Skip to main content Skip to office menu Skip to footer
Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

Chapter 169

Section 169.01

Recent History

169.01 Definitions.

Subdivision 1. Terms. For the purposes of this chapter, the terms defined in this section shall have the meanings ascribed to them.

Subd. 2. Vehicle. "Vehicle" means every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks.

Subd. 3. Motor vehicle. "Motor vehicle" means every vehicle which is self-propelled and every vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires. Motor vehicle does not include a vehicle moved solely by human power.

Subd. 3a. Passenger vehicle. "Passenger vehicle" means a passenger automobile defined in section 168.011, subdivision 7; a pickup truck defined in section 168.011, subdivision 29; a van defined in section 168.011, subdivision 28; and a self-propelled, recreational vehicle licensed under chapter 168 to use the public streets or highways. "Passenger vehicle" does not include a motorcycle, motorized bicycle, bus, school bus, a vehicle designed to operate exclusively on railroad tracks, a farm truck defined in section 168.011, subdivision 17, or special mobile equipment defined in section 168.011, subdivision 22.

Subd. 4. Motorcycle. "Motorcycle" means every motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, including motor scooters and bicycles with motor attached, other than those vehicles defined as motorized bicycles in subdivision 4a, but excluding a tractor.

Subd. 4a. Motorized bicycle. "Motorized bicycle" means a bicycle that is propelled by a motor of a piston displacement capacity of 50 cubic centimeters or less, and a maximum of two brake horsepower, which is capable of a maximum speed of not more than 30 miles per hour on a flat surface with not more than one percent grade in any direction when the motor is engaged. "Motorized bicycle" includes an electric-assisted bicycle as defined in subdivision 4b.

Subd. 4b. Electric-assisted bicycle. "Electric-assisted bicycle" means a motor vehicle with two or three wheels that:

(1) has a saddle and fully operable pedals for human propulsion;

(2) meets the requirements of federal motor vehicle safety standards in Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, sections 571.01 et seq.; and

(3) has an electric motor that (i) has a power output of not more than 1,000 watts, (ii) is incapable of propelling the vehicle at a speed of more than 20 miles per hour, (iii) is incapable of further increasing the speed of the device when human power alone is used to propel the vehicle at a speed of more than 20 miles per hour, and (iv) disengages or ceases to function when the vehicle's brakes are applied.

Subd. 5. Authorized emergency vehicle. "Authorized emergency vehicle" means any of the following vehicles when equipped and identified according to law: (1) a vehicle of a fire department; (2) a publicly owned police vehicle or a privately owned vehicle used by a police officer for police work under agreement, express or implied, with the local authority to which the officer is responsible; (3) a vehicle of a licensed land emergency ambulance service, whether publicly or privately owned; (4) an emergency vehicle of a municipal department or a public service corporation, approved by the commissioner of public safety or the chief of police of a municipality; (5) any volunteer rescue squad operating pursuant to Laws 1959, chapter 53; (6) a vehicle designated as an authorized emergency vehicle upon a finding by the commissioner of public safety that designation of that vehicle is necessary to the preservation of life or property or to the execution of emergency governmental functions.

Subd. 6. School bus. "School bus" means a motor vehicle used to transport pupils to or from a school defined in section 120A.22, or to or from school-related activities, by the school or a school district, or by someone under an agreement with the school or a school district. A school bus does not include a motor vehicle transporting children to or from school for which parents or guardians receive direct compensation from a school district, a motor coach operating under charter carrier authority, a transit bus providing services as defined in section 174.22, subdivision 7, or a vehicle otherwise qualifying as a type III vehicle under paragraph (5), when the vehicle is properly registered and insured and being driven by an employee or agent of a school district for nonscheduled transportation. A school bus may be type A, type B, type C, or type D, or type III as follows:

(1) A "type A school bus" is a conversion or body constructed upon a van-type or cutaway front section vehicle with a left-side driver's door, designed for carrying more than ten persons. This definition includes two classifications: type A-I, with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) over 10,000 pounds; and type A-II, with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less.

