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CHAPTER 21. SEEDS

Table of Sections
SectionHeadnote
21.001DEFINITION.

SEED POTATOES

21.01
21.02Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.03Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.031Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.032Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.04Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.05Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.06Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.07Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.08Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.09Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.10Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.101Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.11Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.111DEFINITIONS.
21.112COMMISSIONER, DUTIES; SEED POTATOES.
21.113CERTIFICATES OF INSPECTION.
21.114Repealed, 1979 c 68 s 6
21.115FEES; SEED POTATO INSPECTION ACCOUNT.
21.116EXPENSES.
21.117APPLICATIONS FOR INSPECTIONS; WITHDRAWALS.
21.118RULES.
21.119USE OF CERTAIN TERMS FORBIDDEN; EXCEPTIONS.
21.1195MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR PLANTING.
21.1196RESTRICTED SEED POTATO GROWING AREA.
21.12Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.121VIOLATIONS; REPORTS, PROSECUTIONS.
21.122PENALTIES.
21.13Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.14Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.15Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.16Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.17Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.18Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.19Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.20Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1
21.21Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.22Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.23Repealed, 1945 c 543 s 12
21.24Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1
21.31Renumbered 30.31
21.32Renumbered 30.32
21.33Renumbered 30.33
21.34Renumbered 30.34
21.35Renumbered 30.35
21.36Renumbered 30.36
21.37Renumbered 30.37
21.38Renumbered 30.38
21.39Renumbered 30.39
21.40Renumbered 30.40
21.41Renumbered 30.41
21.42Renumbered 30.42
21.43Renumbered 30.43
21.44Renumbered 30.44
21.45Renumbered 30.45
21.46Renumbered 30.46
21.47Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.48Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.49Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.50Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.502Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.503Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.51Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.52Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.53Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.54
21.55Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.56Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.57Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115
21.58Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115

MINNESOTA SCREENINGS ACT

21.71CITATION, MINNESOTA SCREENINGS ACT.
21.72DEFINITIONS.
21.73PROHIBITED ACTS.
21.74EXCEPTIONS.
21.75POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMISSIONER.
21.76INJUNCTION; BOND.
21.77SEIZURE.
21.78VIOLATIONS; ENFORCEMENT.

MINNESOTA SEED LAW

21.80MINNESOTA SEED LAW.
21.81DEFINITIONS.
21.82LABEL REQUIREMENTS; AGRICULTURAL, VEGETABLE, FLOWER, OR WILDFLOWER SEEDS.
21.83LABEL REQUIREMENTS; TREE OR SHRUB SEEDS.
21.84RECORDS.
21.85COMMISSIONER'S POWERS AND DUTIES.
21.86UNLAWFUL ACTS.
21.87EXEMPTION.
21.88PENALTIES NOT TO APPLY.
21.89SEED FEE PERMITS.
21.891FEES.
21.90Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22
21.901BRAND NAME REGISTRATION.
21.91SEED CERTIFICATION AGENCIES.
21.92SEED INSPECTION ACCOUNT.
21.001 DEFINITION.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. Except where the context otherwise indicates, for the purposes of this
chapter, the terms defined in this section have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2. Commissioner. "Commissioner" means the commissioner of the Department
of Agriculture.
History: 1961 c 113 s 1; 1961 c 128 s 4

SEED POTATOES

21.01    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 8.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 10.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 11.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 12.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 13.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 14.[Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
    Subd. 15.[Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
    Subd. 16.[Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
    Subd. 17.[Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
    Subd. 18.MS 1941 [Repealed, 1945 c 543 s 1]
    Subd. 18.MS 1949 [Superseded, 1951 c 552 s 2 subd 4]
    Subd. 19.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 20.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 21.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 22.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 23.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
    Subd. 24.[Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.02 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.03 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.031 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.032 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.04 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.05 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.06 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.07 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.08 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.09 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.10 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.101 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.11 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.111 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. When used in sections 21.111 to 21.122 the terms defined in this
section shall have the meanings ascribed to them.
    Subd. 2. Inspected. "Inspected" means that the potato plants are examined in the field and
that the harvested potatoes produced by such plants are examined by or under the authority
of the commissioner.
    Subd. 3. Certified. "Certified" means that the potatoes were inspected while growing in the
field and again after being harvested, and were thereafter duly certified by or under the authority
of the commissioner, as provided in sections 21.111 to 21.122, and as provided by rules adopted
and published by the commissioner.
    Subd. 3a. Interstate cooperation. In order to best use state resources, the commissioner
may enter into agreements with other seed potato certification entities to carry out the purposes
of sections 21.111 to 21.122. Any agreement may provide for field inspections, shipping point
inspections, winter tests, and other certification functions to be carried out by personnel employed
by either entity according to methods determined by the certification entities of the respective
areas. The commissioner may extend seed potato certification services to states where growers
wish to grow certified seed potatoes and the state does not have a seed potato certification
program. Any agreement must be reported to the chairs of the legislative committees responsible
for the budget or policy of the seed potato inspection program and to the commissioner of finance.
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1955 c 287 s 1]
    Subd. 5. Seed potatoes. "Seed potatoes" means potatoes used, sold, offered or exposed for
sale, or held with intent to sell or as a sample representing any lot or stock of potatoes offered or
exposed for sale or held with intent to sell within this state, for the purpose of planting.
    Subd. 6. Person. "Person" includes an individual, partnership, corporation, company,
society, association, and firms.
History: 1951 c 465 s 2; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444; 2002 c 373 s 17
21.112 COMMISSIONER, DUTIES; SEED POTATOES.
    Subdivision 1. Duties, employees. The commissioner shall provide the means and direct the
work for the inspection, certification, promotion of quality, and creation of demand and sale of
seed potatoes. The commissioner may enter into contracts and ground leases for planting and
growing potatoes outside of the state for experimental and research purposes. The commissioner
shall provide such forms as are necessary and keep a record of the work performed, and shall
appoint, designate, or employ such officers, inspectors, and employees as may be deemed
necessary and fix their compensation.
    Subd. 2. [Repealed by amendment, 2007 c 133 art 2 s 4]
History: 1951 c 465 s 3; 1983 c 260 s 12; 1986 c 444; 1997 c 192 s 14; 2001 c 161 s 9;
2007 c 133 art 2 s 4
21.113 CERTIFICATES OF INSPECTION.
The commissioner shall cause certificates of inspection to be issued only when seed potatoes
have been inspected while growing in the field and again after being harvested. Such certificates
shall show the varietal purity and the freedom from disease and physical injury of such potatoes
and shall contain such other information as may be prescribed by rules adopted and published
under sections 21.111 to 21.122.
History: 1951 c 465 s 4; 1985 c 248 s 70
21.114 [Repealed, 1979 c 68 s 6]
21.115 FEES; SEED POTATO INSPECTION ACCOUNT.
The commissioner shall fix the fees for all inspections and certifications in such amounts
as from time to time may be found necessary to pay the expenses of carrying out and enforcing
the purposes of sections 21.111 to 21.122, with a reasonable reserve, and shall require the same
to be paid before such inspections or certifications are made. All moneys collected as fees or as
penalties for violations of any of the provisions of such sections shall be paid into the agricultural
fund and credited to the seed potato inspection account of the commissioner, which account is
hereby created and appropriated for carrying out the purposes of sections 21.111 to 21.122.
Interest, if any, received on deposits of these moneys shall be credited to the account, and there
shall be paid into this fund any sum provided by the legislature for the purpose of carrying out the
provisions of such sections.
History: 1951 c 465 s 6; 1993 c 172 s 25; 1999 c 231 s 44
21.116 EXPENSES.
All necessary expenses incurred in carrying out the provisions of sections 21.111 to 21.122
and the compensation of officers, inspectors, and employees appointed, designated, or employed
by the commissioner, as provided in such sections, together with their necessary traveling
expenses, together with the traveling expenses of the members of the advisory seed potato
certification committee, and other expenses necessary in attending committee meetings, shall be
paid from, and only from, the seed potato inspection account, on order of the commissioner and
commissioner of finance's voucher warrant.
