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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

CHAPTER 322B. LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES

Table of Sections
SectionHeadnote
322B.01CITATION.
322B.02LAWS NOT TO APPLY.
322B.03DEFINITIONS.

LEGAL RECOGNITION OF ELECTRONIC

RECORDS AND SIGNATURES

322B.04LEGAL RECOGNITION OF ELECTRONIC RECORDS AND SIGNATURES.

FORMATION AND ARTICLES

322B.10PURPOSES.
322B.105ORGANIZERS.
322B.11MEMBER REQUIREMENT.
322B.115ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION.
322B.12LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY NAME.
322B.125RESERVED NAME.
322B.13REGISTERED OFFICE AND AGENT.
322B.135CHANGE OF REGISTERED OFFICE OR AGENT.
322B.14AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION.
322B.145PROCEDURE FOR AMENDMENT BEFORE CONTRIBUTION.
322B.15PROCEDURE FOR AMENDMENT AFTER CONTRIBUTION.
322B.155CLASS OR SERIES VOTING ON AMENDMENTS.
322B.16ARTICLES OF AMENDMENT.
322B.165EFFECT OF AMENDMENT.
322B.17FILING OF ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION.
322B.175EFFECTIVE DATE OF ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION.
322B.18PRESUMPTION AND CERTIFICATE OF ORGANIZATION.

POWERS

322B.20POWERS.
322B.21LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY SEAL.
322B.22EFFECT OF LACK OF POWER AND ULTRA VIRES.
322B.23TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS OUTSIDE MINNESOTA.

MEMBERS INTERESTS

322B.30NATURE OF A MEMBERSHIP INTEREST AND STATEMENT OF INTEREST OWNED.
322B.303PERSONAL LIABILITY OF MEMBERS AS MEMBERS.
322B.306TERMINATION OF A MEMBERSHIP INTEREST.
322B.31ASSIGNMENT OF FINANCIAL RIGHTS.
322B.313ASSIGNMENT OF GOVERNANCE RIGHTS.
322B.316EFFECTIVE DATE OF ASSIGNMENTS.
322B.32RIGHTS OF JUDGMENT CREDITOR.
322B.323POWERS OF ESTATE OF A DECEASED OR INCOMPETENT MEMBER.
322B.326SHARING OF PROFITS AND LOSSES.
322B.33PREEMPTIVE RIGHTS.
322B.333REGULAR MEETINGS OF MEMBERS.
322B.336SPECIAL MEETINGS OF MEMBERS.
322B.34NOTICE.
322B.343REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS FOR MEMBER MEETINGS.
322B.346ACT OF MEMBERS.
322B.348322B.348 CONTRACTUAL REQUIREMENT TO SUBMIT MATTER TO MEMBERS.
322B.35ACTION WITHOUT A MEETING.
322B.353QUORUM.
322B.356VOTING RIGHTS.
322B.36VOTING BY ORGANIZATIONS AND LEGAL REPRESENTATIVES.
322B.363PROXIES.
322B.366MEMBER VOTING AGREEMENTS.
322B.37MEMBER CONTROL AGREEMENTS.
322B.373REQUIRED RECORDS AND INFORMATION.
322B.376FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.
322B.38EQUITABLE REMEDIES.
322B.383RIGHTS OF DISSENTING MEMBERS.
322B.386PROCEDURES FOR ASSERTING DISSENTERS' RIGHTS.

CONTRIBUTIONS

322B.40AUTHORIZATION, FORM AND ACCEPTANCE OF CONTRIBUTIONS.
322B.41RESTATEMENT OF VALUE OF PREVIOUS CONTRIBUTIONS.
322B.42CONTRIBUTION AGREEMENTS.
322B.43CONTRIBUTION ALLOWANCE AGREEMENTS.

DISTRIBUTIONS

322B.50SHARING OF DISTRIBUTIONS.
322B.51INTERIM DISTRIBUTIONS.
322B.52DISTRIBUTION IN KIND.
322B.53STATUS AS A CREDITOR.
322B.54LIMITATIONS ON DISTRIBUTION.
322B.55LIABILITY OF MEMBERS FOR ILLEGAL DISTRIBUTIONS.
322B.56LIABILITY OF GOVERNORS FOR ILLEGAL DISTRIBUTIONS.

ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNANCE

322B.60ORGANIZATION.
322B.603BYLAWS.

BOARD OF GOVERNORS

322B.606BOARD OF GOVERNORS.
322B.61NUMBER.
322B.613QUALIFICATIONS AND ELECTION.
322B.616TERMS.
322B.62ACTS NOT VOID OR VOIDABLE.
322B.623COMPENSATION.
322B.626CLASSIFICATION OF GOVERNORS.
322B.63VOTING FOR GOVERNORS; CUMULATIVE VOTING.
322B.633RESIGNATION.
322B.636REMOVAL OF GOVERNORS.
322B.64VACANCIES.
322B.643BOARD OF GOVERNORS MEETINGS.
322B.646ABSENT GOVERNORS.
322B.65QUORUM.
322B.653ACT OF THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS.
322B.656ACTION WITHOUT A MEETING.
322B.66COMMITTEES.
322B.663STANDARD OF CONDUCT.
322B.666GOVERNOR CONFLICTS OF INTEREST.

MANAGERS

322B.67MANAGERS REQUIRED.
322B.673DUTIES OF REQUIRED MANAGERS.
322B.676OTHER MANAGERS.
322B.679MULTIPLE MANAGERIAL POSITIONS.
322B.68MANAGERS CONSIDERED ELECTED.
322B.683CONTRACT RIGHTS.
322B.686RESIGNATION, REMOVAL AND VACANCY.
322B.689DELEGATION.
322B.69STANDARD OF CONDUCT.

LOANS AND OBLIGATIONS

322B.693LOANS, GUARANTEES AND SURETYSHIP.
322B.696ADVANCES.
322B.699INDEMNIFICATION.

MERGER, EXCHANGE, TRANSFER

322B.70MERGER, EXCHANGE, TRANSFER.
322B.71PLAN OF MERGER OR EXCHANGE.
322B.72PLAN APPROVAL BY LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY.
322B.73ARTICLES OF MERGER OR EXCHANGE AND CERTIFICATE.
322B.74ABANDONMENT BY LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY.
322B.75EFFECTIVE DATE OF MERGER OR EXCHANGE AND EFFECT.
322B.755MERGER OF DOMESTIC COOPERATIVE INTO A DOMESTIC LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY.
322B.76MERGER OR EXCHANGE WITH FOREIGN CORPORATION OR A FOREIGN LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY.
322B.77TRANSFER OF ASSETS AND WHEN PERMITTED.
322B.78CONVERSION.

DISSOLUTION

322B.80DISSOLUTION.
322B.803NONJUDICIAL DISSOLUTION AND TERMINATION BY ORGANIZERS.
322B.806NONJUDICIAL DISSOLUTION BY MEMBERS.
322B.81FILING NOTICE OF DISSOLUTION AND EFFECT.
322B.813PROCEDURE IN WINDING UP.
322B.816WINDING UP PROCEDURE FOR LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES THAT GIVE NOTICE TO CREDITORS AND CLAIMANTS.
322B.82WINDING UP PROCEDURE FOR LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES THAT DO NOT GIVE NOTICE TO CREDITORS AND CLAIMANTS.
322B.823REVOCATION OF DISSOLUTION.
322B.826EFFECTIVE DATE OF TERMINATION AND CERTIFICATE OF TERMINATION.
322B.83SUPERVISED WINDING UP AND TERMINATION FOLLOWING A NONJUDICIAL DISSOLUTION.
322B.833JUDICIAL INTERVENTION AND EQUITABLE REMEDIES, DISSOLUTION, AND TERMINATION.
322B.836JUDICIAL INTERVENTION PROCEDURES.
322B.84QUALIFICATIONS OF RECEIVERS AND POWERS.
322B.843ACTION BY ATTORNEY GENERAL.
322B.846FILING CLAIMS IN JUDICIAL INTERVENTION PROCEEDINGS.
322B.85DISCONTINUANCE OF PROCEEDINGS FOR WINDING UP THROUGH LIQUIDATION.
322B.853DECREE OF TERMINATION.
322B.856FILING DECREE.
322B.86DEPOSIT WITH COMMISSIONER OF FINANCE OF AMOUNT DUE CERTAIN MEMBERS.
322B.863CLAIMS BARRED AND EXCEPTIONS.
322B.866RIGHT TO SUE OR DEFEND AFTER TERMINATION.
322B.87OMITTED ASSETS.
322B.873DISPOSITION OF ASSETS UPON DISSOLUTION.

ACTIONS AGAINST COMPANIES

322B.876SERVICE OF PROCESS ON LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY.
322B.88WHEN A MEMBER IS NOT A PROPER PARTY.
322B.883STATE INTERESTED IN PROCEEDINGS.