(2) A "type B school bus" is a conversion or body constructed and installed upon a van or front-section vehicle chassis, or stripped chassis, with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds, designed for carrying more than ten persons. Part of the engine is beneath or behind the windshield and beside the driver's seat. The entrance door is behind the front wheels.

(3) A "type C school bus" is a body installed upon a flat back cowl chassis with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds, designed for carrying more than ten persons. All of the engine is in front of the windshield and the entrance door is behind the front wheels. A type C school bus has a maximum length of 45 feet.

(4) A "type D school bus" is a body installed upon a chassis, with the engine mounted in the front, midship or rear, with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds, designed for carrying more than ten persons. The engine may be behind the windshield and beside the driver's seat; it may be at the rear of the bus, behind the rear wheels, or midship between the front and rear axles. The entrance door is ahead of the front wheels. A type D school bus has a maximum length of 45 feet.

(5) Type III school buses and type III Head Start buses are restricted to passenger cars, station wagons, vans, and buses having a maximum manufacturer's rated seating capacity of ten or fewer people, including the driver, and a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less. In this subdivision, "gross vehicle weight rating" means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a single vehicle. A "type III school bus" and "type III Head Start bus" must not be outwardly equipped and identified as a type A, B, C, or D school bus or type A, B, C, or D Head Start bus. A van or bus converted to a seating capacity of ten or fewer and placed in service on or after August 1, 1999, must have been originally manufactured to comply with the passenger safety standards.

Subd. 7. Truck-tractor. "Truck-tractor" means:

(a) a motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not constructed to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and load drawn; and

(b) a motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles used exclusively for transporting motor vehicles or boats and capable of carrying motor vehicles or boats on its own structure.

Subd. 8. Farm tractor. "Farm tractor" means every motor vehicle designed and used primarily as a farm implement for drawing plows, mowing machines, and other implements of husbandry.

Subd. 9. Road tractor. "Road tractor" means every motor vehicle designed and used for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry any load thereon either independently or any part of the weight of a vehicle or load so drawn.

Subd. 10. Trailer. "Trailer" means any vehicle designed for carrying property or passengers on its own structure and for being drawn by a motor vehicle but does not include a trailer drawn by a truck-tractor semitrailer combination or an auxiliary axle on a motor vehicle which carries a portion of the weight of the motor vehicle to which it is attached.

Subd. 11. Semitrailer. "Semitrailer" means a vehicle of the trailer type so designed and used in conjunction with a truck-tractor that a considerable part of its own weight or that of its load rests upon and is carried by the truck-tractor and includes a trailer drawn by a truck-tractor semitrailer combination.

Subd. 12. Pneumatic tire. "Pneumatic tire" means every tire in which compressed air is designed to support the load.

Subd. 13. Solid tire. "Solid tire" means every tire of rubber or other resilient material which does not depend upon compressed air for the support of the load.

Subd. 14. Metal tire. "Metal tire" means every tire the surface of which in contact with the highway is wholly or partly of metal or other hard nonresilient material.

Subd. 15. Railroad. "Railroad" means a carrier of persons or property upon cars, other than street cars, operated upon stationary rails.

Subd. 16. Railroad train. "Railroad train" means a steam engine, electric or other motor, with or without cars coupled thereto, operated upon rails, except street cars.

Subd. 17. Repealed, 1961 c 561 s 17

Subd. 18. Trackless trolley car. "Trackless trolley car" means every vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires but not operated on rails.

Subd. 19. Explosives. "Explosives" means any chemical compound or mechanical mixture that is commonly used or intended for the purpose of producing an explosion and which contains any oxidizing and combustive units or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities, or packing that an ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, or by detonator of any part of the compound or mixture may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated gases that the resultant gaseous pressures are capable of producing destructible effects on contiguous objects or of destroying life or limb.

Subd. 20. Flammable liquid. "Flammable liquid" means any liquid which has a flash point of 70 degrees Fahrenheit, or less, as determined by a tagliabue or equivalent closed cup test device.