History: 1951 c 465 s 7; 1973 c 492 s 14; 1999 c 231 s 45
21.117 APPLICATIONS FOR INSPECTIONS; WITHDRAWALS.
Any person may make application to the commissioner for inspection or certification of seed
potatoes growing or to be grown. Upon receiving such application and the required fee and such
other information as may be required, the commissioner shall cause such potatoes to be inspected
or certified in accordance with the provisions of sections 21.111 to 21.122 and the rules adopted
and published thereunder.
If a grower wishes to withdraw a field after having made application for inspection and such
withdrawal is requested before the field inspection has been made, the fee paid shall be refunded
to said grower.
History: 1951 c 465 s 8; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444
21.118 RULES.
It shall be the duty of the commissioner to promulgate reasonable rules for carrying out the
purposes and enforcing the provisions of sections 21.111 to 21.122.
History: 1951 c 465 s 9; 1985 c 248 s 70
21.119 USE OF CERTAIN TERMS FORBIDDEN; EXCEPTIONS.
It shall be unlawful to use or employ the term "certified" or the term "inspected," or any term
or terms conveying a meaning substantially equivalent to the meaning of either of these terms,
either orally or in writing, printing, marking, or otherwise in reference to or in connection with,
or in advertising or characterizing or labeling seed potatoes or the containers thereof, unless
such potatoes shall have been duly inspected and certified pursuant to the provisions of sections
21.111 to 21.122.
History: 1951 c 465 s 10; 1955 c 287 s 2
21.1195 MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR PLANTING.
Seed potatoes may not be planted in the state in lots of ten or more acres unless the seed
meets the minimum disease standards prescribed by the commissioner. Seed potatoes may
meet the standards by being certified in accordance with this chapter and rules adopted by the
commissioner, or under the certification program of another state or province which, in the
judgment of the commissioner, provides equivalent assurances of seed potato quality. Seed
potatoes may be planted without certification if they have had at least field inspection as required
for certified seed potatoes, have passed the field inspection standards of disease tolerance, and
are free from ring rot. A person that plants seed potatoes in violation of this section is subject
to a civil penalty of $20 per acre for each acre or part of an acre planted in violation of this
section. Failure to maintain complete and accurate records in accordance with this section or rules
adopted by the commissioner is an additional violation resulting in a separate civil penalty of
$200 for each failure.
If there is not available to be planted in this state, in any year, a sufficient volume of potato
seed meeting certified seed potato disease standards, in any or all varieties, the commissioner
may, upon application by one or more growers, permit seed that does not comply with this section
to be planted for that growing season if the seed does not pose a serious disease threat.
Each grower shall keep records of each lot of seed potatoes planted. For each growing
season, the records must include, by field, the variety and source of the seed potatoes. Each
grower shall file records as prescribed by the commissioner. All records must be made available
for inspection by the commissioner or the commissioner's agents during normal business hours.
In addition to the enforcement powers and penalties in this section, the commissioner may
issue a subpoena to a grower in order to compel delivery of records which are required under this
section. These subpoenas are enforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction.
History: 1987 c 124 s 1
21.1196 RESTRICTED SEED POTATO GROWING AREA.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. (a) "Restricted seed potato growing area" means Clearwater,
Kittson, Koochiching, and Roseau Counties; the portions of Marshall and Pennington Counties
that lie east of United States Highway No. 59; the portion of Red Lake County that lies east of
United States Highway No. 59 and north of Minnesota Highway No. 92; the portion of Polk
County that lies north of Minnesota Highway No. 92; and the portion of Beltrami County that lies
north of Beltrami County Highway No. 32 and west of Minnesota Highway No. 72.
(b) "Historic certified seed potato area" means the portion of Marshall County included in
the towns of Augsburg and Nelson Park that are north of Marshall County Highway No. 5.
    Subd. 2. Restriction. (a) The seed potato certification requirements under sections 21.111
to 21.122 apply to potatoes grown in plots of ten acres or more in the restricted seed potato
growing area. Qualifying potatoes grown in the restricted seed potato growing area must be
certified as seed potatoes.
(b) The commissioner may enter and inspect plots subject to paragraph (a) during the
growing season.
    Subd. 3. Penalty. A potato grower who violates subdivision 2, paragraph (a), is subject to a
penalty of $100 per acre of potatoes grown and not certified.
History: 1990 c 479 s 1; 1992 c 397 s 1; 1994 c 422 s 1
21.12 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.121 VIOLATIONS; REPORTS, PROSECUTIONS.
It shall be the duty of every prosecuting officer, to whom the commissioner shall report
any violation of sections 21.111 to 21.122, to cause appropriate proceedings to be commenced
and prosecuted in the proper courts without delay for the enforcement of the penalties in such
case as provided in such sections.
History: 1951 c 465 s 11
21.122 PENALTIES.
Any person violating any provision of sections 21.111 to 21.121 or any rule promulgated by
the commissioner thereunder shall be guilty of a misdemeanor; and upon conviction for a first
offense shall be punished by a fine of not less than $25 nor more than $1,000 or by imprisonment
for not less than 10 days nor more than 90 days; and for each second and subsequent offense
such persons shall be guilty of a gross misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less
than $50 nor more than $3,000 or by imprisonment for not less than 30 days nor more than six
months. Upon conviction for such second offense the commissioner shall refuse the violator the
privilege of handling in any way certified seed potatoes during the season in which such second
offense was committed.
History: 1951 c 465 s 12; 1984 c 628 art 3 s 11; 1985 c 248 s 70; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72
21.13 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.14 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.15 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.16 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.17 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.18 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.19 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.20 [Repealed, 1951 c 465 s 1]
21.21 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.22 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.23 [Repealed, 1945 c 543 s 12]
21.24 [Repealed, 1951 c 552 s 1]
21.31 [Renumbered 30.31]
21.32 [Renumbered 30.32]
21.33 [Renumbered 30.33]
21.34 [Renumbered 30.34]
21.35 [Renumbered 30.35]
21.36 [Renumbered 30.36]
21.37 [Renumbered 30.37]
21.38 [Renumbered 30.38]
21.39 [Renumbered 30.39]
21.40 [Renumbered 30.40]
21.41 [Renumbered 30.41]
21.42 [Renumbered 30.42]
21.43 [Renumbered 30.43]
21.44 [Renumbered 30.44]
21.45 [Renumbered 30.45]
21.46 [Renumbered 30.46]
21.47 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.48 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.49 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.50 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.502 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.503 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.51 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.52 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.53 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.54    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, Ex1961 c 6 s 5; 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.55 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.56 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.57 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]
21.58 [Repealed, 1983 c 293 s 115]

MINNESOTA SCREENINGS ACT

21.71 CITATION, MINNESOTA SCREENINGS ACT.
Sections 21.71 to 21.78 may be cited as the Minnesota Screenings Act.
History: 1959 c 172 s 1
21.72 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. As used in sections 21.73 to 21.78, the terms defined in this section
have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
    Subd. 3. Vendor. "Vendor" means any person who sells any weed-seed infested agricultural
seeds and grains, or screenings.
    Subd. 4. Sell. "Sell" when applying to weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or
screenings, and samples thereof, shall be construed as including:
(1) the act of selling, transferring ownership;
(2) the offering and exposing for sale, exchange, distribution, giving away, and transportation
in, and into, this state;
(3) the having in possession with intent to sell, exchange, distribute, give away, or transport
in, and into, this state;
(4) the storing, carrying, and handling in aid of traffic therein, whether done in person or
through an agent, employee, or others; and
(5) receiving, accepting, and holding on consignment for sale.
    Subd. 5. Advertisement. "Advertisement" means all representation disseminated in
any manner or by any means relating to weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or
screenings, within the scope of sections 21.71 to 21.78.
    Subd. 6. Consumer. "Consumer" refers to any person that uses for the purpose of feeding
any weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings.
    Subd. 7. Record. "Record" includes all information relating to the shipment, or shipments,
involved in a lot of weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings.
