the services was made within 60 days after the service was provided.

(e) This section applies to the portion of any income, asset, or interest therein that a person, a person's spouse, or any person, court, or administrative body with legal authority to act in place of, on behalf of, at the direction of, or upon the request of the person or the person's spouse, transfers to any annuity that exceeds the value of the benefit likely to be returned to the person or the person's spouse while alive, based on estimated life expectancy, using the life expectancy tables employed by the supplemental security income program, or based on a shorter life expectancy if the annuitant had a medical condition that would shorten the annuitant's life expectancy and that was diagnosed before funds were placed into the annuity. The agency may request and receive a physician's statement to determine if the annuitant had a diagnosed medical condition that would shorten the annuitant's life expectancy. If so, the agency shall determine the expected value of the benefits based upon the physician's statement instead of using a life expectancy table. This section applies to an annuity described in this paragraph purchased on or after March 1, 2002, that:

(1) is not purchased from an insurance company or financial institution that is subject to licensing or regulation by the Minnesota Department of Commerce or a similar regulatory agency of another state;

(2) does not pay out principal and interest in equal monthly installments; or

(3) does not begin payment at the earliest possible date after annuitization.

(f) Transfers under this section shall affect determinations of eligibility for all medical assistance services or long-term care services, whichever receives federal approval.

Subd. 2. Period of ineligibility. (a) For any uncompensated transfer occurring on or before August 10, 1993, the number of months of ineligibility for long-term care services shall be the lesser of 30 months, or the uncompensated transfer amount divided by the average medical assistance rate for nursing facility services in the state in effect on the date of application. The amount used to calculate the average medical assistance payment rate shall be adjusted each July 1 to reflect payment rates for the previous calendar year. The period of ineligibility begins with the month in which the assets were transferred. If the transfer was not reported to the local agency at the time of application, and the applicant received long-term care services during what would have been the period of ineligibility if the transfer had been reported, a cause of action exists against the transferee for the cost of long-term care services provided during the period of ineligibility, or for the uncompensated amount of the transfer, whichever is less. The action may be brought by the state or the local agency responsible for providing medical assistance under chapter 256G. The uncompensated transfer amount is the fair market value of the asset at the time it was given away, sold, or disposed of, less the amount of compensation received.

(b) For uncompensated transfers made after August 10, 1993, the number of months of ineligibility for long-term care services shall be the total uncompensated value of the resources transferred divided by the average medical assistance rate for nursing facility services in the state in effect on the date of application. The amount used to calculate the average medical assistance payment rate shall be adjusted each July 1 to reflect payment rates for the previous calendar year. The period of ineligibility begins with the first day of the month after the month in which the assets were transferred except that if one or more uncompensated transfers are made during a period of ineligibility, the total assets transferred during the ineligibility period shall be combined and a penalty period calculated to begin on the first day of the month after the month in which the first uncompensated transfer was made. If the transfer was not reported to the local agency, and the applicant received medical assistance services during what would have been the period of ineligibility if the transfer had been reported, a cause of action exists against the transferee for the cost of medical assistance services provided during the period of ineligibility, or for the uncompensated amount of the transfer, whichever is less. The action may be brought by the state or the local agency responsible for providing medical assistance under chapter 256G. The uncompensated transfer amount is the fair market value of the asset at the time it was given away, sold, or disposed of, less the amount of compensation received. Effective for transfers made on or after March 1, 1996, involving persons who apply for medical assistance on or after April 13, 1996, no cause of action exists for a transfer unless:

(1) the transferee knew or should have known that the transfer was being made by a person who was a resident of a long-term care facility or was receiving that level of care in the community at the time of the transfer;

(2) the transferee knew or should have known that the transfer was being made to assist the person to qualify for or retain medical assistance eligibility; or

(3) the transferee actively solicited the transfer with intent to assist the person to qualify for or retain eligibility for medical assistance.

(c) If a calculation of a penalty period results in a partial month, payments for long-term care services shall be reduced in an amount equal to the fraction, except that in calculating the value of uncompensated transfers, if the total value of all uncompensated transfers made in a month not included in an existing penalty period does not exceed $200, then such transfers shall be disregarded for each month prior to the month of application for or during receipt of medical assistance.