FOREIGN COMPANIES

322B.90GOVERNING LAW.
322B.901Repealed, 1995 c 128 art 3 s 27
322B.905NAME.
322B.91APPLICATION FOR CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
322B.915ISSUANCE OF CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
322B.92AMENDMENTS TO THE CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
322B.925REGISTERED AGENT AND CERTAIN REPORTS.
322B.93CERTIFICATE OF WITHDRAWAL.
322B.935REVOCATION OF CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
322B.94TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS WITHOUT CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
322B.945TRANSACTIONS NOT CONSTITUTING TRANSACTING BUSINESS.
322B.95ACTION BY ATTORNEY GENERAL.
322B.955SERVICE OF PROCESS.
322B.960ANNUAL REGISTRATION.
322B.01 CITATION.
This chapter may be cited as the "Minnesota Limited Liability Company Act."
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 1
322B.02 LAWS NOT TO APPLY.
Sections 222.19, 222.23, and chapters 301, 316, and 556 do not apply to a limited liability
company organized under or governed by this chapter.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 2; 2005 c 69 art 3 s 23; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 1
322B.03 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. For the purposes of this chapter, unless the language or context
clearly indicates that a different meaning is intended, the words, terms, and phrases defined in
this section have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2. Acquiring organization. "Acquiring organization" means the limited liability
company or foreign or domestic corporation that acquires in an exchange the shares of a domestic
or foreign corporation or the membership interests of a limited liability company.
    Subd. 3. Address. "Address" means mailing address, including a zip code. In the case of a
registered office or principal executive office, the term means the mailing address and the actual
office location which must not be a post office box.
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1999 c 85 art 2 s 95]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 1999 c 85 art 2 s 95]
    Subd. 6. Articles or articles of organization. "Articles" or "articles of organization" means,
in the case of a limited liability company organized under or governed by this chapter, articles of
organization, articles of amendment, a statement of change of registered office, registered agent,
or name of registered agent, a statement establishing or fixing the rights and preferences of
a class or series of membership interests, articles of merger, articles of conversion, articles of
abandonment, and articles of termination. In the case of a foreign limited liability company, the
term includes all documents serving a similar function required to be filed with the secretary of
state or other state office of the foreign limited liability company's state of organization.
    Subd. 6a. Authenticated. "Authenticated" means, with respect to an electronic
communication, that the communication is delivered to the principal place of business of the
limited liability company, or to a manager or agent of the limited liability company authorized
by the limited liability company to receive the communication, and that the communication sets
forth information from which the limited liability company can reasonably conclude that the
communication was sent by the purported sender.
    Subd. 7. Board or board of governors. "Board" or "board of governors" means the board
of governors of a limited liability company.
    Subd. 8. Board member. "Board member" means a natural person serving on the board of
governors in the case of a limited liability company and a natural person serving on the board of
directors in the case of a corporation.
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 1999 c 85 art 2 s 95]
    Subd. 10. Class. "Class," when used with reference to membership interests, means a
category of membership interests that differs in one or more rights or preferences from another
category of membership interests of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 11. Closely held limited liability company. "Closely held limited liability company"
means a limited liability company that does not have more than 35 members.
    Subd. 12. Constituent organization. "Constituent organization" means a limited liability
company or a foreign limited liability company or a domestic corporation or a foreign corporation
that:
(1) in a merger is either the surviving organization or an organization that is merged into the
surviving organization; or
(2) in an exchange is either the acquiring organization or an organization whose securities
are acquired by the acquiring organization.
    Subd. 13. Contribution agreement. "Contribution agreement" means an agreement between
a person and a limited liability company, under which:
(1) the person agrees to make a contribution in the future; and
(2) the limited liability company agrees that, at the time specified for the contribution in the
future, the limited liability company will accept the contribution, and reflect the contribution in
the required records.
    Subd. 14. Contribution allowance agreement. "Contribution allowance agreement" means
an agreement between a person and a limited liability company, under which:
(1) the person has the right, but not the obligation, to make a contribution in the future; and
(2) the limited liability company agrees that, if the person makes the specified contribution at
the time specified in the future, the limited liability company will accept the contribution, and
reflect the contribution in the required records.
    Subd. 15. Dissolution. "Dissolution" means that the limited liability company has incurred
an event under section 322B.80, subdivision 1, subject only to sections 322B.823 and 322B.85,
that obligates the limited liability company to wind up its affairs and to terminate its existence
as a legal entity.
    Subd. 16.[Repealed, 1999 c 85 art 2 s 95]
    Subd. 17. Distribution. "Distribution" means a direct or indirect transfer of money or
other property, other than its own membership interests, with or without consideration, or an
incurrence or issuance of indebtedness, by a limited liability company to any of its members in
respect of membership interests. A distribution may be in the form of an interim distribution or a
termination distribution, or as consideration for the purchase, redemption, or other acquisition of
its membership interests, or otherwise.
    Subd. 17a. Domestic corporation. "Domestic corporation" means a corporation, other than
a foreign corporation, organized for profit and incorporated under or governed by chapter 302A.
    Subd. 17b. Electronic communication. "Electronic communication" means any form of
communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record
that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient of the communication, and that may
be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process.
    Subd. 18. Filed with the secretary of state. "Filed with the secretary of state" means that
a document meeting the applicable requirements of this chapter, signed and accompanied by a
filing fee of $35, has been delivered to the secretary of state of this state. The secretary of state
shall endorse on the original the word "Filed" and the month, day, and year of filing, record
the document in the Office of the Secretary of State, and return a document to the person who
delivered it for filing.
    Subd. 19. Financial rights. "Financial rights" means a member's rights:
(1) to share in profits and losses as provided in section 322B.326;
(2) to share in distributions as provided in section 322B.50;
(3) to receive interim distributions as provided in section 322B.51; and
(4) to receive termination distributions as provided in section 322B.873, subdivision 1,
clause (3).
    Subd. 19a. Foreign corporation. "Foreign corporation" means an organization organized for
profit that is incorporated under laws other than the laws of this state for a purpose or purposes for
which a corporation may be incorporated under chapter 302A.
    Subd. 20. Foreign limited liability company. "Foreign limited liability company" means
a limited liability company organized for profit that is organized under or governed by laws
other than the laws of this state for a purpose or purposes for which a limited liability company
may be organized under this chapter.
    Subd. 21. Good faith. "Good faith" means honesty in fact in the conduct of the act or
transaction concerned.
    Subd. 22. Governance rights. "Governance rights" means all a member's rights as a member
in the limited liability company other than financial rights and the right to assign financial rights.
    Subd. 23. Governing body. "Governing body" means the body of an organization that has
been charged with managing or directing the management of the business and affairs of the
organization and which, if not the owners themselves, is responsible directly to the owners of
the organization. In the case of a domestic limited liability company, the governing body is the
board of governors, and in the case of a domestic corporation the governing body is the board of
directors.
    Subd. 24. Governor. "Governor" means a natural person serving on the board of governors.
    Subd. 25. Intentionally. "Intentionally" means that the person referred to either has a
purpose to do or fail to do the act or cause the result specified or believes that the act or failure
to act, if successful, will cause that result. A person intentionally violates a statute if the
person intentionally does the act or causes the result prohibited by the statute, or if the person
intentionally fails to do the act or cause the result required by the statute, even though the person
may not know of the existence or constitutionality of the statute or the scope or meaning of
the terms used in the statute.
    Subd. 26. Know and knowledge. A person "knows" or has "knowledge" of a fact when the
person has actual knowledge of it. A person does not know or have knowledge of a fact merely
because the person has reason to know of the fact.
    Subd. 27. Legal representative. "Legal representative" means a person empowered to act
for another person, including, but not limited to, an agent, manager, partner, or associate, of an
organization; a trustee of a trust; a personal representative; an executor of a will; an administrator
of an estate; a trustee in bankruptcy; and a receiver, guardian, custodian, or conservator of a
person or a person's estate.
    Subd. 28. Limited liability company; domestic limited liability company. "Limited
liability company" or "domestic limited liability company" means a limited liability company,
other than a foreign limited liability company, organized under or governed by this chapter.
    Subd. 29. Manager. "Manager" means a person elected, appointed, or otherwise designated
as a manager by the board of governors, and any other person considered elected as a manager
pursuant to section 322B.68.
    Subd. 30. Member. "Member" means a person reflected in the required records of a limited
liability company as the owner of some governance rights of a membership interest of the limited
liability company. A person may be a member without having voting rights.
    Subd. 31. Membership interest. "Membership interest" means a member's interest in a
limited liability company consisting of a member's financial rights, a member's right to assign
financial rights as provided in section 322B.31, a member's governance rights, and a member's
right to assign governance rights as provided in section 322B.313.
    Subd. 32. Notice. "Notice" is given by a member of a limited liability company to the
limited liability company or a manager of a limited liability company when in writing and mailed
or delivered to the limited liability company or the manager at the registered office or principal
executive office of the limited liability company. In all other cases, notice is given to a person
when mailed to the person at an address designated by the person or at the last known address of
the person, or when communicated to the person orally, or when handed to the person, or when
left at the office of the person with a clerk or other person in charge of the office, or if there is
no one in charge, when left in a conspicuous place in the office, or if the office is closed or the
person to be notified has no office, when left at the dwelling house or usual place of abode of
the person with some person of suitable age and discretion who is residing there. Notice by
mail is given when deposited in the United States mail with sufficient postage affixed. Notice is
considered received when it is given.
    Subd. 33. Bylaws. "Bylaws" means rules, resolutions, or other provisions that:
(1) relate to the management of the business or the regulation of the affairs of the limited
liability company; and
(2) have been made expressly part of the bylaws by the action, taken from time to time under
section 322B.603, by the board of governors or the members.
    Subd. 34. Organization. "Organization" means a domestic or foreign limited liability
company, corporation, partnership, limited partnership, joint venture, association, business trust,
estate, trust, enterprise, and any other legal or commercial entity.
    Subd. 35. Owners. "Owners" means members in the case of a limited liability company
and shareholders in the case of a corporation.
    Subd. 36. Ownership interests. "Ownership interests" means membership interests in the
case of a limited liability company and shares in the case of a corporation.
    Subd. 36a. Parent. "Parent" of a specified organization means an organization that directly
or indirectly through related organizations owns more than 50 percent of the voting power of the
membership interests, shares, or other ownership interests entitled to vote for governors, directors,
or other members of the governing body of the specified organization.
    Subd. 37. Person. "Person" includes a natural person and an organization.
    Subd. 38. Pertains. A contribution "pertains" to a particular series when the contribution
is made in return for a membership interest in that particular series. A contribution pertains
to a particular class when the class has no series and the contribution is made in return for a
membership interest in the class. A contribution that pertains to a series does not pertain to the
class of which the series is a part.
    Subd. 39. Principal executive office. "Principal executive office" means an office where the
elected or appointed chief manager of the limited liability company has an office. If the limited
liability company has no elected or appointed chief manager, principal executive office means the
registered office of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 40. Registered office. "Registered office" means the place in this state designated in
the articles of organization as the registered office of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 41. Related organization. "Related organization" of a specified limited liability
company means a parent or subsidiary of the specified limited liability company or another
subsidiary of a parent of the specified limited liability company.
    Subd. 41a. Remote communication. "Remote communication" means communication via
electronic communication, conference telephone, video conference, the Internet, or such other
means by which persons not physically present in the same location may communicate with each
other on a substantially simultaneous basis.
    Subd. 42. Required records. "Required records" are those records required to be maintained
under section 322B.373.
    Subd. 43. Security. "Security" has the meaning given it in section 80A.41(28).
    Subd. 44. Series. "Series" means a category of membership interests, within a class of
membership interests, that have some of the same rights and preferences as other membership
interests within the same class, but that differ in one or more rights and preferences from another
category of membership interests within that class.
    Subd. 45. Signed. (a) "Signed" means that the signature of a person has been written on a
document, as provided in section 645.44, subdivision 14, and, with respect to a document required
by this chapter to be filed with the secretary of state, means that the document has been signed
by a person authorized to do so by this chapter, the articles of organization, a member control
agreement, or bylaws or a resolution approved by the governors as required by section 322B.653
or the members as required by section 322B.346.
(b) A signature on a document may be a facsimile affixed, engraved, printed, placed,
stamped with indelible ink, transmitted by facsimile or electronically, or in any other manner
reproduced on the document.
    Subd. 45a. Subsidiary. "Subsidiary" of a specified organization means an organization of
which more than 50 percent of the voting power of its membership interests, shares, or other
ownership interests entitled to vote for governors, directors, or other members of the governing
body of the organization is owned directly or indirectly through related organizations by the
specified organization.
    Subd. 46. Successor organization. "Successor organization" means an organization that,
pursuant to a business continuation agreement or an order of the court under section 322B.833,
subdivision 6
, continues the business of the dissolved and terminated limited liability company.
    Subd. 47. Surviving organization. "Surviving organization" means the limited liability
company or domestic or foreign corporation resulting from a merger.
    Subd. 48. Termination. "Termination" means the end of a limited liability company's
existence as a legal entity and occurs when a notice of termination is filed with the secretary of
state under section 322B.826 or is considered filed with the secretary of state under section
322B.75, subdivision 2, clause (3).
    Subd. 49. Vote. "Vote" includes authorization by written action.
    Subd. 50. Winding up. "Winding up" means the period triggered by dissolution during
which the limited liability company ceases to carry on its business, except to the extent necessary
for concluding its affairs, and disposes of its assets under section 322B.873.
    Subd. 51. Written action. "Written action" means a written document signed by all of the
persons required to take the action described. The term also means the counterparts of a written
document signed by any of the persons taking the action described. Each counterpart constitutes
the action of the persons signing it, and all the counterparts, taken together, constitute one written
action by all of the persons signing them.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 3; 1993 c 137 s 18-22; 1997 c 10 art 4 s 6,7; 1999 c 85 art 2
s 1-4,96; 2002 c 311 art 2 s 1-5; 2004 c 199 art 14 s 36,37; 2005 c 10 art 4 s 20; 2006 c 196
art 2 s 10; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 2-9
NOTE: The amendment to subdivision 43 by Laws 2006, chapter 196, article 2, section 10,
is effective August 1, 2007. Laws 2006, chapter 196, article 1, section 52.

LEGAL RECOGNITION OF ELECTRONIC

RECORDS AND SIGNATURES

322B.04 LEGAL RECOGNITION OF ELECTRONIC RECORDS AND SIGNATURES.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) For purposes of this section, the words, terms, and phrases
defined in this subdivision have the meanings given them.
(b) "Electronic" means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless,
optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.
(c) "Electronic record" means a record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or
stored by electronic means.
(d) "Electronic signature" means an electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or
logically associated with a record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign
the record.
(e) "Record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an
electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.
    Subd. 2. Electronic records and signatures. For purposes of this chapter:
(1) a record or signature may not be denied legal effect or enforceability solely because it
is in electronic form;
(2) a contract may not be denied legal effect or enforceability solely because an electronic
record was used in its formation;
(3) if a provision requires a record to be in writing, an electronic record satisfies the
requirement; and
(4) if a provision requires a signature, an electronic signature satisfies the requirement.
History: 2002 c 311 art 2 s 6

