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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

Chapter 256B

Section 256B.15

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256B.15 CLAIMS AGAINST ESTATES.
    Subdivision 1. Policy and applicability. (a) It is the policy of this state that individuals or
couples, either or both of whom participate in the medical assistance program, use their own assets
to pay their share of the total cost of their care during or after their enrollment in the program
according to applicable federal law and the laws of this state. The following provisions apply:
(1) subdivisions 1c to 1k shall not apply to claims arising under this section which are
presented under section 525.313;
(2) the provisions of subdivisions 1c to 1k expanding the interests included in an estate for
purposes of recovery under this section give effect to the provisions of United States Code, title
42, section 1396p, governing recoveries, but do not give rise to any express or implied liens in
favor of any other parties not named in these provisions;
(3) the continuation of a recipient's life estate or joint tenancy interest in real property after
the recipient's death for the purpose of recovering medical assistance under this section modifies
common law principles holding that these interests terminate on the death of the holder;
(4) all laws, rules, and regulations governing or involved with a recovery of medical
assistance shall be liberally construed to accomplish their intended purposes;
(5) a deceased recipient's life estate and joint tenancy interests continued under this section
shall be owned by the remaindermen or surviving joint tenants as their interests may appear on the
date of the recipient's death. They shall not be merged into the remainder interest or the interests
of the surviving joint tenants by reason of ownership. They shall be subject to the provisions of
this section. Any conveyance, transfer, sale, assignment, or encumbrance by a remainderman,
a surviving joint tenant, or their heirs, successors, and assigns shall be deemed to include all
of their interest in the deceased recipient's life estate or joint tenancy interest continued under
this section; and
(6) the provisions of subdivisions 1c to 1k continuing a recipient's joint tenancy interests
in real property after the recipient's death do not apply to a homestead owned of record, on the
date the recipient dies, by the recipient and the recipient's spouse as joint tenants with a right of
survivorship. Homestead means the real property occupied by the surviving joint tenant spouse as
their sole residence on the date the recipient dies and classified and taxed to the recipient and
surviving joint tenant spouse as homestead property for property tax purposes in the calendar
year in which the recipient dies. For purposes of this exemption, real property the recipient and
their surviving joint tenant spouse purchase solely with the proceeds from the sale of their prior
homestead, own of record as joint tenants, and qualify as homestead property under section
273.124 in the calendar year in which the recipient dies and prior to the recipient's death shall be
deemed to be real property classified and taxed to the recipient and their surviving joint tenant
spouse as homestead property in the calendar year in which the recipient dies. The surviving
spouse, or any person with personal knowledge of the facts, may provide an affidavit describing
the homestead property affected by this clause and stating facts showing compliance with this
clause. The affidavit shall be prima facie evidence of the facts it states.
(b) For purposes of this section, "medical assistance" includes the medical assistance
program under this chapter and the general assistance medical care program under chapter 256D
and alternative care for nonmedical assistance recipients under section 256B.0913.
(c) All provisions in this subdivision, and subdivisions 1d, 1f, 1g, 1h, 1i, and 1j, related to
the continuation of a recipient's life estate or joint tenancy interests in real property after the
recipient's death for the purpose of recovering medical assistance, are effective only for life
estates and joint tenancy interests established on or after August 1, 2003. For purposes of this
paragraph, medical assistance does not include alternative care.
    Subd. 1a. Estates subject to claims. If a person receives any medical assistance hereunder,
on the person's death, if single, or on the death of the survivor of a married couple, either or both
of whom received medical assistance, or as otherwise provided for in this section, the total amount
paid for medical assistance rendered for the person and spouse shall be filed as a claim against the
estate of the person or the estate of the surviving spouse in the court having jurisdiction to probate
the estate or to issue a decree of descent according to sections 525.31 to 525.313.
A claim shall be filed if medical assistance was rendered for either or both persons under
one of the following circumstances:
(a) the person was over 55 years of age, and received services under this chapter;
(b) the person resided in a medical institution for six months or longer, received services
under this chapter, and, at the time of institutionalization or application for medical assistance,
whichever is later, the person could not have reasonably been expected to be discharged and
returned home, as certified in writing by the person's treating physician. For purposes of this
section only, a "medical institution" means a skilled nursing facility, intermediate care facility,
intermediate care facility for persons with developmental disabilities, nursing facility, or inpatient
hospital; or
(c) the person received general assistance medical care services under chapter 256D.