Subd. 2a. Repealed, 2001 c 203 s 19

Subd. 2b. Period of ineligibility. (a) Notwithstanding any contrary provisions of this section, this subdivision applies to transfers, including transfers to trusts, involving recipients of medical assistance that are made on or after July 1, 2003, and to all transfers involving persons who apply for medical assistance on or after July 1, 2003, regardless of when the transfer occurred, except that this subdivision does not apply to transfers made prior to July 1, 2003. For any uncompensated transfer occurring within 72 months prior to the date of application, at any time after application, or while eligible, the number of months of cumulative ineligibility for medical assistance services shall be the total uncompensated value of the assets and income transferred divided by the statewide average per-person nursing facility payment made by the state in effect at the time a penalty for a transfer is determined. The amount used to calculate the average per-person nursing facility payment shall be adjusted each July 1 to reflect average payments for the previous calendar year. For applicants, the period of ineligibility begins with the month in which the person applied for medical assistance and satisfied all other requirements for eligibility, or the first month the local agency becomes aware of the transfer and can give proper notice, if later. For recipients, the period of ineligibility begins in the first month after the month the agency becomes aware of the transfer and can give proper notice, except that penalty periods for transfers made during a period of ineligibility as determined under this section shall begin in the month following the existing period of ineligibility. If the transfer was not reported to the local agency, and the applicant received medical assistance services during what would have been the period of ineligibility if the transfer had been reported, a cause of action exists against the transferee for the cost of medical assistance services provided during the period of ineligibility or for the uncompensated amount of the transfer that was not recovered from the transferor through the implementation of a penalty period under this subdivision, whichever is less. Recovery shall include the costs incurred due to the action. The action may be brought by the state or the local agency responsible for providing medical assistance under this chapter. The total uncompensated value is the fair market value of the income or asset at the time it was given away, sold, or disposed of, less the amount of compensation received. No cause of action exists for a transfer unless:

(1) the transferee knew or should have known that the transfer was being made by a person who was a resident of a long-term care facility or was receiving that level of care in the community at the time of the transfer;

(2) the transferee knew or should have known that the transfer was being made to assist the person to qualify for or retain medical assistance eligibility; or

(3) the transferee actively solicited the transfer with intent to assist the person to qualify for or retain eligibility for medical assistance.

(b) If a calculation of a penalty period results in a partial month, payments for medical assistance services shall be reduced in an amount equal to the fraction, except that in calculating the value of uncompensated transfers, if the total value of all uncompensated transfers made in a month not included in an existing penalty period does not exceed $200, then such transfers shall be disregarded for each month prior to the month of application for or during receipt of medical assistance.

(c) Ineligibility under this section shall apply to medical assistance services or long-term care services, whichever receives federal approval.

Subd. 3. Homestead exception to transfer prohibition. (a) An institutionalized person is not ineligible for long-term care services due to a transfer of assets for less than fair market value if the asset transferred was a homestead and:

(1) title to the homestead was transferred to the individual's

(i) spouse;

(ii) child who is under age 21;

(iii) blind or permanently and totally disabled child as defined in the supplemental security income program;

(iv) sibling who has equity interest in the home and who was residing in the home for a period of at least one year immediately before the date of the individual's admission to the facility; or

(v) son or daughter who was residing in the individual's home for a period of at least two years immediately before the date of the individual's admission to the facility, and who provided care to the individual that, as certified by the individual's attending physician, permitted the individual to reside at home rather than in an institution or facility;

(2) a satisfactory showing is made that the individual intended to dispose of the homestead at fair market value or for other valuable consideration; or

(3) the local agency grants a waiver of a penalty resulting from a transfer for less than fair market value because denial of eligibility would cause undue hardship for the individual, based on imminent threat to the individual's health and well-being. Whenever an applicant or recipient is denied eligibility because of a transfer for less than fair market value, the local agency shall notify the applicant or recipient that the applicant or recipient may request a waiver of the penalty if the denial of eligibility will cause undue hardship. In evaluating a waiver, the local agency shall take into account whether the individual was the victim of financial exploitation, whether the individual has made reasonable efforts to recover the transferred property or resource, and other factors relevant to a determination of hardship. If the local agency does not approve a hardship waiver, the local agency shall issue a written notice to the individual stating the reasons for the denial and the process for appealing the local agency's decision.

(b) When a waiver is granted under paragraph (a), clause (3), a cause of action exists against the person to whom the homestead was transferred for that portion of long-term care services granted within:

(1) 30 months of a transfer made on or before August 10, 1993;

(2) 60 months if the homestead was transferred after August 10, 1993, to a trust or portion of a trust that is considered a transfer of assets under federal law; or

(3) 36 months if transferred in any other manner after August 10, 1993,

or the amount of the uncompensated transfer, whichever is less, together with the costs incurred due to the action. The action shall be brought by the state unless the state delegates this responsibility to the local agency responsible for providing medical assistance under chapter 256G.