FORMATION AND ARTICLES

322B.10 PURPOSES.
A limited liability company may be organized under this chapter for any business purpose or
purposes, unless some other statute of this state requires organization for any of those purposes
under a different law. Unless otherwise provided in its articles of organization, a limited liability
company has general business purposes.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 4
322B.105 ORGANIZERS.
One or more natural persons of at least 18 years of age may act as organizers of a limited
liability company by filing with the secretary of state articles of organization for the limited
liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 5; 1996 c 361 s 1
322B.11 MEMBER REQUIREMENT.
A limited liability company shall have one or more members.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 6; 1997 c 10 art 2 s 1
322B.115 ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION.
    Subdivision 1. Required provisions. The articles of organization must contain:
(1) the name of the limited liability company;
(2) the address of the registered office of the limited liability company and the name of its
registered agent, if any, at that address;
(3) the name and address of each organizer; and
(4) a statement of the period of existence for the limited liability company if different from
the period set forth in section 322B.20, subdivision 2.
    Subd. 2. Statutory provisions that may be modified only in articles of organization or a
member control agreement. The following provisions govern a limited liability company unless
modified in the articles of organization or a member control agreement under section 322B.37:
(1) a limited liability company has general business purposes (section 322B.10);
(2) a limited liability company has certain powers (section 322B.20);
(3) the power to adopt, amend, or repeal the bylaws is vested in the board of governors
(section 322B.603);
(4) a limited liability company must allow cumulative voting for governors (section 322B.63,
subdivision 2)
;
(5) the affirmative vote of a majority of governors present is required for an action of the
board of governors (section 322B.653);
(6) a written action by the board of governors taken without a meeting must be signed by
all governors (section 322B.656);
(7) the board may accept contributions, make contribution agreements, and make
contribution allowance agreements (sections 322B.40, subdivision 1; 322B.42; and 322B.43);
(8) all membership interests are ordinary membership interests entitled to vote and are of one
class with no series (section 322B.40, subdivision 5, clauses (1) and (2));
(9) all membership interests have equal rights and preferences in all matters not otherwise
provided for by the board of governors (section 322B.40, subdivision 5, clause (2));
(10) the value of previous contributions is to be restated when a new contribution is accepted
(section 322B.41);
(11) a member has certain preemptive rights, unless otherwise provided by the board of
governors (section 322B.33);
(12) the affirmative vote of the owners of a majority of the voting power of the membership
interests present and entitled to vote at a duly held meeting is required for an action of the
members, except where this chapter requires the affirmative vote of a plurality of the votes cast
(section 322B.63, subdivision 1) or a majority of the voting power of all membership interests
entitled to vote (section 322B.35, subdivision 1);
(13) the voting power of each membership interest is in proportion to the value reflected in
the required records of the contributions of the members (section 322B.356);
(14) members share in distributions in proportion to the value reflected in the required
records of the contributions of members (section 322B.50);
(15) members share profits and losses in proportion to the value reflected in the required
records of the contributions of members (section 322B.326);
(16) a written action by the members taken without a meeting must be signed by all members
(section 322B.35);
(17) members have no right to receive distributions in kind and the limited liability company
has only limited rights to make distributions in kind (section 322B.52);
(18) a member is not subject to expulsion (section 322B.306, subdivision 2);
(19) unanimous consent is required for the transfer of governance rights to a person not
already a member (section 322B.313, subdivision 2);
(20) for limited liability companies whose existence begins before August 1, 1999,
unanimous consent is required to avoid dissolution (section 322B.80, subdivision 1, clause (5)(i));
(21) the termination of a person's membership interest has specified consequences (section
322B.306); and
(22) restrictions apply to the assignment of governance rights (section 322B.313).
    Subd. 3. Statutory provisions that may be modified either in articles of organization,
a member control agreement, or in the bylaws. The following provisions govern a limited
liability company unless modified in the articles of organization, a member control agreement
under section 322B.37 or in the bylaws:
(1) governors serve for an indefinite term that expires at the next regular meeting of members
(section 322B.616);
(2) the compensation of governors is fixed by the board of governors (section 322B.623);
(3) a certain method must be used for removal of governors (section 322B.636);
(4) a certain method must be used for filling board of governor vacancies (section 322B.64);
(5) if the board of governors fails to select a place for a board meeting, it must be held at the
principal executive office (section 322B.643, subdivision 1);
(6) the notice of a board of governors meeting need not state the purpose of the meeting
(section 322B.643, subdivision 3);
(7) a majority of the board of governors is a quorum for a board meeting (section 322B.65);
(8) a committee consists of one or more persons, who need not be governors, appointed by
affirmative vote of a majority of the governors present (section 322B.66, subdivision 2), and a
committee may create one or more subcommittees, each consisting of one or more members of
the committee, and may delegate to the subcommittee any or all of the authority of the committee
(section 322B.66, subdivision 3);
(9) the board may establish a special litigation committee (section 322B.66);
(10) the chief manager and treasurer have specified duties, until the board of governors
determines otherwise (section 322B.673);
(11) managers may delegate some or all of their duties and powers, if not prohibited by the
board of governors from doing so (section 322B.689);
(12) regular meetings of members need not be held, unless demanded by a member under
certain conditions (section 322B.333);
(13) in all instances where a specific minimum notice period has not otherwise been fixed
by law, not less than ten days' notice is required for a meeting of members (section 322B.34,
subdivision 2)
;
(14) for a quorum at a members' meeting there is required a majority of the voting power of
the membership interests entitled to vote at the meeting (section 322B.353);
(15) the board of governors may fix a date up to 60 days before the date of a members'
meeting as the date for the determination of the members entitled to notice of and entitled to vote
at the meeting (section 322B.356, subdivision 1);
(16) indemnification of certain persons is required (section 322B.699);
(17) the board of governors may authorize, and the limited liability company may make,
distributions not prohibited, limited, or restricted by an agreement (section 322B.54, subdivision
1)
; and
(18) members have no right to interim distributions except as provided through the bylaws or
an act of the board of governors (section 322B.51).
    Subd. 4. Optional provisions and specific subjects. The provisions in clauses (1), (7), (15),
(16), and (18) may be included in the articles of organization or a member control agreement
under section 322B.37.
The provisions in clauses (2) to (6), (8) to (14), and (17) may be included in the articles of
organization, a member control agreement under section 322B.37 or the bylaws:
(1) the persons to serve as the first board of governors may be named in the articles of
organization (section 322B.606, subdivision 1);
(2) a manner for increasing or decreasing the number of governors may be provided (section
322B.61);
(3) additional qualifications for governors may be imposed (section 322B.613);
(4) governors may be classified (section 322B.626);
(5) the day or date, time, and place of board of governors meetings may be fixed (section
322B.643, subdivision 1);
(6) absent governors may be permitted to give written consent or opposition to a proposal
(section 322B.646);
(7) a larger than majority vote may be required for board of governor action (section
322B.653);
(8) authority to sign and deliver certain documents may be delegated to a manager or agent
of the limited liability company other than the chief manager (section 322B.673, subdivision 2);
(9) additional managers may be designated (section 322B.676);
(10) additional powers, rights, duties, and responsibilities may be given to managers (section
322B.676);
(11) a method for filling vacant offices may be specified (section 322B.686, subdivision 3);
(12) the day or date, time, and place of regular member meetings may be fixed (section
322B.333, subdivision 3);
(13) certain persons may be authorized to call special meetings of members (section
322B.336, subdivision 1);
(14) notices of member meetings may be required to contain certain information (section
322B.34, subdivision 3);
(15) a larger than majority vote may be required for member action (section 322B.346);
(16) voting rights may be granted in or pursuant to the articles of organization to persons
who are not members (section 322B.356, subdivision 3);
(17) limited liability company actions giving rise to dissenter rights may be designated
(section 322B.386, subdivision 1, paragraph (e)); and
(18) a governor's personal liability to the limited liability company or its members for
monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a governor may be eliminated or limited.
Nothing in this subdivision limits the right of the board, by resolution, to take an action that
may be included in the bylaws under this subdivision without including it in the bylaws, unless it
is required to be included in the bylaws by another provision of this chapter.
    Subd. 5. Optional provisions generally. The articles of organization may contain other
provisions not inconsistent with law relating to the management of the business or the regulation
of the affairs of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 6. Powers need not be stated. It is not necessary to set forth in the articles of
organization any of the limited liability company powers granted by this chapter.
    Subd. 7. Dependence on facts outside the articles. Except for provisions included pursuant
to subdivision 1, any provision of the articles of organization may:
(1) be made dependent upon facts ascertainable outside the articles, but only if the manner in
which the facts operate upon the provision is clearly and expressly set forth in the articles; and
(2) incorporate by reference some or all of the terms of any agreements, contracts, or other
arrangements entered into by the corporation, but only if the corporation retains at its principal
executive office a copy of the agreements, contracts, or other arrangements or the portions
incorporated by reference.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 7; 1993 c 137 s 23,24; 1996 c 361 s 2-4; 1997 c 10 art 2 s 2; art
4 s 8; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 5-7,96; 1999 c 249 s 1; 2004 c 199 art 14 s 38; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 10,11
322B.12 LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY NAME.
    Subdivision 1. Requirements and prohibitions. The limited liability company name must:
(1) be in the English language or in any other language expressed in English letters or
characters;
(2) contain the words "limited liability company," or must contain the abbreviation "LLC"
or, in the case of an organization formed pursuant to chapter 319B, must meet the requirements
of section 319B.05 applicable to a limited liability company;
(3) not contain the word corporation or incorporated and must not contain the abbreviation of
either or both of these words;
(4) not contain a word or phrase that indicates or implies that it is organized for a purpose
other than a legal business purpose; and
(5) be distinguishable upon the records in the Office of the Secretary of State from the name
of each domestic limited liability company, limited liability partnership, corporation, and limited
partnership, whether profit or nonprofit, and each foreign limited liability company, limited
liability partnership, corporation, and limited partnership authorized or registered to do business
in this state, whether profit or nonprofit, and each name the right to which is, at the time of
organization, reserved as provided for in sections 302A.117, 317A.117, 321.0109, 322B.125, or
333.001 to 333.54, unless there is filed with the articles of organization one of the following:
(i) the written consent of the domestic limited liability company, limited liability partnership,
corporation, or limited partnership or the foreign limited liability company, limited liability
partnership, corporation, or limited partnership authorized or registered to do business in this state
or the holder of a reserved name or a name filed by or registered with the secretary of state under
sections 333.001 to 333.54 having a name that is not distinguishable;
(ii) a certified copy of a final decree of a court in this state establishing the prior right of the
applicant to the use of the name in this state; or
(iii) the applicant's affidavit that the domestic or foreign limited liability company, domestic
or foreign corporation, or domestic or foreign limited partnership with the name that is not
distinguishable has been organized, incorporated, or on file in this state for at least three years
prior to the affidavit, if it is a domestic limited liability company, corporation, or limited
partnership, or has been authorized or registered to do business in this state for at least three years
prior to the affidavit, if it is a foreign limited liability company, corporation, or limited partnership,
or that the holder of a name filed or registered with the secretary of state under sections 333.001
to 333.54 filed or registered that name at least three years prior to the affidavit, that the domestic
or foreign limited liability company, domestic or foreign corporation, or domestic or foreign
limited partnership or holder has not during the three-year period before the affidavit filed any
document with the secretary of state; that the applicant has mailed written notice to the domestic
or foreign limited liability company, domestic or foreign corporation, or domestic or foreign
limited partnership or the holder of a name filed or registered with the secretary of state under
sections 333.001 to 333.54 by certified mail, return receipt requested, properly addressed to the
registered office of the domestic or foreign limited liability company or domestic or foreign
corporation or in care of the agent of the domestic or foreign limited partnership, or the address
of the holder of a name filed or registered with the secretary of state under sections 333.001 to
333.54, shown in the records of the secretary of state, stating that the applicant intends to use a
name that is not distinguishable and the notice has been returned to the applicant as undeliverable
to the addressee of the domestic or foreign limited liability company, domestic or foreign
corporation, or domestic or foreign limited partnership or holder of a name filed or registered
with the secretary of state under sections 333.001 to 333.54; that the applicant, after diligent
inquiry, has been unable to find any telephone listing for the domestic or foreign limited liability
company, domestic or foreign corporation, or domestic or foreign limited partnership with the
name that is not distinguishable in the county in which is located the registered office of the
domestic or foreign limited liability company, domestic or foreign corporation, or domestic or
foreign limited partnership shown in the records of the secretary of state or has been unable to
find any telephone listing for the holder of a name filed or registered with the secretary of state
under sections 333.001 to 333.54 in the county in which is located the address of the holder
shown in the records of the secretary of state; and that the applicant has no knowledge that the
domestic or foreign limited liability company, domestic or foreign corporation, or domestic or
foreign limited partnership or holder of a name filed or registered with the secretary of state under
sections 333.001 to 333.54 is currently engaged in business in this state.
    Subd. 2. Determination. The secretary of state shall determine whether a name is
"distinguishable" from another name for purposes of this section and section 322B.125.
    Subd. 3. Other laws affecting use of names. This section and section 322B.125 do not
abrogate or limit the law of unfair competition or unfair practices, or sections 333.001 to 333.54,
or the laws of the United States with respect to the right to acquire and protect copyrights, trade
names, trademarks, service names, service marks, or any other rights to the exclusive use of
names or symbols, or derogate the common law or the principles of equity.
    Subd. 4. Use of a name by a surviving organization. A limited liability company that is
the surviving organization in a merger with one or more other organizations, or that is organized
by the reorganization of one or more organizations, or that acquires by sale, lease, or other
disposition to or exchange with an organization all or substantially all of the assets of another
organization, including its name, may have the same name as that used in this state by any of
the other organizations, if the other organization whose name is sought to be used was organized
under the laws of, or is authorized to transact business in, this state.
    Subd. 5. Injunction. The use of a name by a limited liability company in violation of this
section does not affect or vitiate its limited liability company existence, but a court in this state
may, upon application of the state or of a person interested or affected, enjoin the limited liability
company from doing business under a name assumed in violation of this section, although
its articles of organization may have been filed with the secretary of state and a certificate of
organization issued.
    Subd. 6. Contest of registration of name. A person doing business in this state may contest
the subsequent registration of a name with the Office of the Secretary of State as provided
in section 5.22.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 8; 1995 c 58 s 6; 1995 c 128 art 2 s 5; 1996 c 361 s 5; 1997 c 10
art 4 s 9; 1997 c 22 art 2 s 4,8; 2002 c 311 art 2 s 7; 2004 c 199 art 13 s 113; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 12
322B.125 RESERVED NAME.
    Subdivision 1. Who may reserve. The exclusive right to the use of a limited liability
company name otherwise permitted by section 322B.12 may be reserved by:
(1) a person doing business in this state under that name;
(2) a person intending to organize under this chapter;
(3) a domestic limited liability company intending to change its name;
(4) a foreign limited liability company intending to make application for a certificate of
authority to transact business in this state;
(5) a foreign limited liability company authorized to transact business in this state and
intending to change its name;
(6) a person intending to organize a foreign limited liability company and intending to have
the foreign limited liability company make application for a certificate of authority to transact
business in this state; or
(7) a foreign limited liability company doing business under that name or a name not
distinguishable from that name in one or more states other than this state and not described in
clause (4), (5), or (6).
    Subd. 2. Method of reservation. The reservation is made by filing with the secretary of state
a request that the name be reserved. If the name is available for use by the applicant, the secretary
of state shall reserve the name for the exclusive use of the applicant for a period of 12 months.
The reservation may be renewed for successive 12-month periods.
    Subd. 3. Transfer of reservation. The right to the exclusive use of a limited liability
company name reserved pursuant to this section may be transferred to another person by or on
behalf of the applicant for whom the name was reserved by filing with the secretary of state a
notice of the transfer and specifying the name and address of the transferee.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 9; 1996 c 361 s 6
322B.13 REGISTERED OFFICE AND AGENT.
    Subdivision 1. Registered office. A limited liability company shall continuously maintain
a registered office in this state. A registered office need not be the same as the principal place
of business of the limited liability company and need not be the same as the principal executive
office of a limited liability company.
    Subd. 2. Registered agent. A limited liability company may designate in its articles of
organization a registered agent. The registered agent may be a natural person residing in this state,
a domestic corporation or a domestic limited liability company, or a foreign corporation or foreign
limited liability company authorized to transact business in this state. The registered agent must
maintain a business office that is identical with the registered office.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 10
322B.135 CHANGE OF REGISTERED OFFICE OR AGENT.
    Subdivision 1. Statement. A limited liability company may change its registered office,
designate or change its registered agent, or state a change in the name of its registered agent, by
filing with the secretary of state a statement containing:
(1) the name of the limited liability company;
(2) if the address of its registered office is to be changed, the new address of its registered
office;
(3) if its registered agent is to be designated or changed, the name of its new registered agent;
(4) if the name of its registered agent is to be changed, the name of its registered agent as
changed;
(5) a statement that the address of its registered office and the address of the business office
of its registered agent, as changed, will be identical; and
(6) a statement that the change of registered office or registered agent was authorized by
resolution approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the governors present.
    Subd. 2. Resignation of agent. A registered agent of a limited liability company may resign
by filing with the secretary of state a signed written notice of resignation, including a statement
that a signed copy of the notice has been given to the limited liability company at its principal
executive office, or to a legal representative of the limited liability company. The appointment of
the agent terminates 30 days after the notice is filed with the secretary of state.
    Subd. 3. Change of business address or name of agent. If the business address or name of
a registered agent changes, the agent shall change the address of the registered office or the name
of the registered agent, as the case may be, of each limited liability company represented by that
agent by filing with the secretary of state a statement as required in subdivision 1, except that it
need be signed only by the registered agent, need not be responsive to clause (6), and must state
that a copy of the statement has been mailed to each of those limited liability companies or to the
legal representative of each of those limited liability companies.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 11; 1996 c 361 s 7
322B.14 AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION.
The articles of organization of a limited liability company may be amended at any time to
include or modify any provision that is required or permitted to appear in the articles or to omit
any provision not required to be included in the articles, except that when articles are amended
to restate them, the name and address of each organizer may be omitted. Unless otherwise
provided in this chapter, the articles may be amended or modified only in accordance with
sections 322B.14 to 322B.16. An amendment that merely restates the then existing articles of
organization, as amended, is not an amendment for the purposes of section 322B.63, subdivision
2
, or 322B.33, subdivision 9.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 12
322B.145 PROCEDURE FOR AMENDMENT BEFORE CONTRIBUTION.
Before any contribution is reflected in the required records of a limited liability company,
the articles of organization may be amended pursuant to section 322B.60 by the organizers or
by the board of governors. The articles of organization may also be amended by the board of
governors to change or cancel a statement pursuant to section 322B.40, subdivision 6, establishing
or fixing the rights and preferences of a class or series of membership interests before any
contribution pertaining to that class or series is reflected in the required records of the limited
liability company by filing articles of amendment or a statement of cancellation, as appropriate,
with the secretary of state.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 13; 1996 c 361 s 8
322B.15 PROCEDURE FOR AMENDMENT AFTER CONTRIBUTION.
    Subdivision 1. Manner of amendment. Except as otherwise set forth in section 322B.145,
after any contribution has been reflected in the required records of a limited liability company, the
articles of organization may be amended in the manner set forth in this section.
    Subd. 2. Submission to members. A resolution approved by the affirmative vote of a
majority of the governors present, or proposed by a member or members owning three percent or
more of the voting power of the members entitled to vote, that sets forth the proposed amendment
must be submitted to a vote at the next regular or special meeting of the members of which
notice has not yet been given but still can be timely given. Any number of amendments may be
submitted to the members and voted upon at one meeting, but the same or substantially the same
amendment proposed by a member or members need not be submitted to the members or be voted
upon at more than one meeting during a 15-month period. The resolution may amend the articles
of organization in their entirety to restate and supersede the original articles of organization
and all amendments to them.
    Subd. 3. Notice. Written notice of the members' meeting setting forth the substance of the
proposed amendment must be given to each member entitled to vote in the manner provided in
section 322B.34 for the giving of notice of meetings of members.
    Subd. 4. Approval by members. (a) The proposed amendment is adopted when approved
by the affirmative vote of the members required by section 322B.346, except as provided in
paragraphs (b) and (c), and subdivision 5.
(b) For a closely held limited liability company, if the articles of organization provide for a
specified proportion equal to or larger than the majority necessary to transact a specified type
of business at a meeting, or if it is proposed to amend the articles to provide for a specified
proportion equal to or larger than the majority necessary to transact a specified type of business
at a meeting, the affirmative vote necessary to add the provision to, or to amend an existing
provision in, the articles of organization is the larger of:
(1) the specified proportion or, in the absence of a specific provision, the affirmative vote
necessary to transact the type of business described in the proposed amendment at a meeting
immediately before the effectiveness of the proposed amendment; or
(2) the specified proportion that would, upon effectiveness of the proposed amendment, be
necessary to transact the specified type of business at a meeting.
(c) For limited liability companies other than closely held limited liability companies, if the
articles provide for a larger proportion to transact a specified type of business at a meeting,
the affirmative vote of that larger proportion is necessary to amend the articles to decrease the
proportion necessary to transact the business.
    Subd. 5. Certain restatements. An amendment that merely restates the existing articles, as
amended, may be authorized by a resolution approved by the board of governors and may, but
need not, be submitted to and approved by the members as provided in subdivisions 2, 3, and 4.
    Subd. 6. Change of limited liability company name. An amendment that only changes a
limited liability company's limited liability company name may be authorized by a resolution
approved by the board and may, but need not, be submitted to and approved by the members as
provided in subdivisions 2, 3, and 4.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 14; 1996 c 361 s 9-11; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 13
322B.155 CLASS OR SERIES VOTING ON AMENDMENTS.
The owners of the outstanding membership interests of a class or series are entitled to vote
as a class or series upon a proposed amendment to the articles of organization, whether or
not entitled to vote on the amendment by the provisions of the articles of organization, if the
amendment would:
(1) effect an exchange, reclassification, or cancellation of all or part of the membership
interests of the class or series, or effect a combination of outstanding membership interests of a
class or series into a lesser number of membership interests of the class or series where each other
class or series is not subject to a similar combination;
(2) effect an exchange, or create a right of exchange, of all or any part of the membership
interests of another class or series for the membership interests of the class or series;
(3) change the rights or preferences of the membership interests of the class or series;
(4) create a new class or series of membership interests having rights and preferences
prior and superior to the membership interests of that class or series, or increase the rights
and preferences or the number of membership interests, of a class or series having rights and
preferences prior or superior to the membership interests of that class or series;
(5) divide the membership interests of the class into series and determine the designation
of each series and the variations in the relative rights and preferences between the membership
interests of each series or authorize the board of governors to do so;
(6) limit or deny any existing preemptive rights of the membership interests of the class or
series; or
(7) cancel or otherwise affect distributions on the membership interests of the class or series.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 15; 1996 c 361 s 12; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 8; 2004 c 199 art 14 s 39
322B.16 ARTICLES OF AMENDMENT.
When an amendment has been adopted, articles of amendment must be prepared that contain:
(1) the name of the limited liability company;
(2) the amendment adopted;
(3) with respect to an amendment restating the articles, a statement that the amendment
restating the articles of organization correctly sets forth without change the corresponding
provisions of the articles as previously amended if the amendment was approved only by the
board;
(4) if the amendment provides for but does not establish the manner for effecting an
exchange, reclassification, division, combination, or cancellation of membership interests, a
statement of the manner in which it will be effected; and
(5) a statement that the amendment has been adopted pursuant to this chapter.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 16
322B.165 EFFECT OF AMENDMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Effect on cause of action. An amendment does not affect an existing cause of
action in favor of or against the limited liability company, nor a pending suit to which the limited
liability company is a party, nor the existing rights of persons other than members.
    Subd. 2. Effect of change of name. If the limited liability company name is changed by
the amendment, a suit brought by or against the limited liability company under its former name
does not abate for that reason.
    Subd. 3. Effect of amendments restating articles. When effective under section 322B.175,
an amendment restating the articles of organization in their entirety supersedes the original articles
of organization and all amendments to the original articles of organization.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 17
322B.17 FILING OF ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION.
Articles of organization and articles of amendment must be filed with the secretary of state.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 18
322B.175 EFFECTIVE DATE OF ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION.
Articles of organization are effective and limited liability company existence begins when
the articles of organization are filed with the secretary of state accompanied by a payment of
$135, which includes a $100 organization fee in addition to the $35 filing fee required by section
322B.03, subdivision 18. Articles of amendment are effective when filed with the secretary of
state or at another time within 30 days after filing if the articles of amendment so provide. Articles
of merger must be accompanied by a fee of $60, which includes a $25 merger fee in addition to
the $35 filing fee required by section 322B.03, subdivision 18.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 19; 1996 c 361 s 13
322B.18 PRESUMPTION AND CERTIFICATE OF ORGANIZATION.
When the articles of organization have been filed with the secretary of state and the required
fee has been paid to the secretary of state, it is presumed that all conditions precedent required to
be performed by the organizers have been complied with and that the limited liability company
has been organized, and the secretary of state shall issue a certificate of organization to the
limited liability company. This presumption does not apply against this state in a proceeding to
cancel or revoke the certificate of organization or to compel the involuntary dissolution of the
limited liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 20

