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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

CHAPTER 32. DAIRY PRODUCTS

Table of Sections
SectionHeadnote
32.01DEFINITIONS.

ENFORCEMENT OF CHAPTER

32.02Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3
32.021DUTIES AND POWERS OF COMMISSIONER.

LICENSING OF MILK AND CREAM TESTERS

32.03Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3
32.04Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3
32.05Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3
32.06Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3
32.07Repealed, 1949 c 176 s 10; 1949 c 196 s 3
32.071MILK AND CREAM BUYER AND TESTER, LICENSE.
32.072APPLICATION FOR LICENSE.
32.073LICENSES; EXAMINATIONS, QUALIFICATIONS.
32.074LICENSED DAIRY PLANT; LICENSED PERSON TO GRADE AND TEST.
32.075TERM OF LICENSE; TRANSFERABILITY; FEES AND PENALTIES.
32.076OFFENSES.
32.077Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1
32.078SUSPENSION OR CANCELLATION.
32.08Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 4 s 2

DAIRY PLANT LICENSING AND INSPECTION

32.09Repealed, 1971 c 339 s 27
32.10LICENSES; SUSPENSION, REVOCATION.
32.101Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1
32.102PROSECUTIONS.
32.103INSPECTION OF DAIRIES.
32.104LOCAL INSPECTION.
32.105MILK PROCUREMENT FEE.

DAIRY PRODUCT CONTAINERS;

CLEANING, RETURN

32.106MULTIUSE DAIRY PRODUCT CONTAINERS.
32.11Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.12Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.13Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3
32.14Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3
32.15Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3; art 4 s 2
32.16Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3
32.17Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3
32.18Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.19Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.20Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.201Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1
32.203Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.204Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.205Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1
32.206Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.207Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1
32.208Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162

MILK AND CREAM

32.21ADULTERATED DAIRY PRODUCTS.
32.211Expired 60 days following cessation of hostilities, World War II. Proclamation No. 2714.
32.21232.212 MILK HOUSES FOR BULK TANKS.
32.213Repealed, 2007 c 45 art 1 s 66
32.22SKIMMED MILK.
32.23Repealed, 1959 c 606 s 12
32.24Repealed, 1959 c 606 s 12
32.25MILK, CREAM, SKIM MILK, AND BUTTERMILK BOUGHT BY WEIGHT; TESTING METHODS.
32.26Renumbered 32.106
32.27Renumbered 32.208
32.28Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1
32.29Renumbered 32.103
32.30Renumbered 32.104
32.31Renumbered 32.471
32.32Renumbered 32.203
32.33Renumbered 32.204
32.34Renumbered 32.206
32.35Repealed, 1947 c 55 s 1
32.36Renumbered 32.472
32.37Renumbered 32.473
32.38Repealed, 1955 c 833 s 1
32.381Renumbered 32.481
32.382Renumbered 32.482
32.383Renumbered 32.483
32.384Renumbered 32.484
32.385Renumbered 32.485
32.39Repealed, 1947 c 104 s 2
32.391DEFINITIONS.
32.392APPROVAL OF DAIRY PLANTS.
32.393LIMITATION ON SALE.
32.394GRADE A PASTEURIZED MILK.
32.395MILK OTHER THAN GRADE A.
32.396Repealed, 1953 c 536 s 6
32.397ENFORCEMENT STANDARDS.
32.398ENFORCEMENT AND VIOLATIONS.
32.40Repealed, 1949 c 176 s 10
32.401MILK AND CREAM FOR MANUFACTURING.
32.41Repealed, 1949 c 176 s 10
32.411UNIFORM QUALITY STANDARDS FOR MILK, CREAM, FLUID MILK PRODUCTS.
32.41532.415 MILK FOR MANUFACTURING; QUALITY STANDARDS.
32.417INVESTMENT REIMBURSEMENTS TO MANUFACTURED MILK PRODUCERS.
32.42Repealed, 1949 c 176 s 10
32.43Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1
32.44Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1
32.45Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1
32.46Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1
32.47Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1

BUTTER

32.471
32.472Repealed, 1983 c 300 s 28
32.473Repealed, 1983 c 300 s 28
32.474Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.475BUTTER, GRADING AND LABELING.
32.48Repealed, 1947 c 275 s 1

CHEESE

32.481CHEESE.
32.482MANUFACTURE OF CHEESE, REQUIREMENTS IN PROCESS.
32.483STATEMENT BY MANUFACTURER.
32.484ENFORCEMENT.
32.485Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1
32.486CULTURED DAIRY FOOD; FARMSTEAD CHEESE.
32.49Renumbered 32.5311
32.491Renumbered 32.401
32.492Renumbered 32.411
32.494Renumbered 32.207
32.50
32.51
32.511
32.52
32.529Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.53Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.531
32.5311Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.5312Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.532Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.533Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162
32.534Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162

FROZEN DAIRY FOODS

32.55DEFINITIONS; FROZEN DAIRY FOODS.
32.555COMPLIANCE WITH FEDERAL REGULATIONS.
32.56MANUFACTURERS OF FROZEN FOODS TO OBTAIN LICENSE.
32.57INSPECTION OF FROZEN FOODS.
32.58Repealed, 1971 c 339 s 27
32.59NONRESIDENT MANUFACTURER LICENSE.
32.60Repealed, 1971 c 339 s 27
32.61LICENSES; REVOCATION, SUSPENSION.
32.62CONTAINERS, LABELS.
32.63PLANTS KEPT SANITARY.
32.64PASTEURIZATION.
32.645PENALTIES.

DAIRY TRADE PRACTICES

32.70DEFINITIONS.
32.71DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE COMMISSIONER; DATA PRIVACY.
32.72SALES BELOW COST PROHIBITED; EXCEPTIONS.
32.73Repealed, 1997 c 244 s 3
32.74REDRESS FOR INJURY OR THREATENED INJURY.
32.745ANNUAL SUSPENSION OF DAIRY TRADE PRACTICES ACT.
32.75RECOMBINANT BOVINE GROWTH HORMONE LABELING.

PENALTIES

32.90PENALTY.
32.01 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Terms. Unless the language or context clearly indicates that a different
meaning is intended, the words defined in this section, shall for the purposes of this chapter,
have the meanings given to them.
    Subd. 2. Commissioner. "Commissioner" means the commissioner of agriculture.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3]
    Subd. 6. Dairy plant. "Dairy plant" means any place where a dairy product is manufactured,
processed, or handled and includes milk-receiving stations, creameries, cheese factories,
condenseries, milk plants, transfer stations, cream stations, marketing organizations not operating
dairy plants, but purchasing milk and cream directly from producers for resale, and other
establishments, as those terms are used in this chapter and chapters 17, 27, 31, and 33; but does
not include a dairy farm or an establishment where no dairy products are processed, but dairy
products are sold at wholesale or retail only.
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 1999 c 154 s 4]
    Subd. 8. Overrun. "Overrun" is the difference between the weight of any given amount
of pure butterfat and the weight of the butter manufactured therefrom; and this difference,
ascertained in any case, divided by the given amount of pure butterfat in such case and multiplied
by 100, is the "percentage of overrun" in the manufacture of butter.
    Subd. 9. Milk-receiving station. "Milk-receiving station" means any dairy plant where raw
milk for pasteurization or for manufacture is received, handled, or prepared for processing or for
resale as unpasteurized milk or fluid milk products.
    Subd. 10. Dairy product. "Dairy product" means milk as defined by Code of Federal
Regulations, title 21, cream, any product or by-product of either, or any commodity among the
principal constituents or ingredients of which is one or a combination of two or more of them, as
determined by standards, grades, or rules duly adopted by the commissioner.
    Subd. 11. Adulterated. "Adulterated" has the meaning given it in section 31.01, subdivision
19
, and acts amendatory thereof.
    Subd. 12. Misbranded. "Misbranded" or "misbranding" has the meaning given in section
31.01, subdivision 5, and acts amendatory thereof.
History: (3821-1, 3871, 3873-1, 3928-4) 1921 c 495 s 84; 1927 c 162 s 1; 1927 c 169 s 1;
1935 c 61 s 1; 1949 c 192 s 2; 1949 c 196 s 1; 1955 c 146 s 1-4; 1961 c 113 s 1; 1961 c 147 art 1
s 1-3; 1967 c 219 s 1; 1971 c 339 s 25; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1995 c 186 s 15; 2003 c 107 s 20

ENFORCEMENT OF CHAPTER

32.02 [Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3]
32.021 DUTIES AND POWERS OF COMMISSIONER.
    Subdivision 1. Enforcement. The commissioner shall be charged with the enforcement of
the provisions of this chapter.
    Subd. 2. Power and authority. For the purpose of enforcing the provisions of chapter 32
and amendatory acts the commissioner and the commissioner's assistants, agents, and employees,
shall have the power and authority granted under the provisions of sections 31.02 to 31.171.
History: (3928-11) 1935 c 61 s 8; 1949 c 192 s 2; 1961 c 147 art 2 s 1; 1974 c 84 s 37;
1986 c 444

LICENSING OF MILK AND CREAM TESTERS

32.03 [Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3]
32.04 [Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3]
32.05 [Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3]
32.06 [Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3]
32.07 [Repealed, 1949 c 176 s 10; 1949 c 196 s 3]
32.071 MILK AND CREAM BUYER AND TESTER, LICENSE.
No person shall operate a milk or cream testing apparatus for the purpose of determining
the percentage of butterfat in milk or cream, and no person shall grade milk or cream either by
apparatus or by an organoleptic method for the purpose of purchasing the same either personally
or for others without first securing a license from the commissioner as hereinafter provided.
History: 1949 c 176 s 1; 1986 c 444
32.072 APPLICATION FOR LICENSE.
Any person desiring to secure such license shall make application therefor on forms to be
prepared and provided by the commissioner, and before a license is issued the commissioner shall
determine that the applicant is competent and qualified to use such testing apparatus and to make
accurate tests with them, and to make accurate organoleptic tests. No person who is not a resident
of the United States shall be licensed under the provisions of sections 32.071 to 32.078.
History: 1949 c 176 s 2
32.073 LICENSES; EXAMINATIONS, QUALIFICATIONS.
A grading and testing license shall be issued by the commissioner to a person making
application therefor, after the commissioner has determined that the applicant is competent and
qualified to grade and test milk and cream, and that the applicant understands and is familiar with
the provisions of sections 32.01 to 32.486. Any conviction for violating sections 32.01 to 32.486
or the standards, grades, and rules adopted by the commissioner shall be taken into consideration
in determining whether or not the applicant is competent and qualified.
History: 1949 c 176 s 3; 1955 c 835 s 1; 1985 c 248 s 70; 2002 c 379 art 1 s 13
32.074 LICENSED DAIRY PLANT; LICENSED PERSON TO GRADE AND TEST.
Every milk and cream buyer shall maintain at each licensed dairy plant where milk and
cream is purchased, a licensed person to grade and test milk and cream. Any person gathering
cream or milk and transporting it by bulk pickup and not in individual containers from farm to
plant shall have a license to grade and sample such milk and cream.
History: 1949 c 176 s 4; 1953 c 679 s 1
32.075 TERM OF LICENSE; TRANSFERABILITY; FEES AND PENALTIES.
Every license issued by the commissioner shall be for a period ending on the 31st day of
December next following, and shall not be transferable. The fee for each such initial license shall
be $50 and each renewal thereof shall be $25 and shall be paid to the commissioner before any
license or renewal thereof is issued. If a license renewal is not applied for on or before January 1
of each year, a penalty of $10 shall be imposed. A person who does not renew a license within
one year following its December 31 expiration date, except those persons who do not renew such
license while engaged in active military service, shall be required to prove competency and
qualification pursuant to section 32.073, before a license is issued. The commissioner may require
any other person who renews a license to prove competency and qualification in the same manner.
All license fees and penalties received by the commissioner shall be paid into the state treasury.
History: 1949 c 176 s 5; 1955 c 820 s 5; 1959 c 19 s 3; 1963 c 102 s 1; 1963 c 123 s 4; 1969
c 1148 s 9; 1975 c 412 s 20; 1981 c 356 s 267; 1983 c 293 s 55; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 358 s 86
32.076 OFFENSES.
The grading or testing of each lot of milk and cream by an unlicensed person shall constitute
a separate offense.
History: 1949 c 176 s 6
32.077 [Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
32.078 SUSPENSION OR CANCELLATION.
The commissioner is empowered to suspend or cancel any license issued pursuant to the
provisions of sections 32.071 to 32.076 after a hearing upon written notice containing the grounds
therefor, which notice shall be served personally upon the licensee or the licensee's agent at
least five days prior to such hearing.
History: 1949 c 176 s 8; 1986 c 444; 1997 c 7 art 1 s 13
32.08 [Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 4 s 2]