The claim shall be considered an expense of the last illness of the decedent for the purpose of
section 524.3-805. Any statute of limitations that purports to limit any county agency or the state
agency, or both, to recover for medical assistance granted hereunder shall not apply to any claim
made hereunder for reimbursement for any medical assistance granted hereunder. Notice of the
claim shall be given to all heirs and devisees of the decedent whose identity can be ascertained
with reasonable diligence. The notice must include procedures and instructions for making an
application for a hardship waiver under subdivision 5; time frames for submitting an application
and determination; and information regarding appeal rights and procedures. Counties are entitled
to one-half of the nonfederal share of medical assistance collections from estates that are directly
attributable to county effort. Counties are entitled to ten percent of the collections for alternative
care directly attributable to county effort.
    Subd. 1b.[Repealed, 2001 c 203 s 19]
    Subd. 1c. Notice of potential claim. (a) A state agency with a claim or potential claim under
this section may file a notice of potential claim under this subdivision anytime before or within
one year after a medical assistance recipient dies. The claimant shall be the state agency. A notice
filed prior to the recipient's death shall not take effect and shall not be effective as notice until the
recipient dies. A notice filed after a recipient dies shall be effective from the time of filing.
(b) The notice of claim shall be filed or recorded in the real estate records in the office of
the county recorder or registrar of titles for each county in which any part of the property is
located. The recorder shall accept the notice for recording or filing. The registrar of titles shall
accept the notice for filing if the recipient has a recorded interest in the property. The registrar
of titles shall not carry forward to a new certificate of title any notice filed more than one year
from the date of the recipient's death.
(c) The notice must be dated, state the name of the claimant, the medical assistance recipient's
name and Social Security number if filed before their death and their date of death if filed after
they die, the name and date of death of any predeceased spouse of the medical assistance recipient
for whom a claim may exist, a statement that the claimant may have a claim arising under this
section, generally identify the recipient's interest in the property, contain a legal description for
the property and whether it is abstract or registered property, a statement of when the notice
becomes effective and the effect of the notice, be signed by an authorized representative of the
state agency, and may include such other contents as the state agency may deem appropriate.
    Subd. 1d. Effect of notice. From the time it takes effect, the notice shall be notice to
remaindermen, joint tenants, or to anyone else owning or acquiring an interest in or encumbrance
against the property described in the notice that the medical assistance recipient's life estate, joint
tenancy, or other interests in the real estate described in the notice:
(1) shall, in the case of life estate and joint tenancy interests, continue to exist for purposes of
this section, and be subject to liens and claims as provided in this section;
(2) shall be subject to a lien in favor of the claimant effective upon the death of the recipient
and dealt with as provided in this section;
(3) may be included in the recipient's estate, as defined in this section; and
(4) may be subject to administration and all other provisions of chapter 524 and may be sold,
assigned, transferred, or encumbered free and clear of their interest or encumbrance to satisfy
claims under this section.
    Subd. 1e. Full or partial release of notice. (a) The claimant may fully or partially release
the notice and the lien arising out of the notice of record in the real estate records where the notice
is filed or recorded at any time. The claimant may give a full or partial release to extinguish any
life estates or joint tenancy interests which are or may be continued under this section or whose
existence or nonexistence may create a cloud on the title to real property at any time whether or
not a notice has been filed. The recorder or registrar of titles shall accept the release for recording
or filing. If the release is a partial release, it must include a legal description of the property
being released.
(b) At any time, the claimant may, at the claimant's discretion, wholly or partially release,
subordinate, modify, or amend the recorded notice and the lien arising out of the notice.
    Subd. 1f. Agency lien. (a) The notice shall constitute a lien in favor of the Department
of Human Services against the recipient's interests in the real estate it describes for a period
of 20 years from the date of filing or the date of the recipient's death, whichever is later.
Notwithstanding any law or rule to the contrary, a recipient's life estate and joint tenancy interests
shall not end upon the recipient's death but shall continue according to subdivisions 1h, 1i, and 1j.
