Civic skills. The student will understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills, and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
Civic values and principles of democracy. The student will understand that the United States is based on democratic values and principles that include liberty, individual rights, justice, equality, the rule of law, limited government, common good, popular sovereignty, majority rule, and minority rights.
Governmental institutions and political processes. The student will understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels, federal, state, and local; and the three branches of government, legislative, executive, and judicial.
Economic reasoning skills. The student will understand that people make informed economic choices by identifying their goals, interpreting and applying data, considering the short-run and long-run costs and benefits of alternative choices, and revising their goals based on their analysis.
Personal finance. The student will understand that personal and financial goals can be achieved by applying economic concepts and principles to personal financial planning, budgeting, spending, saving, investing, borrowing, and insuring decisions.
Fundamental concepts. The student will understand that individuals, businesses, and governments interact and exchange goods, services, and resources in different ways and for different reasons; interactions between buyers and sellers in a market determines the price and quantity exchanged of a good, service, or resource.
Geospatial skills. The student will understand that people use geographic representations and geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information within a spatial context.
Human systems. The student will understand that geographic factors influence the distribution, functions, growth, and patterns of cities and human settlements. The student will understand that processes of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of the Earth's surface.
Historical thinking skills. The student will understand that historians generally construct chronological narratives to characterize eras and explain past events and change over time. The student will understand that historical inquiry is a process in which multiple sources and different kinds of historical evidence are analyzed to draw conclusions about how and why things happened in the past. The student will understand that historical events have multiple causes and can lead to varied and unintended outcomes.
Peoples, cultures, and change over time. The student will understand that history is made by individuals acting alone and collectively to address problems in communities, states, nations, and the world.
World history. The student will understand that:
the emergence of domestication and agriculture facilitated the development of complex societies and caused far-reaching social and cultural effects between 8000 and 2000 BCE;
the development of interregional systems of communication and trade facilitated new forms of social organization and new belief systems between 2000 BCE and 600 CE; and
hemispheric networks intensified as a result of innovations in agriculture, trade across longer distances, the consolidation of belief systems, and the development of new multiethnic empires while diseases and climate change caused sharp, periodic fluctuations in global population between 600 and 1450.
MS s 120B.02
37 SR 1643
October 3, 2013