    Subd. 8. Lot. "Lot" means a definite quantity of weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and
grains, or screenings, which can be definitely identified.
    Subd. 9. Seizure. "Seizure" means a legal process carried out by court order against a definite
amount of weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings.
    Subd. 10. Stop-sale. "Stop-sale" means an administrative order provided by law restraining
the sale, use, disposition, and movement of a definite amount of weed-seed infested agricultural
seeds and grains, or screenings.
    Subd. 11. Screenings. "Screenings" means chaff, florets, immature seed, weed seeds, inert
matter, and other foreign material removed in any way from any seeds or grains in any kind of
cleaning and processing, or obtained from any other source.
    Subd. 12. Agricultural seeds and grains. "Agricultural seeds and grains" includes the seeds
of grass, forage, cereal, and fiber crops and any other kinds of seeds commonly recognized within
this state as agricultural or field seeds, lawn seeds, and mixtures of such seeds.
    Subd. 13. Weed seeds. "Weed seeds" includes the seeds of all plants generally recognized as
weeds within this state, including noxious weed seeds.
    Subd. 14. Noxious weed seeds. "Noxious weed seeds" includes restricted noxious weed
seeds as defined in subdivision 15.
    Subd. 15. Restricted weed seeds. "Restricted weed seeds" are those weed seeds which, if
present in weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, shall not be present
singly or collectively in excess of the rate of 90 per pound. Restricted weed seeds are seeds of
buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata), dodder (Cuscuta spp.), Frenchweed (Thlaspi arvense),
hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana), horse nettle (Solanum carolinense), wild mustard (Brassica
ssp.), quack grass (Agropyron repens), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), field bindweed
(Convolvulus arvensis), leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), perennial peppergrass (Cardaria draba),
perennial sow thistle (Sonchus arvensis), and Russian knapweed (Centaurea repens).
History: 1959 c 172 s 2; 1961 c 127 art 2 s 4
21.73 PROHIBITED ACTS.
    Subdivision 1. Infested feed grain; screenings. It is unlawful for any person to feed or to
sell, offer for sale, or expose for sale, or transport, to the consumer, for feeding purposes, any
weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings:
(1) Containing restricted weed seeds in excess of the legal limit;
(2) Containing more than ten percent total weed seeds by weight.
    Subd. 2. False advertisement; obstruction; noncompliance with orders. It is unlawful
for any person:
(1) to disseminate any false or misleading advertisement concerning weed-seed infested
agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, in any manner or by any means;
(2) to hinder or obstruct in any way any authorized person in the performance of duties
under sections 21.71 to 21.78; and
(3) to fail to comply with a stop-sale order.
History: 1959 c 172 s 3; 1961 c 127 art 2 s 5; 1986 c 444
21.74 EXCEPTIONS.
The provisions of section 21.73 shall not apply to:
(1) Agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, not intended for feeding purposes;
(2) Weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, being transported upon
any public highway to or from a cleaning or processing establishment for cleaning or processing,
which same are carried or transported in such vehicles or containers as will prevent the leaking
or scattering thereof;
(3) Weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, which have first been
devitalized by grinding, heating, chemical treatment, or any other suitable method;
(4) The sale of weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, to each other
by jobbers, manufacturers, or processors who mix or grind concentrated commercial feeding stuff
for sale; provided that the restrictions applying to clause (2), are complied with;
(5) The sale of weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, by any
vendor to a consumer, provided that the restrictions set forth in clauses (2) and (3) are complied
with. However, where the vendor is not equipped to devitalize weed seeds, the vendor may
sell weed-seed infested agricultural seeds, grains, or screenings only to a consumer who holds
a permit issued by the commissioner for such a purchase. The commissioner shall issue such a
permit annually to a consumer only if the consumer has the necessary facilities for devitalization,
as determined by the commissioner, or has access to such facilities. The consumer shall devitalize
such weed-seed infested agricultural seeds, grains, or screenings. The commissioner may revoke
a permit after due notice and a hearing if the consumer does not comply with the provisions
of this clause. The provisions of this clause shall not apply to the sale at a farm auction of a
vendors agricultural seeds or grains for feeding or processing purposes. "Farm auction" for the
purpose of this clause means the final sale at auction of the personal property of the farmer to the
highest bidder. However, if such agricultural seeds and grains are sold under variety names, and in
such manner and at such prices as to indicate that it is intended to use the seeds and grains for
seeding purposes, the seeds and grains are then subject to all laws relating to cleaning, testing, and
labeling of agricultural seed as set forth in the agricultural seed laws and the agricultural weed
laws of the state of Minnesota and such rules as have been promulgated by the commissioner of
agriculture thereunder; and
(6) Weed-seed infested agricultural seed and grains or screenings, produced by the farmer
and fed on the farmer's own farm, provided it does not contain restricted weed seeds in excess of
the legal limit.
History: 1959 c 172 s 4; 1961 c 127 art 2 s 6; 1961 c 713 s 1; 1963 c 592 s 1; 1985 c
248 s 70; 1986 c 444
21.75 POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMISSIONER.
    Subdivision 1. Enforcement; rulemaking. The duty of enforcing sections 21.71 to 21.78
and carrying out the provisions and requirements thereof is vested in the commissioner of
agriculture. The commissioner, personally or through agents, shall:
(1) Sample, inspect, make analysis of, and test weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and
grains, or screenings, transported, sold, or offered, or exposed for sale within this state for any
purpose, at such time and place, and to such extent as the commissioner may deem necessary
to determine whether such weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grain, or screenings, is in
compliance with the provisions of sections 21.71 to 21.78, and to notify promptly the person who
transported, sold, offered, or exposed the weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or
screenings, for sale of any violation;
(2) Prescribe and, after public hearing following due public notice, adopt such rules as may
be necessary to secure the efficient enforcement of sections 21.71 to 21.78. Such rules are to
be adopted in accordance with the law; and
(3) Prescribe and, after public hearing following due public notice, establish, add to, or
subtract therefrom by rules a restricted noxious weed-seed list.
    Subd. 2. Entry, orders, and testing. The commissioner of agriculture, personally or through
agents, is further authorized to:
(1) enter upon any public or private premises, excluding the home, during regular business
hours in order to have access to weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings,
subject to sections 21.71 to 21.78, and the rules thereunder;
(2) issue and enforce a written or printed stop-sale order to the owner or custodian of any
lot or amount of weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, which the
commissioner finds is in violation of any of the provisions of sections 21.71 to 21.78, which order
shall prohibit further sale of such weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings,
until such officer has evidence that the law has been complied with; provided, that no stop-sale
order shall be issued or attached to any lot or amount of weed-seed infested agricultural seeds
and grains, or screenings, without first giving the owner or custodian of such weed-seed infested
agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, an opportunity to comply with the law; provided,
further, that in respect to weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, which
have been denied sale as provided in this paragraph, the owner or custodian of such weed-seed
infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, shall have the right to appeal from such order
to a court of competent jurisdiction in the locality in which the weed-seed infested agricultural
seeds and grains, or screenings, are found, praying for a judgment as to the justification of
said order and for the discharge of such weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or
screenings, from the order prohibiting the sale in accordance with the findings of the court; and
provided, further, that the provisions of this paragraph shall not be construed as limiting the right
of the enforcement officer to proceed as authorized by other sections of 21.71 to 21.78;
(3) test weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, under presently
existing facilities; and
(4) make or provide for making tests of weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains,
or screenings, for farmers and dealers on request; to prescribe rules governing such testing; and
to fix and collect charges for the tests made.
History: 1959 c 172 s 5; 1961 c 127 art 1 s 7; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444
21.76 INJUNCTION; BOND.
When in the performance of duties the commissioner applies to any court for a temporary or
permanent injunction restraining any person from violating or continuing to violate any of the
provisions of sections 21.71 to 21.78, or any rules thereunder, said injunction, if any be granted,
shall be issued without bond.
