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2013 Minnesota Statutes

152.02 MS 1967 [Repealed, 1969 c 933 s 22]

152.02 SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES; ADMINISTRATION OF CHAPTER.

Subdivision 1.Five schedules.

There are established five schedules of controlled substances, to be known as Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V. The schedules consist of the substances listed in this section by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or trade name designated.

Subd. 2.Schedule I.

(a) Schedule I consists of the substances listed in this subdivision.

(b) Opiates. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following substances, including their analogs, isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, whenever the existence of the analogs, isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible:

(1) acetylmethadol;

(2) allylprodine;

(3) alphacetylmethadol (except levo-alphacetylmethadol, also known as levomethadyl acetate);

(4) alphameprodine;

(5) alphamethadol;

(6) alpha-methylfentanyl benzethidine;

(7) betacetylmethadol;

(8) betameprodine;

(9) betamethadol;

(10) betaprodine;

(11) clonitazene;

(12) dextromoramide;

(13) diampromide;

(14) diethyliambutene;

(15) difenoxin;

(16) dimenoxadol;

(17) dimepheptanol;

(18) dimethyliambutene;

(19) dioxaphetyl butyrate;

(20) dipipanone;

(21) ethylmethylthiambutene;

(22) etonitazene;

(23) etoxeridine;

(24) furethidine;

(25) hydroxypethidine;

(26) ketobemidone;

(27) levomoramide;

(28) levophenacylmorphan;

(29) 3-methylfentanyl;

(30) acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl;

(31) alpha-methylthiofentanyl;

(32) benzylfentanyl beta-hydroxyfentanyl;

(33) beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl;

(34) 3-methylthiofentanyl;

(35) thenylfentanyl;

(36) thiofentanyl;

(37) para-fluorofentanyl;

(38) morpheridine;

(39) 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine;

(40) noracymethadol;

(41) norlevorphanol;

(42) normethadone;

(43) norpipanone;

(44) 1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine (PEPAP);

(45) phenadoxone;

(46) phenampromide;

(47) phenomorphan;

(48) phenoperidine;

(49) piritramide;

(50) proheptazine;

(51) properidine;

(52) propiram;

(53) racemoramide;

(54) tilidine;

(55) trimeperidine.

(c) Opium derivatives. Any of the following substances, their analogs, salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, whenever the existence of the analogs, salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible:

(1) acetorphine;

(2) acetyldihydrocodeine;

(3) benzylmorphine;

(4) codeine methylbromide;

(5) codeine-n-oxide;

(6) cyprenorphine;

(7) desomorphine;

(8) dihydromorphine;

(9) drotebanol;

(10) etorphine;

(11) heroin;

(12) hydromorphinol;

(13) methyldesorphine;

(14) methyldihydromorphine;

(15) morphine methylbromide;

(16) morphine methylsulfonate;

(17) morphine-n-oxide;

(18) myrophine;

(19) nicocodeine;

(20) nicomorphine;

(21) normorphine;

(22) pholcodine;

(23) thebacon.

(d) Hallucinogens. Any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, their analogs, salts, isomers (whether optical, positional, or geometric), and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, whenever the existence of the analogs, salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible:

(1) methylenedioxy amphetamine;

(2) methylenedioxymethamphetamine;

(3) methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA);

(4) n-hydroxy-methylenedioxyamphetamine;

(5) 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB);

(6) 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (2,5-DMA);

(7) 4-methoxyamphetamine;

(8) 5-methoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxy amphetamine;

(9) alpha-ethyltryptamine;

(10) bufotenine;

(11) diethyltryptamine;

(12) dimethyltryptamine;

(13) 3,4,5-trimethoxy amphetamine;

(14) 4-methyl-2, 5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOM);

(15) ibogaine;

(16) lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD);

(17) mescaline;

(18) parahexyl;

(19) N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate;

(20) N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate;

(21) psilocybin;

(22) psilocyn;

(23) tenocyclidine (TPCP or TCP);

(24) N-ethyl-1-phenyl-cyclohexylamine (PCE);

(25) 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) pyrrolidine (PCPy);

(26) 1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]-pyrrolidine (TCPy);

(27) 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOC);

(28) 4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOET);

(29) 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOI);

(30) 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B);

(31) 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-C);

(32) 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2-CD);

(33) 4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-E);

(34) 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-I);