DAIRY PLANT LICENSING AND INSPECTION

32.09 [Repealed, 1971 c 339 s 27]
32.10 LICENSES; SUSPENSION, REVOCATION.
When any person licensed under sections 28A.04 and 32.10 shall have been convicted of a
violation of any provision of any law of this state relating to the manufacture or sale of butter
or cheese or other dairy products, or the operation of dairy plants, or other establishments in
which dairy products or goat milk, as defined in section 32.391, subdivision 1, are manufactured,
processed, or handled, or for transportation, or of any provision of any rule of the commissioner
made and promulgated under the provisions of law or there has been a continued course of
conduct by such licensee or any agent, representative or employee of such licensee which deceives
or defrauds producers or consumers, the license (1) may be suspended for the time stated in order
of suspension, (2) may be revoked or canceled by the commissioner, or (3) upon application for a
renewal license, the commissioner may refuse to issue the same, upon ten days' written notice
with opportunity to be heard. The commissioner shall promulgate procedural rules governing the
notice, hearing, evidence, findings, order, and record to be kept in such hearings, in the manner
provided by law. Upon conviction of a second or any subsequent offense, the commissioner may
revoke and cancel such license with or without notice of hearing, in the commissioner's discretion,
and in such case the commissioner shall not issue another license for the operation of such plant
or establishment for a term of one year from the date of such cancellation or revocation.
History: (3935-3) 1927 c 187 s 3; 1955 c 608 s 1; 1961 c 147 art 3 s 2; 1963 c 101 s 2;
1973 c 35 s 11; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444
32.101 [Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
32.102 PROSECUTIONS.
It shall be the duty of every prosecuting officer to whom the commissioner shall report any
violation of sections 28A.04 and 32.10 to cause appropriate proceedings to be instituted and to
be prosecuted in the proper courts, without delay, for the enforcement as in such cases therein
provided. All fines imposed and paid thereunder shall be paid into the state treasury.
History: (3935-5) 1927 c 187 s 5; 1973 c 35 s 13
32.103 INSPECTION OF DAIRIES.
(a) At times the commissioner determines proper, the commissioner shall cause to be
inspected all places where dairy products are made, stored, or served as food for pay, and all
places where cows are kept by persons engaged in the sale of milk, and shall require the correction
of all insanitary conditions and practices found. During routine inspections or as necessary,
the commissioner shall inspect for:
(1) evidence of use of rBGH in violation of section 32.75, by producers providing affidavits
of nontreatment under that section; and
(2) mercury manometers in violation of section 116.92.
(b) A refusal or physical threat that prevents the completion of an inspection or neglect to
obey a lawful direction of the commissioner or the commissioner's agent given while carrying out
this section may result in the suspension of the offender's permit or certification. The offender
is required to meet with a representative of the offender's plant or marketing organization and
a representative of the commissioner within 48 hours excluding holidays or weekends or the
suspension will take effect. A producer may request a hearing before the commissioner or the
commissioner's agent if a serious concern exists relative to the retention of the offender's permit
or certification to sell milk.
History: (3819) 1921 c 495 s 30; 1986 c 444; 1989 c 312 s 3; 1990 c 511 s 3; 1994 c 632
art 2 s 13; 1997 c 216 s 54
32.104 LOCAL INSPECTION.
Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, the governing authority of any municipal
corporation or other subdivision of state government may, by ordinance, provide for the inspection
of milk, cream, butter, or other dairy products sold within its limits, and of dairy plants, dairy
farms and dairy herds kept for the production of such milk, cream, butter, or other dairy products
and may prescribe the terms upon which such sales may be made and fix penalties for violation
thereof, but no such ordinance shall conflict with any law of this state, or with any rule of the
commissioner for the inspection of dairy herds or dairy plants or dairy farms or impose any
additional requirement for the sale of milk, cream, butter or other dairy products processed
outside the corporate limits of the municipality than is imposed by law or by the rules of the
commissioner, or require a duplication of inspection of dairy plants, dairy farms, or dairy herds
producing milk, cream, butter or other dairy products sold within its corporate limits, or otherwise
interfere with any power or duty of the commissioner or the commissioner's official subordinates.
When a dairy plant is licensed by the commissioner of agriculture, the plant, including all
distribution facilities and vehicles, is exempt from the licensing requirements of any subdivision
of state government except for licensing requirements which the city in which the plant is
located may impose.
History: (3820) 1921 c 495 s 31; 1957 c 885 s 1; 1965 c 118 s 1; 1967 c 313 s 1; 1973 c
123 art 5 s 7; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444
32.105 MILK PROCUREMENT FEE.
Each dairy plant operator within the state must pay to the commissioner on or before the
18th of each month a fee of .71 cents per hundredweight of milk purchased the previous month. If
a milk producer within the state ships milk out of the state for sale, the producer must pay the fee
to the commissioner unless the purchaser voluntarily pays the fee.
Producers who ship milk out of state or processors must submit monthly reports as to milk
purchases along with the appropriate procurement fee to the commissioner. The commissioner
may have access to all relevant purchase or sale records as necessary to verify compliance
with this section and may require the producer or purchaser to produce records as necessary
to determine compliance.
The fees collected under this section must be deposited in the dairy services account in
the agricultural fund. Money in the account, including interest earned, is appropriated to the
commissioner to administer this chapter.
History: 1Sp2001 c 2 s 56

DAIRY PRODUCT CONTAINERS;

CLEANING, RETURN

32.106 MULTIUSE DAIRY PRODUCT CONTAINERS.
    Subdivision 1. Cleaning. Before being reused, dairy product containers which may be used
more than once shall be cleaned in accordance with rules promulgated in the manner provided
by law by the commissioner, except, that in no instance shall such rules serve to eliminate any
producers product from the market, whose present method of production, bears no evidence of
endangering the health of the consumers. All rules heretofore adopted by the commissioner
relating to the cleaning of dairy product containers which are in effect at the time Laws 1961,
chapter 147, article 4, section 1 takes effect and which are not in conflict with this section, shall
remain in effect until amended, modified, or repealed by the commissioner.
    Subd. 2. Return. Every person, receiving any dairy product in containers which may be used
more than once and which are to be returned to the sender or seller shall cause such containers to
be promptly emptied, thoroughly cleansed as required by rules promulgated by the commissioner,
and immediately returned.
History: (3816) 1921 c 495 s 27; 1957 c 119 s 1; 1961 c 147 art 4 s 1; 1985 c 248 s 70
32.11 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.12 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.13 [Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3]
32.14 [Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3]
32.15 [Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3; art 4 s 2]
32.16 [Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3]
32.17 [Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3]
32.18 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.19 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.20 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.201 [Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
32.203 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.204 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.205 [Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
32.206 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.207 [Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
32.208 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]