Subd. 3a. Repealed, 2001 c 203 s 19

Subd. 3b. Homestead exception to transfer prohibition. (a) This subdivision applies to transfers involving recipients of medical assistance that are made on or after July 1, 2003, and to all transfers involving persons who apply for medical assistance on or after July 1, 2003, regardless of when the transfer occurred, except that this subdivision does not apply to transfers made prior to July 1, 2003. A person is not ineligible for medical assistance services due to a transfer of assets for less than fair market value as described in subdivision 1b, if the asset transferred was a homestead, and:

(1) a satisfactory showing is made that the individual intended to dispose of the homestead at fair market value or for other valuable consideration; or

(2) the local agency grants a waiver of a penalty resulting from a transfer for less than fair market value because denial of eligibility would cause undue hardship for the individual and there exists an imminent threat to the individual's health and well-being. Whenever an applicant or recipient is denied eligibility because of a transfer for less than fair market value, the local agency shall notify the applicant or recipient that the applicant or recipient may request a waiver of the penalty if the denial of eligibility will cause undue hardship. In evaluating a waiver, the local agency shall take into account whether the individual was the victim of financial exploitation, whether the individual has made reasonable efforts to recover the transferred property or resource, and other factors relevant to a determination of hardship. If the local agency does not approve a hardship waiver, the local agency shall issue a written notice to the individual stating the reasons for the denial and the process for appealing the local agency's decision.

(b) When a waiver is granted under paragraph (a), clause (2), a cause of action exists against the person to whom the homestead was transferred for that portion of medical assistance services granted within 72 months of the date the transferor applied for medical assistance and satisfied all other requirements for eligibility or the amount of the uncompensated transfer, whichever is less, together with the costs incurred due to the action. The action shall be brought by the state unless the state delegates this responsibility to the local agency responsible for providing medical assistance under this chapter.

Subd. 4. Other exceptions to transfer prohibition. An institutionalized person who has made, or whose spouse has made a transfer prohibited by subdivision 1, is not ineligible for long-term care services if one of the following conditions applies:

(1) the assets were transferred to the individual's spouse or to another for the sole benefit of the spouse; or

(2) the institutionalized spouse, prior to being institutionalized, transferred assets to a spouse, provided that the spouse to whom the assets were transferred does not then transfer those assets to another person for less than fair market value. (At the time when one spouse is institutionalized, assets must be allocated between the spouses as provided under section 256B.059); or

(3) the assets were transferred to the individual's child who is blind or permanently and totally disabled as determined in the supplemental security income program; or

(4) a satisfactory showing is made that the individual intended to dispose of the assets either at fair market value or for other valuable consideration; or

(5) the local agency determines that denial of eligibility for long-term care services would work an undue hardship and grants a waiver of a penalty resulting from a transfer for less than fair market value based on an imminent threat to the individual's health and well-being. Whenever an applicant or recipient is denied eligibility because of a transfer for less than fair market value, the local agency shall notify the applicant or recipient that the applicant or recipient may request a waiver of the penalty if the denial of eligibility will cause undue hardship. In evaluating a waiver, the local agency shall take into account whether the individual was the victim of financial exploitation, whether the individual has made reasonable efforts to recover the transferred property or resource, and other factors relevant to a determination of hardship. If the local agency does not approve a hardship waiver, the local agency shall issue a written notice to the individual stating the reasons for the denial and the process for appealing the local agency's decision. When a waiver is granted, a cause of action exists against the person to whom the assets were transferred for that portion of long-term care services granted within:

(i) 30 months of a transfer made on or before August 10, 1993;

(ii) 60 months of a transfer if the assets were transferred after August 30, 1993, to a trust or portion of a trust that is considered a transfer of assets under federal law; or

(iii) 36 months of a transfer if transferred in any other manner after August 10, 1993,

or the amount of the uncompensated transfer, whichever is less, together with the costs incurred due to the action. The action shall be brought by the state unless the state delegates this responsibility to the local agency responsible for providing medical assistance under this chapter; or

(6) for transfers occurring after August 10, 1993, the assets were transferred by the person or person's spouse: (i) into a trust established for the sole benefit of a son or daughter of any age who is blind or disabled as defined by the Supplemental Security Income program; or (ii) into a trust established for the sole benefit of an individual who is under 65 years of age who is disabled as defined by the Supplemental Security Income program.

"For the sole benefit of" has the meaning found in section 256B.059, subdivision 1.