(35) 4-propyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-P);

(36) 4-isopropylthio-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-T-4);

(37) 4-propylthio-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-T-7);

(38) 2-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrofuro [2,3-f][1]benzofuran-4-yl)ethanamine (2-CB-FLY);

(39) bromo-benzodifuranyl-isopropylamine (Bromo-DragonFLY);

(40) alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT);

(41) N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DiPT);

(42) 4-acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4-AcO-DMT);

(43) 4-acetoxy-N,N-diethyltryptamine (4-AcO-DET);

(44) 4-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-propyltryptamine (4-HO-MPT);

(45) 4-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyltryptamine (4-HO-DPT);

(46) 4-hydroxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine (4-HO-DALT);

(47) 4-hydroxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (4-HO-DiPT);

(48) 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DiPT);

(49) 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT);

(50) 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT);

(51) 5-methylthio-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeS-DMT);

(52) 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-propyltryptamine (5-MeO-MiPT);

(53) 5-methoxy-α-ethyltryptamine (5-MeO-AET);

(54) 5-methoxy-N,N-dipropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DPT);

(55) 5-methoxy-N,N-diethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DET);

(56) 5-methoxy-N,N-diallytryptamine (5-MeO-DALT);

(57) methoxetamine (MXE);

(58) 5-iodo-2-aminoindane (5-IAI);

(59) 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI);

(60) 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe).

(e) Peyote. All parts of the plant presently classified botanically as Lophophora williamsii Lemaire, whether growing or not, the seeds thereof, any extract from any part of the plant, and every compound, manufacture, salts, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds or extracts. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the American Indian Church, and members of the American Indian Church are exempt from registration. Any person who manufactures peyote for or distributes peyote to the American Indian Church, however, is required to obtain federal registration annually and to comply with all other requirements of law.

(f) Central nervous system depressants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, their analogs, salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of the analogs, salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible:

(1) mecloqualone;

(2) methaqualone;

(3) gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), including its esters and ethers;

(4) flunitrazepam.

(g) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, their analogs, salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of the analogs, salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible:

(1) aminorex;

(2) cathinone;

(3) fenethylline;

(4) methcathinone;

(5) methylaminorex;

(6) N,N-dimethylamphetamine;

(7) N-benzylpiperazine (BZP);

(8) methylmethcathinone (mephedrone);

(9) 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone);

(10) methoxymethcathinone (methedrone);

(11) methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV);

(12) fluoromethcathinone;

(13) methylethcathinone (MEC);

(14) 1-benzofuran-6-ylpropan-2-amine (6-APB);

(15) dimethylmethcathinone (DMMC);

(16) fluoroamphetamine;

(17) fluoromethamphetamine;

(18) α-methylaminobutyrophenone (MABP or buphedrone);

(19) β-keto-N-methylbenzodioxolylpropylamine (bk-MBDB or butylone);

(20) 2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)butan-1-one (4-MEMABP or BZ-6378);

(21) naphthylpyrovalerone (naphyrone); and

(22) any other substance, except bupropion or compounds listed under a different schedule, that is structurally derived from 2-aminopropan-1-one by substitution at the 1-position with either phenyl, naphthyl, or thiophene ring systems, whether or not the compound is further modified in any of the following ways:

(i) by substitution in the ring system to any extent with alkyl, alkylenedioxy, alkoxy, haloalkyl, hydroxyl, or halide substituents, whether or not further substituted in the ring system by one or more other univalent substituents;

(ii) by substitution at the 3-position with an acyclic alkyl substituent;

(iii) by substitution at the 2-amino nitrogen atom with alkyl, dialkyl, benzyl, or methoxybenzyl groups; or

(iv) by inclusion of the 2-amino nitrogen atom in a cyclic structure.