History: 1959 c 172 s 6; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444
21.77 SEIZURE.
Any lot or amount of weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, not
in compliance with the provisions of sections 21.71 to 21.78, is subject to seizure on complaint
of the commissioner to a court of competent jurisdiction in the locality in which the weed-seed
infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, are located. In the event that the court
finds the weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, to be in violation of
said sections and orders the condemnation of said weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and
grains, or screenings, they shall be denatured, processed, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of in
compliance with the laws of this state; provided, that in no instance shall the court order such
disposition of said weed-seed infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, without first
having given the claimant any opportunity to apply to the court for the release of said weed-seed
infested agricultural seeds and grains, or screenings, or permission to process them to bring them
into compliance with these sections.
History: 1959 c 172 s 7
21.78 VIOLATIONS; ENFORCEMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Misdemeanor. Any person violating any of the provisions of sections
21.71 to 21.78, or any of the rules promulgated by the commissioner thereunder, is guilty of
a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 2. Duty to prosecute. It is the duty of every prosecuting officer to whom the
commissioner shall report any violation of sections 21.71 to 21.78, or of any of the rules
promulgated thereunder, to cause appropriate proceedings to be commenced and prosecuted in the
proper courts without delay for the enforcement of the penalties as in such case provided.
History: 1959 c 172 s 8; 1985 c 248 s 70

MINNESOTA SEED LAW

21.80 MINNESOTA SEED LAW.
Sections 21.80 to 21.92 may be cited as the "Minnesota Seed Law."
History: 1983 c 293 s 39
21.81 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. The terms used in sections 21.80 to 21.92 have the meanings given
them in this section.
    Subd. 2. Advertisement. "Advertisement" means any representation, other than on a label,
disseminated in any manner or by any means, relating to seed within the scope of sections 21.80
to 21.92.
    Subd. 3. Agricultural seeds. "Agricultural seeds" includes the seeds of grass, forage, cereal,
oil, fiber crops, seeds of vegetables grown for processing, and any other kinds of seeds commonly
recognized within this state as agricultural or field seeds, lawn seeds, or mixtures of those seeds,
and may include noxious weed seed when the commissioner determines that the seed is being
used as agricultural seed.
    Subd. 4. Blend. "Blend" means seed consisting of more than one variety of a kind, each in
excess of five percent of the whole.
    Subd. 5. Certified seed. "Certified seed" means certified, registered, or foundation seed, or
any other term conveying a similar meaning when referring to seed that has been produced,
conditioned, and labeled in compliance with the rules of an officially recognized seed certification
agency.
    Subd. 6. Commissioner. "Commissioner" means the commissioner of agriculture or an
authorized agent and may include a county agricultural inspector.
    Subd. 7. Conditioning. "Conditioning" means cleaning to remove chaff, sterile florets,
immature seeds, weed seeds, inert matter, and other crop seeds, scarifying, combining to obtain
uniform quality, or any other operation which would change the purity or germination of the seed
and require retesting to determine the quality of the seed. Conditioning does not include such
operations as packaging, labeling, combining uniform lots of the same kind or variety without
cleaning or preparing a mixture without cleaning, if it would not require retesting to determine the
quality of the seed.
    Subd. 7a. Dormant. "Dormant" means viable seed, exclusive of hard seed, that fail to
germinate under the specified germination conditions for the kind of seed.
    Subd. 8. Flower seeds. "Flower seeds" includes seeds of herbaceous plants grown for their
blooms, ornamental foliage, or other ornamental parts and commonly known and sold under the
name of flower seeds in this state. This does not include native or introduced wildflowers.
    Subd. 9. Genuine grower's declaration. A "genuine grower's declaration" is a statement
signed by the grower which gives for a lot of agricultural seed, the lot number, kind, variety, origin,
weight, year of production, date of shipment, and to whom it was sold, shipped, or delivered.
    Subd. 10. Germination. "Germination" means the percentage of seeds other than hard seeds
which are capable of producing normal seedlings under favorable growing conditions. Broken,
weak, diseased, malformed, or abnormal seedlings shall not be considered as having germinated.
    Subd. 10a. Hard seed. "Hard seed" means seeds that remain hard at the end of the prescribed
test period because they have not absorbed water due to an impermeable seed coat.
    Subd. 11. Hybrid. "Hybrid" when applied to kinds or varieties of seed means the first
generation seed of a cross produced by controlling the pollination and by combining (a) two or
more inbred lines; (b) one inbred or a single cross with an open pollinated variety; or (c) two
selected clones, seed lines, varieties, or species. "Controlling the pollination" means to use a
method of hybridization which will produce pure seed which is at least 75 percent hybrid seed.
The second generation or subsequent generations from these crosses are not hybrids. Hybrid
designations shall be treated as variety names.
    Subd. 11a. Inert matter. "Inert matter" means all matter that is not seed, including broken
seeds, sterile florets, chaff, fungus bodies, and stones as determined by methods defined by rule.
    Subd. 12. Initial labeler. "Initial labeler" means a person who is the first to label for sale
within this state an agricultural, vegetable, flower, tree, or shrub seed.
    Subd. 13. Kind. "Kind" means one or more related species or subspecies which singly or
collectively is known by one common name, such as wheat, oats, or sweet clover.
    Subd. 14. Label. "Label" includes a tag or other device attached to or written, stamped, or
printed on any container or accompanying any lot of bulk seeds purporting to set forth the kind
of seeds contained, or any other information relating to the labeled seed and includes invoices
under which any seed is imported into the state.
    Subd. 15. Lot. "Lot" means a definite quantity of seed identified by a lot number or other
mark, every portion or bag of which is uniform within recognized tolerances for the factors
which appear in the labeling.
    Subd. 16. Mixture. "Mixture" means seeds consisting of more than one kind, each in excess
of five percent of the whole.
    Subd. 16a. Native wildflower. "Native wildflower" means a kind, type, or variety of
wildflower derived from wildflowers that are indigenous to Minnesota and wildflowers that are
defined or designated as native species under chapter 84D.
    Subd. 17. Noxious weed seeds. "Noxious weed seeds" includes prohibited and restricted
noxious weed seeds.
    Subd. 17b. Origin. "Origin," for an indigenous stand of trees, means the area on which the
trees are growing and, for a nonindigenous stand, the place from which the seed or plants were
originally introduced. "Origin" for agricultural and vegetable seed is the area where the seed was
produced, and for native grasses and forbs, it is the area where the original seed was harvested.
    Subd. 17c. Other crop seed. "Other crop seed" means seed of plants grown as crops, other
than the variety included in the pure seed, as determined by methods defined by rule.
    Subd. 17d. Person. "Person" means an individual, firm, corporation, partnership, association,
trust, joint stock company, or unincorporated organization; the state, a state agency, or a political
subdivision.
    Subd. 18.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
    Subd. 19. Prohibited noxious weed seeds. "Prohibited noxious weed seeds" are those
weed seeds which are prohibited from being present in any agricultural, vegetable, flower, tree
or shrub seed. They are the seeds of weeds which are highly destructive and difficult to control
by good cultural practices or by the use of herbicides. They not only reproduce by seed but also
may spread by underground reproductive parts such as roots and rootstocks and aboveground
reproductive parts such as runners and stolons.
    Subd. 20. Pure live seed. "Pure live seed" means the product of the percent germination
multiplied by the percent pure seed divided by 100 percent.
    Subd. 21. Pure seed. "Pure seed" means seed exclusive of inert matter and all other seeds not
of the kind of seed being considered as defined by the rules for testing seeds of the Association
of Official Seed Analysts.
    Subd. 22. Record. "Record" includes all information relating to seed shipments and includes
a file sample of each lot of seed. For tree and shrub seed, the record includes all documents
regarding statement of origin and elevation where the seed originated.
    Subd. 23. Restricted noxious weed seeds. "Restricted noxious weed seeds" are those weed
seeds which, if present in agricultural, vegetable, flower, tree or shrub seed, shall be named on the
label together with the number per pound of seed specified and which shall not exceed the legal
limit. They are seeds of weeds which are objectionable in fields, lawns, and gardens of this state
and can be controlled by good cultural practice and use of herbicides.