MILK AND CREAM

32.21 ADULTERATED DAIRY PRODUCTS.
    Subdivision 1. Purchase and sale prohibition. A person may not sell or knowingly buy
adulterated dairy products.
    Subd. 2. Manufacture of food for human consumption from adulterated milk or cream
prohibited. An article of food for human consumption may not be manufactured from adulterated
milk or cream, except as provided in section 32.22 or the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,
United States Code, title 21, section 301 et seq., and related federal regulations.
Prior to processing milk, all bulk milk pickup tankers must be tested for the presence of beta
lactum drug residues and for other residues as determined necessary by the commissioner. Test
methods must be those approved by the Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) or under the
AOAC C2 program. Bulk milk tankers testing positive must be reported to the commissioner
or the commissioner's agent within 24 hours. This report must include how and where the milk
was disposed of, the volume, the responsible producer, and the possible cause of the violative
residue. All milk sample residue results must be recorded and retained for examination by the
commissioner or the commissioner's agent for six months by the receiving plant. Milk received
from a producer in other than a bulk milk pickup tanker is also subject to this section.
    Subd. 3. Adulterated milk. For purposes of this section and section 32.22, milk is
adulterated if it:
(1) is drawn in a filthy or unsanitary place;
(2) is drawn from unhealthy or diseased cows;
(3) is drawn from cows that are fed garbage or an unwholesome animal or vegetable
substance;
(4) is drawn from cows within 15 days before calving, or five days after calving;
(5) contains water in excess of that normally found in milk;
(6) contains a substance that is not a normal constituent of the milk except as allowed in
this chapter; or
(7) contains drug residues or other chemical or biological substances in amounts above the
tolerances or safe levels established by rule or under section 32.415.
    Subd. 4. Penalties. (a) A person, other than a milk producer, who violates this section is
guilty of a misdemeanor or subject to a civil penalty up to $1,000.
    (b) A milk producer may not change milk plants within 30 days, without permission of the
commissioner, after receiving notification from the commissioner under paragraph (c) or (d) that
the milk producer has violated this section.
    (c) A milk producer who violates subdivision 3, clause (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5), is subject to
clauses (1) to (3) of this paragraph.
    (1) Upon notification of the first violation in a 12-month period, the producer must meet with
the qualified dairy sanitarian to initiate corrective action within 30 days.
    (2) Upon the second violation within a 12-month period, the producer is subject to a civil
penalty of $300. The commissioner shall notify the producer by certified mail stating the penalty
is payable in 30 days, the consequences of failure to pay the penalty, and the consequences
of future violations.
    (3) Upon the third violation within a 12-month period, the producer is subject to an additional
civil penalty of $300 and possible revocation of the producer's permit or certification. The
commissioner shall notify the producer by certified mail that all civil penalties owed must be paid
within 30 days and that the commissioner is initiating administrative procedures to revoke the
producer's permit or certification to sell milk for at least 30 days.
    (d) The producer's shipment of milk must be immediately suspended if the producer is
identified as an individual source of milk containing residues causing a bulk load of milk to test
positive in violation of subdivision 3, clause (6) or (7). The Grade A or manufacturing grade
permit must be converted to temporary status for not more than 30 days and shipment may resume
only after subsequent milk has been sampled by the commissioner or the commissioner's agent
and found to contain no residues above established tolerances or safe levels.
    The Grade A or manufacturing grade permit may be restored if the producer completes the
"Milk and Dairy Beef Residue Prevention Protocol" with a licensed veterinarian, displays the
signed certificate in the milkhouse, and sends verification to the commissioner within the 30-day
temporary permit status period. If the producer does not comply within the temporary permit
status period, the Grade A or manufacturing grade permit must be suspended. A milk producer
whose milk supply is in violation of subdivision 3, clause (6) or (7), and has caused a bulk load to
test positive is subject to clauses (1) to (3) of this paragraph.
    (1) For the first violation in a 12-month period, the penalty is the value of all milk on the
contaminated load plus any costs associated with the disposition of the contaminated load. Future
pickups are prohibited until subsequent testing reveals the milk is free of drug residue. A farm
inspection must be completed by a qualified dairy sanitarian and the producer to determine the
cause of the residue and actions required to prevent future violations.
    (2) For the second violation in a 12-month period, the penalty is the value of all milk on
the contaminated load plus any costs associated with the disposition of the contaminated load.
Future pickups are prohibited until subsequent testing reveals the milk is free of drug residue.
A farm inspection must be completed by a qualified dairy sanitarian to determine the cause of
the residue and actions required to prevent future violations.
    (3) For the third or subsequent violation in a 12-month period, the penalty is the value of all
milk on the contaminated load plus any costs associated with the disposition of the contaminated
load. Future pickups are prohibited until subsequent testing reveals the milk is free of drug
residue. The commissioner or the commissioner's agent shall also notify the producer by certified
mail that the commissioner is initiating administrative procedures to revoke the producer's permit
or certification to sell milk for a minimum of 30 days.
    (4) If a bulk load of milk tests negative for residues and there is a positive producer
sample on the load, no civil penalties may be assessed to the producer. The plant must report
the positive result within 24 hours and reject further milk shipments from that producer until
the producer's milk tests negative. A farm inspection must be completed by a qualified dairy
sanitarian to determine the cause of the residue and actions required to prevent future violations.
The department shall suspend the producer's permit and count the violation on the producer's
record. The Grade A or manufacturing grade permit must be converted to temporary status for
not more than 30 days during which time the producer must review the "Milk and Dairy Beef
Residue Prevention Protocol" with a licensed veterinarian, display the signed certificate in the
milkhouse, and send verification to the commissioner. If these conditions are met, the Grade A
or manufacturing grade permit must be reinstated. If the producer does not comply within the
temporary permit status period, the Grade A or manufacturing grade permit must be suspended.
    (e) A milk producer that has been certified as completing the "Milk and Dairy Beef Residue
Prevention Protocol" within 12 months of the first violation of subdivision 3, clause (7), need
only review the cause of the violation with a field service representative within three days to
maintain Grade A or manufacturing grade permit and shipping status if all other requirements of
this section are met.
    (f) Civil penalties collected under this section must be deposited in the milk inspection
services account established in this chapter.
History: (3811) 1921 c 495 s 22; 1961 c 147 art 5 s 1; 1967 c 219 s 2; 1985 c 93 s 1; 1987 c
20 s 1; 1990 c 511 s 4; 1992 c 602 s 3; 1996 c 407 s 26; 1999 c 231 s 67; 2000 c 385 s 1; 1Sp2001
c 2 s 57; 2003 c 107 s 21; 2007 c 45 art 1 s 40
32.211 [Expired 60 days following cessation of hostilities, World War II. Proclamation No. 2714.]
32.212 MILK HOUSES FOR BULK TANKS.
    Any producer using a bulk tank for cooling and storage of milk to be used for manufacturing
purposes shall have an enclosed milk room which shall conform to the standards provided by
this section. The floor shall be constructed of concrete or other impervious material, maintained
in good repair, and graded to provide proper drainage. The walls and ceilings of the room shall
be sealed and constructed of smooth easily cleaned material. All windows shall be screened and
doors shall be self-closing. It shall be well ventilated and must meet the following requirements:
    (1) The bulk tank shall not be located over a drain or under a ventilator.
    (2) The hose port shall be located in an exterior wall and fitted with a tight self-closing door.
    (3) Each milk room shall have an adequate supply of water readily accessible with facilities
for heating the water, to insure the cleaning and sanitizing of the bulk tank, utensils and equipment
and the keeping of the milk room clean.
    (4) No lights shall be placed directly over the bulk tank.
    (5) The bulk tank shall be properly located in the milk room for easy access to all areas
for cleaning and servicing.
    (6) The milkhouse shall be used only for storage of milk, milk utensils, and supplies
incidental to the production of milk.
    (7) This section is effective for all bulk tanks for milk produced for manufacturing purposes.
    (8) No milk processor shall buy milk from any producer of milk using a bulk tank to be used
for manufacturing purposes unless such producer has complied with the provisions of this section.
    (9) After July 1, 1965, no person shall install a bulk tank except in a milk room or milkhouse
which complies with the provisions of this section.
    (10) The enforcement of this section shall be administered by the Minnesota Department
of Agriculture.
    (11) Any person violating any provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine of not
more than $50.
History: 1965 c 530 s 1; 1967 c 257 s 1; 1969 c 337 s 1; 1983 c 216 art 1 s 9; 2007 c 45
art 1 s 41
32.213 [Repealed, 2007 c 45 art 1 s 66]
32.22 SKIMMED MILK.
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 32.21, milk from which the cream has been
removed, if such milk is otherwise wholesome and unadulterated, may be sold as such to makers
of skimmed milk cheese, and by licensed dealers; but in the latter case only from vessels legibly
marked "skimmed milk" in plain, common black letters upon a light colored background, each
letter being at least one inch high and one-half inch wide, and these words being placed on the top
or side of such vessel. These requirements shall not apply to skimmed or separated milk delivered
to any patron of a creamery who furnishes milk thereto, but all skimmed milk from creameries
and all whey from cheese factories so delivered to patrons shall first be pasteurized at a minimum
temperature of 145 degrees Fahrenheit for not less than 30 minutes, or at a minimum temperature
of 180 degrees Fahrenheit for continuous flow pasteurization.
History: (3812) 1921 c 495 s 23
32.23 [Repealed, 1959 c 606 s 12]
32.24 [Repealed, 1959 c 606 s 12]
32.25 MILK, CREAM, SKIM MILK, AND BUTTERMILK BOUGHT BY WEIGHT;
TESTING METHODS.
    Subdivision 1. Milk fat, protein, and solids not fat bases of payment; tests. Milk must be
purchased from producers using a formula based on one or more of the following:
(1) payment of a standard rate with uniform differentials for milk testing above or below
3.5 percent milk fat;
(2) payment of a standard rate for the pounds of milk fat contained in the milk;
(3) payment of a standard rate for the pounds of protein contained in the milk;
(4) payment of a standard rate for the pounds of solids not fat contained in the milk; or
(5) payment of standard rates based on other attributes of value in the milk.
In addition, an adjustment may be made on the basis of milk quality and other premiums.
Testing procedures for determining the percentages of milk fat, protein, and solids not fat
must comply with the Association of Analytical Chemists approved methods or be as adopted by
rule.
    Subd. 2. Apparatus to conform to specifications. All glassware, test-bottles, pipettes, acid
measures, chemicals, scales, and other apparatus used in the operation of these tests shall conform
to the specifications set forth for the particular test method.
    Subd. 3. Penalties for violations. Any person
(1) who shall employ any test other than those tests authorized by rule promulgated by
the commissioner, or any methods other than the standard official methods for determining the
milk fat content of milk or cream, or
(2) who shall incorrectly sample milk or cream purchased or sold, or
(3) who shall incorrectly weigh milk or cream purchased or sold, or
(4) who shall incorrectly grade milk or cream purchased or sold, or
(5) who shall make a false entry of the weight, or test result, or grade of any milk or cream
purchased or sold, or
(6) who shall incorrectly sample, weigh, test, or record or report weights or tests of skim
milk or buttermilk purchased or sold, or
(7) who shall underread the tests, or
(8) who shall falsify the reading of the tests, or
(9) who shall manipulate the reading of the tests, or
(10) who shall falsely state, certify, or use in the purchase or sale of milk or cream a
misreading of such tests, whether the tests or actual reading shall have been made by such person
or by any other person, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: (3815) 1921 c 495 s 26; 1927 c 154 s 1; 1941 c 327 s 1; 1945 c 164 s 1; 1947 c 461
s 1; 1955 c 521 s 1; 1961 c 147 art 5 s 2; 1963 c 90 s 1; 1965 c 310 s 2,3; 1984 c 509 s 1; 1985
c 248 s 70; 1993 c 367 s 27; 1999 c 154 s 1
32.26 [Renumbered 32.106]
32.27 [Renumbered 32.208]
32.28 [Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1]
32.29 [Renumbered 32.103]
32.30 [Renumbered 32.104]
32.31 [Renumbered 32.471]
32.32 [Renumbered 32.203]
32.33 [Renumbered 32.204]
32.34 [Renumbered 32.206]
32.35 [Repealed, 1947 c 55 s 1]
32.36 [Renumbered 32.472]
32.37 [Renumbered 32.473]
32.38 [Repealed, 1955 c 833 s 1]
32.381 [Renumbered 32.481]
32.382 [Renumbered 32.482]
32.383 [Renumbered 32.483]
32.384 [Renumbered 32.484]
32.385 [Renumbered 32.485]
32.39 [Repealed, 1947 c 104 s 2]
32.391 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Application. The definitions in this section apply to this chapter.
    Subd. 1a.[Repealed, 2003 c 107 s 33]
    Subd. 1b.[Repealed, 2003 c 107 s 33]
    Subd. 1c.[Repealed, 2003 c 107 s 33]
    Subd. 1d. Milk solids-not-fat. "Milk solids-not-fat" is the portion of a milk product that
is not water and is not fat as determined by procedures outlined in Standard Methods For The
Examination Of Dairy Products (current edition).
    Subd. 1e. Fluid milk products. "Fluid milk products" means cream, sour cream, half and
half, reconstituted half and half, concentrated milk, concentrated milk products, skim milk,
