Civic skills. The student will understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills, and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
Governmental institutions and political processes. The student will understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels, federal, state, and local; and the three branches of government, legislative, executive, and judicial.
Economic reasoning skills. The student will understand that people make informed economic choices by identifying their goals, interpreting and applying data, considering the short-run and long-run costs and benefits of alternative choices, and revising their goals based on their analysis.
Fundamental concepts. The student will understand that because of scarcity, individuals, organizations, and governments must evaluate trade-offs, make choices, and incur opportunity costs. The student will understand that individuals, businesses, and governments interact and exchange goods, services, and resources in different ways and for different reasons; interactions between buyers and sellers in a market determines the price and quantity exchanged of a good, service, or resource.
Geospatial skills. The student will understand that people use geographic representations and geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information within a spatial context. The student will understand that geographic inquiry is a process in which people ask geographic questions and gather, organize, and analyze information to solve problems and plan for the future.
Places and regions. The student will understand that places have physical characteristics, such as climate, topography, and vegetation, and human characteristics, such as culture, population, and political and economic systems. The student will understand that people construct regions to identify, organize, and interpret areas of the Earth's surface, which simplifies the Earth's complexity.
Human systems. The student will understand that the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on the Earth's surface influence human systems, such as cultural, economic, and political systems. The student will understand that geographic factors influence the distribution, functions, growth, and patterns of cities and human settlements.
Human environment interaction. The student will understand that the environment influences human actions; and humans both adapt to and change the environment. The student will understand that the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources change over time.
Historical thinking skills. The student will understand that historical inquiry is a process in which multiple sources and different kinds of historical evidence are analyzed to draw conclusions about how and why things happened in the past.
Peoples, cultures, and change over time. The student will understand that the differences and similarities of cultures around the world are attributable to their diverse origins and histories and interactions with other cultures throughout time.
MS s 120B.02
37 SR 1643
October 3, 2013