    Subd. 24. Screenings. "Screenings" means chaff, sterile florets, immature seed, weed seeds,
inert matter, and other material removed from seed in any kind of conditioning and which contains
less than 25 percent by weight of live agricultural or vegetable seed.
    Subd. 25. Seizure. "Seizure" means a legal process carried out by a court order against
a definite amount of seed.
    Subd. 26. Sell. "Sell," when applying to agricultural, vegetable, flower, tree or shrub seed,
and seed samples, includes:
(a) selling or transferring ownership;
(b) offering and exposing for sale, exchange, distribution, giving away, and transportation
in or into this state;
(c) having in possession with intent to sell, exchange, distribute, give away, or transport
in or into this state;
(d) storing, carrying, and handling in aid of traffic in seeds, whether done in person or
through an agent, employee, or other person; and
(e) receiving, accepting, and holding on consignment for sale.
    Subd. 27. Stop sale. "Stop sale" means an administrative order restraining the sale, use,
disposition, and movement of a definite amount of seed.
    Subd. 28. Treated. "Treated" means that the seed has received an application of a substance
or that it has been subjected to a process for which a claim is made.
    Subd. 29. Tree and shrub seeds. "Tree and shrub seeds" includes seeds of woody plants
commonly known and sold as tree and shrub seeds in this state.
    Subd. 30. Tree seed collector's declaration. A "tree seed collector's declaration" is a
statement signed by a grower or person having knowledge of the place of collection which
gives for a lot of seed: the lot number, common or scientific name of the species, subspecies if
appropriate, origin, elevation, and quantity of tree and shrub seed.
    Subd. 31. Type. "Type" means a group of varieties so nearly similar that individual varieties
cannot be clearly differentiated except under special conditions.
    Subd. 32. Vegetable seeds. "Vegetable seeds" includes the seeds of those crops which
are grown in gardens and on truck farms that are generally known and sold under the name of
vegetable or herb seeds in this state.
    Subd. 33. Variety. "Variety" means a subdivision of a kind characterized by growth, yield,
plant, fruit, seed, or other characteristics by which it can be differentiated from other plants of
the same kind.
    Subd. 34. Weed seeds. "Weed seeds" includes the seeds of all plants generally recognized as
weeds within this state, including noxious weed seeds.
History: 1983 c 293 s 40; 1986 c 444; 2003 c 128 art 8 s 1-8
21.82 LABEL REQUIREMENTS; AGRICULTURAL, VEGETABLE, FLOWER, OR
WILDFLOWER SEEDS.
    Subdivision 1. Form. Each container of agricultural, vegetable, flower, or wildflower seed
which is offered for sale for sowing purposes must bear or have attached in a conspicuous place a
plainly written or printed label or tag in the English language giving the information required by
this section. This statement must not be modified or denied in the labeling or on another label
attached to the container.
    Subd. 2. Content. For agricultural, vegetable, flower, or wildflower seeds offered for sale as
agricultural seed, except as otherwise provided in subdivisions 4, 5, and 6, the label must contain:
(a) The name of the kind or kind and variety for each seed component in excess of five percent
of the whole and the percentage by weight of each in order of its predominance. The commissioner
shall by rule designate the kinds that are required to be labeled as to variety. If the variety of those
kinds generally labeled as to variety is not stated and it is not required to be stated, the label shall
show the name of the kind and the words: "Variety not stated." The heading "pure seed" must be
indicated on the seed label in close association with other required label information.
(1) The percentage that is hybrid shall be at least 95 percent of the percentage of pure seed
shown unless the percentage of pure seed which is hybrid seed is shown separately. If two or more
kinds or varieties are present in excess of five percent and are named on the label, each that is
hybrid shall be designated as hybrid on the label. Any one kind or kind and variety that has pure
seed which is less than 95 percent but more than 75 percent hybrid seed as a result of incompletely
controlled pollination in a cross shall be labeled to show the percentage of pure seed that is hybrid
seed or a statement such as "contains from 75 percent to 95 percent hybrid seed." No one kind or
variety of seed shall be labeled as hybrid if the pure seed contains less than 75 percent hybrid
seed. The word hybrid shall be shown on the label in conjunction with the kind.
(2) Blends shall be listed on the label using the term "blend" in conjunction with the kind.
(3) Mixtures shall be listed on the label using the term "mixture," "mix," or "mixed."
(b) Lot number or other lot identification.
(c) Origin, if known, or that the origin is unknown.
(d) Percentage by weight of all weed seeds present. This percentage may not exceed one
percent. The heading "weed seed" must be indicated on the seed label in close association with
other required label information.
(e) Name and rate of occurrence per pound of each kind of restricted noxious weed seeds
present. They must be listed under the heading "noxious weed seeds" in close association with
other required label information.
(f) Percentage by weight of seeds other than those kinds and varieties required to be named
on the label. They must be listed under the heading "other crop" in close association with other
required label information.
(g) Percentage by weight of inert matter. The heading "inert matter" must be indicated on the
seed label in close association with other required label information.
(h) Net weight of contents, to appear on either the container or the label.
(i) For each named kind or variety of seed:
(1) percentage of germination, exclusive of hard or dormant seed or both;
(2) percentage of hard or dormant seed or both, if present; and
(3) the calendar month and year the percentages were determined by test or the statement
"sell by (month and year)" which may not be more than 12 months from the date of test, exclusive
of the month of test.
The headings for "germination" and "hard seed or dormant seed" percentages must be stated
separately on the seed label. A separate percentage derived from combining these percentages
may also be stated on the seed label, but the heading for this percentage must be "total germination
and hard seed or dormant seed when applicable." They must not be stated as "total live seed,"
"total germination," or in any other unauthorized manner.
(j) Name and address of the person who labeled the seed or who sells the seed within this
state, or a code number which has been registered with the commissioner.
    Subd. 3. Treated seed. For all named agricultural, vegetable, flower, or wildflower seeds
which are treated, for which a separate label may be used, the label must contain:
(1) a word or statement to indicate that the seed has been treated;
(2) the commonly accepted, coined, chemical, or abbreviated generic chemical name of
the applied substance;
(3) the caution statement "Do not use for food, feed, or oil purposes" if the substance in the
amount present with the seed is harmful to human or other vertebrate animals;
(4) in the case of mercurials or similarly toxic substances, a poison statement and symbol;
(5) a word or statement describing the process used when the treatment is not of pesticide
origin; and
(6) the date beyond which the inoculant is considered ineffective if the seed is treated with an
inoculant. It must be listed on the label as "inoculant: expires (month and year)" or wording that
conveys the same meaning.
    Subd. 4. Hybrid seed corn. For hybrid seed corn purposes a label must contain:
(1) a statement indicating the number of seeds in the container may be listed along with
or in lieu of the net weight of contents; and
(2) for each variety of hybrid seed field corn, the day classification as determined by the
originator or owner. The day classification must approximate the number of days of growing
season necessary from emergence of the corn plant above ground to relative maturity and must
conform to the day classification established by the director of the Minnesota agricultural
experiment station for the appropriate zone.
    Subd. 5. Grass seed. For grass seed and mixtures of grass seeds intended for lawn and turf
purposes, the requirements in paragraphs (a) and (b) must be met.
(a) The label must contain the statement "sell by (month and year listed here)" which may be
no more than 15 months from the date of test, exclusive of the month of test.
(b) When grass seeds are sold outside their original containers, the labeling requirements are
met if the seed is weighed from a properly labeled container in the presence of the purchaser.
    Subd. 6. Coated agricultural seeds. For coated agricultural seeds the label must contain:
(1) percentage by weight of pure seeds with coating material removed;
(2) percentage by weight of coating material shown as a separate item in close association
with the percentage of inert matter; and
(3) percentage of germination determined on 400 pellets with or without seeds.