(h) Marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinols, and synthetic cannabinoids. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any natural or synthetic material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of the following substances, their analogs, isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, whenever the existence of the isomers, esters, ethers, or salts is possible:

(1) marijuana;

(2) tetrahydrocannabinols naturally contained in a plant of the genus Cannabis, synthetic equivalents of the substances contained in the cannabis plant or in the resinous extractives of the plant, or synthetic substances with similar chemical structure and pharmacological activity to those substances contained in the plant or resinous extract, including, but not limited to, 1 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol, 6 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol, and 3,4 cis or trans tetrahydrocannabinol;

(3) synthetic cannabinoids, including the following substances:

(i) Naphthoylindoles, which are any compounds containing a 3-(1-napthoyl)indole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples of naphthoylindoles include, but are not limited to:

(A) 1-Pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018 and AM-678);

(B) 1-Butul-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-073);

(C) 1-Pentyl-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-081);

(D) 1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-200);

(E) 1-Propyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-015);

(F) 1-Hexyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-019);

(G) 1-Pentyl-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-122);

(H) 1-Pentyl-3-(4-ethyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-210);

(I) 1-Pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-398);

(J) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (AM-2201).

(ii) Napthylmethylindoles, which are any compounds containing a 1H-indol-3-yl-(1-naphthyl)methane structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples of naphthylmethylindoles include, but are not limited to:

(A) 1-Pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl-(1-naphthyl)methane (JWH-175);

(B) 1-Pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl-(4-methyl-1-naphthyl)methan (JWH-184).

(iii) Naphthoylpyrroles, which are any compounds containing a 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples of naphthoylpyrroles include, but are not limited to, (5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-pentylpyrrol-3-yl)-naphthalen-1-ylmethanone (JWH-307).

(iv) Naphthylmethylindenes, which are any compounds containing a naphthylideneindene structure with substitution at the 3-position of the indene ring by an allkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent, whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent. Examples of naphthylemethylindenes include, but are not limited to, E-1-[1-(1-naphthalenylmethylene)-1H-inden-3-yl]pentane (JWH-176).

(v) Phenylacetylindoles, which are any compounds containing a 3-phenylacetylindole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent. Examples of phenylacetylindoles include, but are not limited to:

(A) 1-(2-cyclohexylethyl)-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (RCS-8);

(B) 1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (JWH-250);

(C) 1-pentyl-3-(2-methylphenylacetyl)indole (JWH-251);

(D) 1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole (JWH-203).

(vi) Cyclohexylphenols, which are compounds containing a 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol structure with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group whether or not substituted in the cyclohexyl ring to any extent. Examples of cyclohexylphenols include, but are not limited to:

(A) 5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (CP 47,497);

(B) 5-(1,1-dimethyloctyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (Cannabicyclohexanol or CP 47,497 C8 homologue);

(C) 5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,2R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl] -phenol (CP 55,940).

(vii) Benzoylindoles, which are any compounds containing a 3-(benzoyl)indole structure with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, 1-(N-methyl-2-piperidinyl)methyl or 2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl group whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent. Examples of benzoylindoles include, but are not limited to:

(A) 1-Pentyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)indole (RCS-4);

(B) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (AM-694);

(C) (4-methoxyphenyl-[2-methyl-1-(2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl)indol-3-yl]methanone (WIN 48,098 or Pravadoline).

(viii) Others specifically named:

(A) (6aR,10aR)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl) -6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol (HU-210);

(B) (6aS,10aS)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl) -6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol (Dexanabinol or HU-211);

(C) 2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de] -1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl-1-naphthalenylmethanone (WIN 55,212-2);

(D) (1-pentylindol-3-yl)-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (UR-144);

(E) (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (XLR-11);

(F) 1-pentyl-N-tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-1-yl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AKB-48(APINACA));

(G) N-((3s,5s,7s)-adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (5-Fluoro-AKB-48);

(H) 1-pentyl-8-quinolinyl ester-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid (PB-22);

(I) 8-quinolinyl ester-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid (5-Fluoro PB-22).

(i) A controlled substance analog, to the extent that it is implicitly or explicitly intended for human consumption.

Subd. 3.Schedule II.

(a) Schedule II consists of the substances listed in this subdivision.

(b) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following substances whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(1) Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate.

(i) Excluding:

(A) apomorphine;

(B) thebaine-derived butorphanol;

(C) dextrophan;

(D) nalbuphine;

(E) nalmefene;

(F) naloxone;

(G) naltrexone;

(H) and their respective salts;

(ii) but including the following:

(A) opium, in all forms and extracts;

(B) codeine;

(C) dihydroetorphine;

(D) ethylmorphine;

(E) etorphine hydrochloride;

(F) hydrocodone;

(G) hydromorphone;

(H) metopon;

(I) morphine;

(J) oxycodone;

(K) oxymorphone;

(L) thebaine;

(M) oripavine;

(2) any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in clause (1), except that these substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium;

(3) opium poppy and poppy straw;

(4) coca leaves and any salt, cocaine compound, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves (including cocaine and ecgonine and their salts, isomers, derivatives, and salts of isomers and derivatives), and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or extraction of coca leaves, which extractions do not contain cocaine or ecgonine;

(5) concentrate of poppy straw (the crude extract of poppy straw in either liquid, solid, or powder form which contains the phenanthrene alkaloids of the opium poppy).