Subd. 4a. Repealed, 2001 c 203 s 19

Subd. 4b. Other exceptions to transfer prohibition. This subdivision applies to transfers involving recipients of medical assistance that are made on or after July 1, 2003, and to all transfers involving persons who apply for medical assistance on or after July 1, 2003, regardless of when the transfer occurred, except that this subdivision does not apply to transfers made prior to July 1, 2003. A person or a person's spouse who made a transfer prohibited by subdivision 1b is not ineligible for medical assistance services if one of the following conditions applies:

(1) the assets or income were transferred to the individual's spouse or to another for the sole benefit of the spouse, except that after eligibility is established and the assets have been divided between the spouses as part of the asset allowance under section 256B.059, no further transfers between spouses may be made;

(2) the institutionalized spouse, prior to being institutionalized, transferred assets or income to a spouse, provided that the spouse to whom the assets or income were transferred does not then transfer those assets or income to another person for less than fair market value. At the time when one spouse is institutionalized, assets must be allocated between the spouses as provided under section 256B.059;

(3) the assets or income were transferred to a trust for the sole benefit of the individual's child who is blind or permanently and totally disabled as determined in the supplemental security income program and the trust reverts to the state upon the disabled child's death to the extent the medical assistance has paid for services for the grantor or beneficiary of the trust. This clause applies to a trust established after the commissioner publishes a notice in the State Register that the commissioner has been authorized to implement this clause due to a change in federal law or the approval of a federal waiver;

(4) a satisfactory showing is made that the individual intended to dispose of the assets or income either at fair market value or for other valuable consideration; or

(5) the local agency determines that denial of eligibility for medical assistance services would cause undue hardship and grants a waiver of a penalty resulting from a transfer for less than fair market value because there exists an imminent threat to the individual's health and well-being. Whenever an applicant or recipient is denied eligibility because of a transfer for less than fair market value, the local agency shall notify the applicant or recipient that the applicant or recipient may request a waiver of the penalty if the denial of eligibility will cause undue hardship. In evaluating a waiver, the local agency shall take into account whether the individual was the victim of financial exploitation, whether the individual has made reasonable efforts to recover the transferred property or resource, and other factors relevant to a determination of hardship. If the local agency does not approve a hardship waiver, the local agency shall issue a written notice to the individual stating the reasons for the denial and the process for appealing the local agency's decision. When a waiver is granted, a cause of action exists against the person to whom the assets were transferred for that portion of medical assistance services granted within 72 months of the date the transferor applied for medical assistance and satisfied all other requirements for eligibility, or the amount of the uncompensated transfer, whichever is less, together with the costs incurred due to the action. The action shall be brought by the state unless the state delegates this responsibility to the local agency responsible for providing medical assistance under this chapter.

Subd. 5. Notice of receipt of federal waiver. In every instance in which a federal waiver that allows the implementation of a provision in this section is granted, the commissioner shall publish notice of receipt of the waiver in the State Register.

Subd. 6. No bad effect on realty conveyance, encumbrance. This section does not invalidate or impair the effectiveness of a conveyance or encumbrance of real estate.

Subd. 7. Notice of rights. If a period of ineligibility is imposed under subdivision 2 or 2a, the local agency shall inform the applicant or recipient subject to the penalty of the person's rights under section 325F.71, subdivision 2.

HIST: 1986 c 444; 1989 c 282 art 3 s 52; 1990 c 568 art 3 s 40-42; 1992 c 513 art 7 s 42; 1Sp1993 c 1 art 5 s 35; 1994 c 388 art 1 s 2; 1995 c 207 art 6 s 34-37; 1996 c 451 art 2 s 11-19,62; 2001 c 203 s 7,8,19; 2002 c 220 art 15 s 10-12; 1Sp2003 c 14 art 12 s 24-29; 2004 c 266 s 1

* NOTE: The amendments to subdivisions 1, 2, 3, and 4, by *Laws 1995, chapter 207, article 6, sections 34 to 37, are *effective retroactive to August 11, 1993, except that portion *amending subdivision 2, paragraph (c), is effective retroactive *to transfers of income or assets made on or after September 1, *1994. Laws 1995, chapter 207, article 6, section 125, *subdivision 2, and Laws 1995, chapter 263, section 6.

* NOTE: Subdivisions 1b, 2b, 3b, and 4b, as added by Laws *2003, First Special Session chapter 14, article 12, sections 25, *27, 28, and 29, are effective July 1, 2003, to the extent *permitted by law. If any provision is prohibited by federal *law, the provision shall become effective when federal law is *changed to permit its application or a waiver is received. The *commissioner of human services shall notify the revisor of *statutes when federal law is enacted or a waiver or other *federal approval is received and publish a notice in the first *State Register published after the federal change is effective. *Laws 2003, First Special Session chapter 14, article 12, *sections 25, 27, 28, and 29, the effective dates.

* NOTE: The amendment to subdivision 1b by Laws 2004, *chapter 266, section 1, is effective upon publication in the *State Register of receipt of federal approval for the 72-month *lookback period described in paragraph (a). Laws 2004, chapter *266, section 1, the effective date.