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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

3501.1340 GRADE 8 STANDARDS.

Subpart 1.

Citizenship and government.

Civic skills. The student will understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills, and take action to solve problems and shape public policy. The student will understand that international political and economic institutions influence world affairs and United States foreign policy. The student will understand that governments are based on different political philosophies and are established to serve various purposes.

Subp. 2.

Economics.

A.

Economic reasoning skills. The student will understand that people make informed economic choices by identifying their goals, interpreting and applying data, considering the short-run and long-run costs and benefits of alternative choices, and revising their goals based on their analysis.

B.

Fundamental concepts. The student will understand that economic systems differ in the ways that they address the three basic economic issues of allocation, production, and distribution to meet society's broad economic goals.

C.

Macroeconomics. The student will understand that international trade, exchange rates, and international institutions affect individuals, organizations, and governments throughout the world.

Subp. 3.

Geography.

A.

Geospatial skills. The student will understand that people use geographic representations and geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information within a spatial context. The student will understand that geographic inquiry is a process in which people ask geographic questions and gather, organize, and analyze information to solve problems and plan for the future.

B.

Places and regions. The student will understand that places have physical characteristics, such as climate, topography, and vegetation, and human characteristics, such as culture, population, and political and economic systems.

C.

Human systems. The student will understand that the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on the Earth's surface influence human systems, such as cultural, economic, and political systems. The student will understand that geographic factors influence the distribution, functions, growth, and patterns of cities and human settlements. The student will understand that the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of the Earth's cultures influence human systems, such as social, economic, and political systems. The student will understand that processes of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of the Earth's surface.

D.

Human environment interaction. The student will understand that the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources changes over time.

Subp. 4.

History.

A.

Historical thinking skills. The student will understand that historical inquiry is a process in which multiple sources and different kinds of historical evidence are analyzed to draw conclusions about how and why things happened in the past.

B.

World history. The student will understand that post-World War II political reorganization produced the Cold War balance of power and new alliances that were based on competing economic and political doctrines between 1950 and 1989. The student will understand that globalization, the spread of capitalism, and the end of the Cold War have shaped a contemporary world still characterized by rapid technological change, dramatic increases in global population, and economic growth coupled with persistent economic and social disparities and cultural conflict between 1989 and the present.

Statutory Authority:

MS s 120B.02

History:

37 SR 1643

Published Electronically:

October 3, 2013