(c) Any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, unless specifically excepted, or unless listed in another schedule, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) alfentanil;

(2) alphaprodine;

(3) anileridine;

(4) bezitramide;

(5) bulk dextropropoxyphene (nondosage forms);

(6) carfentanil;

(7) dihydrocodeine;

(8) dihydromorphinone;

(9) diphenoxylate;

(10) fentanyl;

(11) isomethadone;

(12) levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) levomethorphan;

(13) levorphanol;

(14) metazocine;

(15) methadone;

(16) methadone - intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4, 4-diphenylbutane;

(17) moramide - intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenyl-propane-carboxylic acid;

(18) pethidine;

(19) pethidine - intermediate - a, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine;

(20) pethidine - intermediate - b, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate;

(21) pethidine - intermediate - c, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid;

(22) phenazocine;

(23) piminodine;

(24) racemethorphan;

(25) racemorphan;

(26) remifentanil;

(27) sufentanil;

(28) tapentadol.

(d) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system:

(1) amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers;

(2) methamphetamine, its salts, isomers, and salts of its isomers;

(3) phenmetrazine and its salts;

(4) methylphenidate;

(5) lisdexamfetamine.

(e) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) amobarbital;

(2) glutethimide;

(3) secobarbital;

(4) pentobarbital;

(5) phencyclidine;

(6) phencyclidine immediate precursors:

(i) 1-phenylcyclohexylamine;

(ii) 1-piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile;

(7) phenylacetone.

(f) Hallucinogenic substances: nabilone.

Subd. 4.Schedule III.

(a) Schedule III consists of the substances listed in this subdivision.

(b) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of such isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) benzphetamine;

(2) chlorphentermine;

(3) clortermine;

(4) phendimetrazine.

(c) Depressants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a potential for abuse associated with a depressant effect on the central nervous system:

(1) any compound, mixture, or preparation containing amobarbital, secobarbital, pentobarbital or any salt thereof and one or more other active medicinal ingredients which are not listed in any schedule;

(2) any suppository dosage form containing amobarbital, secobarbital, pentobarbital, or any salt of any of these drugs and approved by the food and drug administration for marketing only as a suppository;

(3) any substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid, or any salt of a derivative of barbituric acid, except those substances which are specifically listed in other schedules;

(4) any drug product containing gamma hydroxybutyric acid, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, for which an application is approved under section 505 of the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act;

(5) any of the following substances:

(i) chlorhexadol;

(ii) ketamine, its salts, isomers and salts of isomers;

(iii) lysergic acid;

(iv) lysergic acid amide;

(v) methyprylon;

(vi) sulfondiethylmethane;

(vii) sulfonenthylmethane;

(viii) sulfonmethane;

(ix) tiletamine and zolazepam and any salt thereof;

(x) embutramide.

(d) Nalorphine.

(e) Narcotic drugs. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following narcotic drugs, or their salts calculated as the free anhydrous base or alkaloid, in limited quantities as follows:

(1) not more than 1.80 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium;

(2) not more than 1.80 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(3) not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with a fourfold or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium;

(4) not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(5) not more than 1.80 grams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(6) not more than 300 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(7) not more than 500 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams, or not more than 25 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(8) not more than 50 milligrams of morphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts;

(f) Anabolic steroids and human growth hormone.