nonfat milk, chocolate flavored milk, chocolate flavored drink, chocolate flavored reconstituted
milk, chocolate flavored reconstituted drink, buttermilk, cultured buttermilk, cultured milk,
vitamin D milk, reconstituted or recombined milk, reconstituted cream, reconstituted skim milk,
homogenized milk, and any other fluid milk product made by the addition of any substance to
milk or to any of the above enumerated fluid milk products, when the same is declared to be a
fluid milk product by rule promulgated by the commissioner.
    Subd. 1f. Goat milk. "Goat milk" is a whole, fresh, clean lacteal secretion free from
colostrum, obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy goats.
    Subd. 1g. Sheep milk. "Sheep milk" is a whole, fresh, clean lacteal secretion free from
colostrum, obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy sheep.
    Subd. 2. Pasteurization. (a) The terms "pasteurization," "pasteurized," and similar terms
mean:
(1) the process of heating every particle of milk, fluid milk products, goat milk, or sheep
milk, in properly operated equipment approved by the commissioner, to a temperature of at least
145 degrees Fahrenheit and holding the temperature for at least 30 minutes;
(2) the process of heating every particle of milk, fluid milk products, goat milk, or sheep
milk, in properly operated equipment approved by the commissioner, to a temperature of at least
161 degrees Fahrenheit and holding the temperature for at least 15 seconds; or
(3) the process of heating every particle of milk, fluid milk products, goat milk, or sheep
milk, in properly operated equipment approved by the commissioner, to the temperatures and
holding for the times as the commissioner may prescribe by rule adopted in accordance with law
containing standards more stringent than those imposed by this subdivision.
(b) Nothing contained in this definition shall be construed as excluding any other process
which has been demonstrated to be equally efficient and is approved by the commissioner.
    Subd. 3. Cooling after pasteurization. Immediately following pasteurization, all milk,
fluid milk products, goat milk, and sheep milk shall be cooled, in properly operated equipment
approved by the commissioner, to a temperature of 45 degrees Fahrenheit or lower, and
maintained at 45 degrees Fahrenheit or lower until delivered; provided, however, that if the milk,
fluid milk products, goat milk, or sheep milk is to be cultured immediately after pasteurization,
then such cooling may be delayed until after the culturing process is completed; provided further
that the commissioner may prescribe by rule adopted in accordance with law standards more
stringent than those imposed by this subdivision.
History: 1945 c 384 s 1,2; 1953 c 536 s 1; 1967 c 219 s 3-5; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 354
s 1; 1990 c 511 s 5
32.392 APPROVAL OF DAIRY PLANTS.
No person shall operate a dairy plant in this state unless the dairy plant, and the equipment,
water supply and plumbing system connected therewith shall have been first approved by the
commissioner and a permit issued to operate the same. At the time of filing the application for a
permit, the applicant shall submit to the commissioner duplicate floor plans of such plant which
shall show the placement of equipment, the source of water supply and method of distribution,
and the location of the plumbing system, including the disposal of wastes. All new construction or
alteration of any existing dairy plants shall be made only with the approval of the commissioner
and duplicate plans for such construction or alteration shall be submitted to the commissioner
for approval. Any permit may be revoked by the commissioner for due cause after the holder of
the permit has been given the opportunity for a hearing, in which case the holder of the permit
shall be notified in writing, at least seven days prior to the date of such hearing, of the time
and place of such hearing.
The fee for approval services is $45 per hour of department staff time spent in the approval
process. The fees must be deposited in the dairy services account in the agricultural fund. Money
in the account, including interest earned, is appropriated to the commissioner to administer this
chapter.
History: 1945 c 384 s 3; 1949 c 403 s 1; 1953 c 536 s 2; 1955 c 658 s 1; 1967 c 219 s 6;
1986 c 444; 1Sp2001 c 2 s 58
32.393 LIMITATION ON SALE.
    Subdivision 1. Pasteurization. No milk, fluid milk products, goat milk, or sheep milk shall
be sold, advertised, offered or exposed for sale or held in possession for sale for the purpose of
human consumption in fluid form in this state unless the same has been pasteurized and cooled, as
defined in section 32.391; provided, that this section shall not apply to milk, cream, skim milk,
goat milk, or sheep milk occasionally secured or purchased for personal use by any consumer at
the place or farm where the milk is produced.
    Subd. 2. Labels. All pasteurized milk, fluid milk products, goat milk, or sheep milk sold,
offered or exposed for sale or held in possession for sale shall be labeled or otherwise designated
as pasteurized milk, pasteurized fluid milk products, pasteurized goat milk, or pasteurized
sheep milk, and in case of pasteurized fluid milk products the label shall also state the name of
the specific product.
History: 1945 c 384 s 4; 1949 c 403 s 1; 1953 c 536 s 3; 1986 c 444; 1990 c 511 s 6
32.394 GRADE A PASTEURIZED MILK.
    Subdivision 1. Grade A pasteurized bacteria counts. Grade A pasteurized milk, fluid milk
products and goat milk are Grade A raw milk, fluid milk products and goat milk for pasteurization
which have been pasteurized, cooled and prepared for distribution in a dairy plant approved by
the commissioner, the bacterial count of which at no time after pasteurization and until delivery
exceeds 20,000 bacteria per milliliter. The coliform count must not exceed ten per milliliter except
that bulk tank transport shipments must not exceed 100 per milliliter. The standard plate count
standard shall be omitted in the case of sour cream, cultured buttermilk, other cultured fluid milk
products and cultured goat milk; provided further that the commissioner may prescribe standards
and rules adopted in accordance with law more stringent than those imposed by this subdivision.
    Subd. 2. Grade A raw bacteria counts. Grade A raw milk or goat milk for pasteurization
purposes is raw milk or goat milk which complies with all the requirements for its production, the
bacterial count of which does not exceed 100,000 bacteria per milliliter prior to commingling with
other producer milk at which time the bacteria count must not exceed 300,000 per milliliter prior
to pasteurization. The commissioner may prescribe standards and rules adopted in accordance
with law more stringent than those imposed by this subdivision.
    Subd. 3. Exemption. Nothing in this section shall be construed to mean compulsory
grading of pasteurized milk, pasteurized fluid milk products, pasteurized goat milk, raw milk for
pasteurization, or raw goat milk for pasteurization; such grade shall apply only to pasteurized
milk, pasteurized fluid milk products, pasteurized goat milk, raw milk for pasteurization, or raw
goat milk for pasteurization on which the grade is declared on the label.
    Subd. 4. Rules. The commissioner shall by rule adopt identity, production, and processing
standards for milk, milk products, and goat milk which are intended to bear the Grade A label.
    In the exercise of the authority to establish requirements for Grade A milk, milk products,
and goat milk, the commissioner adopts definitions, standards of identity, and requirements for
production and processing contained in the "Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance" of the United
States Department of Health and Human Services, in a manner provided for and not in conflict
with law.
    Subd. 5. Sales as Grade A milk. No person shall sell, offer or expose for sale, any milk,
milk products or goat milk labeled Grade A, unless the milk, milk products or goat milk have
been produced and processed in accordance with the requirements of Minnesota law and rule.
Any processor desiring to use the Grade A label on milk, milk products or goat milk shall
make application for a permit to the commissioner on a form prescribed and furnished by the
commissioner. The permit shall be issued by the commissioner when the commissioner has
determined that the applicant has complied with the requirements of Minnesota law and rule.
Permits shall not be transferable with respect to person or location. A permit may be suspended
by the commissioner upon failure by the holder of the permit to comply with any of the terms
of Minnesota law and rule or for interference with inspection, and may be revoked by the
commissioner for due cause after the holder of the permit has been given the opportunity for a
hearing, in which case the holder of the permit shall be given a notice in writing of the time and
place of such hearing at least seven days before the date of such hearing.
    Subd. 6. Inspection service. To assure compliance with the laws and rules governing the
production, handling, processing, and sale of Grade A milk, Grade A milk products and Grade A
goat milk, the commissioner is hereby authorized to provide a service to be performed by trained
and duly qualified milk sanitarians, for the inspection of such milk, milk products and goat milk,
and of the premises and plants where such milk, milk products and goat milk are produced,
handled and processed. Such service shall be for acquainting the processor and producers with the
requirements for a Grade A milk supply, for preliminary inspection to determine if a processor
has brought the processor's farms and plant to the state of compliance which will qualify the
processor's products for the Grade A label, and for continuous inspection to assure that any farms
and plants so accepted and all products therefrom so labeled shall remain in compliance. Said
Grade A processor shall provide a continuous field service to assist the producers, who sell their
milk to the processor's plant, to attain and to maintain compliance with Grade A requirements.
Any person who performs such field service for such Grade A processor first shall obtain a
permit therefor from the commissioner. Any person desiring to secure such permit shall make
application therefor on a form provided by the commissioner, and before a permit is issued the
commissioner shall determine that the applicant is competent and qualified to perform such
field service. Said permit shall not be transferable and may be revoked for due cause after the
holder of the permit has been given the opportunity for a hearing in which case the holder of the
permit shall be given a notice in writing of the time and place of such hearing at least seven
days before the date of such hearing.
    Subd. 7. Availability. The aforesaid state service shall be available to all processors who wish
to use the Grade A label on their milk, milk products and goat milk and who have not available to
them substantially equivalent service, imposed with equal effectiveness by a city within the state.
    Subd. 8. Grade A inspection fees. A processor or marketing organization of milk, milk
products, sheep milk, or goat milk who wishes to market Grade A milk or use the Grade A
label must apply for Grade A inspection service from the commissioner. A pasteurization plant
requesting Grade A inspection service must hold a Grade A permit and pay an annual inspection
fee of no more than $500. For Grade A farm inspection service, the fee must be no more than
$50 per farm, paid annually by the processor or by the marketing organization on behalf of its
patrons. For a farm requiring a reinspection in addition to the required biannual inspections,
an additional fee of $45 per reinspection must be paid by the processor or by the marketing
organization on behalf of its patrons.
    Subd. 8a. Laboratory certification. A laboratory, before conducting a test the results of
which are to be used in the enforcement of requirements for distribution of milk, milk products or
goat milk under the Grade A label, must be certified as meeting the requirements for laboratory
approval that are established by rule of the commissioner, and must receive a permit from the
commissioner. The permit shall remain valid without renewal unless suspended or revoked by the
commissioner for failure to comply with the requirements. Satisfactory analytical procedures and
results for split samples, the nature, number and frequency of which shall be in accordance with
rules established by the commissioner, shall be required of a certified laboratory for retention of
its certification and permit.
An application for initial certification or biennial recertification, or for recertification
following suspension or revocation of a permit shall be accompanied by an annual fee based on
the number of analysts approved and the number of specific tests for which they are approved.
The fee is not less than $150 or more than $200 for each analyst approved and not less than $35
or more than $50 for each test approved. The commissioner may annually adjust assessments
within the limits established by this subdivision to meet the cost recovery of the services required
by this subdivision.
    Subd. 8b. Manufacturing grade farm certification. A processor or marketing organization
of milk, milk products, sheep milk, or goat milk who wishes to market other than Grade A milk
must apply for a manufacturing grade farm certification inspection from the commissioner. A
manufacturing plant that pasteurizes milk or milk by-products must pay an annual fee based on
the number of pasteurization units. This fee must not exceed $140 per unit. The fee for farm
certification inspection must not be more than $25 per farm to be paid annually by the processor
or by the marketing organization on behalf of its patrons. For a farm requiring more than the one
inspection for certification, a reinspection fee of $45 must be paid by the processor or by the
marketing organization on behalf of its patrons.
    Subd. 8c. Grade A or manufacturing grade raw milk. Grade A or manufacturing grade
raw milk must not have been stored longer than 72 hours when it is picked up at the farm by the
receiving plant. The commissioner or an agent of the commissioner may waive the 72-hour
time limit in a case of hardship, emergency, or natural disaster. On farms permitted or certified
for bulk tank storage, the milk may only be picked up from approved bulk milk tanks in proper
working order.
    Subd. 8d. Processor assessment. (a) A manufacturer shall pay to the commissioner a fee for
fluid milk processed and milk used in the manufacture of fluid milk products sold for retail sale in
Minnesota in an amount not less than five cents and not more than nine cents per hundredweight
as set by the commissioner's order except that beginning July 1, 2003, the fee is set at seven cents
per hundredweight and thereafter no change within any 12-month period may be in excess of