Subd. 21. Commissioner. Unless stated otherwise, "commissioner" means the commissioner of transportation of this state. Regardless of the commissioner referred to, however, the commissioner is to be considered as acting directly or through the commissioner's duly authorized officers and agents.

Subd. 22. Department. Unless stated otherwise, "department" means the department of transportation of this state. Regardless of the department referred to, however, it is to be considered as acting directly or through its duly authorized officers and agents.

Subd. 23. Person. "Person" means every natural person, firm, copartnership, association, or corporation.

Subd. 24. Pedestrian. "Pedestrian" means any person afoot or in a wheelchair.

Subd. 24a. Wheelchair. For the purposes of this chapter, "wheelchair" is defined to include any manual or motorized wheelchair, scooter, tricycle, or similar device used by a disabled person as a substitute for walking.

Subd. 25. Driver. "Driver" means every person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle.

Subd. 26. Owner. "Owner" means a person who holds the legal title of a vehicle, or in the event a vehicle is the subject of an agreement for the conditional sale or lease thereof with the right of purchase upon performance of the conditions stated in the agreement and with an immediate right of possession vested in the conditional vendee or lessee, or in the event a mortgagor of a vehicle is entitled to possession, then such conditional vendee or lessee or mortgagor shall be deemed the owner for the purpose of this chapter.

Subd. 27. Police officer. "Police officer" means every officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of traffic rules.

Subd. 28. Local authorities. "Local authorities" means every county, municipal, and other local board or body having authority to adopt local police regulations under the constitution and laws of this state, and the Regents of the University of Minnesota, with reference to property owned, leased, or occupied, by the Regents of the University of Minnesota, or the University of Minnesota.

Subd. 29. Street or highway. "Street or highway" means the entire width between boundary lines of any way or place when any part thereof is open to the use of the public, as a matter of right, for the purposes of vehicular traffic.

Subd. 30. Private road or driveway. "Private road or driveway" means every way or place in private ownership and used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons.

Subd. 31. Roadway. "Roadway" means that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the sidewalk or shoulder. In the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term "roadway" as used herein shall refer to any such roadway separately but not to all such roadways collectively.

Subd. 32. One-way roadway. "One-way roadway" means a street or roadway designated and signposted for one-way traffic and on which all vehicles are required to move in one indicated direction.

Subd. 33. Sidewalk. "Sidewalk" means that portion of a street between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines intended for the use of pedestrians.

Subd. 34. Laned highway. "Laned highway" means a highway the roadway of which is divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.

Subd. 35. Through highway. "Through highway" means every highway or portion thereof at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required by law to stop before entering or crossing the same and when stop signs are erected as provided in this chapter.

Subd. 36. Intersection. "Intersection" means (a) the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another, at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict.

(b) Where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection. In the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection.

Subd. 37. Crosswalk. "Crosswalk" means (1) that portion of a roadway ordinarily included with the prolongation or connection of the lateral lines of sidewalks at intersections; (2) any portion of a roadway distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.

Subd. 38. Safety zone. "Safety zone" means the area or space officially set apart within a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and which is protected or is so marked or indicated by adequate signs as to be plainly visible at all times set apart as a safety zone.

Subd. 39. Business district. "Business district" means the territory contiguous to and including a highway when 50 percent or more of the frontage thereon for a distance of 300 feet or more is occupied by buildings in use for business.

Subd. 40. Residence district. "Residence district" means the territory contiguous to and including a highway not comprising a business district when the property on such highway for a distance of 300 feet or more is in the main improved with residences or residences and buildings in use for business.

Subd. 41. Official traffic control devices. "Official traffic control devices" means all signs, signals, markings, and devices not inconsistent with this chapter placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic.

Subd. 42. Traffic control signal. "Traffic control signal" means any device, whether manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed.

Subd. 43. Railroad sign or signal. "Railroad sign or signal" means any sign, signal, or device erected by authority of a public body or official or by a railroad and intended to give notice of the presence of railroad tracks or the approach of a railroad train.

Subd. 44. Traffic. "Traffic" means pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, street cars, and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using any highway for purposes of travel.