The amount of the lien shall be equal to the total amount of the claims that could be presented in
the recipient's estate under this section.
(b) If no estate has been opened for the deceased recipient, any holder of an interest in the
property may apply to the lien holder for a statement of the amount of the lien or for a full or
partial release of the lien. The application shall include the applicant's name, current mailing
address, current home and work telephone numbers, and a description of their interest in the
property, a legal description of the recipient's interest in the property, and the deceased recipient's
name, date of birth, and Social Security number. The lien holder shall send the applicant by
certified mail, return receipt requested, a written statement showing the amount of the lien,
whether the lien holder is willing to release the lien and under what conditions, and inform
them of the right to a hearing under section 256.045. The lien holder shall have the discretion to
compromise and settle the lien upon any terms and conditions the lien holder deems appropriate.
(c) Any holder of an interest in property subject to the lien has a right to request a hearing
under section 256.045 to determine the validity, extent, or amount of the lien. The request must
be in writing, and must include the names, current addresses, and home and business telephone
numbers for all other parties holding an interest in the property. A request for a hearing by any
holder of an interest in the property shall be deemed to be a request for a hearing by all parties
owning interests in the property. Notice of the hearing shall be given to the lien holder, the party
filing the appeal, and all of the other holders of interests in the property at the addresses listed
in the appeal by certified mail, return receipt requested, or by ordinary mail. Any owner of an
interest in the property to whom notice of the hearing is mailed shall be deemed to have waived
any and all claims or defenses in respect to the lien unless they appear and assert any claims
or defenses at the hearing.
(d) If the claim the lien secures could be filed under subdivision 1h, the lien holder may
collect, compromise, settle, or release the lien upon any terms and conditions it deems appropriate.
If the claim the lien secures could be filed under subdivision 1i or 1j, the lien may be adjusted
or enforced to the same extent had it been filed under subdivisions 1i and 1j, and the provisions
of subdivisions 1i, clause (f), and 1j, clause (d), shall apply to voluntary payment, settlement,
or satisfaction of the lien.
(e) If no probate proceedings have been commenced for the recipient as of the date the lien
holder executes a release of the lien on a recipient's life estate or joint tenancy interest, created for
purposes of this section, the release shall terminate the life estate or joint tenancy interest created
under this section as of the date it is recorded or filed to the extent of the release. If the claimant
executes a release for purposes of extinguishing a life estate or a joint tenancy interest created
under this section to remove a cloud on title to real property, the release shall have the effect of
extinguishing any life estate or joint tenancy interests in the property it describes which may have
been continued by reason of this section retroactive to the date of death of the deceased life tenant
or joint tenant except as provided for in section 514.981, subdivision 6.
(f) If the deceased recipient's estate is probated, a claim shall be filed under this section. The
amount of the lien shall be limited to the amount of the claim as finally allowed. If the claim the
lien secures is filed under subdivision 1h, the lien may be released in full after any allowance of
the claim becomes final or according to any agreement to settle and satisfy the claim. The release
shall release the lien but shall not extinguish or terminate the interest being released. If the claim
the lien secures is filed under subdivision 1i or 1j, the lien shall be released after the lien under
subdivision 1i or 1j is filed or recorded, or settled according to any agreement to settle and satisfy
the claim. The release shall not extinguish or terminate the interest being released. If the claim is
finally disallowed in full, the claimant shall release the claimant's lien at the claimant's expense.
    Subd. 1g. Estate property. Notwithstanding any law or rule to the contrary, if a claim is
presented under this section, interests or the proceeds of interests in real property a decedent
owned as a life tenant or a joint tenant with a right of survivorship shall be part of the decedent's
estate, subject to administration, and shall be dealt with as provided in this section.
    Subd. 1h. Estates of specific persons receiving medical assistance. (a) For purposes of
this section, paragraphs (b) to (k) apply if a person received medical assistance for which a claim
may be filed under this section and died single, or the surviving spouse of the couple and was not
survived by any of the persons described in subdivisions 3 and 4.