POWERS

322B.20 POWERS.
    Subdivision 1. Generally and limitations. A limited liability company has the powers set
forth in this section, subject to any limitations provided in any other statute of this state or in its
articles of organization. The articles may not limit the powers stated in subdivision 3. A member
control agreement may limit the powers stated in subdivisions 4 to 24.
    Subd. 2. Duration. (a) A limited liability company whose existence begins before August
1, 1999, has a limited duration of 30 years from the date the articles of organization are filed
with the secretary of state, unless the articles of organization state a shorter or longer period of
duration, which may be perpetual.
(b) A limited liability company whose existence begins on or after August 1, 1999, has
perpetual duration.
    Subd. 3. Legal capacity. A limited liability company may sue and be sued, and complain,
defend, and participate as a party or otherwise in any legal, administrative, or arbitration
proceeding, in its limited liability company name.
    Subd. 4. Property ownership. A limited liability company may purchase, lease, or otherwise
acquire, own, hold, improve, use, and otherwise deal in and with, real or personal property, or
any interest in property, wherever situated.
    Subd. 5. Property disposition. A limited liability company may sell, convey, mortgage,
create a security interest in, otherwise encumber, assign, lease, exchange, transfer, or otherwise
dispose of all or any part of its real or personal property, or any interest in this property, wherever
situated.
    Subd. 6. Trading in securities and obligations. A limited liability company may purchase,
subscribe for, or otherwise acquire, own, hold, vote, use, employ, sell, exchange, mortgage, lend,
create a security interest in, or otherwise dispose of and otherwise use and deal in and with,
securities or other interests in, or obligations of, a person or direct or indirect obligations of any
domestic or foreign government or instrumentality of a government.
    Subd. 7. Contracts and mortgages. A limited liability company may make contracts and
incur liabilities, borrow money, and secure any of its obligations by mortgage of or creation of a
security interest in or other encumbrance or assignment of all or any of its property, franchises,
and income.
    Subd. 8. Investment. A limited liability company may invest and reinvest its funds.
    Subd. 9. Holding property as security. A limited liability company may take and hold real
and personal property, whether or not of a kind sold or otherwise dealt in by the limited liability
company, as security for the payment of money loaned, advanced, or invested.
    Subd. 10. Location. A limited liability company may conduct its business, carry on its
operations, have offices, and exercise the powers granted by this chapter anywhere in the universe.
    Subd. 11. Donations. A limited liability company may make donations, irrespective of
limited liability company benefit, for: (1) the public welfare; (2) social, community, charitable,
religious, educational, scientific, civic, literary, and testing for public safety purposes; and for
similar or related purposes; (3) for the purpose of fostering national or international amateur
sports competition; and (4) the prevention of cruelty to children and animals.
    Subd. 12. Pensions and benefits. A limited liability company may pay pensions, retirement
allowances, and compensation for past services to and for the benefit of, and establish, maintain,
continue, and carry out, wholly or partially at the expense of the limited liability company,
employee or incentive benefit plans, trusts, and provisions to or for the benefit of, any or all of its
and its related organizations' officers, managers, directors, governors, employees, and agents and,
in the case of a related organization that is a limited liability company, members who provide
services to the limited liability company, and the families, dependents, and beneficiaries of any of
them. It may indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance for and on behalf of a fiduciary of
any of these employee benefit and incentive plans, trusts, and provisions.
    Subd. 13. Participating in management. A limited liability company may participate in
any capacity in the promotion, organization, ownership, management, and operation of any
organization or in any transaction, undertaking, or arrangement that the participating limited
liability company would have power to conduct by itself, whether or not the participation involves
sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
    Subd. 14. Insurance. A limited liability company may provide for its benefit life insurance
and other insurance with respect to the services of any or all of its members, managers, governors,
employees, and agents, or on the life of a member for the purpose of acquiring at the death of the
member any or all membership interests in the limited liability company owned by the member.
    Subd. 15. Limited liability company seal. A limited liability company may have, alter at its
pleasure, and use a limited liability company seal as provided in section 322B.21.
    Subd. 16. Bylaws. A limited liability company may adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws
relating to the management of the business or the regulation of the affairs of the limited liability
company as provided in section 322B.603.
    Subd. 17. Committees. A limited liability company may establish committees of the board
of governors, elect or appoint persons to the committees, and define their duties as provided in
section 322B.66 and fix their compensation.
    Subd. 18. Managers, employees, and agents. A limited liability company may elect or
appoint managers, employees and agents of the limited liability company, and define their duties
as provided in sections 322B.67 to 322B.69, and fix their compensation.
    Subd. 19. Contributions. A limited liability company may accept contributions under
section 322B.40 and may enter into contribution agreements under section 322B.42 and
contribution allowance agreements under section 322B.43.
    Subd. 20. Loans, guaranties, and sureties. A limited liability company may lend money
to, guarantee an obligation of, become a surety for, or otherwise financially assist persons as
provided in section 322B.693.
    Subd. 21. Advances. A limited liability company may make advances to members who
provide services to the limited liability company, its governors, managers, and employees and
those of its subsidiaries as provided in section 322B.696.
    Subd. 22. Indemnification. A limited liability company shall indemnify those persons
identified in section 322B.699 against certain expenses and liabilities only as provided in section
322B.699 and may indemnify other persons.
    Subd. 23. Assumed names. A limited liability company may conduct all or part of its
business under one or more assumed names as provided in sections 333.001 to 333.06.
    Subd. 24. Other powers. A limited liability company may have and exercise all other
powers necessary or convenient to effect any or all of the business purposes for which the limited
liability company is organized.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 21; 1993 c 137 s 25-29; 1996 c 361 s 14; 1997 c 10 art 2 s 3;
1999 c 85 art 2 s 9,10,96
322B.21 LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY SEAL.
    Subdivision 1. Seal not required. A limited liability company may, but need not, have a
limited liability company seal, and the use or nonuse of a limited liability company seal does not
affect the validity, recordability, or enforceability of a document or act. If a limited liability
company has a limited liability company seal, the use of the seal by the limited liability company
on a document is not necessary.
    Subd. 2. Required words and use. If a limited liability company has a limited liability
company seal, the seal may consist of a mechanical imprinting device, or a rubber stamp with
a facsimile of the seal affixed on it, or a facsimile or reproduction of either. The seal need
include only the word "Seal," but it may also include a part or all of the name of the limited
liability company and a combination, derivation, or abbreviation of either or both of the phrases
"a Minnesota Limited Liability Company" and "Limited Liability Company Seal." If a limited
liability company seal is used, it or a facsimile of it may be affixed, engraved, printed, placed,
stamped with indelible ink, or in any other manner reproduced on any document.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 22
322B.22 EFFECT OF LACK OF POWER AND ULTRA VIRES.
The doing, continuing, or performing by a limited liability company of an act, or an executed
or wholly or partially executory contract, conveyance or transfer to or by the limited liability
company, if otherwise lawful, is not invalid because the limited liability company was without the
power to do, continue, or perform the act, contract, conveyance, or transfer, unless the lack of
power is established in a court in this state:
(1) in a proceeding by a member against the limited liability company to enjoin the doing,
continuing, or performing of the act, contract, conveyance, or transfer. If the unauthorized act,
continuation, or performance sought to be enjoined is being, or to be, performed or made pursuant
to a contract to which the limited liability company is a party, the court may, if just and reasonable
in the circumstances, set aside and enjoin the performance of the contract and in so doing may
allow to the limited liability company or to the other parties to the contract compensation for the
loss or damage sustained as a result of the action of the court in setting aside and enjoining the
performance of the contract;
(2) in a proceeding by or in the name of the limited liability company, whether acting
directly or through a legal representative, or through members in a representative or derivative
suit, against the incumbent or former managers or governors of the limited liability company for
exceeding or otherwise violating their authority, or against a person having actual knowledge of
the lack of power; or
(3) in a proceeding by the attorney general, as provided in section 322B.843, to dissolve the
limited liability company, or in a proceeding by the attorney general to enjoin the limited liability
company from the transaction of unauthorized business.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 23
322B.23 TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS OUTSIDE MINNESOTA.
By enacting this chapter the Minnesota legislature recognizes the limited liability company
as an important and constructive form of business organization. The legislature understands that:
(1) businesses organized under or governed by this chapter will often transact business
in other states;
(2) for businesses organized under or governed by this chapter to function effectively and for
this chapter to be a useful enactment, this chapter must be accorded the same comity and full faith
and credit that states typically accord to each other's corporate laws; and
(3) specifically, it is essential that other states recognize both the legal existence of limited
liability companies organized under or governed by this chapter and the legal status of all
members of these limited liability companies.
The legislature therefore specifically seeks that, subject to any reasonable registration
requirements, other states extend to this chapter the same full faith and credit under section 1 of
Article IV of the Constitution of the United States, and the same comity, that Minnesota extends
to statutes that other states enact to provide for the establishment and operation of business
organizations.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 24; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 14