one cent per hundredweight.
(b) Processors must report quantities of milk processed under paragraph (a) on forms
provided by the commissioner. Processor fees must be paid monthly. The commissioner may
require the production of records as necessary to determine compliance with this subdivision.
(c) The commissioner may create within the department a dairy consulting program to
provide assistance to dairy producers who are experiencing problems meeting the sanitation and
quality requirements of the dairy laws and rules.
The commissioner may use money appropriated from the dairy services account created in
subdivision 9 to pay for the program authorized in this paragraph.
    Subd. 8e. Farm bulk milk pick-up tankers. Farm bulk milk pick-up tankers, milk
transports, and tankers used to transport milk products must be inspected and obtain a permit
issued by the commissioner annually by July 1. The owner or operator must pay a $25 permit fee
per tanker to the commissioner. The commissioner may appoint such persons as the commissioner
deems qualified to make inspections.
    Subd. 9. Payments; refunds; disposition. Fees are payable by a processor or marketing
organization by July 1 of each year for Grade A, and by January 1 of each year for manufacturing
grade, and if not paid within 30 days of the due date, the service must be discontinued, and
permission to market manufacturing grade or Grade A milk or milk products or use the Grade A
label must be withdrawn. A processor may terminate payment and service without loss of the
Grade A label if written notice of that intention is given prior to the due date of the payment of
an assessment and if the continuous inspection of the plant is assumed by a city whose milk
control ordinance is substantially equivalent to Minnesota law and rule and is enforced with equal
effectiveness. If a farm discontinues the production of milk within six months of the billing date, a
request for a refund based on inspection services not received may be made by the processor or by
the marketing organization on behalf of its patrons. This request must be made in writing by July
1 for manufacturing grade, or by December 31 for Grade A, and on approval by the commissioner
refunds must be made to the processor or marketing organization.
The fees for services performed by the activities of this section must be deposited in the
agricultural fund and constitute a separate account to be known as the dairy services account,
which is hereby created. Money in the account, including interest earned, is appropriated to
the commissioner to administer this chapter.
    Subd. 10.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 5 s 7]
    Subd. 11. Waiver of rules; water well distance requirement. A dairy farmer who wishes to
be permitted to produce grade A milk may not be denied the grade A permit solely because of
provisions in rules adopted by the commissioner of health requiring a minimum distance between
a water well and a dairy barn. To be eligible for a grade A permit, the following conditions
must be met:
(1) the water well must have been in place prior to January 1, 1974;
(2) the water well must comply with all rules of the commissioner of health other than the
minimum distance requirement; and
(3) water from the well must be tested at least once every six months in compliance with
guidelines established by the commissioner of agriculture unless the water from the well meets
water quality requirements for three consecutive years, in which case the water must be tested
only once every 12 months until the water fails to meet water quality requirements during one
of the tests.
    Subd. 12. Water testing guidelines. The commissioner of agriculture, in consultation with
the commissioner of health, shall establish guidelines for the testing required under section
32.394, subdivision 11, clause (3).
History: 1945 c 384 s 5; 1949 c 403 s 1; 1953 c 536 s 4; 1953 c 752 s 1; 1955 c 379 s 1;
1959 c 400 s 1; 1961 c 113 s 1; 1967 c 219 s 7-11; 1971 c 703 s 1,2; 1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1975 c
412 s 21-23; 1977 c 120 s 1,2; 1983 c 300 s 20; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 384 art 3 s
1; 1987 c 396 art 11 s 11-13; 1990 c 511 s 7-10; 1991 c 254 art 3 s 18-20; 1992 c 544 s 2,3; 1993
c 65 s 4,5; 1993 c 172 s 29; 1997 c 187 art 1 s 1; 1997 c 216 s 55; 1999 c 231 s 68; 1Sp2001 c 2 s
59-61; 2003 c 107 s 22,23; 2003 c 128 art 3 s 31-33; 2007 c 45 art 1 s 42
32.395 MILK OTHER THAN GRADE A.
    Subdivision 1. Pasteurized milk, fluid milk products and goat milk, other than Grade A.
Pasteurized milk, fluid milk products and goat milk, other than Grade A, are raw milk, fluid milk
products and goat milk for pasteurization which have been pasteurized, cooled and prepared for
distribution in a plant approved by the commissioner, the bacterial count of which at no time after
pasteurization and until delivery, exceeds 50,000 bacteria per milliliter, standard plate count, as
determined by averaging the logarithms of the results of the last four consecutive tests of samples
taken on separate days, except that such average may be over 50,000 bacteria per milliliter if the
last individual result is 50,000 bacteria per milliliter or lower, and not more than one of the last
four coliform counts of which shall exceed ten per milliliter unless the last individual result is ten
per milliliter or lower; provided that the standard plate count standard shall be omitted in the case
of sour cream, cultured buttermilk, other cultured fluid milk products and cultured goat milk.
    Subd. 2. Raw milk or raw goat milk for pasteurization purposes, other than Grade A.
Raw milk or raw goat milk for pasteurization purposes, other than Grade A, is raw milk or raw
goat milk which complies with all the requirements for its production, the bacterial count of which
does not exceed 500,000 bacteria per milliliter, standard plate count or direct microscopic clump
count, as determined by averaging the logarithms of the results of the last four consecutive tests
of samples taken on separate days, except that such average may be over 500,000 bacteria per
milliliter if the last individual result is 500,000 bacteria per milliliter or lower.
    Subd. 3. Rules. The commissioner is authorized to promulgate by rule production and
processing standards for pasteurized milk, pasteurized fluid milk products, pasteurized goat milk,
raw milk for pasteurization and raw goat milk for pasteurization.
    Subd. 4. Other methods. The commissioner may authorize, in respect to raw milk or raw
goat milk for pasteurization purposes, any other method or methods of determining bacterial count.
History: 1945 c 384 s 6; 1953 c 536 s 5; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444
32.396 [Repealed, 1953 c 536 s 6]
32.397 ENFORCEMENT STANDARDS.
The standards set forth in sections 32.391 to 32.398 and rules adopted thereunder by
the commissioner shall be the only such standards for use in the state of Minnesota. No
municipality or other subdivision of state government shall provide, by ordinance more stringent
or comprehensive standards than are contained in sections 32.391 to 32.398 and rules adopted
thereunder by the commissioner.
History: 1945 c 384 s 9; 1961 c 147 art 5 s 5; 1967 c 219 s 12; 1985 c 248 s 70
32.398 ENFORCEMENT AND VIOLATIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Enforcement. The commissioner shall enforce the provisions of sections
32.391 to 32.398.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
History: 1945 c 384 s 8,10; 1961 c 144 art 2 s 20
32.40 [Repealed, 1949 c 176 s 10]
32.401 MILK AND CREAM FOR MANUFACTURING.
    Subdivision 1. Standards, grades, and price differentials. In order to protect the public
health and welfare, to promote the interests of the dairy industry in Minnesota, and to secure
uniformity, the commissioner of agriculture may adopt standards, grades and price differentials
between various grades of milk and cream for milk and cream purchased for manufacturing
purposes. Before adopting any standards, grades, or price differentials for milk and cream, the
commissioner shall hold a public hearing thereon, as provided by law. Until such standards,
grades and price differentials are made and filed, the standards, grades, and price differential
heretofore made by the commissioner remain in effect except as otherwise prescribed by law.
    Subd. 2. Statement of purchases furnished to seller. All milk or cream purchased for
manufacturing purposes shall be purchased on the basis of the standards, grades, and price
differentials between grades so adopted. Every purchaser of milk or cream for manufacturing
purposes shall, at time of payment therefor, furnish the person from whom purchased a statement
showing the date of grading, the grade, and the price paid therefor. The statement may be included
on the check delivered by the purchaser to the seller in payment of the milk or cream.
    Subd. 3. Enforcement. The commissioner of agriculture shall enforce the provisions
of this section.
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
    Subd. 5. Application. This section shall not apply to any action now pending in any of
the courts of this state, or to any cause of action arising, or violation which occurred, prior to
April 18, 1955.
History: 1947 c 396 s 1-4; 1949 c 196 s 2; 1953 c 197 s 1; 1955 c 481 s 1; 1961 c 113 s 1;
1961 c 144 art 2 s 21; 1961 c 147 art 5 s 6; 1976 c 61 s 1; 1985 c 248 s 70
32.41 [Repealed, 1949 c 176 s 10]
32.411 UNIFORM QUALITY STANDARDS FOR MILK, CREAM, FLUID MILK
PRODUCTS.
    Subdivision 1. Requirements. For the purpose of maintaining uniform quality standards in
the purchase of milk, cream, and fluid milk products for manufacturing purposes or for resale to
another for manufacturing purposes, the requirements set forth in subdivisions 2 to 4 shall be
complied with.
    Subd. 2. Record of quality tests. Every licensed purchaser of milk, cream and fluid milk
products for manufacturing purposes or for resale to another for manufacturing purposes, herein
called licensed purchaser, shall demand and receive with the first milk or cream delivery received
from a producer a copy of the record of quality tests of the producer's milk or cream made by a
former licensed purchaser during the three months immediately preceding such delivery, unless
the producer has not delivered such products to any other purchaser during that period. If the
previous purchaser, after receiving a written request for such record from the producer or from
the new purchaser, refuses or is unable to comply with such request, the new purchaser shall
immediately report such failure or refusal to the commissioner.
    Subd. 3. Establishment of new quality records. If a milk or cream producer fails to deliver
the quality records or quality tests, the licensed purchaser shall establish a new producer's
quality record in lieu thereof, by taking the first four consecutive deliveries from such producer
and making on such products all tests required by law and by rules thereunder relating to milk,
cream, and fluid milk products for manufacturing purposes administered by the commissioner of
agriculture. The establishment of such records shall be immediately reported to the commissioner
by the new purchaser.
    Subd. 4. Change of purchasing plants. The changing of purchasing plants for manufacturing
purposes to which a producer of milk, cream, and fluid milk products makes delivery, shall not
alter the status of such producer's previous quality record for purposes of section 32.401, and
rules thereunder administered by the commissioner.
    Subd. 5. Penalty. Any licensed purchaser of milk, cream, or fluid milk products who neglects
to furnish to any milk or cream producer upon written request a copy of a record of quality
tests and farm inspections, or any licensed purchaser or producer who fails to comply with this
section, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
History: 1955 c 208 s 1,2; 1959 c 97 s 1,2; 1961 c 113 s 1; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444
32.415 MILK FOR MANUFACTURING; QUALITY STANDARDS.
    (a) The commissioner may adopt rules to provide uniform quality standards, and producers
of milk used for manufacturing purposes shall conform to the standards contained in Subparts
B, C, D, E, and F of the United States Department of Agriculture Consumer and Marketing
Service Recommended Requirements for Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and its Production
and Processing, except that the commissioner shall develop methods by which producers can
comply with the standards without violation of religious beliefs.
    (b) The commissioner shall perform or contract for the performance of the inspections
necessary to implement this section or shall certify dairy industry personnel to perform the
inspections.
    (c) The commissioner and other employees of the department shall make every reasonable
effort to assist producers in achieving the milk quality standards at minimum cost and to use the
experience and expertise of the University of Minnesota and the Agricultural Extension Service to
assist producers in achieving the milk quality standards in the most cost-effective manner.
    (d) The commissioner shall consult with producers, processors, and others involved in the
dairy industry in order to prepare for the implementation of this section including development of
informational and educational materials, meetings, and other methods of informing producers
about the implementation of standards under this section.
History: 1983 c 232 s 1; 1984 c 640 s 32; 1990 c 511 s 11; 1996 c 407 s 29; 1997 c 216 s
56; 1Sp2001 c 2 s 62; 2003 c 107 s 24; 2007 c 45 art 1 s 43
32.417 INVESTMENT REIMBURSEMENTS TO MANUFACTURED MILK
PRODUCERS.
An operator of a dairy farm that produces milk for sale in cans may apply for a
reimbursement in the amount of $100 for the first $500 or fraction thereof, and ten percent of the
next $2,000, of the net expenditures by the operator for any capital improvements or equipment
installed primarily for the purpose of conforming to the standards adopted in section 32.415. No
reimbursement may be made to an applicant unless:
(a) the applicant provides receipts for the expenditures;
(b) a dairy inspector authorized by the commissioner certifies that the applicant's dairy
operation complies with the standards adopted in section 32.415 as a result of the installation of
the improvements or equipment; and
(c) the expenditures for the improvements and equipment were made on or after June 2,
1983, but before July 1, 1985.
The commissioner shall provide an application form for the reimbursement program. No
reimbursement application may be approved after June 30, 1985.
History: 1983 c 232 s 2; 1984 c 640 s 32; 1996 c 305 art 2 s 4
32.42 [Repealed, 1949 c 176 s 10]
32.43 [Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1]
32.44 [Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1]
32.45 [Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1]
32.46 [Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1]
32.47 [Repealed, 1957 c 91 s 1]