(b) For purposes of this section, the person's estate consists of: (1) their probate estate; (2)
all of the person's interests or proceeds of those interests in real property the person owned as
a life tenant or as a joint tenant with a right of survivorship at the time of the person's death;
(3) all of the person's interests or proceeds of those interests in securities the person owned in
beneficiary form as provided under sections 524.6-301 to 524.6-311 at the time of the person's
death, to the extent they become part of the probate estate under section 524.6-307; and (4) all of
the person's interests in joint accounts, multiple party accounts, and pay on death accounts, or
the proceeds of those accounts, as provided under sections 524.6-201 to 524.6-214 at the time of
the person's death to the extent they become part of the probate estate under section 524.6-207.
Notwithstanding any law or rule to the contrary, a state or county agency with a claim under this
section shall be a creditor under section 524.6-307.
(c) Notwithstanding any law or rule to the contrary, the person's life estate or joint tenancy
interest in real property not subject to a medical assistance lien under sections 514.980 to 514.985
on the date of the person's death shall not end upon the person's death and shall continue as
provided in this subdivision. The life estate in the person's estate shall be that portion of the
interest in the real property subject to the life estate that is equal to the life estate percentage factor
for the life estate as listed in the Life Estate Mortality Table of the health care program's manual
for a person who was the age of the medical assistance recipient on the date of the person's death.
The joint tenancy interest in real property in the estate shall be equal to the fractional interest
the person would have owned in the jointly held interest in the property had they and the other
owners held title to the property as tenants in common on the date the person died.
(d) The court upon its own motion, or upon motion by the personal representative or any
interested party, may enter an order directing the remaindermen or surviving joint tenants and
their spouses, if any, to sign all documents, take all actions, and otherwise fully cooperate with
the personal representative and the court to liquidate the decedent's life estate or joint tenancy
interests in the estate and deliver the cash or the proceeds of those interests to the personal
representative and provide for any legal and equitable sanctions as the court deems appropriate to
enforce and carry out the order, including an award of reasonable attorney fees.
(e) The personal representative may make, execute, and deliver any conveyances or other
documents necessary to convey the decedent's life estate or joint tenancy interest in the estate that
are necessary to liquidate and reduce to cash the decedent's interest or for any other purposes.
(f) Subject to administration, all costs, including reasonable attorney fees, directly and
immediately related to liquidating the decedent's life estate or joint tenancy interest in the
decedent's estate, shall be paid from the gross proceeds of the liquidation allocable to the
decedent's interest and the net proceeds shall be turned over to the personal representative and
applied to payment of the claim presented under this section.
(g) The personal representative shall bring a motion in the district court in which the
estate is being probated to compel the remaindermen or surviving joint tenants to account for
and deliver to the personal representative all or any part of the proceeds of any sale, mortgage,
transfer, conveyance, or any disposition of real property allocable to the decedent's life estate
or joint tenancy interest in the decedent's estate, and do everything necessary to liquidate and
reduce to cash the decedent's interest and turn the proceeds of the sale or other disposition over
to the personal representative. The court may grant any legal or equitable relief including, but
not limited to, ordering a partition of real estate under chapter 558 necessary to make the value
of the decedent's life estate or joint tenancy interest available to the estate for payment of a
claim under this section.
(h) Subject to administration, the personal representative shall use all of the cash or proceeds
of interests to pay an allowable claim under this section. The remaindermen or surviving
joint tenants and their spouses, if any, may enter into a written agreement with the personal
representative or the claimant to settle and satisfy obligations imposed at any time before or
after a claim is filed.