MEMBERS INTERESTS

322B.30 NATURE OF A MEMBERSHIP INTEREST AND STATEMENT OF INTEREST
OWNED.
    Subdivision 1. Generally. A membership interest is personal property. A member has
no interest in specific limited liability company property. All property of the limited liability
company is property of the limited liability company itself.
    Subd. 2. Statement of membership interest. At the request of any member, the limited
liability company shall state in writing the particular membership interest owned by that member
as of the moment the limited liability company makes the statement. The statement must describe
the member's rights to vote, if any, to share in profits and losses, and to share in distributions,
restrictions on assignments of financial rights under section 322B.31, subdivision 3, or governance
rights under section 322B.313, subdivision 6, then in effect, as well as any assignment of the
member's rights then in effect other than a security interest.
    Subd. 3. Grant of a security interest. For the purpose of any law relating to security
interests, a membership interest, governance rights, and financial rights are each to be
characterized as provided in section 336.8-103, paragraph (c).
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 25; 1993 c 137 s 30,31; 1996 c 361 s 15; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 11
322B.303 PERSONAL LIABILITY OF MEMBERS AS MEMBERS.
    Subdivision 1. Limited liability rule. Subject to subdivision 2, a member, governor,
manager, or other agent of a limited liability company is not, merely on account of this status,
personally liable for the acts, debts, liabilities, or obligations of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 2. Piercing the veil. The case law that states the conditions and circumstances under
which the corporate veil of a corporation may be pierced under Minnesota law also applies to
limited liability companies.
    Subd. 3. Limited liability after dissolution. The limited liability described in subdivisions
1 and 2 continues in full force regardless of any dissolution, winding up, and termination of a
limited liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 26
322B.306 TERMINATION OF A MEMBERSHIP INTEREST.
    Subdivision 1. Termination defined; member's power to terminate. The continued
membership of a member in a limited liability company is terminated by:
(i) the member's death;
(ii) the member's retirement;
(iii) the member's resignation;
(iv) redemption of the member's complete membership interest;
(v) an assignment of the member's governance rights under section 322B.313 which leaves
the assignor with no governance rights;
(vi) a buyout of a member's membership interest under section 322B.833 that leaves that
member with no governance rights;
(vii) the member's expulsion;
(viii) the member's bankruptcy;
(ix) the dissolution of a member that is an organization;
(x) a merger in which the limited liability company is not the surviving organization; or
(xi) the occurrence of any other event that terminates the continued membership of a
member in the limited liability company.
A member always has the power, though not necessarily the right, to terminate its
membership by resigning or retiring at any time.
    Subd. 2. When expulsion permitted. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of
organization or a member control agreement, a member may not be expelled.
    Subd. 3. Effect of termination of membership on the rights of the terminated member. If
for any reason the continued membership of a member is terminated, then subject to the articles of
organization and any member control agreement:
(1) if the termination does not result in the dissolution of the limited liability company, the
member whose membership has terminated loses all governance rights and will be considered
merely an assignee of the financial rights owned before the termination of membership; and
(2) if the termination results in the dissolution of the limited liability company, the member
whose continued membership has terminated retains all governance rights and financial rights
owned before the termination of the membership and may exercise those rights through the
winding up and termination of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 4. Additional effects if termination of membership is wrongful. If a member
resigns or retires in contravention of the articles of organization or a member control agreement,
the member who has wrongfully resigned or retired is liable to the limited liability company to
the extent damaged by the wrongful resignation or retirement.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 27; 1993 c 137 s 32-34; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 12
322B.31 ASSIGNMENT OF FINANCIAL RIGHTS.
    Subdivision 1. Assignment of financial rights permitted. Except as provided in subdivision
3, a member's financial rights are transferable in whole or in part.
    Subd. 2. Effect of assignment of financial rights. An assignment of a member's financial
rights entitles the assignee to receive, to the extent assigned, only the share of profits and losses
and the distributions to which the assignor would otherwise be entitled. An assignment of a
member's financial rights does not dissolve the limited liability company and does not entitle or
empower the assignee to become a member, to exercise any governance rights, to receive any
notices from the limited liability company, or to cause dissolution.
    Subd. 3. Restrictions of assignment of financial rights. (a) A restriction on the assignment
of financial rights may be imposed in the articles, in a member control agreement, in the bylaws,
by a resolution adopted by the members, or by an agreement among or other written action by
members or among them and the limited liability company. A restriction is not binding with
respect to financial rights reflected in the required records before the adoption of the restriction,
unless the owners of those financial rights are parties to the agreement or voted in favor of the
restriction.
(b) Subject to paragraph (c), a written restriction on the assignment of financial rights that is
not manifestly unreasonable under the circumstances and is noted conspicuously in the required
records may be enforced against the owner of the restricted financial rights or a successor or
transferee of the owner, including a pledgee or a legal representative. Unless noted conspicuously
in the required records, a restriction, even though permitted by this section, is ineffective against a
person without knowledge of the restriction.
(c) With regard to restrictions on the assignment of financial rights, a would-be assignee
of financial rights is entitled to rely on a statement of membership interest issued by the limited
liability company under section 322B.30. A restriction on the assignment of financial rights,
which is otherwise valid and in effect at the time of the issuance of a statement of membership
interest but which is not reflected in that statement, is ineffective against an assignee who takes
an assignment in reliance on the statement.
(d) Notwithstanding any provision of law, articles of organization, member control
agreement, bylaws, other agreement, resolution, or action to the contrary, a security interest in a
member's financial rights may be foreclosed and otherwise enforced, and a secured party may
assign a member's financial rights in accordance with chapter 336, without the consent or approval
of the member whose financial rights are subject to the security interest.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 28; 1993 c 137 s 35; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 13,96; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 15
322B.313 ASSIGNMENT OF GOVERNANCE RIGHTS.
    Subdivision 1. Transfer of governance rights restricted. A member's governance rights are
assignable, in whole or in part, only as provided in this section.
    Subd. 2. When unanimous consent required. Subject to subdivision 6, a member may,
without the consent of any other member, assign governance rights, in whole or in part, to another
person already a member at the time of the assignment. Except as otherwise set forth in the
articles of organization or a member control agreement, any other assignment of any governance
rights is effective only if all the members, other than the member seeking to make the assignment,
approve the assignment by unanimous written consent.
    Subd. 3. Effect on membership. When an assignment of governance rights is effective
under subdivision 2:
(1) if the assignment is not a security interest, the assignee becomes a member, if not already
a member; and
(2) if the assignor does not retain any governance rights, the assignor ceases to be a member.
    Subd. 4. Effect on liability for contributions and illegal distributions. When an
assignment other than a security interest is effective under subdivision 2, unless the written
consent under subdivision 2 otherwise provides:
(1) the assignee is liable in proportion to the interest assigned for the obligations of the
assignor under sections 322B.40 (including liability for unperformed promises that have been
reflected as contributions in the required records) and 322B.55 existing at the time of transfer,
except to the extent that, at the time the assignee became a member, the liability was unknown to
the assignee, and could not be ascertained from the required records; and
(2) the assignor is not released from liability to the limited liability company for obligations
of the assignor existing at the time of transfer under sections 322B.40 and 322B.55.
    Subd. 5. Consequences of ineffective assignment. If any purported or attempted assignment
of governance rights is ineffective for failure to obtain the consent required in subdivision 2:
(1) the purported or attempted assignment is ineffective in its entirety; and
(2) any assignment of financial rights that accompanied the purported or attempted
assignment of governance rights is void.
    Subd. 6. Restrictions on assignment of governance rights. Restrictions on the transfer of
governance rights may be imposed following the same procedures and under the same conditions
as stated in section 322B.31, subdivision 3, for restricting the transfer of financial rights.
    Subd. 7. Security interest. Subject to subdivision 6, a member may grant a security interest
in a complete membership interest or governance rights without obtaining the consent required by
subdivision 2. However, a secured party may not take or assign ownership of governance rights
without first obtaining the consent required by subdivision 2. If a secured party has a security
interest in both member's financial rights and governance rights, including a security interest in
a complete membership interest, this subdivision's requirement that the secured party obtain
the consents required by subdivision 2 applies only to taking or assigning ownership of the
governance rights and does not apply to taking or assigning ownership of the financial rights.
Notwithstanding any provision of law, articles of organization, member control agreement,
bylaws, other agreement, resolution, or action to the contrary, a security interest in a member's
full membership interest or governance rights may be foreclosed and otherwise enforced, and
a secured party may assign a member's complete membership interest or governance rights in
accordance with chapter 336, all without the consent or approval of the member whose full
membership interest or governance rights are the subject of the security interest.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 29; 1993 c 137 s 36; 1996 c 361 s 16; 1997 c 10 art 2 s 4;
1999 c 85 art 2 s 14-16,96
322B.316 EFFECTIVE DATE OF ASSIGNMENTS.
Any permissible and otherwise valid assignment of financial rights under section 322B.31 or
of governance rights or a complete membership interest under section 322B.313 will be effective
as to and binding on the limited liability company only when the assignee's name, address, and
the nature and extent of the assignment are reflected in the required records of the limited
liability company, except that a permissible and otherwise valid security interest in a complete
membership interest, financial rights, or governance rights will be effective as to and binding on
the limited liability company as provided in chapter 336 whether or not the information about the
secured party or the permissible and otherwise valid security interest is reflected in the required
records of the limited liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 30; 1993 c 137 s 37
322B.32 RIGHTS OF JUDGMENT CREDITOR.
On application to a court of competent jurisdiction by any judgment creditor of a member,
the court may charge a member's or an assignee's financial rights with payment of the unsatisfied
amount of the judgment with interest. To the extent so charged, the judgment creditor has only
the rights of an assignee of a member's financial rights under section 322B.31. This chapter does
not deprive any member or assignee of financial rights of the benefit of any exemption laws
applicable to the membership interest. This section is the sole and exclusive remedy of a judgment
creditor with respect to the judgment debtor's membership interest.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 31
322B.323 POWERS OF ESTATE OF A DECEASED OR INCOMPETENT MEMBER.
    Subdivision 1. General rule. If a member who is an individual dies or a court of competent
jurisdiction adjudges the member to be incompetent to manage the member's person or property,
or an order for relief under the bankruptcy code is entered with respect to the member, the
member's executor, administrator, guardian, conservator, trustee, or other legal representative
may exercise all of the member's rights for the purpose of settling the estate or administering the
member's property. If a member is a corporation, trust, or other entity and is dissolved, terminated,
or placed by a court in receivership or bankruptcy, the powers of that member may be exercised
by its legal representative or successor.
    Subd. 2. When membership is terminated. If an event referred to in subdivision 1 causes
the termination of a member's membership interest and the termination does not result in
dissolution, then subject to the articles of organization and any member control agreement:
(1) as provided in section 322B.306, subdivision 3, the terminated member's interest will be
considered to be merely that of an assignee of the financial rights owned before the termination
of membership; and
(2) the rights to be exercised by the legal representative of the terminated member will be
limited accordingly.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 32; 1993 c 137 s 38; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 17
322B.326 SHARING OF PROFITS AND LOSSES.
Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization, a member control agreement, or
by the board of governors under section 322B.40, subdivisions 5 and 6, the profits and losses
of a limited liability company are to be allocated among the members, and among classes and
series of members, in proportion to the value of the contributions of the members reflected in
the required records.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 33; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 18
322B.33 PREEMPTIVE RIGHTS.
    Subdivision 1. Presumption and modification. Unless denied or limited in the articles of
organization, a member control agreement, or by the board of governors pursuant to section
322B.40, subdivision 5, clause (2), a member of a limited liability company has the preemptive
rights provided in this section.
    Subd. 2. Definition. A preemptive right is the right of a member to make contributions of a
certain amount or to make a contribution allowance agreement specifying future contributions of
a certain amount before the limited liability company may accept new contributions from other
persons or to make contribution allowance agreements with other persons.
    Subd. 3. When right accrues. A member has a preemptive right whenever the limited
liability company proposes to accept contributions from other persons, or to make contribution
allowance agreements with other persons, pertaining to membership interests of the same series or
class as the series or class owned by the member.
    Subd. 4. Exemptions. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or a member
control agreement, no preemptive rights according to this section arise as to contributions to
be accepted from others or as to contribution allowance agreements to be made with others
when the contribution is:
(1) to be made in a form other than money;
(2) to be made or reflected pursuant to a plan of merger or exchange;
(3) to be made or reflected pursuant to an employee or incentive benefit plan approved at a
meeting by the affirmative vote of the owners of a majority of the voting power of all membership
interests entitled to vote;
(4) to be made pursuant to a previously made contribution allowance agreement; or
(5) to be made or reflected pursuant to a plan of reorganization approved by a court of
competent jurisdiction pursuant to a statute of this state or of the United States.
    Subd. 5. Extent of preemptive right. The extent to which each member may make a new
contribution, or obtain the right to make a new contribution under a contribution allowance
agreement, by exercise of a preemptive right as to any class or series is the ratio that the value
of that member's contributions, as reflected in the required records as pertaining to that class or
series before the contribution, bears to the total value of all members' contributions reflected in
the required records as pertaining to that class or series before the new contribution.
    Subd. 6. Waiver. A member may waive a preemptive right in writing. The waiver is
binding upon the member whether or not consideration has been given for the waiver. Unless
otherwise provided in the waiver, a waiver of preemptive rights is effective only for the proposed
contribution or contribution allowance agreement described in the waiver.
    Subd. 7. Notice. When proposing to accept new contributions, or to make contribution
allowance agreements, with respect to which members have preemptive rights under this section,
the board of governors shall cause notice to be given to each member entitled to preemptive
rights. The notice must be given at least ten days before the date by which the member must
exercise a preemptive right and must contain:
(1) the extent of the member's preemptive right, being:
(i) in the case of a preemptive right to make a contribution, the amount of the contribution
to be made, and
(ii) in the case of a preemptive right to make a contribution allowance agreement, the amount
of the contribution to be allowed under that contribution allowance agreement;
(2) the method used to determine the extent of the member's preemptive right;
(3) the terms and conditions upon which the member may make a contribution or make a
contribution allowance agreement; and
(4) the time within which and the method by which the member must exercise the right.
    Subd. 8. Contribution and participation by others. If a member does not exercise
preemptive rights to make a contribution or to make a contribution allowance agreement, then for
a period not exceeding one year after the date fixed by the board of governors for the exercise
of those preemptive rights and to the extent of the preemptive rights not exercised, the board of
governors may accept contributions or make contribution allowance agreements on terms no less
favorable to the limited liability company than those offered to the member.
    Subd. 9. Modification. If the members of a limited liability company are entitled to
cumulative voting in the election of governors, no amendment to the articles of organization that
has the effect of denying, limiting, or modifying the preemptive rights provided in this section
shall be adopted if the votes of a proportion of the voting power sufficient to elect a governor at an
election of the entire board of governors under cumulative voting are cast against the amendment.
    Subd. 10. Contractual rights. A denial or limitation of preemptive rights otherwise
provided in this section does not limit the power of a limited liability company to grant first
refusal rights, contribution allowance rights, or other rights to make contributions to the limited
liability company to members, persons who have entered into contribution agreements, or other
persons before accepting contributions or making contribution allowance agreements with any
other person.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 34; 1996 c 361 s 17,18; 1997 c 10 art 4 s 10; 1999 c 85 art
2 s 19,20
322B.333 REGULAR MEETINGS OF MEMBERS.
    Subdivision 1. Frequency. Regular meetings of members may be held on an annual or other
less frequent periodic basis, but need not be held unless required by the articles of organization,
a member control agreement, or bylaws or by subdivision 2.
    Subd. 2. Demand by member. If a regular meeting of members has not been held during
the immediately preceding 15 months, a member or members owning three percent or more of
the voting power of all members entitled to vote may demand a regular meeting of members by
written notice of demand given to the chief manager or the treasurer of the limited liability
company. Within 30 days after receipt of the demand by one of those managers, the board of
governors shall cause a regular meeting of members to be called and held on notice no later
than 90 days after receipt of the demand, all at the expense of the limited liability company. If
the board of governors fails to cause a regular meeting to be called and held as required by this
subdivision, the member or members making the demand may call the regular meeting by giving
notice as required by section 322B.34, all at the expense of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 3. Time and place. A regular meeting, if any, must be held on the day or date and at the
time and place fixed by, or in a manner authorized by, the articles, a member control agreement,
or bylaws, except that a meeting called by or at the demand of a member pursuant to subdivision
2 must be held in the county where the principal executive office of the limited liability company
is located. To the extent authorized in the articles, a member control agreement, or the bylaws, the
board of governors may determine that a regular meeting of the members shall be held solely by
means of remote communication in accordance with section 322B.343, subdivision 2.
    Subd. 4. Elections required and other business. At each regular meeting of members there
must be an election of qualified successors for governors who serve for an indefinite term or
whose terms have expired or are due to expire within six months after the date of the meeting.
No other particular business is required to be transacted at a regular meeting. Any business
appropriate for action by the members may be transacted at a regular meeting.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 35; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 21,22,96; 2002 c 311 art 2 s 8
322B.336 SPECIAL MEETINGS OF MEMBERS.
    Subdivision 1. Who may call. Special meetings of the members may be called for any
purpose or purposes at any time, by:
(1) the chief manager;
(2) the treasurer;
(3) two or more governors;
(4) a person authorized in the articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws to call
special meetings; or
(5) a member or members owning ten percent or more of the voting power of all membership
interests entitled to vote.
    Subd. 2. Demand by members. A member or members owning the voting power specified
in subdivision 1, clause (5), may demand a special meeting of members by written notice of
demand given to the chief manager or treasurer of the limited liability company and containing the
purposes of the meeting. Within 30 days after receipt of the demand by one of those managers, the
board of governors shall cause a special meeting of members to be called and held on notice no
later than 90 days after receipt of the demand, all at the expense of the limited liability company.
If the board of governors fails to cause a special meeting to be called and held as required by this
subdivision, the member or members making the demand may call the meeting by giving notice
as required by section 322B.34, all at the expense of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 3. Time and place. Special meetings must be held on the date and at the time and
place fixed by the chief manager, the treasurer, the board of governors, or a person authorized
by the articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws to call a meeting, except that a special
meeting called by or at the demand of a member or members pursuant to subdivision 2 must be
held in the county where the principal executive office is located. To the extent authorized in the
articles, a member control agreement, or the bylaws, the board of governors may determine that a
special meeting of the members shall be held solely by means of remote communication in
accordance with section 322B.343, subdivision 2.
    Subd. 4. Business limited. The business transacted at a special meeting is limited to the
purposes stated in the notice of the meeting. Any business transacted at a special meeting that is
not included in those stated purposes is voidable by or on behalf of the limited liability company,
unless all of the members have waived notice of the meeting in accordance with section 322B.34,
subdivision 4
.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 36; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 23,24,96; 2002 c 311 art 2 s 9
322B.34 NOTICE.
    Subdivision 1. To whom given. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, notice of all
meetings of members must be given to every owner of membership interests entitled to vote,
unless:
(1) the meeting is an adjourned meeting to be held not more than 120 days after the date
fixed for the original meeting and the date, time, and place of the meeting were announced at the
time of the original meeting or any adjournment of the original meeting; or
(2) the following have been mailed by first class mail to a member at the address in the
limited liability company records and returned undeliverable:
(i) two consecutive annual meeting notices and notice of any special meetings held during