(1) Anabolic steroids, for purposes of this subdivision, means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone, other than estrogens, progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone, and includes:

(i) 3[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxy-5[alpha]-androstane;

(ii) 3[alpha],17[beta]-dihydroxy-5[alpha]-androstane;

(iii) androstanedione (5[alpha]-androstan-3,17-dione);

(iv) 1-androstenediol (3[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxy-5[alpha]-androst-l-ene;

(v) 3[alpha],17[beta]-dihydroxy-5[alpha]-androst-1-ene);

(vi) 4-androstenediol (3[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxy-androst-4-ene);

(vii) 5-androstenediol (3[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxy-androst-5-ene);

(viii) 1-androstenedione (5[alpha]-androst-1-en-3,17-dione);

(ix) 4-androstenedione (androst-4-en-3,17-dione);

(x) 5-androstenedione (androst-5-en-3,17-dione);

(xi) bolasterone (7[alpha],17[alpha]-dimethyl-17[beta]-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

(xii) boldenone (17[beta]-hydroxyandrost-1,4-diene-3-one);

(xiii) boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione);

(xiv) calusterone (7[beta],17[alpha]-dimethyl-17[beta]-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

(xv) clostebol (4-chloro-17[beta]-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

(xvi) dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17[beta]-hydroxy-17[alpha]-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one);

(xvii) desoxymethyltestosterone (17[alpha]-methyl-5[alpha]-androst-2-en-17[beta]-ol);

(xviii) [delta]1-dihydrotestosterone- (17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androst-1-en-3-one);

(xix) 4-dihydrotestosterone (17[beta]-hydroxy-androstan-3-one);

(xx) drostanolone (17[beta]hydroxy-2[alpha]-methyl-5[alpha]-androstan-3-one);

(xxi) ethylestrenol (17[alpha]-ethyl-17[beta]-hydroxyestr-4-ene);

(xxii) fluoxymesterone (9-fluoro-17[alpha]-methyl-11[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

(xxiii) formebolone (2-formyl-17[alpha]-methyl-11[alpha],17[beta]-dihydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3-one);

(xxiv) furazabol (17[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxyandrostano[2,3-c]-furazan)13[beta]-ethyl-17[beta] -hydroxygon-4-en-3-one;

(xxv) 4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17[beta]-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

(xxvi) 4-hydroxy-19-nortestosterone (4,17[beta]-dihydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

(xxvii) mestanolone (17[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androstan-3-one);

(xxviii) mesterolone (1[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androstan-3-one);

(xxix) methandienone (17[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3-one);

(xxx) methandriol (17[alpha]-methyl-3[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxyandrost-5-ene);

(xxxi) methenolone (1-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androst-1-en-3-one);

(xxxii) 17[alpha]-methyl-3[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxy-5[alpha]-androstane;

(xxxiii) 17[alpha]-methyl-3[alpha],17[beta]-dihydroxy-5[alpha]-androstane;

(xxxiv) 17[alpha]-methyl-3[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxyandrost-4-ene;

(xxxv) 17[alpha]-methyl-4-hydroxynandrolone (17[alpha]-methyl-4-hydroxy-17[beta]-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

(xxxvi) methyldienolone (17[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxyestra-4,9(10)-dien-3-one);

(xxxvii) methyltrienolone (17[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxyestra-4,9-11-trien-3-one);

(xxxviii) methyltestosterone (17[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

(xxxix) mibolerone (7[alpha],17[alpha]-dimethyl-17[beta]-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

(xl) 17[alpha]-methyl-[delta]1-dihydrotestosterone (17[beta]-hydroxy-17[alpha]-methyl-5[alpha]-androst-1-en-3-one);

(xli) nandrolone (17[beta]-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

(xlii) 19-nor-4-androstenediol (3[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxyestr-4-ene;

(xliii) 3[alpha],17[beta]-dihydroxyestr-4-ene); 19-nor-5-androstenediol (3[beta],17[beta]-dihydroxyestr-5-ene;

(xliv) 3[alpha],17[beta]-dihydroxyestr-5-ene);

(xlv) 19-nor-4,9(10)-androstadienedione (estra-4,9(10)-diene-3,17-dione);

(xlvi) 19-nor-5-androstenedione (estr-5-en-3,17-dione);

(xlvii) norbolethone (13[beta],17[alpha]-diethyl-17[beta]-hydroxygon-4-en-3-one);

(xlviii) norclostebol (4-chloro-17[beta]-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

(xlix) norethandrolone (17[alpha]-ethyl-17[beta]-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

(l) normethandrolone (17[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);

(li) oxandrolone (17[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxy-2-oxa-5[alpha]-androstan-3-one);

(lii) oxymesterone (17[alpha]-methyl-4,17[beta]-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

(liii) oxymetholone (17[alpha]-methyl-2-hydroxymethylene-17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androstan-3-one);