(i) The personal representative may, at their discretion, provide any or all of the other
owners, remaindermen, or surviving joint tenants with an affidavit terminating the decedent's
estate's interest in real property the decedent owned as a life tenant or as a joint tenant with others,
if the personal representative determines in good faith that neither the decedent nor any of the
decedent's predeceased spouses received any medical assistance for which a claim could be filed
under this section, or if the personal representative has filed an affidavit with the court that the
estate has other assets sufficient to pay a claim, as presented, or if there is a written agreement
under paragraph (h), or if the claim, as allowed, has been paid in full or to the full extent of the
assets the estate has available to pay it. The affidavit may be recorded in the office of the county
recorder or filed in the Office of the Registrar of Titles for the county in which the real property
is located. Except as provided in section 514.981, subdivision 6, when recorded or filed, the
affidavit shall terminate the decedent's interest in real estate the decedent owned as a life tenant or
a joint tenant with others. The affidavit shall: (1) be signed by the personal representative; (2)
identify the decedent and the interest being terminated; (3) give recording information sufficient
to identify the instrument that created the interest in real property being terminated; (4) legally
describe the affected real property; (5) state that the personal representative has determined
that neither the decedent nor any of the decedent's predeceased spouses received any medical
assistance for which a claim could be filed under this section; (6) state that the decedent's estate
has other assets sufficient to pay the claim, as presented, or that there is a written agreement
between the personal representative and the claimant and the other owners or remaindermen or
other joint tenants to satisfy the obligations imposed under this subdivision; and (7) state that
the affidavit is being given to terminate the estate's interest under this subdivision, and any other
contents as may be appropriate.
The recorder or registrar of titles shall accept the affidavit for recording or filing. The affidavit
shall be effective as provided in this section and shall constitute notice even if it does not include
recording information sufficient to identify the instrument creating the interest it terminates. The
affidavit shall be conclusive evidence of the stated facts.
(j) The holder of a lien arising under subdivision 1c shall release the lien at the holder's
expense against an interest terminated under paragraph (h) to the extent of the termination.
(k) If a lien arising under subdivision 1c is not released under paragraph (j), prior to closing
the estate, the personal representative shall deed the interest subject to the lien to the remaindermen
or surviving joint tenants as their interests may appear. Upon recording or filing, the deed shall
work a merger of the recipient's life estate or joint tenancy interest, subject to the lien, into the
remainder interest or interest the decedent and others owned jointly. The lien shall attach to and
run with the property to the extent of the decedent's interest at the time of the decedent's death.
    Subd. 1i. Estates of persons receiving medical assistance and survived by others. (a)
For purposes of this subdivision, the person's estate consists of the person's probate estate and all
of the person's interests in real property the person owned as a life tenant or a joint tenant at the
time of the person's death.
(b) Notwithstanding any law or rule to the contrary, this subdivision applies if a person
received medical assistance for which a claim could be filed under this section but for the fact
the person was survived by a spouse or by a person listed in subdivision 3, or if subdivision 4
applies to a claim arising under this section.
(c) The person's life estate or joint tenancy interests in real property not subject to a medical
assistance lien under sections 514.980 to 514.985 on the date of the person's death shall not
end upon death and shall continue as provided in this subdivision. The life estate in the estate
shall be the portion of the interest in the property subject to the life estate that is equal to the
life estate percentage factor for the life estate as listed in the Life Estate Mortality Table of the
health care program's manual for a person who was the age of the medical assistance recipient
on the date of the person's death. The joint tenancy interest in the estate shall be equal to the
fractional interest the medical assistance recipient would have owned in the jointly held interest in
the property had they and the other owners held title to the property as tenants in common on
the date the medical assistance recipient died.
(d) The county agency shall file a claim in the estate under this section on behalf of the
claimant who shall be the commissioner of human services, notwithstanding that the decedent is
survived by a spouse or a person listed in subdivision 3. The claim, as allowed, shall not be paid
by the estate and shall be disposed of as provided in this paragraph. The personal representative
or the court shall make, execute, and deliver a lien in favor of the claimant on the decedent's
interest in real property in the estate in the amount of the allowed claim on forms provided by
the commissioner to the county agency filing the lien. The lien shall bear interest as provided
under section 524.3-806, shall attach to the property it describes upon filing or recording, and
shall remain a lien on the real property it describes for a period of 20 years from the date it is filed
or recorded. The lien shall be a disposition of the claim sufficient to permit the estate to close.
(e) The state or county agency shall file or record the lien in the office of the county recorder
or registrar of titles for each county in which any of the real property is located. The recorder
or registrar of titles shall accept the lien for filing or recording. All recording or filing fees shall
be paid by the Department of Human Services. The recorder or registrar of titles shall mail the
recorded lien to the Department of Human Services. The lien need not be attested, certified, or
acknowledged as a condition of recording or filing. Upon recording or filing of a lien against a life
estate or a joint tenancy interest, the interest subject to the lien shall merge into the remainder
interest or the interest the recipient and others owned jointly. The lien shall attach to and run with
the property to the extent of the decedent's interest in the property at the time of the decedent's
death as determined under this section.