BUTTER

32.471    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
32.472 [Repealed, 1983 c 300 s 28]
32.473 [Repealed, 1983 c 300 s 28]
32.474 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.475 BUTTER, GRADING AND LABELING.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. As used in this section, score or grade means the grading of
butter by its examination for flavor and aroma, body and texture, color, and salt, and by the use
of other tests or procedures approved by the commissioner of agriculture, for ascertaining the
quality of butter in whole or in part.
    Subd. 2. Minnesota grades. It is unlawful to sell, offer or expose for sale, or have in
possession with intent to sell any butter at retail unless it has been graded and labeled with such
grades as follows:
(a) Grade, Minnesota, AA -- U.S. Grade AA
(b) Grade, Minnesota, A -- U.S. Grade A
(c) Grade, Minnesota, B -- U.S. Grade B
(d) Grade, Minnesota, undergrade -- all butter below Minnesota B.
For the purposes of this section "sale at retail" shall include all sales to a restaurant or eating
establishment that serves butter to its patrons or that uses butter in the preparation of any food
which is served to its patrons.
    Subd. 3. United States grades. United States AA, A and B grades, or as such grades may be
amended or as they may be administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, shall be
accepted in lieu of the corresponding Minnesota AA, A and B grades, but all United States grades
below B shall, for the purpose of this section, correspond to Minnesota undergrade.
    Subd. 4. Methods and procedures, promulgation by commissioner of agriculture.
Methods and procedures to be used for ascertaining quality, grades, grading, labeling, and for
arbitrating disputes with respect to grades may be promulgated by the commissioner of agriculture.
    Subd. 5. Foreign butter. Butter from outside of the state of Minnesota sold within this state
shall comply with the state grade and labeling standards provided in this section; and, unless
marked with United States AA, A, and B grades, shall indicate the grade in a manner equivalent
to the requirements for butter manufactured and sold within this state.
    Subd. 6. Advertisement for retail sale, indication of grade. Any advertisement of butter
offered for sale at retail to the public at a given price shall plainly and conspicuously indicate the
grade of such butter.
    Subd. 7. Penalty. Any person violating any provision of this section shall be guilty of
a misdemeanor.
History: 1955 c 219 s 1; 1957 c 145 s 1; 1971 c 23 s 5; 1Sp2001 c 2 s 63
32.48 [Repealed, 1947 c 275 s 1]

CHEESE

32.481 CHEESE.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. "Cheese" as used in sections 32.481 to 32.484 includes all
varieties of cheese, cheese spreads, cheese foods, cheese compounds, or processed cheese, made
or manufactured in whole or in part from cow's, goat's, or sheep's milk.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
History: 1947 c 184 s 1; 1990 c 407 s 3; 1997 c 7 art 1 s 14
32.482 MANUFACTURE OF CHEESE, REQUIREMENTS IN PROCESS.
No person, firm, or corporation shall manufacture, transport, sell, offer, or expose for sale
or have in possession with intent to sell, at retail to a consumer any cheese which has not been
(a) manufactured from milk or milk products which have been pasteurized in accordance with
sections 32.391 and 32.392 or (b) subjected to a heat treatment equivalent to pasteurization during
the process of manufacture or processing, or (c) subjected to an aging process whereby it has been
kept for at least 60 days after manufacture at a temperature not lower than 35 degrees Fahrenheit.
Any cheese which has been made from unpasteurized milk and which has been repackaged,
handled or processed in any manner so as to obliterate or destroy its date of manufacture shall
be labeled to show the true date of manufacture or in lieu thereof bear a statement that such
cheese is more than 60 days of age.
History: 1947 c 184 s 2; 1955 c 484 s 1; 1959 c 29 s 1
32.483 STATEMENT BY MANUFACTURER.
Each cheese or packaged cheese sold, offered, or exposed for sale or held in possession
with intent to sell at either retail or wholesale, within this state, shall have affixed thereto by the
manufacturer a statement clearly setting forth:
(a) The factory number where manufactured, or in states where official factory numbers
are not assigned, the name of the manufacturer and address of the plant where manufactured;
provided, however, that in case of process cheese, cheese spreads, cheese foods and cheese
compounds, the name and address of the jobber or distributor may be substituted for the name of
the manufacturer and address of the plant where manufactured;
(b) The name of the variety or the distinctive name of the product and the word "Pasteurized"
if made from pasteurized milk;
(c) The name of the variety or the distinctive name of the product and the date of manufacture
if made from unpasteurized milk;
(d) The name of the variety or the distinctive name of the product and the word "Pasteurized"
if made from milk which is pasteurized in the curd form during the making process.
When a cheese is repackaged or divided into wholesale cuts, the distributor shall affix to
each package or cut a label containing the information required in clause (b) or (c), which appears
on the original cheese, together with the name and address of the distributor. When selling cheese
to the consumer, that portion to which the label is affixed shall be sold last.
History: 1947 c 184 s 3
32.484 ENFORCEMENT.
The commissioner of agriculture shall be charged with the enforcement of sections 32.481
to 32.483 and shall have authority to promulgate in the manner provided by law all such rules
as are necessary to the enforcement thereof.
History: 1947 c 184 s 4; 1961 c 113 s 1; 1961 c 144 art 2 s 19; 1985 c 248 s 70
32.485 [Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
32.486 CULTURED DAIRY FOOD; FARMSTEAD CHEESE.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) The definitions in this subdivision apply to this section.
(b) "Cultured dairy food" means a dairy product other than a grade A cultured dairy product.
(c) "Minnesota farmstead cheese" means cheese manufactured within the state of Minnesota
on the same farm on which the milk is produced that is used in the manufacture.
    Subd. 1a. Processing requirements. (a) Milk used to manufacture Minnesota farmstead
cheese may not be more than 48 hours old when used.
(b) Before requiring pasteurization, the commissioner shall provide a plan at least 60
days before the next inspection to the manufacturer to assist the manufacturer in meeting the
processing and facility requirements. The commissioner may require pasteurization if test samples
demonstrate cheese and cultured dairy foods are not free of pathogens. The commissioner must
inspect facilities at least four times each year.
    Subd. 2. Use of name restricted. No cheese or packaged cheese that is sold, offered, or
exposed for sale or held in possession with intent to sell at either retail or wholesale within this
state may be labeled or described as "Minnesota farmstead cheese" unless it meets the criteria set
forth in subdivision 1, and the manufacturer has obtained a written permit to use the name from
the commissioner of agriculture, or the commissioner's designate.
    Subd. 3. Permit. The commissioner or the commissioner's designate shall issue a permit
authorizing the use of the name "Minnesota farmstead cheese" upon application made therefor
on forms furnished by the commissioner, if the commissioner or the commissioner's designate
is satisfied that the cheese manufactured by the applicant meets the requirements prescribed by
subdivision 1. The commissioner or the commissioner's designated agents shall inspect the farm
at reasonable times to insure compliance with subdivision 1. The permit may be suspended or
revoked by the commissioner if the commissioner finds that the permittee is not in compliance
with subdivision 1.
History: 1977 c 114 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1989 c 123 s 1,2; 1991 c 327 s 1
32.49 [Renumbered 32.5311]
32.491 [Renumbered 32.401]
32.492 [Renumbered 32.411]
32.494 [Renumbered 32.207]
32.50    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 4 s 2]
    Subd. 2.[Renumbered 32.201]
    Subd. 3.[Omitted 32.48 Repealed, 1947 c 275 s 1]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3]
    Subd. 5.[Renumbered 32.205]
    Subd. 6.[Renumbered 32.101]
    Subd. 7.[Renumbered 32.534]
    Subd. 8.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3]
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 3 s 3]
    Subd. 10.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 2 s 2]
    Subd. 11.[Renumbered 32.90]
32.51    Subdivision 1.[Renumbered 32.021, subdivision 1]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 2 s 2]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1949 c 196 s 3]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 2 s 2]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 2 s 2]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 2 s 2]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 2 s 2]
32.511    Subdivision 1.[Renumbered 32.021, subd 2]
    Subd. 2.[Renumbered 32.01, subd 12]
32.52    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1961 c 147 art 4 s 2]
    Subd. 2.[Omitted 32.48 Repealed, 1947 c 275 s 1]
    Subd. 3.[Renumbered 32.102]
32.529 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.53 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.531    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.5311 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.5312 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.532 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.533 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
32.534 [Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]