    Subd. 7. Vegetable seeds. For vegetable seeds prepared for use in home gardens or
household plantings the requirements in paragraphs (a) to (p) apply. Vegetable seeds packed for
sale in commercial quantities to farmers, conservation groups, and other similar entities are
considered agricultural seeds and must be labeled accordingly.
(a) The label must contain the name of the kind or kind and variety for each seed component
in excess of five percent of the whole and the percentage by weight of each in order of its
predominance. If the variety of those kinds generally labeled as to variety is not stated and it is not
required to be stated, the label must show the name of the kind and the words "variety not stated."
(b) The percentage that is hybrid must be at least 95 percent of the percentage of pure seed
shown unless the percentage of pure seed which is hybrid seed is shown separately. If two or more
kinds of varieties are present in excess of five percent and are named on the label, each that is
hybrid must be designated as hybrid on the label. Any one kind or kind and variety that has pure
seed that is less than 95 percent but more than 75 percent hybrid seed as a result of incompletely
controlled pollination in a cross must be labeled to show the percentage of pure seed that is hybrid
seed or a statement such as "contains from 75 percent to 95 percent hybrid seed." No one kind or
variety of seed may be labeled as hybrid if the pure seed contains less than 75 percent hybrid
seed. The word "hybrid" must be shown on the label in conjunction with the kind.
(c) Blends must be listed on the label using the term "blend" in conjunction with the kind.
(d) Mixtures shall be listed on the label using the term "mixture," "mix," or "mixed."
(e) The label must show a lot number or other lot identification.
(f) The origin may be omitted from the label.
(g) The label must show the year for which the seed was packed for sale listed as "packed
for (year)" for seed with a percentage of germination that exceeds the standard last established
by the commissioner, the percentage of germination and the calendar month and year that the
percentages were determined by test, or the calendar month and year the germination test was
completed and the statement "sell by (month and year listed here)," which may be no more than
12 months from the date of test, exclusive of the month of test.
(h) For vegetable seeds which germinate less than the standard last established by the
commissioner, the label must show:
(1) a percentage of germination, exclusive of hard or dormant seed or both;
(2) a percentage of hard or dormant seed or both, if present; and
(3) the words "below standard" in not less than eight point type and the month and year the
percentages were determined by test.
(i) The net weight of the contents must appear on either the container or the label, except that
for containers with contents of 200 seeds or less a statement indicating the number of seeds in the
container may be listed along with or in lieu of the net weight of contents.
(j) The heading for and percentage by weight of pure seed may be omitted from a label if
the total is more than 90 percent.
(k) The heading for and percentage by weight of weed seed may be omitted from a label
if they are not present in the seed.
(l) The heading "noxious weed seeds" may be omitted from a label if they are not present
in the seed.
(m) The heading for and percentage by weight of other crop seed may be omitted from a
label if it is less than five percent.
(n) The heading for and percentage by weight of inert matter may be omitted from a label if
it is less than ten percent.
(o) The label must contain the name and address of the person who labeled the seed or who
sells the seed in this state or a code number that has been registered with the commissioner.
(p) The labeling requirements for vegetable seeds prepared for use in home gardens or
household plantings when sold outside their original containers are met if the seed is weighed
from a properly labeled container in the presence of the purchaser.
    Subd. 8. Flower seeds. For flower and wildflower seeds prepared for use in home gardens
or household plantings, the requirements in paragraphs (a) to (l) apply. Flower and wildflower
seeds packed for sale in commercial quantities to farmers, conservation groups, and other similar
entities are considered agricultural seeds and must be labeled accordingly.
(a) The label must contain the name of the kind and variety or a statement of type and
performance characteristics as prescribed by rule.
(b) The percentage that is hybrid must be at least 95 percent of the percentage of pure seed
shown unless the percentage of pure seed which is hybrid seed is shown separately. If two or more
kinds of varieties are present in excess of five percent and are named on the label, each that is
hybrid must be designated as hybrid on the label. Any one kind or kind and variety that has pure
seed that is less than 95 percent but more than 75 percent hybrid seed as a result of incompletely
controlled pollination in a cross must be labeled to show the percentage of pure seed that is hybrid
seed or a statement such as "contains from 75 percent to 95 percent hybrid seed." No one kind or
variety of seed may be labeled as hybrid if the pure seed contains less than 75 percent hybrid
seed. The word "hybrid" must be shown on the label in conjunction with the kind.
(c) Blends must be listed on the label using the term "blend" in conjunction with the kind.
(d) Mixtures must be listed on the label using the term "mixture," "mix," or "mixed."
(e) The label must contain the lot number or other lot identification.
(f) The origin may be omitted from the label.
(g) The label must contain the year for which the seed was packed for sale listed as "packed
for (year)" for seed with a percentage of germination that exceeds the standard last established
by the commissioner, the percentage of germination and the calendar month and year that the
percentages were determined by test, or the calendar month and year the germination test was
completed and the statement "sell by (month and year listed here)," which may be no more than
12 months from the date of test, exclusive of the month of test.
(h) For flower seeds which germinate less than the standard last established by the
commissioner, the label must show:
(1) percentage of germination exclusive of hard or dormant seed or both;
(2) percentage of hard or dormant seed or both, if present; and
(3) the words "below standard" in not less than eight point type and the month and year this
percentage was determined by test.
(i) The label must show the net weight of contents on either the container or the label, except
that for containers with contents of 200 seeds or less a statement indicating the number of seeds in
the container may be listed along with or in lieu of the net weight of contents.
(j) The heading for and percentage by weight of pure seed may be omitted from a label if
the total is more than 90 percent.
(k) The heading for and percentage by weight of weed seed may be omitted from a label
if they are not present in the seed.
(l) The heading "noxious weed seeds" may be omitted from a label if they are not present
in the seed.
(m) The heading for and percentage by weight of other crop seed may be omitted from a
label if it is less than five percent.
(n) The heading for and percentage by weight of inert matter may be omitted from a label if
it is less than ten percent.
(o) The label must show the name and address of the person who labeled the seed or who
sells the seed within this state, or a code number which has been registered with the commissioner.
History: 1983 c 293 s 41; 2003 c 128 art 8 s 9
21.83 LABEL REQUIREMENTS; TREE OR SHRUB SEEDS.
    Subdivision 1. Form. Each container of tree or shrub seed which is offered for sale for
sowing purposes shall bear or have attached in a conspicuous place a plainly written or printed
label or tag in the English language giving the information required by this section. This label
statement shall not be modified or denied in the labeling or on another label attached to the
container, except that labeling of seed supplied under a contractual agreement may be made by
an invoice accompanying the shipment or by an analysis tag attached to the invoice if each bag
or other container is clearly identified by a lot number stenciled on the container. Each bag or
container that is not so stenciled must carry complete labeling.
    Subd. 2. Label content. For all tree or shrub seed subject to this section the label shall
contain:
(a) the common name of the species, and the subspecies if appropriate;
(b) the scientific name of the genus and species, and the subspecies if appropriate;
(c) the lot number or other lot identification;
(d) for seed collected from a predominantly indigenous stand, the area of collection given by
latitude and longitude, or geographic description, or political subdivision such as state or county;
(e) for seed collected from a predominantly nonindigenous stand, the identity of the area of
collection and the origin of the stand or the words "origin not indigenous";
(f) the elevation or the upper and lower limits of elevation within which the seed was
collected;
(g) the percentage of pure seed by weight;
(h) for those kinds of seed for which standard testing procedures are prescribed:
(1) the percentage of germination exclusive of hard or dormant seed;
(2) the percentage of hard or dormant seed, if present; and
(3) the calendar month and year the percentages were determined by test; or
(4) in lieu of the requirements of clauses (1) to (3), the seed may be labeled "test is in
progress, results will be supplied upon request";
(i) for those species for which standard germination testing procedures have not been
prescribed by the commissioner, the calendar year in which the seed was collected; and
(j) the name and address of the person who labeled the seed or who sells the seed within
this state.