the period between the two annual meetings; and
(ii) all payment of distributions sent during a 12-month period, provided there are at least
two sent during the 12-month period.
If notice of an adjourned meeting is required under clause (1), then the date for determination
of members entitled to notice of, and entitled to vote at, the adjourned meeting must comply with
section 322B.356, subdivision 1, except that if the date of the meeting is set by court order,
the court may provide that the original date of determination will continue in effect or may
fix a new date.
An action or meeting that is taken or held without notice under clause (2) has the same force
and effect as if notice was given. If the member delivers a written notice of the member's current
address to the limited liability company, the notice requirement is reinstated.
    Subd. 2. When given. In all instances where a specific minimum notice period has not
otherwise been fixed by law, the notice must be given at least ten days before the date of the
meeting, or a shorter time provided in the articles of organization, a member control agreement,
or bylaws, and not more than 60 days before the date of the meeting.
    Subd. 3. Contents. The notice must contain the date, time, and place of the meeting, the
information with respect to dissenters' rights required by section 322B.386, subdivision 2, if
applicable, and any other information required by this chapter. In the case of a special meeting,
the notice must contain a statement of the purposes of the meeting. The notice may also contain
any other information required by the articles of organization, a member control agreement, or
bylaws or considered necessary or desirable by the board of governors or by any other person or
persons calling the meeting.
    Subd. 4. Waiver and objections. A member may waive notice of a meeting of members. A
waiver of notice by a member entitled to notice is effective whether given before, at, or after the
meeting, and whether given in writing, orally, or by attendance. Attendance by a member at a
meeting is a waiver of notice of that meeting, except where the member objects at the beginning of
the meeting to the transaction of business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened,
or objects before a vote on an item of business because the item may not lawfully be considered at
that meeting and does not participate in the consideration of the item at that meeting.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 37; 1996 c 361 s 19,20; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 25,26,96
322B.343 REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS FOR MEMBER MEETINGS.
    Subdivision 1.MS 2000 [Renumbered subd 2]
    Subdivision 1. Construction and application. This section shall be construed and applied to:
(1) facilitate remote communication consistent with other applicable law; and
(2) be consistent with reasonable practices concerning remote communication and with
the continued expansion of those practices.
    Subd. 2.MS 2000 [Renumbered subd 3]
    Subd. 2. Member meetings held solely by means of remote communication. To the
extent authorized in the articles, a member control agreement, or the bylaws, and determined by
the board of governors, a regular or special meeting of members may be held solely by any
combination of means of remote communication through which the members may participate in
the meeting, if notice of the meeting is given to every owner of membership interests entitled to
vote as would be required by this chapter for a meeting, and if the membership interests held by
the members participating in the meeting would be sufficient to constitute a quorum at a meeting.
Participation by a member by that means constitutes presence at the meeting in person or by
proxy if all the other requirements of section 322B.363 are met.
    Subd. 3.MS 2000 [Renumbered subd 7]
    Subd. 3. Participation in member meetings by means of remote communication. To the
extent authorized in the articles, a member control agreement, or the bylaws, and determined by
the board of governors, a member not physically present in person or by proxy at a regular or
special meeting of members may, by means of remote communication, participate in a meeting of
members held at a designated place. Participation by a member by that means constitutes presence
at the meeting in person or by proxy if all the other requirements of section 322B.363 are met.
    Subd. 4. Requirements for meetings held solely by means of remote communication and
for participation by means of remote communication. In any meeting of members held solely
by means of remote communication under subdivision 2 or in any meeting of members held at a
designated place in which one or more members participate by means of remote communication
under subdivision 3:
(1) the limited liability company shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each
person deemed present and entitled to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is
a member; and
(2) the limited liability company shall implement reasonable measures to provide each
member participating by means of remote communication with a reasonable opportunity to
participate in the meeting, including an opportunity to:
(i) read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with those
proceedings;
(ii) if allowed by the procedures governing the meeting, have the member's remarks heard
or read by other participants in the meeting substantially concurrently with the making of those
remarks; and
(iii) if otherwise entitled, vote on matters submitted to the members.
    Subd. 5. Notice to members. (a) Any notice to members given by the limited liability
company under any provision of this chapter, the articles, a member control agreement, or the
bylaws by a form of electronic communication consented to by the member to whom the notice
is given is effective when given. The notice is deemed given:
(1) if by facsimile communication, when directed to a telephone number at which the
member has consented to receive notice;
(2) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the member
has consented to receive notice;
(3) if by a posting on an electronic network on which the member has consented to receive
notice, together with separate notice to the member of the specific posting, upon the later of:
(i) the posting; and
(ii) the giving of the separate notice; and
(4) if by any other form of electronic communication by which the member has consented to
receive notice, when directed to the member.
An affidavit of the secretary, other authorized manager, or authorized agent of the limited liability
company, that the notice has been given by a form of electronic communication is, in the absence
of fraud, prima facie evidence of the facts stated in the affidavit.
(b) Consent by a member to notice given by electronic communication may be given in
writing or by authenticated electronic communication. The limited liability company is entitled to
rely on any consent so given until revoked by the member, provided that no revocation affects
the validity of any notice given before receipt by the limited liability company of revocation
of the consent.
    Subd. 6. Revocation. Any ballot, vote, authorization, or consent submitted by electronic
communication under this chapter may be revoked by the member submitting the ballot, vote,
authorization, or consent so long as the revocation is received by a manager of the limited liability
company at or before the meeting or before an action without a meeting is effective according
to section 322B.656.
    Subd. 7. Waiver. Waiver of notice by a member of a meeting by means of authenticated
electronic communication may be given in the manner provided in section 322B.34, subdivision
4
. Participation in a meeting by means of remote communication described in subdivisions 2 and
3 is a waiver of notice of that meeting, except where the member objects at the beginning of the
meeting to the transaction of business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened, or
objects before a vote on an item of business because the item may not lawfully be considered at
the meeting and does not participate in the consideration of the item at that meeting.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 38; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 27,28,96; 2002 c 311 art 2 s 10
322B.346 ACT OF MEMBERS.
    Subdivision 1. Majority required. Except for the election of governors, which is governed
by section 322B.63, the members shall take action by the affirmative vote of the owners of the
greater of: (1) a majority of the voting power of the membership interests present and entitled
to vote on that item of business; or (2) a majority of the voting power that would constitute
a quorum for the transaction of business at the meeting, except where this chapter, the articles
of organization, or a member control agreement, require a larger proportion. If the articles or a
member control agreement require a larger proportion than is required by this chapter for a
particular action, the articles or the member control agreement control.
    Subd. 2. Voting by class or series. In any case where a class or series of membership
interests is entitled by this chapter, the articles of organization, a member control agreement, or
the terms of the membership interests to vote as a class or series, the matter being voted upon
must also receive the affirmative vote of the owners of the same proportion of the membership
interests present of that class or series, or of the total outstanding membership interests of that
class or series, as the proportion required pursuant to subdivision 1, unless the articles or the
member control agreement require a larger proportion. Unless otherwise stated in the articles,
a member control agreement, or bylaws in the case of voting as a class or series, the minimum
percentage of the total voting power of membership interests of the class or series that must be
present is equal to the minimum percentage of all membership interests entitled to vote required
to be present under section 322B.353.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 39; 1996 c 361 s 21; 1997 c 10 art 4 s 11; 1999 c 85 art 2 s
29,96; 2004 c 199 art 14 s 40
322B.348 CONTRACTUAL REQUIREMENT TO SUBMIT MATTER TO MEMBERS.
A limited liability company may agree to submit a matter to its members whether or not the
board determines, at any time after approving the matter, that the matter is no longer advisable
and recommends that members reject it.
History: 2006 c 250 art 2 s 16
322B.35 ACTION WITHOUT A MEETING.
    Subdivision 1. Method. An action required or permitted to be taken at a meeting of the
members may be taken by written action signed, or consented to by authenticated electronic
communication, by all of the members. If the articles or a member control agreement so provide,
any action may be taken by written action signed, or consented to by authenticated electronic
communication, by the members who own voting power equal to the voting power that would be
required to take the same action at a meeting of the members at which all members were present,
but in no event may written action be taken by members holding less than a majority of the voting
power of all membership interests entitled to vote on the action. After the adoption of the initial
articles or the first making of a member control agreement, an amendment to the articles or to a
member control agreement to permit written action to be taken by less than all members requires
the approval of all the members entitled to vote on the amendment.
    Subd. 2. Effective time. The written action is effective when signed, or consented to by
authenticated electronic communication, by the required members, unless a different effective
time is provided in the written action.
    Subd. 3. Notice and liability. When written action is permitted to be taken by less than all
members, all members must be notified immediately of its text and effective date. Failure to
provide the notice does not invalidate the written action. A member who does not sign or consent
to the written action has no liability for the action or actions taken by the written action.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 40; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 30; 2002 c 311 art 2 s 11,12; 2004 c 199
art 14 s 41; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 17
322B.353 QUORUM.
The owners of a majority of the voting power of the membership interests entitled to vote at
a meeting are a quorum for the transaction of business, unless a larger or smaller proportion is
provided in the articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws. If a quorum is present when a
duly called or held meeting is convened, the members present may continue to transact business
until adjournment, even though the withdrawal of members originally present leaves less than the
proportion otherwise required for a quorum.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 41; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 31,96
322B.356 VOTING RIGHTS.
    Subdivision 1. Determination. The board of governors may fix, or authorize a manager to
fix, a date not more than 60 days, or a shorter time period provided in the articles of organization,
a member control agreement, or bylaws, before the date of a meeting of members as the date for
the determination of the owners of membership interests entitled to notice of and entitled to vote
at the meeting. When a date is so fixed, only members on that date are entitled to notice of and
permitted to vote at that meeting of members.
    Subd. 2. Voting power. Unless otherwise provided in the articles, a member control
agreement, or by the board of governors under section 322B.40, subdivisions 5 and 6, members
have voting power in proportion to the value of the contributions of the members as reflected in
the required records.
    Subd. 3. Nonmembers. The articles of organization or a member control agreement may
give or prescribe the manner of giving a creditor, security holder, or other person a right to vote
under this section.
    Subd. 4. Jointly owned membership interests. Membership interests owned by two or more
members may be voted by any one of them unless the limited liability company receives written
notice from any one of them denying the authority of that person to vote those membership
interests.
    Subd. 5. Manner of voting and presumption. Except as provided in subdivision 4, an
owner of a membership interest entitled to vote may vote any portion of the membership interest
in any way the member chooses. If a member votes without designating the proportion voted in a
particular way, the member is considered to have voted all of the membership interest in that way.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 42; 1997 c 10 art 4 s 12; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 32-34,96
322B.36 VOTING BY ORGANIZATIONS AND LEGAL REPRESENTATIVES.
    Subdivision 1. Membership interests held by another organization. Membership interests
of a limited liability company reflected in the required records as being owned by another
domestic or foreign organization may be voted by the chief manager, chief executive officer, or
another legal representative of that organization.
    Subd. 2. Membership interests held by subsidiary. Except as provided in subdivision 3,
membership interests of a limited liability company reflected in the required records as being
owned by a subsidiary are not entitled to be voted on any matter.
    Subd. 3. Membership interests controlled in a fiduciary capacity. Membership interests of
a limited liability company in the name of, or under the control of, the limited liability company
or a subsidiary in a fiduciary capacity are not entitled to be voted on any matter, except to the
extent that the settlor or beneficiary possesses and exercises a right to vote or gives the limited
liability company or, with respect to membership interests in the name of or under control of a
subsidiary, the subsidiary, binding instructions on how to vote the membership interests.
    Subd. 4. Voting by certain representatives. Subject to section 322B.323, membership
interests under the control of a person in a capacity as a personal representative, an administrator,
executor, guardian, conservator, or the like may be voted by the person, either in person or by
proxy, without reflecting in the required records those membership interests in the name of the
person.
    Subd. 5. Voting by trustee in bankruptcy or receiver. Membership interests reflected in the
required records in the name of a trustee in bankruptcy or a receiver may be voted by the trustee
or receiver either in person or by proxy. Membership interests under the control of a trustee in
bankruptcy or a receiver may be voted by the trustee or receiver without reflecting in the required
records the name of the trustee or receiver, if authority to do so is contained in an appropriate
order of the court by which the trustee or receiver was appointed. The right to vote of trustees in
bankruptcy and receivers is subject to section 322B.323.
    Subd. 6. Membership interests held by other organizations. Membership interests
reflected in the required records in the name of an organization not described in subdivisions 1 to
5 may be voted either in person or by proxy by the legal representative of that organization.
    Subd. 7. Grant of security interest. The grant of a security interest in a membership interest
does not entitle the holders of the security interest to vote except as provided in section 322B.313.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 43; 1996 c 361 s 22,23
322B.363 PROXIES.
    Subdivision 1. Authorization. (a) A member may cast or authorize the casting of a vote by
(1) filing a written appointment of a proxy with a manager of the limited liability company at or
before the meeting at which the appointment is to be effective, or (2) telephonic transmission
or authenticated electronic communication, whether or not accompanied by written instructions
of the member, of an appointment of a proxy with the limited liability company or the limited
liability company's duly authorized agent at or before the meeting at which the appointment is to
be effective. The telephonic transmission or authenticated electronic communication must set
forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the appointment
was authorized by the member. If it is reasonably concluded that the telephonic transmission or
authenticated electronic communication is valid, the inspectors of election or, if there are not
inspectors, the other persons making that determination shall specify the information upon which
they relied to make that determination. A proxy so appointed may vote on behalf of the member,
or otherwise participate, in a meeting by remote communication according to section 322B.343,
to the extent the member appointing the proxy would have been entitled to participate by remote
communication according to section 322B.343, if the member did not appoint the proxy.
(b) A copy, facsimile, telecommunication, or other reproduction of the original writing
or transmission may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing or transmission
for any purpose for which the original transmission could be used, if the copy, facsimile
telecommunication, or other reproduction is a complete and legible reproduction of the entire
original writing or transmission.
(c) An appointment of a proxy for membership interests owned jointly by two or more
members is valid if signed or consented to by authenticated electronic communication, by any one
of them, unless the limited liability company receives from any one of those members written
notice or an authenticated electronic communication either denying the authority of that person to
appoint a proxy or appointing a different proxy.
    Subd. 2. Duration. The appointment of a proxy is valid for 11 months, unless a longer period
is expressly provided in the appointment. No appointment is irrevocable unless the appointment is
coupled with an interest in the membership interests or the limited liability company.
    Subd. 3. Termination. An appointment may be terminated at will, unless the appointment
is coupled with an interest, in which case it shall not be terminated except in accordance with
the terms of an agreement, if any, between the parties to the appointment. Termination may be
made by filing written notice of the termination of the appointment with a manager of the limited
liability company, or by filing a new written appointment of a proxy with a manager of the limited
liability company. Termination in either manner revokes all prior proxy appointments and is
effective when filed with a manager of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 4. Revocation by death or incapacity. The death or incapacity of a person appointing
a proxy does not revoke the authority of the proxy, unless written notice of the death or incapacity
is received by a manager of the limited liability company before the proxy exercises the authority
under that appointment.
    Subd. 5. Multiple proxies. Unless the appointment specifically provides otherwise, if two or
more persons are appointed as proxies for a member:
(1) any one of them may vote the membership interests on each item of business in
accordance with specific instructions contained in the appointment; and
(2) if no specific instructions are contained in the appointment with respect to voting the
membership interests on a particular item of business, the membership interests must be voted
as a majority of the proxies determine. If the proxies are equally divided, the membership
interests must not be voted.
    Subd. 6. Vote of proxy accepted and liability. Unless the appointment of a proxy contains
a restriction, limitation, or specific reservation of authority, the limited liability company may
accept a vote or action taken by a person named in the appointment. The vote of a proxy is
final, binding, and not subject to challenge, but the proxy is liable to the member for damages
resulting from a failure to exercise the proxy or from an exercise of the proxy in violation of the
authority granted in the appointment.
    Subd. 7. Limited authority. If a proxy is given authority by a member to vote on less than
all items of business considered at a meeting of members, the member is considered to be present
and entitled to vote by the proxy for purposes of section 322B.346, subdivision 1, only with
respect to those items of business for which the proxy has authority to vote. A proxy who is given
authority by a member who abstains with respect to an item of business is considered to have
authority to vote on the item of business for purposes of this subdivision.
    Subd. 8.[Repealed, 1999 c 85 art 2 s 95]
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 44; 1996 c 361 s 24; 1997 c 10 art 4 s 13; 1999 c 85 art 2 s
35,36; 2002 c 311 art 2 s 13
322B.366 MEMBER VOTING AGREEMENTS.
    Subdivision 1. General rule. A written agreement among persons who are then members or
who have signed contribution agreements, relating to the voting of their membership interests, is
valid and specifically enforceable by and against the parties to the agreement. The agreement may
override the provisions of section 322B.363 regarding proxies.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1999 c 85 art 2 s 95]
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 45; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 37
322B.37 MEMBER CONTROL AGREEMENTS.
    Subdivision 1. Authorization and scope. A member control agreement relating to any
phase or aspect of the business and affairs of a limited liability company is valid as provided
in subdivision 2 and enforceable as provided in subdivision 3. A member control agreement
valid under subdivision 2 may relate to, without limitation, the management of the limited
liability company's business, the declaration and payment of distributions, the sharing of profits
and losses, the election of governors or managers, the employment of members and others
by the limited liability company, the relations among members and persons who have signed
contribution agreements (including the termination of continued membership), the dissolution,
termination, and liquidation of the limited liability company (including the continuation of the
limited liability company's business through a successor organization or individual), and the
arbitration of disputes. Wherever this chapter provides that a particular result may or must be
obtained through a provision in the articles of organization (other than a provision required by
section 322B.115, subdivision 1, to be contained in the articles), in the bylaws, or by an act of the
board, the same result can be accomplished through a member control agreement valid under
this section or through a procedure established by a member control agreement valid under
this section. A member control agreement may allocate to the members authority ordinarily
exercised by the board of governors, allocate to the board of governors authority ordinarily
exercised by the members, or structure the governance of the limited liability company in any
agreed fashion and may waive, in whole or in part, a member's dissenting rights under sections
322B.383 and 322B.386.
    Subd. 2. Method of approval. A member control agreement as described in subdivision 1 is
valid if the agreement is in writing and is signed by the persons who, on the date the agreement
first becomes effective, comprise all the members of the limited liability company (regardless of
voting power), and all persons who are party to contribution agreements that on that date have
not yet been fully performed (regardless of whether those parties will, when members, have
voting power). A member control agreement may also include as parties persons who are neither
members nor parties to a contribution agreement. A member control agreement may provide for
its amendment through nonunanimous means.
    Subd. 3. Enforceability and copies. (a) A member control agreement valid under
subdivisions 1 and 2 is enforceable by persons who are parties to it and is binding upon and
enforceable against only those persons and other persons having knowledge of the existence of
the member control agreement. A copy of the member control agreement must be filed with the
