Civic skills. The student will understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills, and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
Civic values and principles of democracy. The student will understand that the United States is based on democratic values and principles that include liberty, individual rights, justice, equality, the rule of law, limited government, common good, popular sovereignty, majority rule, and minority rights.
Rights and responsibilities. The student will understand that individuals in a republic have rights, duties, and responsibilities. The student will understand that citizenship and its rights and duties are established by law.
Governmental institutions and political processes. The student will understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels, federal, state, and local; and the three branches of government, legislative, executive, and judicial. The student will understand that the primary purposes of rules and laws within the United States constitutional government are to protect individual rights, promote the general welfare, and provide order. The student will understand that public policy is shaped by governmental and nongovernmental institutions and political processes. The student will understand that free and fair elections are key elements of the United States political system.
Relationships of the United States to other nations and organizations. The student will understand that the United States establishes and maintains relationships and interacts with indigenous nations and other sovereign nations, and plays a key role in world affairs. The student will understand that international political and economic institutions influence world affairs and United States foreign policy. The student will understand that governments are based on different political philosophies and purposes; governments establish and maintain relationships with varied types of other governments.
Economic reasoning skills. The student will understand that people make informed economic choices by identifying their goals, interpreting and applying data, considering the short-run and long-run costs and benefits of alternative choices, and revising their goals based on their analysis.
Personal finance. The student will understand that personal and financial goals can be achieved by applying economic concepts and principles to personal financial planning, budgeting, spending, saving, investing, borrowing, and insuring decisions.
Fundamental concepts. The student will understand that because of scarcity, individuals, organizations, and governments must evaluate trade-offs, make choices, and incur opportunity costs. The student will understand that economic systems differ in the ways that they address the three basic economic issues of allocation, production, and distribution to meet society's broad economic goals.
Microeconomic concepts. The student will understand that individuals, businesses, and governments interact and exchange goods, services, and resources in different ways and for different reasons; interactions between buyers and sellers in a market determines the price and quantity exchanged of a good, service, or resource. The student will understand that profit provides an incentive for individuals and businesses; different business organizations and market structures have an effect on the profit, price, and production of goods and services. The student will understand that resource markets and financial markets determine wages, interest rates, and commodity prices. The student will understand that market failures occur when markets fail to allocate resources efficiently or meet other goals, and this often leads to government attempts to correct the problem.
Macroeconomic concepts. The student will understand that economic performance, the performance of an economy toward meeting its goals, can be measured, and is affected by, various long-term factors. The student will understand that the overall levels of output, employment, and prices in an economy fluctuate in the short run as a result of the spending and production decisions of households, businesses, governments, and others. The student will understand that the overall performance of an economy can be influenced by the fiscal policies of governments and the monetary policies of central banks. The student will understand that international trade, exchange rates, and international institutions affect individuals, organizations, and governments throughout the world.
Geospatial skills. The student will understand that people use geographic representations and geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information within a spatial context. The student will understand that geographic inquiry is a process in which people ask geographic questions and gather, organize, and analyze information to solve problems and plan for the future.
Places and regions. The student will understand that places have physical characteristics, such as climate, topography, and vegetation, and human characteristics, such as culture, population, and political and economic systems. The student will understand that people construct regions to identify, organize, and interpret areas of the Earth's surface, which simplifies the Earth's complexity.
Human systems. The student will understand that the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on the Earth's surface influence human systems, such as cultural, economic, and political systems. The student will understand that geographic factors influence the distribution, functions, growth, and patterns of cities and human settlements. The student will understand that the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of the Earth's cultures influence human systems, such as social, economic, and political systems. The student will understand that processes of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of the Earth's surface.
Human environment interaction. The student will understand that the environment influences human actions; and humans both adapt to and change the environment. The student will understand that the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources changes over time.
Historical thinking skills. The student will understand that historical inquiry is a process in which multiple sources and different kinds of historical evidence are analyzed to draw conclusions about how and why things happened in the past.
World history. The student will understand that:
environmental changes and human adaptation enabled human migration from Africa to other regions of the world between 200,000 and 8000 BCE;
the emergence of domestication and agriculture facilitated the development of complex societies and caused far-reaching social and cultural effects between 8000 and 2000 BCE;
the development of interregional systems of communication and trade facilitated new forms of social organization and new belief systems between 2000 BCE and 600 CE;
hemispheric networks intensified as a result of innovations in agriculture, trade across longer distances, the consolidation of belief systems, and the development of new multiethnic empires while diseases and climate change caused sharp, periodic fluctuations in global population between 600 and 1450;
new connections between the hemispheres resulted in the "Columbian Exchange," new sources and forms of knowledge, development of the first truly global economy, intensification of coerced labor, increasingly complex societies, and shifts in the international balance of power between 1450 and 1750;
industrialization ushered in widespread population growth and migration, new colonial empires, and revolutionary ideas about government and political power between 1750 and 1922;
a rapidly evolving world dominated by industrialized powers; scientific and technological progress; profound political, economic, and cultural change; world wars; and widespread violence and unrest produced a half century of crisis and achievement between 1900 and 1950;
post-World War II geopolitical reorganization produced the Cold War balance of power and new alliances that were based on competing economic and political doctrines between 1950 and 1989; and
globalization, the spread of capitalism, and the end of the Cold War have shaped a contemporary world still characterized by rapid technological change, dramatic increases in global population, and economic growth coupled with persistent economic and social disparities and cultural conflict between 1989 and the present.
United States history. The student will understand that:
before European contact, North America was populated by indigenous nations that had developed a wide range of social structures, political systems, and economic activities, and whose expansive trade networks extended across the continent;
rivalries among European nations and their search for new opportunities fueled expanding global trade networks and, in North America, colonization and settlement and the exploitation of indigenous peoples and lands; colonial development evoked varied responses by indigenous nations, and produced regional societies and economies that included imported slave labor and distinct forms of local government between 1585 and 1763;
the divergence of colonial interests from those of England led to an independence movement that resulted in the American Revolution and the foundation of a new nation based on the ideals of self-government and liberty between 1754 and 1800;
economic expansion and the conquest of indigenous and Mexican territory spurred the agricultural and industrial growth of the United States; led to increasing regional, economic, and ethnic divisions; and inspired multiple reform movements between 1792 and 1861;
regional tensions around economic development, slavery, territorial expansion, and governance resulted in a Civil War and a period of Reconstruction that led to the abolition of slavery, a more powerful federal government, a renewed push into indigenous nations' territory, and continuing conflict over racial relations between 1850 and 1877;
as the United States shifted from its agrarian roots into an industrial and global power, the rise of big business, urbanization, and immigration led to institutionalized racism, ethnic and class conflict, and new efforts at reform between 1870 and 1920;
the economic growth, cultural innovation, and political apathy of the 1920s ended in the Great Depression which spurred new forms of government intervention, and renewed labor activism, followed by World War II and an economic resurgence between 1920 and 1945;
post-World War II United States was shaped by an economic boom, Cold War military engagements, politics and protests, and rights movements to improve the status of racial minorities, women, and America's indigenous peoples between 1945 and 1989; and
the end of the Cold War, shifting geopolitical dynamics, the intensification of the global economy, and rapidly changing technologies have given renewed urgency to debates about the United States' identity, values, and role in the world between 1980 and the present.
MS s 120B.02
37 SR 1643
January 4, 2018