    Subd. 3. Treated seed. For all treated tree and shrub seeds for which a separate label may be
used the label shall contain:
(a) a word or statement to indicate that the seed has been treated;
(b) the commonly accepted, coined, chemical, or abbreviated generic chemical name of
the applied substance;
(c) the caution statement "Do not use for food, feed, or oil purposes" if the substance in the
amount present with the seed is harmful to human or other vertebrate animals;
(d) in the case of mercurials or similarly toxic substances, a poison statement and symbol;
(e) a word or statement describing the process used when the treatment is not of pesticide
origin;
(f) if the seed has been treated with an inoculant, the date beyond which the inoculant is
considered ineffective. It shall be listed on the label as "inoculant: expires (month and year)" or
wording which conveys the same meaning.
History: 1983 c 293 s 42; 2003 c 128 art 8 s 10
21.84 RECORDS.
Each person whose name appears on the label of agricultural, vegetable, flower, wildflower,
tree, or shrub seeds subject to section 21.82 or 21.83 shall keep for three years complete records
of each lot of agricultural, vegetable, flower, wildflower, tree, or shrub seed sold in this state and
shall keep for one year a file sample of each lot of seed after disposition of the lot.
History: 1983 c 293 s 43; 2003 c 128 art 8 s 11
21.85 COMMISSIONER'S POWERS AND DUTIES.
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 2. Seed laboratory. The commissioner shall establish and maintain a seed laboratory
for seed testing, employing necessary agents and assistants to administer and enforce sections
21.80 to 21.92, who shall be governed by chapter 43A.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 8.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 10. Commissioner may alter requirements in emergencies. In the event of acute
shortages of any seed or seeds, or the occurrence of other conditions which in the opinion of
the commissioner create an emergency which would make impractical the enforcement of any
requirement of sections 21.80 to 21.92 relating to the percentage of purity, weed seed content,
and the variety name of any seed or seeds, the commissioner may temporarily change and alter
any requirement relating to percentage of purity, weed seed content, and the variety name for the
duration of the emergency.
    Subd. 11. Rules. The commissioner may adopt rules under this chapter. A violation of the
rules is a violation of this chapter.
    Subd. 12. Service testing and identification. The commissioner shall provide for purity and
germination tests of seeds and identification of seeds and plants for farmers, dealers, and others,
and shall establish schedules to recover the cost of services provided. Money collected must be
deposited in the laboratory services account in the agricultural fund.
    Subd. 13. Sampling export seed. The commissioner may sample agricultural, vegetable,
flower, wildflower, tree, or shrub seeds which are destined for export to other countries, and may
establish and collect suitable fees from the exporter for this service.
    Subd. 14. Cooperation with United States Department of Agriculture. The commissioner
shall cooperate with the United States Department of Agriculture in Seed Law enforcement.
History: 1983 c 293 s 44; 1984 c 640 s 32; 1986 c 444; 1992 c 567 art 3 s 2; 1993 c 367 s
25; 1995 c 233 art 2 s 56; 1Sp2001 c 2 s 41; 2003 c 128 art 8 s 12,13
21.86 UNLAWFUL ACTS.
    Subdivision 1. Prohibitions. A person may not advertise or sell any agricultural, vegetable,
flower, wildflower, tree, or shrub seed if:
(a) a test to determine the percentage of germination required by sections 21.82 and 21.83
has not been completed within a 12-month period, exclusive of the calendar month in which the
test was completed or it is offered for sale beyond the sell by date exclusive of the calendar month
in which the seed was to have been sold, except that:
(1) when advertised or offered for sale as agricultural seed, native grass and forb
(wildflowers) seeds must have been tested for percentage of germination as required by section
21.82 within a 15-month period, exclusive of the calendar month in which the test was completed;
(2) it is unlawful to offer cool season lawn and turf grasses including Kentucky bluegrass, red
fescue, chewings fescue, hard fescue, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, annual
ryegrass, colonial bent grass, creeping bent grass, and mixtures or blends of those grasses, for sale
beyond the sell by date exclusive of the calendar month in which the seed was to have been sold;
(3) this prohibition does not apply to tree, shrub, agricultural, flower, wildflower, or vegetable
seeds packaged in hermetically sealed containers. Seeds packaged in hermetically sealed
containers under the conditions defined by rule may be offered for sale for a period of 36 months
after the last day of the month that the seeds were tested for germination prior to packaging; and
(4) if seeds in hermetically sealed containers are offered for sale more than 36 months after
the last day of the month in which they were tested prior to packaging, they must be retested
within a nine-month period, exclusive of the calendar month in which the retest was completed;
(b) it is not labeled in accordance with sections 21.82 and 21.83 or has false or misleading
labeling;
(c) false or misleading advertisement has been used in respect to its sale;
(d) it contains prohibited noxious weed seeds;
(e) it consists of or contains restricted noxious weed seeds in excess of 25 seeds per pound or
in excess of the number declared on the label attached to the container of the seed or associated
with the seed;
(f) it contains more than one percent by weight of all weed seeds;
(g) it contains less than the stated net weight of contents;
(h) it contains less than the stated number of seeds in the container;
(i) it contains any labeling, advertising, or other representation subject to sections 21.82 and
21.83 representing the seed to be certified unless:
(1) it has been determined by a seed certifying agency that the seed conformed to standards
of purity and identity as to kind, species, subspecies, or variety, and also that tree seed was found
to be of the origin and elevation claimed, in compliance with the rules pertaining to the seed; and
(2) the seed bears an official label issued for it by a seed certifying agency stating that the
seed is of a certified class and a specified kind, species, subspecies, or variety;
(j) it is labeled with a variety name but not certified by an official seed certifying agency
when it is a variety for which a United States certificate of plant variety protection has been
granted under United States Code, title 7, sections 2481 to 2486, specifying sale by variety name
only as a class of certified seed. Seed from a certified lot may be labeled as to variety name when
used in a blend or mixture by or with approval of the owner of the variety; or
(k) the person whose name appears on the label does not have complete records including a
file sample of each lot of agricultural, vegetable, flower, tree or shrub seed sold in this state as
required in section 21.84.
    Subd. 2. Miscellaneous violations. No person may:
(a) detach, alter, deface, or destroy any label required in sections 21.82 and 21.83, alter or
substitute seed in a manner that may defeat the purposes of sections 21.82 and 21.83, or alter
or falsify any seed tests, laboratory reports, records, or other documents to create a misleading
impression as to kind, variety, history, quality, or origin of the seed;
(b) hinder or obstruct in any way any authorized person in the performance of duties under
sections 21.80 to 21.92;
(c) fail to comply with a "stop sale" order or to move or otherwise handle or dispose of any
lot of seed held under a stop sale order or attached tags, except with express permission of the
enforcing officer for the purpose specified;
(d) use the word "type" in any labeling in connection with the name of any agricultural
seed variety;
(e) use the word "trace" as a substitute for any statement which is required; or
(f) plant any agricultural seed which the person knows contains weed seeds or noxious
weed seeds in excess of the limits for that seed.
History: 1983 c 293 s 45; 2000 c 477 s 23; 2003 c 128 art 8 s 14
21.87 EXEMPTION.
Sections 21.82 and 21.83 do not apply:
(a) to seed or grain not intended for sowing purposes;
(b) to seed in storage in or being transported or consigned to a conditioning establishment for
conditioning, provided that the invoice or label accompanying any shipment of the seeds bears
the statement "seeds for conditioning," and provided that any labeling or other representation
which may be made with respect to the unconditioned seed is subject to the provisions of sections
21.82 and 21.83; or
(c) to any carrier with respect to seed transported or delivered for transportation in the
ordinary course of its business as a carrier, provided that the carrier is not engaged in producing,
conditioning, or marketing seeds subject to sections 21.82 and 21.83.
History: 1983 c 293 s 46
21.88 PENALTIES NOT TO APPLY.
A person is not subject to penalties for having sold seeds which were incorrectly labeled or
represented as to kind, species, subspecies, if appropriate, variety, type, origin and year, elevation
or place of collection if required, if the seeds cannot be identified by examination unless the person
has failed to obtain an invoice or genuine grower's or tree seed collector's declaration or other
labeling information and to take other reasonable precautions to ensure the identity is as stated.