(liv) stanozolol (17[alpha]-methyl-17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androst-2-eno[3,2-c]-pyrazole);

(lv) stenbolone (17[beta]-hydroxy-2-methyl-5[alpha]-androst-1-en-3-one);

(lvi) testolactone (13-hydroxy-3-oxo-13,17-secoandrosta-1,4-dien-17-oic acid lactone);

(lvii) testosterone (17[beta]-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);

(lviii) tetrahydrogestrinone (13[beta],17[alpha]-diethyl-17[beta]-hydroxygon-4,9,11-trien-3-one);

(lix) trenbolone (17[beta]-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3-one);

(lx) any salt, ester, or ether of a drug or substance described in this paragraph.

Anabolic steroids are not included if they are: (A) expressly intended for administration through implants to cattle or other nonhuman species; and (B) approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for that use;

(2) Human growth hormones.

(g) Hallucinogenic substances. Dronabinol (synthetic) in sesame oil and encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule in a United States Food and Drug Administration approved product.

(h) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing the following narcotic drug or its salt: buprenorphine.

Subd. 5.Schedule IV.

(a) Schedule IV consists of the substances listed in this subdivision.

(b) Narcotic drugs. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following narcotic drugs, or their salts calculated as the free anhydrous base or alkaloid, in limited quantities as follows:

(1) not more than one milligram of difenoxin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit;

(2) dextropropoxyphene (Darvon and Darvocet).

(c) Depressants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing any quantity of the following substances, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of the salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible:

(1) alprazolam;

(2) barbital;

(3) bromazepam;

(4) camazepam;

(5) carisoprodol;

(6) chloral betaine;

(7) chloral hydrate;

(8) chlordiazepoxide;

(9) clobazam;

(10) clonazepam;

(11) clorazepate;

(12) clotiazepam;

(13) cloxazolam;

(14) delorazepam;

(15) diazepam;

(16) dichloralphenazone;

(17) estazolam;

(18) ethchlorvynol;

(19) ethinamate;

(20) ethyl loflazepate;

(21) fludiazepam;

(22) flurazepam;

(23) halazepam;

(24) haloxazolam;

(25) ketazolam;

(26) loprazolam;

(27) lorazepam;

(28) lormetazepam mebutamate;

(29) medazepam;

(30) meprobamate;

(31) methohexital;

(32) methylphenobarbital;

(33) midazolam;

(34) nimetazepam;

(35) nitrazepamnordiazepam;

(36) oxazepam;

(37) oxazolam;

(38) paraldehydepetrichloral;

(39) phenobarbital;

(40) pinazepam;

(41) prazepam;

(42) quazepam;

(43) temazepam;

(44) tetrazepam;

(45) triazolam;

(46) zaleplon;

(47) zolpidem;

(48) zopiclone.

(d) Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substance including its salts, isomers, and salts of such isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible: fenfluramine.

(e) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers:

(1) cathine (norpseudoephedrine);

(2) diethylpropion;

(3) fencamfamine;

(4) fenproporex;

(5) mazindol;

(6) mefenorex;

(7) modafinil;

(8) pemoline (including organometallic complexes and chelates thereof);

(9) phentermine;

(10) pipradol;

(11) sibutramine;

(12) SPA (1-dimethylamino-1,2-diphenylethane).

Subd. 6.Schedule V; restrictions on methamphetamine precursor drugs.

(a) As used in this subdivision, the following terms have the meanings given:

(1) "methamphetamine precursor drug" means any compound, mixture, or preparation intended for human consumption containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as its sole active ingredient or as one of its active ingredients; and

(2) "over-the-counter sale" means a retail sale of a drug or product but does not include the sale of a drug or product pursuant to the terms of a valid prescription.

(b) The following items are listed in Schedule V:

(1) any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following limited quantities of narcotic drugs, which shall include one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture or preparation valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic drug alone:

(i) not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

(ii) not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams;

(iii) not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit;

(iv) not more than 100 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams; or

(v) not more than 0.5 milligrams of difenoxin and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

(2) Stimulants. Unless specifically exempted or excluded or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of the following substance having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers: pyrovalerone.

(3) Depressants. Unless specifically exempted or excluded or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of the following substance having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers:

(i) pregabalin;

(ii) lacosamide.

(4) Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as its sole active ingredient or as one of its active ingredients.