limited liability company. The limited liability company shall note in its required records that the
members' interests are governed by a member control agreement entered into under this section.
(b) A member control agreement valid under subdivisions 1 and 2 is specifically enforceable.
(c) A member or any assignee of financial rights has the right upon written demand to obtain
a copy of any member control agreement from the limited liability company at the company's
expense.
    Subd. 4. Liability. If a member control agreement authorized under this section takes away
from any person any of the authority and responsibility which that person would otherwise
possess under this chapter, the effect of the member control agreement is also to relieve that
person of liability imposed by law for acts and omissions in the possession or exercise of that
authority and responsibility and to impose that liability on the person or persons possessing the
authority and responsibility under the agreement.
    Subd. 5. Other agreements. This section does not apply to, limit, or restrict agreements
otherwise valid, nor is the procedure set forth in this section the exclusive method of agreement
among members or between the members and the limited liability company with respect to
any of the matters described.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 46; 1997 c 10 art 2 s 5,6; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 38
322B.373 REQUIRED RECORDS AND INFORMATION.
    Subdivision 1. Required records. A limited liability company shall keep at its principal
executive office, or at another place or places within the United States determined by the board of
governors:
(1) a current list of the full name and last-known business, residence, or mailing address of
each member, governor, and chief manager;
(2) a current list of the full name and last-known business, residence, or mailing address of
each assignee of financial rights other than a secured party, and a description of the rights assigned;
(3) a copy of the articles of organization and all amendments to the articles;
(4) copies of any currently effective written bylaws;
(5) copies of the limited liability company's federal, state, and local income tax returns and
reports, if any, for the three most recent years;
(6) financial statements required by section 322B.376;
(7) records of all proceedings of members for the last three years;
(8) records of all proceedings of the board of governors for the last three years;
(9) reports made to members generally within the last three years;
(10) member control agreements described in section 322B.37;
(11) a statement of all contributions accepted under section 322B.40, subdivision 3, including
for each contribution:
(i) the identity of the member to whom the contribution relates;
(ii) the class or series to which the contribution pertains;
(iii) the amount of cash accepted by the limited liability company or promised to be paid to
the limited liability company;
(iv) a description of any services rendered to or for the benefit of the limited liability
company or promised to be rendered to or for the benefit of the limited liability company; and
(v) the value accorded under section 322B.40, subdivision 4 to:
(A) any other property transferred or promised to be transferred to the limited liability
company; and
(B) any services rendered to or for the benefit of the limited liability company or promised to
be rendered to or for the benefit of the limited liability company;
(12) a statement of all contribution agreements made under section 322B.42, including for
each contribution agreement:
(i) the identity of the would-be contributor;
(ii) the class or series to which the future contribution pertains; and
(iii) as to each future contribution to be made, the same information as subdivision 1, clause
(11) requires for contributions already accepted;
(13) a statement of all contribution allowance agreements made under section 322B.43,
including for each contribution allowance agreement:
(i) the identity of the would-be contributor;
(ii) the class or series to which the future contribution would pertain; and
(iii) as to each future contribution allowed to be made, the same information as subdivision
1, clause (11) requires for contributions already accepted;
(14) an explanation of any restatement of value made under section 322B.41;
(15) any written consents obtained from members under this chapter;
(16) a copy of agreements, contracts, or other arrangements or portions of them incorporated
by reference under section 322B.40, subdivision 6.
    Subd. 2. Right to inspect. (a) A member of a limited liability company has an absolute
right, upon written demand, to examine and copy, in person or by a legal representative, at any
reasonable time, and the limited liability company shall make available within ten days after
receipt by a manager of the limited liability company of the written demand, all documents
referred to in subdivision 1.
(b) A member of a limited liability company has a right, upon written demand, to examine
and copy, in person or by a legal representative, other limited liability company records at any
reasonable time only if the member demonstrates a proper purpose for the examination.
(c) For purposes of this section, a "proper purpose" is one reasonably related to the person's
interest as a member of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 3. Protective orders. On application of the limited liability company, a court in this
state may issue a protective order permitting the limited liability company to withhold portions of
the records of proceedings of the board of governors for a reasonable period of time, not to exceed
12 months, in order to prevent premature disclosure of confidential information that would be
likely to cause competitive injury to the limited liability company. A protective order may be
renewed for successive reasonable periods of time, each not to exceed 12 months and in total not
to exceed 36 months, for good cause shown. In the event a protective order is issued, the statute
of limitations for any action that the member might bring as a result of information withheld
automatically extends for the period of delay. If the court does not issue a protective order with
respect to any portion of the records of proceedings as requested by the limited liability company,
it shall award reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees and disbursements, to the member.
This subdivision does not limit the right of a court to grant other protective orders or impose other
reasonable restrictions on the nature of the limited liability company records that may be copied or
examined under subdivision 2 or the use or distribution of the records by the demanding member.
    Subd. 4. Other use prohibited. A member who has gained access under this section to any
limited liability company record may not use or furnish to another for use the limited liability
company record or a portion of the contents for any purpose other than a proper purpose. Upon
application of the limited liability company, a court may issue a protective order or order other
relief as may be necessary to enforce the provisions of this subdivision.
    Subd. 5. Cost of copies. Copies of the information referred to in subdivision 1 must be
furnished at the expense of the limited liability company. In all other cases, the limited liability
company may charge the requesting party a reasonable fee to cover the expenses of providing
the copy.
    Subd. 6. Computerized records. The records maintained by a limited liability company
may utilize any information storage technique, including, for example, punched holes, printed or
magnetized spots, or micro-images, even though that makes them illegible visually, if the records
can be converted accurately and within a reasonable time, into a form that is legible visually and
whose contents are assembled by related subject matter to permit convenient use by people in the
normal course of business. A limited liability company shall convert any of the records referred
to in subdivision 2 upon the request of a person entitled to inspect them, and the expense of the
conversion shall be borne by the person who bears the expense of copying pursuant to subdivision
5. A copy of the conversion is admissible in evidence, and is acceptable for all other purposes, to
the same extent as the existing or original records would be if they were legible visually.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 47; 1993 c 137 s 39; 1996 c 361 s 25; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 96
322B.376 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.
(a) A limited liability company shall prepare annual financial statements within 180 days
after the close of the limited liability company's fiscal year. The financial statements must include
at least a balance sheet as of the end of each fiscal year and a statement of income for the fiscal
year, prepared on the basis of accounting methods reasonable in the circumstances. The financial
statements may be consolidated statements of the limited liability company and one or more of
its subsidiaries. In the case of statements audited by a public accountant, each copy must be
accompanied by a report setting forth the opinion of the accountant on the statements; in other
cases, each copy must be accompanied by a statement of the treasurer or other person in charge
of the limited liability company's financial records stating the reasonable belief of the person
that the financial statements were prepared in accordance with accounting methods reasonable
in the circumstances, describing the basis of presentation, and describing any respects in which
the financial statements were not prepared on a basis consistent with those prepared for the
previous year.
(b) Upon written request by a member, a limited liability company shall furnish its most
recent annual financial statements as required under paragraph (a) no later than ten business days
after receipt of a member's written request. "Furnish" for purposes of this paragraph means that
the limited liability company shall deliver or mail, postage prepaid, the financial statements to the
address specified by the requesting member.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 48; 1996 c 361 s 26
322B.38 EQUITABLE REMEDIES.
If a limited liability company or a manager or governor of the limited liability company
violates a provision of this chapter, a court in this state may, in an action brought by a member of
the limited liability company, grant any equitable relief it considers just and reasonable in the
circumstances and award expenses, including attorneys' fees and disbursements, to the member.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 49
322B.383 RIGHTS OF DISSENTING MEMBERS.
    Subdivision 1. Actions creating dissenters' rights. Subject to a member control agreement
under section 322B.37, a member of a limited liability company may dissent from, and obtain
payment for the fair value of the member's membership interests in the event of, any of the
following limited liability company actions:
(1) unless otherwise provided in the articles, an amendment of the articles of organization,
but not an amendment to a member control agreement, which materially and adversely affects the
rights or preferences of the membership interests of the dissenting member in that it:
(i) alters or abolishes a preferential right of the membership interests;
(ii) creates, alters, or abolishes a right in respect of the redemption of the membership
interests, including a provision respecting a sinking fund for the redemption or repurchase of
the membership interests;
(iii) alters or abolishes a preemptive right of the owner of the membership interests to make
a contribution;
(iv) excludes or limits the right of a member to vote on a matter, or to cumulate votes, except
as the right may be excluded or limited through the acceptance of contributions or the making of
contribution agreements pertaining to membership interests with similar or different voting rights;
(v) changes a member's right to resign or retire;
(vi) establishes or changes the conditions for or consequences of expulsion; or
(vii) eliminates the right to obtain payment under clause (1);
(2) a sale, lease, transfer, or other disposition of property and assets of the limited liability
company that requires member approval under section 322B.77, subdivision 2, but not including a
disposition in dissolution described in section 322B.813, subdivision 4, or a disposition pursuant
to an order of a court, or a disposition for cash on terms requiring that all or substantially all of
the net proceeds of disposition be distributed to the members in accordance with their respective
membership interests within one year after the date of disposition;
(3) a plan of merger to which the limited liability company is a constituent organization;
(4) a plan of exchange to which the limited liability company is a party as the organization
whose ownership interests will be acquired by the acquiring organization, if the membership
interests being acquired are entitled to be voted on the plan;
(5) a plan of conversion under section 302A.683; or
(6) any other limited liability company action taken pursuant to a member vote with respect
to which the articles of organization, a member control agreement, the bylaws, or a resolution
approved by the board of governors directs that dissenting members may obtain payment for
their membership interests.
    Subd. 2. Other rights. The members of a limited liability company who have a right under
this section to obtain payment for their membership interests do not have a right at law or in
equity to have a limited liability company action described in subdivision 1 set aside or rescinded,
except when the limited liability company action is fraudulent with regard to the complaining
member or the limited liability company.
    Subd. 3. Rights not to apply. If a date is fixed according to section 322B.356, subdivision 1,
for the determination of members entitled to receive notice of and to vote on an action described
in subdivision 1, only members as of the date fixed may exercise dissenters' rights.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 50; 1996 c 361 s 27; 1997 c 10 art 2 s 7; art 4 s 14; 1999 c 85
art 2 s 39,96; 2004 c 199 art 14 s 42
322B.386 PROCEDURES FOR ASSERTING DISSENTERS' RIGHTS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) For purposes of this section, the terms defined in this
subdivision have the meanings given them.
(b) "Limited liability company" means a limited liability company whose members have
obtained rights to dissent under section 322B.383, subdivision 1, and includes any successor
by merger.
(c) "Fair value of the membership interests" means the value of the membership interests of a
limited liability company immediately before the effective date of the limited liability company
action referred to in section 322B.383, subdivision 1.
(d) "Interest" means interest beginning five days after the effective date of the limited liability
company action referred to in section 322B.383, subdivision 1, up to and including the date of
payment, calculated at the rate provided in section 549.09 for interest on verdicts and judgments.
(e) "Member" includes a former member when dissenters' rights exist because:
(1) the membership of that former member has terminated causing dissolution; and
(2) the dissolved limited liability company has then entered into a winding up merger under
section 322B.81, subdivision 3.
    Subd. 2. Notice of action. If a limited liability company calls a member meeting at which
any action described in section 322B.383, subdivision 1, is to be voted upon, the notice of the
meeting must inform each member of the right to dissent and must include a copy of section
322B.383 and this section and a brief description of the procedure to be followed under these
sections. For members who have assigned some or all of their financial rights, the description
must also include the procedures under subdivision 9.
    Subd. 3. Notice of dissent. If the proposed action must be approved by the members and
the limited liability company holds a meeting of members, a member who is entitled to dissent
under section 322B.383 and who wishes to exercise dissenters' rights must file with the limited
liability company before the vote on the proposed action a written notice of intent to demand the
fair value of the membership interests owned by the member and must not vote the membership
interests in favor of the proposed action.
    Subd. 4. Notice of procedure. (a) After the proposed action has been approved by the board
of governors and, if necessary, the members, the limited liability company shall send to (i) all
members who have complied with subdivision 3, (ii) all members who did not sign or consent to a
written action that gave effect to the action creating the right to obtain payment under section
322B.383, and (iii) all members entitled to dissent if no member vote was required, a notice that
contains:
(1) the address to which a demand for payment must be sent in order to obtain payment and
the date by which the demand must be received;
(2) a form to be used to certify the date on which the member acquired the membership
interests and to demand payment; and
(3) a copy of section 322B.383 and this section and a brief description of the procedures to
be followed under these sections.
(b) In order to receive the fair value of the membership interests, a dissenting member must
demand payment within 30 days after the notice required by paragraph (a) was given, but the
dissenter retains all other rights of a member until the proposed action takes effect.
    Subd. 5. Payment. (a) After the limited liability company action takes effect, or after the
limited liability company receives a valid demand for payment, whichever is later, the limited
liability company shall remit to each dissenting member who has complied with subdivisions 3
and 4 the amount the limited liability company estimates to be the fair value of the membership
interests, plus interest, accompanied by:
(1) the limited liability company's closing balance sheet and statement of income for a fiscal
year ending not more than 16 months before the effective date of the limited liability company
action, together with the latest available interim financial statements;
(2) an estimate by the limited liability company of the fair value of the membership interests
and a brief description of the method used to reach the estimate; and
(3) a copy of section 322B.383 and this section and a brief description of the procedure to be
followed in demanding supplemental payment.
(b) The limited liability company may withhold the remittance described in paragraph (a)
from a person who was not a member on the date the action dissented from was first announced to
the public. If the dissenter has complied with subdivisions 3 and 4, the limited liability company
shall forward to the dissenter the materials described in paragraph (a), a statement of the reason
for withholding the remittance, and an offer to pay to the dissenter the amount listed in the
materials if the dissenter agrees to accept that amount in full satisfaction. The dissenter may
decline the offer and demand payment under subdivision 6. Failure to do so entitles the dissenter
only to the amount offered. If the dissenter makes demand, subdivisions 7 and 8 apply.
    Subd. 6. Supplemental payment. If a dissenter believes that the amount remitted under
subdivision 5 is less than the fair value of the membership interests plus interest, the dissenter
may give written notice to the limited liability company of the dissenter's own estimate of the fair
value of the membership interests, plus interest, within 30 days after the limited liability company
mails the remittance under subdivision 5, and demand payment of the difference. Otherwise, a
dissenter is entitled only to the amount remitted by the limited liability company.
    Subd. 7. Petition and determination. If the limited liability company receives a demand
under subdivision 6, it shall, within 60 days after receiving the demand, either pay to the dissenter
the amount demanded or agreed to by the dissenter after discussion with the limited liability
company or file in court a petition requesting that the court determine the fair value of the
membership interests, plus interest. The petition must be filed in the county in which the registered
office of the limited liability company is located, except that a surviving foreign corporation that
receives a demand relating to the membership interests of a constituent limited liability company
shall file the petition in the county in this state in which the last registered office of the constituent
limited liability company was located. The petition must name as parties all dissenters who have
demanded payment under subdivision 6 and who have not reached agreement with the limited
liability company. The limited liability company shall, after filing the petition, serve all parties
with a summons and copy of the petition under the Rules of Civil Procedure. Nonresidents of this
state may be served by registered or certified mail or by publication as provided by law. Except as
otherwise provided, the Rules of Civil Procedure apply to this proceeding. The jurisdiction of the
court is plenary and exclusive. The court may appoint appraisers, with powers and authorities the
court considers proper, to receive evidence on and recommend the amount of the fair value of the
membership interests. The court shall determine whether the member or members in question
have fully complied with the requirements of this section, and shall determine the fair value of the
membership interests, taking into account any and all factors the court finds relevant, computed
by any method or combination of methods that the court, in its discretion, sees fit to use, whether
or not used by the limited liability company or by a dissenter. The fair value of the membership
interests as determined by the court is binding on all members, wherever located. A dissenter is
entitled to judgment in cash for the amount by which the fair value of the membership interests as
determined by the court, plus interest, exceeds the amount, if any, remitted under subdivision
5, but is not liable to the limited liability company for the amount, if any, by which the amount,
if any, remitted to the dissenter under subdivision 5 exceeds the fair value of the membership
interests as determined by the court, plus interest.
    Subd. 8. Costs, fees and expenses. (a) The court shall determine the costs and expenses of
a proceeding under subdivision 7, including the reasonable expenses and compensation of any
appraisers appointed by the court, and shall assess those costs and expenses against the limited
liability company, except that the court may assess part or all of those costs and expenses against
a dissenter whose action in demanding payment under subdivision 6 is found to be arbitrary,
vexatious, or not in good faith.
(b) If the court finds that the limited liability company has failed to comply substantially
with this section, the court may assess all fees and expenses of any experts or attorneys as the
court considers equitable. These fees and expenses may also be assessed against a person who
has acted arbitrarily, vexatiously, or not in good faith in bringing the proceeding, and may be
awarded to a party injured by those actions.
(c) The court may award, in its discretion, fees and expenses to an attorney for the dissenters
out of the amount awarded to the dissenters, if any.
    Subd. 9. Procedures as to assignees of financial rights. When an assignment of some or all
of the financial rights of a membership interest is in effect, then as to that membership interest the
provisions of subdivisions 1 to 8 must be followed subject to the following revisions.
(a) All rights to be exercised and actions to be taken by a member under subdivisions 2 to
8 shall be taken by the member and not by any assignee of the member's financial rights. As
between the limited liability company and the assignees, the actions taken or omitted by the
member bind the assignees.
(b) Instead of remitting a payment under subdivision 5, paragraph (a), the limited liability
company shall forward to the dissenter member:
(i) the materials described in subdivision 5, paragraph (a);
(ii) an offer to pay the amount listed in the materials, with that amount to be allocated
among and paid to the member and the assignees of financial rights according to the terms of the
assignments reflected in the required records; and
(iii) a statement of that allocation.
(c) If the dissenter member accepts the amount of the offer made under paragraph (b) but
disputes the allocation, the dissenter shall promptly so notify the limited liability company and
promptly after the notification bring an action to determine the proper allocation. The suit must
be filed in the county in which the registered office of the limited liability company is located,
or in the case of a surviving foreign corporation that is complying with this section following a
merger or an exchange with a constituent limited liability company the suit must be filed in the
county in this state in which the last registered office of the constituent limited liability company
was located. The suit must name as parties the member, the limited liability company and all
assignees of the member's financial rights. Upon being served with the action, the limited liability
company shall promptly pay into the court the amount offered under paragraph (b) and shall
then be dismissed from the action.
(d) If the dissenter considers the amount offered under paragraph (b) inadequate, the
dissenter may decline the offer and demand payment under subdivision 6. If the dissenter makes
demand, subdivisions 7 and 8 apply, with the court having jurisdiction also to determine the
correctness of the allocation.
(e) If the member fails to take action under either paragraph (c) or (d), then:
(i) as to the limited liability company, both the member and the assignees of the member's
financial rights are limited to the amount and allocation offered under paragraph (b); and
(ii) the limited liability company discharges its obligation of payment by making payment
according to the amount and allocation offered under paragraph (b).
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 51; 1996 c 361 s 28,29; 1997 c 10 art 4 s 15; 1999 c 85 art 2 s
40-43; 2004 c 199 art 14 s 43,44