History: 1983 c 293 s 47; 1986 c 444; 2003 c 128 art 8 s 15
21.89 SEED FEE PERMITS.
    Subdivision 1. Seed fee. In order to pay for administering and enforcing sections 21.80 to
21.92, the commissioner shall establish the fees charged for various seeds and shall collect the
fees on all seeds covered by sections 21.82 to 21.92.
    Subd. 2. Permits; issuance and revocation. The commissioner shall issue a permit to the
initial labeler of agricultural, vegetable, flower, and wildflower seeds which are sold for use in
Minnesota and which conform to and are labeled under sections 21.80 to 21.92. The categories
of permits are as follows:
(1) for initial labelers who sell 50,000 pounds or less of agricultural seed each calendar year,
an annual permit issued for a fee established in section 21.891, subdivision 2, paragraph (b);
(2) for initial labelers who sell vegetable, flower, and wildflower seed packed for use in home
gardens or household plantings, an annual permit issued for a fee established in section 21.891,
subdivision 2
, paragraph (c), based upon the gross sales from the previous year; and
(3) for initial labelers who sell more than 50,000 pounds of agricultural seed each calendar
year, a permanent permit issued for a fee established in section 21.891, subdivision 2, paragraph
(d).
In addition, the person shall furnish to the commissioner an itemized statement of all seeds
sold in Minnesota for the periods established by the commissioner. This statement shall be
delivered, along with the payment of the fee, based upon the amount and type of seed sold, to the
commissioner no later than 30 days after the end of each reporting period. Any person holding a
permit shall show as part of the analysis labels or invoices on all agricultural, vegetable, flower,
wildflower, tree, or shrub seeds all information the commissioner requires. The commissioner
may revoke any permit in the event of failure to comply with applicable laws and rules.
    Subd. 3. Penalty. A penalty fee established by the commissioner shall be assessed any
permit holder who fails to submit a statement and pay the fee due within the 30 days following the
end of each reporting period.
    Subd. 4. Exemptions. An initial labeler who sells for use in Minnesota agricultural,
vegetable, or flower seeds must have a seed fee permit unless the agricultural, vegetable, or flower
seeds are of the breeder or foundation seed classes of varieties developed by publicly financed
research agencies intended for the purpose of increasing the quantity of seed available.
History: 1983 c 293 s 48; 1989 c 312 s 1,2; 2003 c 128 art 8 s 16,17
21.891 FEES.
    Subdivision 1. Sampling export seed. In accordance with section 21.85, subdivision 13, the
commissioner may, if requested, sample seed destined for export to other countries. The fee for
sampling export seed is an hourly rate published annually by the commissioner and it must be an
amount sufficient to recover the actual costs of the service provided.
    Subd. 2. Seed fee permits. (a) An initial labeler who wishes to sell seed in Minnesota must
comply with section 21.89, subdivisions 1 and 2, and the procedures in this subdivision. Each
initial labeler who wishes to sell seed in Minnesota must apply to the commissioner to obtain a
permit. The application must contain the name and address of the applicant, the application date,
and the name and title of the applicant's contact person.
(b) The application for a seed permit covered by section 21.89, subdivision 2, clause (1),
must be accompanied by an application fee of $50.
(c) The application for a seed permit covered by section 21.89, subdivision 2, clause (2),
must be accompanied by an application fee based on the level of annual gross sales as follows:
(1) for gross sales of $0 to $25,000, the annual permit fee is $50;
(2) for gross sales of $25,001 to $50,000, the annual permit fee is $100;
(3) for gross sales of $50,001 to $100,000, the annual permit fee is $200;
(4) for gross sales of $100,001 to $250,000, the annual permit fee is $500;
(5) for gross sales of $250,001 to $500,000, the annual permit fee is $1,000; and
(6) for gross sales of $500,001 and above, the annual permit fee is $2,000.
(d) The application for a seed permit covered by section 21.89, subdivision 2, clause (3), must
be accompanied by an application fee of $50. Initial labelers holding seed fee permits covered
under this paragraph need not apply for a new permit or pay the application fee. Under this permit
category, the fees for the following kinds of agricultural seed sold either in bulk or containers are:
(1) oats, wheat, and barley, 6.3 cents per hundredweight;
(2) rye, field beans, soybeans, buckwheat, and flax, 8.4 cents per hundredweight;
(3) field corn, 29.4 cents per hundredweight;
(4) forage, lawn and turf grasses, and legumes, 49 cents per hundredweight;
(5) sunflower, $1.40 per hundredweight;
(6) sugar beet, $3.29 per hundredweight; and
(7) for any agricultural seed not listed in clauses (1) to (6), the fee for the crop most closely
resembling it in normal planting rate applies.
(e) If, for reasons beyond the control and knowledge of the initial labeler, seed is shipped
into Minnesota by a person other than the initial labeler, the responsibility for the seed fees are
transferred to the shipper. An application for a transfer of this responsibility must be made to the
commissioner. Upon approval by the commissioner of the transfer, the shipper is responsible
for payment of the seed permit fees.
(f) Seed permit fees may be included in the cost of the seed either as a hidden cost or as
a line item cost on each invoice for seed sold. To identify the fee on an invoice, the words
"Minnesota seed permit fees" must be used.
(g) All seed fee permit holders must file semiannual reports with the commissioner, even if
no seed was sold during the reporting period. Each semiannual report must be submitted within
30 days of the end of each reporting period. The reporting periods are October 1 to March 31 and
April 1 to September 30 of each year or July 1 to December 31 and January 1 to June 30 of each
year. Permit holders may change their reporting periods with the approval of the commissioner.
(h) The holder of a seed fee permit must pay fees on all seed for which the permit holder is
the initial labeler and which are covered by sections 21.80 to 21.92 and sold during the reporting
period.
(i) If a seed fee permit holder fails to submit a semiannual report and pay the seed fee within
30 days after the end of each reporting period, the commissioner shall assess a penalty of $100 or
eight percent, calculated on an annual basis, of the fee due, whichever is greater, but no more than
$500 for each late semiannual report. A $15 penalty must be charged when the semiannual report
is late, even if no fee is due for the reporting period. Seed fee permits may be revoked for failure
to comply with the applicable provisions of this paragraph or the Minnesota seed law.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
    Subd. 5. Brand name registration fee. The fee is $25 for each variety registered for sale
by brand name.
History: 2003 c 128 art 8 s 18
21.90 [Repealed, 2003 c 128 art 8 s 22]
21.901 BRAND NAME REGISTRATION.
The owner or originator of a variety of nonhybrid seed that is to be sold in this state must
annually register the variety with the commissioner if the variety is to be sold only under a brand
name. The registration must include the brand name and the variety of seed. The brand name
for a blend or mixture need not be registered.
History: 1996 c 407 s 16; 2003 c 128 art 8 s 21
21.91 SEED CERTIFICATION AGENCIES.
    Subdivision 1. Minnesota. The official seed certification agency for Minnesota shall be
determined by the commissioner of agriculture and the director of the Minnesota Agricultural
Experiment Station.
    Subd. 2. Other jurisdictions. The official seed certification agency for other jurisdictions
shall be determined and the identity filed as a public record in the office of the commissioner of
agriculture. The determination shall be made by the commissioner of agriculture and the director
of the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station.
History: 1983 c 293 s 50
21.92 SEED INSPECTION ACCOUNT.
There is established in the agricultural fund an account known as the seed inspection
account. Fees and penalties collected by the commissioner under sections 21.80 to 21.92 and
interest attributable to money in the account shall be deposited into this account. Money in the
account, including interest earned, is appropriated to the commissioner for the administration
and enforcement of sections 21.80 to 21.92.
History: 1983 c 293 s 51; 1985 c 248 s 9; 1993 c 172 s 26; 1996 c 305 art 3 s 5; 1999 c 231
s 47; 1999 c 250 art 3 s 5