(c) No person may sell in a single over-the-counter sale more than two packages of a methamphetamine precursor drug or a combination of methamphetamine precursor drugs or any combination of packages exceeding a total weight of six grams, calculated as the base.

(d) Over-the-counter sales of methamphetamine precursor drugs are limited to:

(1) packages containing not more than a total of three grams of one or more methamphetamine precursor drugs, calculated in terms of ephedrine base or pseudoephedrine base; or

(2) for nonliquid products, sales in blister packs, where each blister contains not more than two dosage units, or, if the use of blister packs is not technically feasible, sales in unit dose packets or pouches.

(e) A business establishment that offers for sale methamphetamine precursor drugs in an over-the-counter sale shall ensure that all packages of the drugs are displayed behind a checkout counter where the public is not permitted and are offered for sale only by a licensed pharmacist, a registered pharmacy technician, or a pharmacy clerk. The establishment shall ensure that the person making the sale requires the buyer:

(1) to provide photographic identification showing the buyer's date of birth; and

(2) to sign a written or electronic document detailing the date of the sale, the name of the buyer, and the amount of the drug sold.

A document described under clause (2) must be retained by the establishment for at least three years and must at all reasonable times be open to the inspection of any law enforcement agency.

Nothing in this paragraph requires the buyer to obtain a prescription for the drug's purchase.

(f) No person may acquire through over-the-counter sales more than six grams of methamphetamine precursor drugs, calculated as the base, within a 30-day period.

(g) No person may sell in an over-the-counter sale a methamphetamine precursor drug to a person under the age of 18 years. It is an affirmative defense to a charge under this paragraph if the defendant proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the defendant reasonably and in good faith relied on proof of age as described in section 340A.503, subdivision 6.

(h) A person who knowingly violates paragraph (c), (d), (e), (f), or (g) is guilty of a misdemeanor and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 90 days, or to payment of a fine of not more than $1,000, or both.

(i) An owner, operator, supervisor, or manager of a business establishment that offers for sale methamphetamine precursor drugs whose employee or agent is convicted of or charged with violating paragraph (c), (d), (e), (f), or (g) is not subject to the criminal penalties for violating any of those paragraphs if the person:

(1) did not have prior knowledge of, participate in, or direct the employee or agent to commit the violation; and

(2) documents that an employee training program was in place to provide the employee or agent with information on the state and federal laws and regulations regarding methamphetamine precursor drugs.

(j) Any person employed by a business establishment that offers for sale methamphetamine precursor drugs who sells such a drug to any person in a suspicious transaction shall report the transaction to the owner, supervisor, or manager of the establishment. The owner, supervisor, or manager may report the transaction to local law enforcement. A person who reports information under this subdivision in good faith is immune from civil liability relating to the report.

(k) Paragraphs (b) to (j) do not apply to:

(1) pediatric products labeled pursuant to federal regulation primarily intended for administration to children under 12 years of age according to label instructions;

(2) methamphetamine precursor drugs that are certified by the Board of Pharmacy as being manufactured in a manner that prevents the drug from being used to manufacture methamphetamine;

(3) methamphetamine precursor drugs in gel capsule or liquid form; or

(4) compounds, mixtures, or preparations in powder form where pseudoephedrine constitutes less than one percent of its total weight and is not its sole active ingredient.

(l) The Board of Pharmacy, in consultation with the Department of Public Safety, shall certify methamphetamine precursor drugs that meet the requirements of paragraph (k), clause (2), and publish an annual listing of these drugs.

(m) Wholesale drug distributors licensed and regulated by the Board of Pharmacy pursuant to sections 151.42 to 151.51 and registered with and regulated by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration are exempt from the methamphetamine precursor drug storage requirements of this section.

(n) This section preempts all local ordinances or regulations governing the sale by a business establishment of over-the-counter products containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. All ordinances enacted prior to the effective date of this act are void.

Subd. 7.Board of Pharmacy; regulation of substances.

The Board of Pharmacy is authorized to regulate and define additional substances which contain quantities of a substance possessing abuse potential in accordance with the following criteria:

(1) The Board of Pharmacy shall place a substance in Schedule I if it finds that the substance has: A high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in the United States, and a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.