Subd. 45. Right-of-way. "Right-of-way" means the privilege of the immediate use of highway.

Subd. 46. Gross vehicle weight. "Gross vehicle weight" means the greater of:

(1) the unloaded weight of a vehicle or the unloaded weight of a truck-tractor and semitrailer combination, plus the weight of the load; or

(2) the value specified by the manufacturer as the maximum gross weight or gross vehicle weight rating.

Subd. 47. Custom service vehicles. "Custom service vehicles" means all vehicles used as well-drilling machine, wood-sawing machine, cement mixer, rock crusher, road grader, ditch digger, or elevating grader, and similar service equipment.

Subd. 48. Motor vehicle dealer. "Motor vehicle dealer" means any person engaged in the business of manufacturing or selling new and unused motor vehicles, or used motor vehicles, or both, having an established place of business for the sale, trade, and display of such motor vehicles, and having in possession motor vehicles for the purpose of sale or trade.

Subd. 49. Truck. "Truck" means every motor vehicle designed, used or maintained primarily for the transportation of property.

Subd. 50. Bus. "Bus" means every motor vehicle designed for carrying more than 15 passengers including the driver and used for the transportation of persons.

Subd. 51. Bicycle. "Bicycle" means every device propelled solely by human power upon which any person may ride, having two tandem wheels except scooters and similar devices and including any device generally recognized as a bicycle though equipped with two front or rear wheels.

Subd. 52. Tow truck or towing vehicle. "Tow truck" or "towing vehicle" means a motor vehicle having a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of 8,000 pounds or more, equipped with a crane and winch, or an attached device used exclusively to transport vehicles, and further equipped to control the movement of the towed or transported vehicle.

Subd. 53. Bug deflector. "Bug deflector" means a nonilluminated, transparent device attached to the hood of a motor vehicle so as to deflect the air stream.

Subd. 54. Controlled access highway. "Controlled access highway" means, in this chapter, every highway, street, or roadway in respect to which the right of access of the owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons has been acquired and to which the owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no legal right of access to or from the same except at such points only and in such manner as may be determined by the public authority having jurisdiction over such highway, street or roadway.

Subd. 55. Implement of husbandry. "Implement of husbandry" has the meaning given in section 168A.01, subdivision 8.

Subd. 56. Stand or standing. "Stand or standing" means the halting of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in receiving or discharging passengers.

Subd. 57. Stop. "Stop" means complete cessation from movement.

Subd. 58. Stopping. "Stopping" means any halting even momentarily of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a police officer or traffic control sign or signal.

Subd. 59. Urban district. "Urban district" means the territory contiguous to and including any street which is built up with structures devoted to business, industry, or dwelling houses situated at intervals of less than 100 feet for a distance of a quarter of a mile or more.

Subd. 60. Service vehicle. "Service vehicle" means a motor vehicle owned and operated by a person, firm or corporation engaged in a business which includes the repairing or servicing of vehicles. The term also includes snow removal and road maintenance equipment not operated by or under contract to the state or a governmental subdivision.

Subd. 61. Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8

Subd. 62. Bicycle route. The term "bicycle route" means a roadway or shoulder signed to encourage bicycle use.

Subd. 63. Ridesharing arrangement. "Ridesharing arrangement" means the transportation of persons, for a fee or otherwise, in a motor vehicle when the transportation is incidental to another purpose of the driver. The term includes the forms of shared transportation known as carpools, commuter vanpools, and buspools, whether or not furnished by an employer. A "ridesharing arrangement" does not include transportation of employees by an employer from one place of employment to another.

Subd. 64. Buspool. "Buspool" means a prearranged ridesharing arrangement in which a group of persons travel together on a regular basis in a bus, especially to and from their place of employment or to and from a transit stop authorized by a local transit authority.

Subd. 65. Carpool. "Carpool" means a prearranged ridesharing arrangement in which two or more persons travel together on a regular basis in an automobile, especially to and from their place of employment or to and from a transit stop authorized by a local transit authority.