(f) The department shall make no adjustment or recovery under the lien until after the
decedent's spouse, if any, has died, and only at a time when the decedent has no surviving child
described in subdivision 3. The estate, any owner of an interest in the property which is or may
be subject to the lien, or any other interested party, may voluntarily pay off, settle, or otherwise
satisfy the claim secured or to be secured by the lien at any time before or after the lien is filed or
recorded. Such payoffs, settlements, and satisfactions shall be deemed to be voluntary repayments
of past medical assistance payments for the benefit of the deceased recipient, and neither the
process of settling the claim, the payment of the claim, or the acceptance of a payment shall
constitute an adjustment or recovery that is prohibited under this subdivision.
(g) The lien under this subdivision may be enforced or foreclosed in the manner provided by
law for the enforcement of judgment liens against real estate or by a foreclosure by action under
chapter 581. When the lien is paid, satisfied, or otherwise discharged, the state or county agency
shall prepare and file a release of lien at its own expense. No action to foreclose the lien shall
be commenced unless the lien holder has first given 30 days' prior written notice to pay the lien
to the owners and parties in possession of the property subject to the lien. The notice shall: (1)
include the name, address, and telephone number of the lien holder; (2) describe the lien; (3) give
the amount of the lien; (4) inform the owner or party in possession that payment of the lien in
full must be made to the lien holder within 30 days after service of the notice or the lien holder
may begin proceedings to foreclose the lien; and (5) be served by personal service, certified mail,
return receipt requested, ordinary first class mail, or by publishing it once in a newspaper of
general circulation in the county in which any part of the property is located. Service of the notice
shall be complete upon mailing or publication.
    Subd. 1j. Claims in estates of decedents survived by other survivors. For purposes of this
subdivision, the provisions in subdivision 1i, paragraphs (a) to (c) apply.
(a) If payment of a claim filed under this section is limited as provided in subdivision 4, and
if the estate does not have other assets sufficient to pay the claim in full, as allowed, the personal
representative or the court shall make, execute, and deliver a lien on the property in the estate that
is exempt from the claim under subdivision 4 in favor of the commissioner of human services on
forms provided by the commissioner to the county agency filing the claim. If the estate pays a
claim filed under this section in full from other assets of the estate, no lien shall be filed against
the property described in subdivision 4.
(b) The lien shall be in an amount equal to the unpaid balance of the allowed claim under
this section remaining after the estate has applied all other available assets of the estate to pay
the claim. The property exempt under subdivision 4 shall not be sold, assigned, transferred,
conveyed, encumbered, or distributed until after the personal representative has determined the
estate has other assets sufficient to pay the allowed claim in full, or until after the lien has been
filed or recorded. The lien shall bear interest as provided under section 524.3-806, shall attach
to the property it describes upon filing or recording, and shall remain a lien on the real property
it describes for a period of 20 years from the date it is filed or recorded. The lien shall be a
disposition of the claim sufficient to permit the estate to close.
(c) The state or county agency shall file or record the lien in the office of the county recorder
or registrar of titles in each county in which any of the real property is located. The department
shall pay the filing fees. The lien need not be attested, certified, or acknowledged as a condition of
recording or filing. The recorder or registrar of titles shall accept the lien for filing or recording.
(d) The commissioner shall make no adjustment or recovery under the lien until none of
the persons listed in subdivision 4 are residing on the property or until the property is sold or
transferred. The estate or any owner of an interest in the property that is or may be subject to the
lien, or any other interested party, may voluntarily pay off, settle, or otherwise satisfy the claim
secured or to be secured by the lien at any time before or after the lien is filed or recorded. The
payoffs, settlements, and satisfactions shall be deemed to be voluntary repayments of past medical
assistance payments for the benefit of the deceased recipient and neither the process of settling the
claim, the payment of the claim, or acceptance of a payment shall constitute an adjustment or
recovery that is prohibited under this subdivision.