FROZEN DAIRY FOODS

32.55 DEFINITIONS; FROZEN DAIRY FOODS.
    Subdivision 1. Terms. For the purposes of subdivisions 2 to 13 and sections 32.56 to 32.645,
and acts amendatory thereof, the terms defined in subdivisions 2 to 13, and acts amendatory
thereof, have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2. Frozen food. "Frozen foods" means ice cream, frozen custard, French ice cream,
French custard ice cream, ice milk, fruit sherbets, water ices, frozen malted milk, frozen milk
shakes, frozen malts, frozen yogurt, frozen low-fat yogurt, frozen nonfat yogurt, reduced-fat ice
cream, low-fat ice cream, nonfat ice cream, or any frozen food for which the commissioner has
established a standard of identity, but shall not include frozen vegetables, fruits, meats, poultry,
or bakery products.
    Subd. 3. Milk products. "Milk products" means pure, clean, and wholesome cream, dried
cream, plastic cream -- sometimes known as concentrated milk fat, butter, butter oil, milk,
concentrated milk, evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk, superheated condensed milk,
dried milk, skim milk, concentrated skim milk, evaporated skim milk, condensed skim milk,
superheated condensed skim milk, sweetened condensed skim milk, sweetened condensed
part-skim milk, nonfat dry milk, sweet cream buttermilk, condensed sweet cream buttermilk,
dried sweet cream buttermilk, whey, concentrated whey, and dry whey, and shall include any of
the foregoing products from which lactose has been wholly or partially removed.
    Subd. 4. Mix, ice cream mix. "Mix" means the unfrozen combination of all ingredients of a
frozen food with or without fruit, fruit juices, candy, nut meats, flavoring, or coloring. "Ice cream
mix" means the mix from which ice cream is frozen, made from a combination of milk products
and such other ingredients in such quantities as are consistent with such ingredients and quantities
in definitions and standards established by the commissioner. Ice cream mix in concentrated or
condensed form shall contain such relative amounts of ingredients that, when diluted according to
directions, it shall comply with the definition of ice cream mix.
    Subd. 5. Mix base; ice cream mix base. "Mix base" means mix powder or dry base and
is the product resulting from the removal of water from mix and contains not more than five
percent of moisture.
"Ice cream mix base" means ice cream powder or dry ice cream mix and is the product
resulting from the removal of water from ice cream mix and contains not more than five percent
of moisture.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1965 c 119 s 7]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 1965 c 119 s 7]
    Subd. 8.[Repealed, 1965 c 119 s 7]
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 1965 c 119 s 7]
    Subd. 10.[Repealed, 1965 c 119 s 7]
    Subd. 11.[Repealed, 1965 c 119 s 7]
    Subd. 12. Imitation ice cream. "Imitation ice cream" means any frozen substance, mixture
or compound regardless of the name under which it is represented, which is made in imitation or
semblance of ice cream, or is prepared or frozen as ice cream is customarily prepared or frozen
and which is not a frozen food as provided for in this section.
    Subd. 13. Manufacture. "Manufacture" means processing or freezing, or both.
    Subd. 14. Frozen yogurt; frozen low-fat yogurt; frozen nonfat yogurt. "Frozen yogurt,"
"frozen low-fat yogurt," or "frozen nonfat yogurt" means a frozen dairy food made from a mix
containing safe and suitable ingredients including, but not limited to, milk products. All or a part
of the milk products must be cultured with a characterizing live bacterial culture that contains the
lactic acid producing bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococus thermopilus and may
contain other lactic acid producing bacteria.
    Subd. 15.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
    Subd. 16.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
    Subd. 17.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 2 s 162]
History: (3827-6) 1937 c 101 s 1; 1941 c 62 s 1; 1949 c 658 s 1; 1955 c 538 s 1-3; 1957 c 263
s 1; 1961 c 144 art 1 s 4; 1961 c 533 s 1-9; 1965 c 119 s 1-3,6; 1967 c 434 s 1,2; 1990 c 407 s 4-8
32.555 COMPLIANCE WITH FEDERAL REGULATIONS.
(a) Frozen yogurt, frozen low-fat yogurt, and frozen nonfat yogurt must comply with Code
of Federal Regulations, title 21, and sections 32.55 to 32.90.
(b) Reduced-fat ice cream, low-fat ice cream, and nonfat ice cream must comply with the
frozen dessert provisions in Code of Federal Regulations, title 21, part 135.
History: 1990 c 407 s 9
32.56 MANUFACTURERS OF FROZEN FOODS TO OBTAIN LICENSE.
No person shall manufacture frozen foods, mix, ice cream mix, mix base, or ice cream
mix base for resale, without first having obtained a license therefor from the Department of
Agriculture, which is charged with the duty and power of administering and enforcing the
provisions of sections 32.56 to 32.64. The commissioner shall establish standards in the manner
provided in section 31.10, and acts amendatory thereof, for frozen foods for which no Minnesota
standards exist. In the exercise of the authority to establish standards for frozen foods, the
commissioner shall adopt definitions and standards of identity established pursuant to the federal
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act insofar as said definitions and standards do not conflict with law.
Nothing in sections 32.56 to 32.64 shall apply to educational institutions or to charitable, fraternal
or religious organizations not regularly engaged in the manufacture of frozen foods, mix, ice
cream mix, mix base, or ice cream mix base or to private homes manufacturing for their own use.
History: (3827-7) 1937 c 101 s 2; 1961 c 113 s 1; 1961 c 147 art 7 s 1; 1965 c 119 s 4
32.57 INSPECTION OF FROZEN FOODS.
No frozen foods not manufactured in this state shall be sold, offered, exposed, exchanged,
or held in possession with intent to sell within this state, unless the same are first inspected and
registered with the Department of Agriculture, as provided in section 32.59.
History: (3827-8) 1937 c 101 s 3; 1961 c 113 s 1
32.58 [Repealed, 1971 c 339 s 27]
32.59 NONRESIDENT MANUFACTURER LICENSE.
Any person who manufactures frozen foods, mix, ice cream mix, mix base, or ice cream mix
base outside of the state, for sale within the state, shall apply for registration with the Department
of Agriculture in the form and with the information the commissioner requires. Samples of all
frozen foods, mix, ice cream mix, mix base, or ice cream mix base, so manufactured for sale and
sold within this state, must be submitted to the department. Each application for registration must
be accompanied by a fee of $200, which is the registration fee if a certificate of registration is
granted. If the Department of Agriculture finds that the samples submitted are up to the accepted
standards and otherwise comply with the laws of this state, it shall issue to the applicant a
certificate of registration. The penalty for a late registration application is $50 if the registration is
not renewed by January 1 of any year.
History: (3827-10) 1937 c 101 s 5; 1955 c 538 s 6; 1955 c 820 s 4; 1961 c 113 s 1; 1969 c
1148 s 12; 1974 c 2 s 6; 1975 c 412 s 24; 1981 c 356 s 268; 1983 c 293 s 56; 1987 c 358 s 87
32.60 [Repealed, 1971 c 339 s 27]
32.61 LICENSES; REVOCATION, SUSPENSION.
The Department of Agriculture shall have the power to suspend or revoke any license or
certificate of registration thus granted, for failure to comply with the provisions of sections 32.56
to 32.64, or rules made thereunder.
History: (3827-12) 1937 c 101 s 7; 1955 c 538 s 7; 1961 c 113 s 1; 1961 c 147 art 7 s 2;
1985 c 248 s 70
32.62 CONTAINERS, LABELS.
    Subdivision 1. Contents of labels. All cans or containers used in the sale or distribution
of mix, ice cream mix, mix base, or ice cream mix base shall bear a label attached to the same
giving the following information:
(1) Name of product;
(2) Percentage of milk fat contained in product;
(3) Percentage of total solids in products;
(4) Statement of net contents; and
(5) Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.
Every package of frozen foods packed by the manufacturer shall bear a label. The label shall
give the name of the product, the name and address of the manufacturer or distributor, a statement
of the net contents, and such other information as the commissioner may require pursuant to
section 31.12, and acts amendatory thereof. When the name and address of the distributor is
given on the label of mix, ice cream mix, mix base, ice cream mix base or frozen foods, the
name and address of the manufacturer also shall be given or in lieu of the name and address of
the manufacturer an identification number or code assigned by the commissioner of agriculture
may be used to represent such manufacturer.
    Subd. 2. Frozen foods, restrictions. (1) No person shall sell, advertise or expose for sale,
or offer for sale a frozen food, or mix, or mix base therefor, unless it conforms to a standard of
identity prescribed by the commissioner in accordance with law.
(2) When ice milk is sold, offered or exposed for sale in a package form, there shall be
conspicuously printed thereon in ink upon a contrasting background, in type not less than 24-point
Gothic capitals, the words "ice milk." When ice milk is served to a consumer, the owner, operator
or manager of such retail establishment shall have signs conspicuously posted on the inside of
such retail establishment with lettering large enough to be distinctly seen and read containing
the words "ice milk sold here." Such signs shall remain posted so long as ice milk is sold or
offered for sale to consumers.
(3) No person shall sell, advertise or offer or expose for sale any imitation ice cream.
(4) No person shall sell, offer for sale or advertise for sale any frozen food or mix, or mix
base therefor, if the brand name of the frozen food, or mix, or mix base or label upon it, or the
advertising accompanying it, shall give a false indication of origin, character, composition, name
of manufacturer, or is otherwise false or misleading in any particular.
History: (3827-13) 1937 c 101 s 8; 1949 c 229 s 2; 1953 c 518 s 3; 1955 c 538 s 8,9; 1961 c
533 s 10; 1965 c 119 s 5; 1967 c 434 s 3; 1974 c 170 s 1
32.63 PLANTS KEPT SANITARY.
Any plant or establishment for the manufacture of frozen foods, mix, ice cream mix, mix
base, or ice cream mix base operated under the provisions of sections 32.56 to 32.64 shall be
so located, constructed, and equipped that it may be kept in a clean and sanitary condition, in
accordance with the rules promulgated by the commissioner in the manner provided by law.
History: (3827-14) 1937 c 101 s 9; 1955 c 538 s 10; 1961 c 147 art 7 s 3; 1985 c 248 s 70
32.64 PASTEURIZATION.
    Subdivision 1. Requirement; definition. All mix or ice cream mix shall be pasteurized.
Pasteurization is hereby defined as the process of heating every particle of mix or ice cream mix in
properly operated equipment approved by the commissioner to such temperatures and holding for
such times as have been recognized by the United States Public Health Service and which have
been adopted by the commissioner in accordance with law. Nothing contained in this definition
shall be construed as excluding any other process which has been demonstrated to be equally
efficient and is approved by the commissioner.
    Subd. 2. Cooling. Immediately after pasteurization such mix or ice cream mix shall be
cooled in properly operated equipment approved by the commissioner to such temperature as the
commissioner shall prescribe by rule and held at or below that temperature until frozen.
    Subd. 3. Record chart. A recording thermometer record chart, properly dated, of each batch
of mix or ice cream mix pasteurized for use in the manufacture of frozen foods, mix base, or
ice cream mix base, shall be available at the plant of pasteurization at all reasonable times, for
inspection by the Department of Agriculture.
    Subd. 4. Bacterial count tests. At no time after pasteurization shall frozen foods, mix, ice
cream mix, reconstituted mix base, or reconstituted ice cream mix base have a bacterial count or a
coliform count exceeding standards set forth in rules adopted by the commissioner in accordance
with law. Such tests shall be made of a representative sample of frozen foods, mix, ice cream
mix, mix base, reconstituted mix base, ice cream mix base, or reconstituted ice cream mix base
taken from an unbroken package in the possession of the manufacturer, but in the event that no
unbroken package is available when sample is requested, then it shall be taken from a broken
package in the possession of the manufacturer.
History: (3827-15) 1937 c 101 s 10; 1955 c 538 s 11; 1961 c 113 s 1; 1963 c 34 s 1; 1967 c
434 s 4-6; 1985 c 248 s 70
32.645 PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Gross misdemeanor; license revocation. Any person licensed under the
provisions of sections 28A.04, 28A.14, 32.56, and 32.59, who knowingly violates, or who directs
or knowingly permits any officer, agent, or employee to violate section 32.62, subdivision 2,
clause (1) or (3), is guilty of a gross misdemeanor. For each subsequent offense, in addition to any
fine or imprisonment imposed under this subdivision, upon conviction thereof, the commissioner
of agriculture shall revoke or withhold issuing to such offender any license required under the
provisions of sections 28A.04, 28A.14, 32.56, and 32.59, and in such case of revocation of license
the commissioner shall not issue any license for the operation of such frozen food manufacturing
plant for a period of one year from the date of such revocation.
    Subd. 2. Lesser penalties. Any person violating section 32.62, subdivision 2, clause (2) or
(4), for each first offense is guilty of a petty misdemeanor and for each subsequent offense,
is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: (3827-16) 1937 c 101 s 11; 1953 c 518 s 4; 1973 c 35 s 14; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11;
1987 c 329 s 21; 2005 c 10 art 3 s 3