Subd. 66. Commuter vanpool. "Commuter vanpool" means a prearranged ridesharing arrangement in which seven to 16 persons travel together on a regular basis in a commuter van, especially to and from their place of employment or to and from a transit stop authorized by a local transit authority.

Subd. 67. Alleyway. "Alleyway" means a private or public passage or way located in a municipality and which (1) is less than the usual width of a street, (2) may be open to but is not designed primarily for general vehicular traffic, (3) intersects or opens to a street, and (4) is primarily used for the ingress and egress or other convenience of two or more owners of abutting real properties.

Subd. 68. Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8

Subd. 69. Bicycle path. "Bicycle path" means a bicycle facility designed for exclusive or preferential use by persons using bicycles and constructed or developed separately from the roadway or shoulder.

Subd. 70. Bicycle lane. "Bicycle lane" means a portion of a roadway or shoulder designed for exclusive or preferential use by persons using bicycles. Bicycle lanes are to be distinguished from the portion of the roadway or shoulder used for motor vehicle traffic by physical barrier, striping, marking, or other similar device.

Subd. 71. Bicycle trail. "Bicycle trail" means a bicycle route or bicycle path developed by the commissioner of natural resources under section 85.016.

Subd. 72. Bikeway. "Bikeway" means a bicycle lane, bicycle path, or bicycle route, regardless of whether it is designed for the exclusive use of bicycles or is to be shared with other transportation modes.

Subd. 73. Shoulder. "Shoulder" means that part of a highway which is contiguous to the regularly traveled portion of the highway and is on the same level as the highway. The shoulder may be pavement, gravel, or earth.

Subd. 74. Mobile crane. "Mobile crane" means a vehicle (1) not designed or used to transport persons or property, (2) operated only incidentally on the highway and not subject to vehicle registration under chapter 168, and (3) comprising a boom and hoisting mechanism used in the construction industry. Mobile crane does not include a motor vehicle, designed to transport persons or property, to which a boom, hoist, crane, or other machinery has been attached.

Subd. 75. Commercial motor vehicle. (a) "Commercial motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle or combination of motor vehicles used to transport passengers or property if the motor vehicle:

(1) has a gross vehicle weight of more than 26,000 pounds;

(2) has a towed unit with a gross vehicle weight of more than 10,000 pounds and the combination of vehicles has a combined gross vehicle weight of more than 26,000 pounds;

(3) is a bus;

(4) is of any size and is used in the transportation of hazardous materials, except for those vehicles having a gross vehicle weight of 26,000 pounds or less while carrying in bulk tanks a total of not more than 200 gallons of petroleum products and liquid fertilizer; or

(5) is outwardly equipped and identified as a school bus, except for school buses defined in subdivision 6, paragraph (c).

(b) For purposes of chapter 169A:

(1) a commercial motor vehicle does not include a farm truck, firefighting equipment, or recreational equipment being operated by a person within the scope of section 171.02, subdivision 2, paragraph (b); and

(2) a commercial motor vehicle includes a vehicle capable of or designed to meet the standards described in paragraph (a), clause (2), whether or not the towed unit is attached to the truck-tractor at the time of the violation or stop.

Subd. 76. Hazardous materials. "Hazardous materials" means those materials found to be hazardous for the purposes of the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act and that require the motor vehicle to be placarded under Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, part 172, subpart F.

Subd. 77. Transit bus. "Transit bus" means a bus engaged in regular route transit as defined in section 174.22, subdivision 8.

Subd. 78. Recreational vehicle combination. "Recreational vehicle combination" means a combination of vehicles consisting of a pickup truck as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 29, attached by means of a fifth-wheel coupling to a camper-semitrailer which has hitched to it a trailer carrying a watercraft as defined in section 86B.005, subdivision 18; off-highway motorcycle as defined in section 84.787, subdivision 7; motorcycle; motorized bicycle; snowmobile as defined in section 84.81, subdivision 3; or all-terrain vehicle as defined in section 84.92, subdivision 8. For purposes of this subdivision:

(a) A "fifth-wheel coupling" is a coupling between a camper-semitrailer and a towing pickup truck in which a portion of the weight of the camper-semitrailer is carried over or forward of the rear axle of the towing pickup.