(e) A lien under this subdivision may be enforced or foreclosed in the manner provided for
by law for the enforcement of judgment liens against real estate or by a foreclosure by action
under chapter 581. When the lien has been paid, satisfied, or otherwise discharged, the claimant
shall prepare and file a release of lien at the claimant's expense. No action to foreclose the lien
shall be commenced unless the lien holder has first given 30 days prior written notice to pay the
lien to the record owners of the property and the parties in possession of the property subject to
the lien. The notice shall: (1) include the name, address, and telephone number of the lien holder;
(2) describe the lien; (3) give the amount of the lien; (4) inform the owner or party in possession
that payment of the lien in full must be made to the lien holder within 30 days after service of
the notice or the lien holder may begin proceedings to foreclose the lien; and (5) be served by
personal service, certified mail, return receipt requested, ordinary first class mail, or by publishing
it once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which any part of the property is
located. Service shall be complete upon mailing or publication.
(f) Upon filing or recording of a lien against a life estate or joint tenancy interest under this
subdivision, the interest subject to the lien shall merge into the remainder interest or the interest
the decedent and others owned jointly, effective on the date of recording and filing. The lien shall
attach to and run with the property to the extent of the decedent's interest in the property at the
time of the decedent's death as determined under this section.
(g)(1) An affidavit may be provided by a personal representative, at their discretion, stating
the personal representative has determined in good faith that a decedent survived by a spouse
or a person listed in subdivision 3, or by a person listed in subdivision 4, or the decedent's
predeceased spouse did not receive any medical assistance giving rise to a claim under this
section, or that the real property described in subdivision 4 is not needed to pay in full a claim
arising under this section.
(2) The affidavit shall:
(i) describe the property and the interest being extinguished;
(ii) name the decedent and give the date of death;
(iii) state the facts listed in clause (1);
(iv) state that the affidavit is being filed to terminate the life estate or joint tenancy interest
created under this subdivision;
(v) be signed by the personal representative; and
(vi) contain any other information that the affiant deems appropriate.
(3) Except as provided in section 514.981, subdivision 6, when the affidavit is filed or
recorded, the life estate or joint tenancy interest in real property that the affidavit describes shall
be terminated effective as of the date of filing or recording. The termination shall be final and
may not be set aside for any reason.
    Subd. 1k. Filing. Any notice, lien, release, or other document filed under subdivisions 1c to
1l, and any lien, release of lien, or other documents relating to a lien filed under subdivisions 1h,
1i, and 1j must be filed or recorded in the office of the county recorder or registrar of titles, as
appropriate, in the county where the affected real property is located. Notwithstanding section
386.77, the state or county agency shall pay any applicable filing fee. An attestation, certification,
or acknowledgment is not required as a condition of filing. If the property described in the filing is
registered property, the registrar of titles shall record the filing on the certificate of title for each
parcel of property described in the filing. If the property described in the filing is abstract property,
the recorder shall file and index the property in the county's grantor-grantee indexes and any tract
indexes the county maintains for each parcel of property described in the filing. The recorder or
registrar of titles shall return the filed document to the party filing it at no cost. If the party making
the filing provides a duplicate copy of the filing, the recorder or registrar of titles shall show the
recording or filing data on the copy and return it to the party at no extra cost.
    Subd. 2. Limitations on claims. The claim shall include only the total amount of medical
assistance rendered after age 55 or during a period of institutionalization described in subdivision
1a, clause (b), and the total amount of general assistance medical care rendered, and shall not
include interest. Claims that have been allowed but not paid shall bear interest according to
section 524.3-806, paragraph (d). A claim against the estate of a surviving spouse who did not
receive medical assistance, for medical assistance rendered for the predeceased spouse, is limited
to the value of the assets of the estate that were marital property or jointly owned property at any
time during the marriage. Claims for alternative care shall be net of all premiums paid under
section 256B.0913, subdivision 12, on or after July 1, 2003, and shall be limited to services
provided on or after July 1, 2003.
    Subd. 2a.[Repealed, 2001 c 203 s 19]
    Subd. 3. Surviving spouse, minor, blind, or disabled children. If a decedent is survived by
a spouse, or was single or the surviving spouse of a married couple and is survived by a child
who is under age 21 or blind or permanently and totally disabled according to the supplemental
security income program criteria, a claim shall be filed against the estate according to this section.