(2) The Board of Pharmacy shall place a substance in Schedule II if it finds that the substance has: A high potential for abuse, currently accepted medical use in the United States, or currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions, and that abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

(3) The Board of Pharmacy shall place a substance in Schedule III if it finds that the substance has: A potential for abuse less than the substances listed in Schedules I and II, currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and that abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

(4) The Board of Pharmacy shall place a substance in Schedule IV if it finds that the substance has: A low potential for abuse relative to the substances in Schedule III, currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and that abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the substances in Schedule III.

(5) The Board of Pharmacy shall place a substance in Schedule V if it finds that the substance has: A low potential for abuse relative to the substances listed in Schedule IV, currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and limited physical dependence and/or psychological dependence liability relative to the substances listed in Schedule IV.

Subd. 8.Add, delete, or reschedule substances.

The state Board of Pharmacy may, by rule, add substances to or delete or reschedule substances listed in this section. The Board of Pharmacy may not delete or reschedule a drug that is in Schedule I, except as provided in subdivision 12.

In making a determination regarding a substance, the Board of Pharmacy shall consider the following: The actual or relative potential for abuse, the scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect, if known, the state of current scientific knowledge regarding the substance, the history and current pattern of abuse, the scope, duration, and significance of abuse, the risk to public health, the potential of the substance to produce psychic or physiological dependence liability, and whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a substance already controlled under this section. The state Board of Pharmacy may include any nonnarcotic drug authorized by federal law for medicinal use in a schedule only if such drug must, under either federal or state law or rule, be sold only on prescription.

Subd. 8a.

[Repealed by amendment, 2012 c 240 s 1]

Subd. 8b.Board of Pharmacy; expedited scheduling of additional substances.

(a) The state Board of Pharmacy may, by rule, add a substance to Schedule I provided that it finds that the substance has a high potential for abuse, has no currently accepted medical use in the United States, has a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, has known adverse health effects, and is currently available for use within the state. For the purposes of this subdivision only, the board may use the expedited rulemaking process under section 14.389. The scheduling of a substance under this subdivision expires the day after the adjournment of the legislative session immediately following the substance's scheduling unless the legislature by law ratifies the action.

(b) If the board schedules a substance under this subdivision, the board shall notify in a timely manner the chairs and ranking minority members of the senate and house of representatives committees having jurisdiction over criminal justice and health policy and finance of the action and the reasons for it. The notice must include a copy of the administrative law judge's decision on the matter.

(c) This subdivision expires August 1, 2014.

Subd. 9.Except substances by rule.

The state Board of Pharmacy may by rule except any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any stimulant or depressant substance listed in subdivision 4, paragraphs (b) and (c), or in subdivisions 5 and 6 from the application of all or any part of this chapter, if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active medicinal ingredients not having a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system; provided, that such admixtures shall be included therein in such combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration as to vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which do have a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system.

Subd. 10.Dextromethorphan.

Dextromethorphan shall not be deemed to be included in any schedule by reason of the enactment of Laws 1971, chapter 937, unless controlled pursuant to the foregoing provisions of this section.

Subd. 11.

[Repealed, 1993 c 337 s 20]

Subd. 12.Coordination of controlled substance regulation with federal law and state statute.

If any substance is designated, rescheduled, or deleted as a controlled substance under federal law and notice thereof is given to the state Board of Pharmacy, the state Board of Pharmacy shall similarly control the substance under this chapter, after the expiration of 30 days from publication in the Federal Register of a final order designating a substance as a controlled substance or rescheduling or deleting a substance. Such order shall be filed with the secretary of state. If within that 30-day period, the state Board of Pharmacy objects to inclusion, rescheduling, or deletion, it shall publish the reasons for objection and afford all interested parties an opportunity to be heard. At the conclusion of the hearing, the state Board of Pharmacy shall publish its decision, which shall be subject to the provisions of chapter 14.

In exercising the authority granted by this chapter, the state Board of Pharmacy shall be subject to the provisions of chapter 14.

The state Board of Pharmacy shall annually submit a report to the legislature on or before December 1 that specifies what changes the board made to the controlled substance schedules maintained by the board in Minnesota Rules, parts 6800.4210 to 6800.4250, in the preceding 12 months. The report must include specific recommendations for amending the controlled substance schedules contained in subdivisions 2 to 6, so that they conform with the controlled substance schedules maintained by the board in Minnesota Rules, parts 6800.4210 to 6800.4250.

Subd. 13.

[Repealed by amendment, 2012 c 240 s 1]

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