DAIRY TRADE PRACTICES

32.70 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Application. The definitions in this section apply to sections 32.70 to 32.74.
    Subd. 2. Basic cost. (a) "Basic cost" for a processor means the actual cost of the raw milk
plus 75 percent of the actual processing and handling costs for a selected class I or class II
dairy product.
(b) "Basic cost" for a wholesaler means the actual cost of the selected class I or class II dairy
product purchased from the processor or another wholesaler.
(c) "Basic cost" for a retailer means the actual cost of the selected class I or class II dairy
product purchased from a processor or wholesaler.
    Subd. 3. Bona fide charity. "Bona fide charity" means a corporation, trust, fund, or
foundation organized and operated exclusively for religious, charitable, scientific, literary, or
educational purposes.
    Subd. 4. Processor. "Processor" means a person engaged in manufacturing or processing
selected class I or class II dairy products in the person's own plant for sale in Minnesota.
    Subd. 5. Producer. "Producer" means a person who operates a dairy herd or herds in
Minnesota producing milk or cream commercially and whose milk or cream is sold to, or
received or handled by, a distributor or processor. "Producer" does not include an incorporated
or unincorporated association of producers.
    Subd. 6. Responsible person. "Responsible person" means the business entity that makes
payment to an individual Grade A or Grade B milk producer.
    Subd. 7. Selected class I dairy products. "Selected class I dairy products" means milk for
human consumption in fluid form and all other class I dairy products as defined by the Upper
Midwest Milk Marketing Order, Code of Federal Regulations, title 7, part 1030.40, or successor
orders.
    Subd. 8. Selected class II dairy products. "Selected class II dairy products" means milk
for human consumption processed into fluid cream, eggnog, yogurt, and all other class II dairy
products as defined by the Upper Midwest Milk Marketing Order, Code of Federal Regulations,
title 7, part 1030.40, or successor orders.
    Subd. 9. Sell at retail; sale at retail; retail sales. "Sell at retail," "sale at retail," and "retail
sales" mean a retail sale or offer for retail sale of a selected class I or class II dairy product for
ultimate consumption or use.
    Subd. 10. Sell at wholesale; sale at wholesale; wholesale sales. "Sell at wholesale," "sale at
wholesale," and "wholesale sales" mean sale or offer for sale of a selected class I dairy product for
purposes of resale or further processing or manufacturing, but does not include a producer selling
or delivering milk to a processor.
    Subd. 11. Wholesaler. "Wholesaler" means a person including a distributor in the business
of making sales of selected class I or class II dairy products, at wholesale in Minnesota. In the
case of a person making sales at both retail and wholesale, "wholesaler" applies only to the
sales at wholesale.
History: 1993 c 65 s 6; 1993 c 367 s 29; 1998 c 254 art 1 s 7,8; 1Sp2001 c 2 s 64,65
32.71 DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE COMMISSIONER; DATA PRIVACY.
    Subdivision 1. Duties; rules. The commissioner shall adopt rules to implement and
administer sections 32.70 to 32.74 as necessary.
    Subd. 2. Data privacy. Financial and production information received by the commissioner
on processors, wholesalers, or retailers including, but not limited to, financial statements, fee
reports, price schedules, cost documentation, books, papers, records, or other documentation
for the purpose of administration and enforcement of this chapter shall be classified private
data or nonpublic data pursuant to chapter 13. That classification shall not limit the use of the
information in the preparation, institution, or conduct of a legal proceeding by the commissioner
in enforcing this chapter.
History: 1993 c 65 s 7; 1997 c 7 art 5 s 6
32.72 SALES BELOW COST PROHIBITED; EXCEPTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Policy; processors; wholesalers; retailers. (a) It is the intent of the
legislature to accomplish partial deregulation of milk marketing with a minimum negative impact
upon small volume retailers.
(b) A processor or wholesaler may not sell or offer for sale selected class I or class II dairy
products at a price lower than the processor's or wholesaler's basic cost.
(c) A retailer may not sell or offer for sale selected class I or class II dairy products at a retail
price lower than (1) 105 percent of the retailer's basic cost until June 30, 1994; and (2) the retailer's
basic cost beginning July 1, 1994, and thereafter. A retailer may not use any method or device in
the sale or offer for sale of a selected dairy product that results in a violation of this section.
    Subd. 2. Exceptions. The minimum processor, wholesaler, and retailer prices of subdivision
1 do not apply:
(i) to a sale complying with section 325D.06, clauses (1) to (4);
(ii) to a retailer giving away selected class I and class II dairy products free if the customer is
not required to make a purchase; or
(iii) to a processor, wholesaler, or retailer giving away selected class I and class II dairy
products free or at a reduced cost to a bona fide charity.
History: 1993 c 65 s 8; 1993 c 367 s 30; 1994 c 558 s 1
32.73 [Repealed, 1997 c 244 s 3]
32.74 REDRESS FOR INJURY OR THREATENED INJURY.
A person injured by a violation of sections 32.70 to 32.74 may commence a legal action
based on the violation in a court of competent jurisdiction and may recover economic damages and
the costs of the action, including reasonable attorneys' fees. A person injured or who is threatened
with injury or loss by reason of violation of sections 32.70 to 32.74 may commence a legal action
based on the violation and obtain injunctive relief in a court of competent jurisdiction against
persons involved in a violation or threatened violation of sections 32.70 to 32.74 to prevent and
restrain violations or threatened violations of sections 32.70 to 32.74 without alleging or proving
actual damages or that an adequate remedy at law does not exist, so that injunctive relief can be
obtained promptly and without awaiting evidence of injury or actual damage. This injunctive relief
does not abridge and is not in lieu of any other civil remedy provided in sections 32.70 to 32.74.
History: 1993 c 65 s 10
32.745 ANNUAL SUSPENSION OF DAIRY TRADE PRACTICES ACT.
The provisions of section 32.72 are suspended during the months of June, July, and August
1997, and for the month of June each year thereafter in honor of "Dairy Month."
History: 1997 c 244 s 1
32.75 RECOMBINANT BOVINE GROWTH HORMONE LABELING.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. For purposes of this section and sections 32.103, 151.01, and
151.15, "recombinant bovine growth hormone" or "rBGH" means a growth hormone, intended for
use in bovine animals, that has been produced through recombinant DNA techniques, described
alternately as recombinant bovine somatotropin, or rBST.
    Subd. 2. Labeling. (a) Products offered for wholesale or retail sale in this state which contain
milk, cream, or any product or by-product of milk or cream, which have been processed and
handled pursuant to the requirements of this section, may be labeled: "Milk in this product is from
cows not treated with rBGH." Labeling of dairy products under this section which are offered
for sale within this state may also include an indication that the milk used is "farmer certified
rBGH-free." Products offered for wholesale or retail sale in this state need not contain any further
label information relative to the use of rBGH in milk production.
(b) The label described in paragraph (a) may appear on the principal display panel, as defined
in section 31.01, subdivision 22, of a packaged product, be conspicuously attached to the container
of a bulk product, or appear in any advertisement, as defined in section 31.01, subdivision 26, for
a product, including media advertising, or displays or placards posted in retail stores.
    Subd. 3. Affidavit; records. (a) A dairy plant purchasing milk or cream to be used in
products labeled pursuant to subdivision 2 shall require an affidavit approved by the commissioner
from producers supplying such milk. This affidavit must be signed by the producer or authorized
representative and state that all cows used in the producer's dairy operations have not and will not
be treated with rBGH, without advanced written notice of at least 30 days to the dairy plant.
(b) Dairy plants shall keep original affidavits on file for a period of not less than two years
after receiving written notice from the producer of anticipated rBGH use, as provided in paragraph
(a). These affidavits and corresponding records must be made available for inspection by the
commissioner. Dairy plants supplying milk or cream to a processor or manufacturer of a product
to be labeled pursuant to subdivision 2, for use in that product, shall supply a certification to that
processor or manufacturer stating that producers of the supplied milk or cream have executed and
delivered affidavits pursuant to paragraph (a).
    Subd. 4. Separation of nontreated cows and milk. All milk or cream from
non-rBGH-treated cows used in manufacturing or processing of products labeled pursuant to
subdivision 2, or milk or cream supplied by a producer under an affidavit pursuant to subdivision
3, must be kept fully separate from any other milk or cream through all stages of storage,
transportation, and processing until the milk or resulting dairy products are in final packaged
form in a properly labeled container. Records of the separation must be kept by the dairy plant
and product processor or manufacturer at all stages and made available to the commissioner
for inspection.
History: 1994 c 632 art 2 s 14

PENALTIES

32.90 PENALTY.
Any person, firm, corporation, association or copartnership violating any of the provisions of
this chapter or any amendatory act for which no specific penalty is provided shall be guilty of
a misdemeanor.
History: 1949 c 122 s 1; 1971 c 23 s 6