(b) A "camper-semitrailer" is a trailer, other than a manufactured home as defined in section 327B.01, subdivision 13, designed for human habitation and used for vacation or recreational purposes for limited periods.

Subd. 79. Rural mail carrier vehicle. "Rural mail carrier vehicle" is a motor vehicle operated by a rural mail carrier on a rural mail route.

Subd. 80. Head Start bus. (a) "Head Start bus" means a motor vehicle used to transport children and parents to or from a Head Start facility, or to or from Head Start-related activities, by the Head Start grantee, or by someone under an agreement with the Head Start grantee. A Head Start bus does not include a motor vehicle transporting children or parents to or from a Head Start facility for which parents or guardians receive direct compensation from a Head Start grantee, a motor coach operating under charter carrier authority, or a transit bus providing services as defined in section 174.22, subdivision 7. A Head Start bus may be a type A, B, C, or D bus or type III bus, as described in subdivision 6.

(b) A Head Start bus manufactured after December 31, 1994, must meet the same standards as a type A, B, C, or D school bus, except that a Head Start bus is not required to be equipped with the warning signals required for a school bus under section 169.442, subdivision 1. A Head Start bus must be painted colors other than national school bus yellow.

Subd. 81. Residential roadway. Residential roadway means a street or portion of a street that is less than one-quarter mile in length and is functionally classified as a local street by the road authority having jurisdiction.

Subd. 82. Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8

Subd. 83. Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8

Subd. 84. Daytime. For purposes of regulating the operation of a motor vehicle, "daytime" means the time from one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after sunset.

Subd. 85. Nighttime. For purposes of regulating the operation of a motor vehicle, "nighttime" means the time from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise.

Subd. 86. Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8

Subd. 87. Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8

Subd. 88. Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8

Subd. 89. Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8

HIST: (2720-151) 1937 c 464 s 1; Ex1937 c 38 s 1; 1939 c 430 s 1; 1947 c 204 s 1; 1947 c 428 s 1-4; 1949 c 90 s 1; 1949 c 247 s 1; 1951 c 114 s 1; 1951 c 331 s 1; 1953 c 289 s 1; 1953 c 303 s 1; 1955 c 536 s 1; 1959 c 521 s 1; 1961 c 42 s 1; 1963 c 357 s 1; 1971 c 164 s 1,2; 1973 c 27 s 1; 1974 c 379 s 1; 1975 c 29 s 2; 1976 c 104 s 1; 1976 c 166 s 7; 1977 c 214 s 6,7; 1978 c 494 s 1; 1978 c 613 s 4; 1978 c 727 s 1; 1978 c 739 s 1-5; 1981 c 321 s 2; 1982 c 468 s 1,2; 1983 c 198 s 4; 1983 c 311 s 3-6; 1984 c 403 s 1; 1984 c 417 s 23; 1984 c 430 s 1; 1984 c 549 s 26-28; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 310 s 1; 1986 c 398 art 13 s 2; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 255 s 7-13; 1987 c 269 s 4; 1989 c 209 art 2 s 1; 1989 c 250 s 1; 1989 c 307 s 2,3; 1990 c 497 s 9; 1990 c 529 s 1,2; 1991 c 112 s 1; 1991 c 277 s 2,17; 1991 c 333 s 10,11; 1992 c 513 art 3 s 33; 1992 c 578 s 4; 1993 c 83 s 1; 1993 c 111 s 1,3; 1993 c 117 s 5; 1993 c 187 s 2; 1994 c 478 s 1; 1994 c 603 s 1,2; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 10; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 11; 1995 c 3 s 1; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 2 s 30; 1996 c 412 art 2 s 14; 1996 c 435 s 13,14; 1996 c 442 s 3,4; 1997 c 143 s 5-8; 1997 c 159 art 2 s 17; 1Sp1997 c 2 s 21-25; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 5; 1998 c 397 art 11 s 3; 1998 c 398 art 6 s 30; 1999 c 241 art 9 s 40; 2000 c 478 art 2 s 7