(a) The department may issue a provisional license, which must be distinctive in appearance from a driver's license, to an applicant who:
(1) has reached the age of 16 years;
(2) during the six months immediately preceding the application for the provisional license has possessed an instruction permit and has incurred (i) no convictions for a violation of section 169A.20, 169A.33, 169A.35, or sections 169A.50 to 169A.53, (ii) no convictions for a crash-related moving violation, and (iii) no convictions for a moving violation that is not crash related;
(3) has successfully completed a course of driver education in accordance with department rules;
(4) completes the required application, which must be approved by (i) either parent when both reside in the same household as the minor applicant or, if otherwise, then (ii) the parent or spouse of the parent having custody or, in the event there is no court order for custody, then (iii) the parent or spouse of the parent with whom the minor is living or, if items (i) to (iii) do not apply, then (iv) the guardian having custody of the minor, (v) the foster parent or the director of the transitional living program in which the child resides or, in the event a person under the age of 18 has no living father, mother, or guardian, or is married or otherwise legally emancipated, then (vi) the applicant's adult spouse, adult close family member, or adult employer; provided, that the approval required by this clause contains a verification of the age of the applicant and the identity of the parent, guardian, adult spouse, adult close family member, or adult employer;
(5) presents certification by the person who approves the application under clause (4) stating that the applicant has driven a motor vehicle accompanied by and under the supervision of a licensed driver at least 21 years of age, for no less than 30 hours, at least ten of which were nighttime hours; and
(6) pays the fee required in section 171.06, subdivision 2.
(b) For purposes of this section, "moving violation" has the meaning given it in section 171.04, subdivision 1.
(c) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), clause (2), the commissioner shall not issue a provisional license to a person who has ever incurred a conviction for violation of section 169A.20, 169A.33, or 169A.35; a violation of a provision of sections 169A.50 to 169A.53; or a crash-related moving violation, and at the time of the conviction the person did not possess an instruction permit.
(a) A provisional license holder may not operate a vehicle while communicating over, or otherwise operating, a cellular or wireless telephone, whether handheld or hands free, when the vehicle is in motion. The provisional license holder may assert as an affirmative defense that the violation was made for the sole purpose of obtaining emergency assistance to prevent a crime about to be committed, or in the reasonable belief that a person's life or safety was in danger. Violation of this paragraph is a petty misdemeanor subject to section 169.89, subdivision 2.
(b) If the holder of a provisional license during the period of provisional licensing incurs (1) a conviction for a violation of section 169A.20, 169A.33, 169A.35, or sections 169A.50 to 169A.53, (2) a conviction for a crash-related moving violation, or (3) more than one conviction for a moving violation that is not crash related, the person may not be issued a driver's license until 12 consecutive months have expired since the date of the conviction or until the person reaches the age of 18 years, whichever occurs first.
(c) For the first six months of provisional licensure, a provisional license holder may not operate a motor vehicle carrying more than one passenger under the age of 20 years who is not a member of the holder's immediate family. For the second six months, the holder of the license may not operate a motor vehicle that is carrying more than three passengers who are under the age of 20 years and who are not members of the holder's immediate family. This paragraph does not apply if the provisional license holder is accompanied by a parent or guardian.
(d) For the first six months of provisional licensure, a provisional license holder may operate a motor vehicle between the hours of midnight and 5:00 a.m. only when the license holder is:
(1) driving between the license holder's home and place of employment;
(2) driving between the license holder's home and a school event for which the school has not provided transportation;
(3) driving for employment purposes; or
(4) accompanied by a licensed driver at least 25 years of age.