    Subd. 4. Other survivors. If the decedent who was single or the surviving spouse of a
married couple is survived by one of the following persons, a claim exists against the estate
payable first from the value of the nonhomestead property included in the estate and the personal
representative shall make, execute, and deliver to the county agency a lien against the homestead
property in the estate for any unpaid balance of the claim to the claimant as provided under
this section:
(a) a sibling who resided in the decedent medical assistance recipient's home at least one year
before the decedent's institutionalization and continuously since the date of institutionalization; or
(b) a son or daughter or a grandchild who resided in the decedent medical assistance
recipient's home for at least two years immediately before the parent's or grandparent's
institutionalization and continuously since the date of institutionalization, and who establishes by
a preponderance of the evidence having provided care to the parent or grandparent who received
medical assistance, that the care was provided before institutionalization, and that the care
permitted the parent or grandparent to reside at home rather than in an institution.
    Subd. 5. Undue hardship. Any person entitled to notice in subdivision 1a has a right to
apply for waiver of the claim based upon undue hardship. Any claim pursuant to this section may
be fully or partially waived because of undue hardship. Undue hardship does not include action
taken by the decedent which divested or diverted assets in order to avoid estate recovery. Any
waiver of a claim must benefit the person claiming undue hardship. The commissioner shall
have authority to hear claimant appeals, pursuant to section 256.045, when an application for a
hardship waiver is denied in whole or part.
    Subd. 6. Life estate or joint tenancy interest. For purposes of subdivision 1 and section
514.981, subdivision 6, a life estate or joint tenancy interest is established upon the earlier of:
(1) the date the instrument creating the interest is recorded or filed in the office of the county
recorder or registrar of titles where the real estate interest it describes is located;
(2) the date of delivery by the grantor to the grantee of the signed instrument as stated in an
affidavit made by a person with knowledge of the facts;
(3) the date on which the judicial order creating the interest was issued by the court; or
(4) the date upon which the interest devolves under section 524.3-101.
    Subd. 7. Lien notices. Medical assistance liens and liens under notices of potential claims
that are of record against life estate or joint tenancy interests established prior to August 1, 2003,
shall end, become unenforceable, and cease to be liens on those interests upon the death of the
person named in the lien or notice of potential claim, shall be disregarded by examiners of title
after the death of the life tenant or joint tenant, and shall not be carried forward to a subsequent
certificate of title. This subdivision shall not apply to life estates that continue to exist after the
death of the person named in the lien or notice of potential claim under the terms of the instrument
creating or reserving the life estate until the life estate ends as provided for in the instrument.
    Subd. 8. Immunity. The commissioner of human services, county agencies, and elected
officials and their employees are immune from all liability for any action taken implementing
Laws 2003, First Special Session chapter 14, article 12, sections 40 to 52 and 90, as those laws
existed at the time the action was taken, and section 514.981, subdivision 6.
History: Ex1967 c 16 s 15; 1981 c 360 art 1 s 22; 1Sp1981 c 4 art 1 s 126; 1986 c 444;
1987 c 403 art 2 s 82; 1988 c 719 art 8 s 15; 1990 c 568 art 3 s 63; 1992 c 513 art 7 s 80,81;
1Sp1993 c 1 art 5 s 82,83; 1995 c 207 art 6 s 79-81; 1996 c 451 art 2 s 29,30,61,62; art 5 s 26;
2000 c 400 s 2,3; 2001 c 203 s 17; 1Sp2003 c 14 art 2 s 27-29; art 12 s 40-52; 2005 c 56 s 1;
1Sp2005 c 4 art 7 s 28-32

NOTE: The amendments to subdivisions 1a and 2 by Laws 1995, chapter 207, article 6,
sections 79 and 80, relating only to the age of a medical assistance recipient for purposes of
estate claims, are effective for persons who are between the ages of 55 and 64 on or after July 1,
1995, for the total amount of assistance on or after July 1, 1995. See Laws 1995, chapter 207,
article 6, section 125, subdivision 1.