CONTRIBUTIONS

322B.40 AUTHORIZATION, FORM AND ACCEPTANCE OF CONTRIBUTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Board of governors may authorize. Subject to any restrictions in the articles
of organization or a member control agreement and only when authorized by the board of
governors or pursuant to a member control agreement, a limited liability company may accept
contributions under subdivisions 2 and 3, make contribution agreements under section 322B.42,
and make contribution allowance agreements under section 322B.43.
    Subd. 2. Permissible forms. A person may make a contribution to a limited liability
company:
(1) by paying money or transferring the ownership of an interest in property to the limited
liability company, or rendering services to or for the benefit of the limited liability company; or
(2) through a written obligation signed by the person to pay money or transfer ownership
of an interest in property to the limited liability company or to perform services to or for the
benefit of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 3. Acceptance of contributions. No purported contribution is to be treated or
considered as a contribution, unless:
(1) the board of governors accepts the contribution on behalf of the limited liability company
and in that acceptance describes the contribution, including terms of future performance, if any,
and states the value being accorded to the contribution; and
(2) the fact of contribution and the contribution's accorded value are both reflected in the
required records of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 4. Valuation. The determinations of the board of governors as to the amount or fair
value or the fairness to the limited liability company of the contribution accepted or to be accepted
by the limited liability company or the terms of payment or performance, including under a
contribution agreement in section 322B.42, and a contribution allowance agreement in section
322B.43, are presumed to be proper if they are made in good faith and on the basis of accounting
methods, or a fair valuation or other method, reasonable in the circumstances. Governors who are
present and entitled to vote, and who, intentionally or without reasonable investigation, fail to
vote against approving a consideration that is unfair to the limited liability company, or overvalue
property or services received or to be received by the limited liability company as a contribution,
are jointly and severally liable to the limited liability company for the benefit of the then members
who did not consent to and are damaged by the action, to the extent of the damages of those
members. A governor against whom a claim is asserted pursuant to this subdivision, except in
case of knowing participation in a deliberate fraud, is entitled to contribution on an equitable basis
from other governors who are liable under this subdivision.
    Subd. 5. Terms of membership interests. All the membership interests of a limited liability
company must:
(1) be of one class, without series, unless the articles of organization or a member control
agreement establish, or authorize the board of governors to establish, more than one class or
series within classes;
(2) be ordinary membership interests entitled to vote as provided in section 322B.356,
and have equal rights and preferences in all matters not otherwise provided for by the board of
governors unless and to the extent that the articles of organization or a member control agreement
have fixed the relative rights and preferences of different classes and series; and
(3) share profits and losses as provided in section 322B.326, and be entitled to distributions
as provided in sections 322B.50, 322B.51, and 322B.873, subdivision 1, clause (3).
    Subd. 6. Procedure for fixing terms. (a) Subject to any restrictions in the articles of
organization or a member control agreement, the power granted in subdivision 5 may be exercised
by a resolution or resolutions establishing a class or series, setting forth the designation of the
class or series, and fixing the relative rights and preferences of the class or series. Any of the
rights and preferences of a class or series established in the articles of organization, in a member
control agreement, or by resolution of the board of governors:
(1) may be made dependent upon facts ascertainable outside the articles of organization, or
outside the resolution or resolutions establishing the class or series, if the manner in which the
facts operate upon the rights and preferences of the class or series is clearly and expressly set forth
in the articles of organization or in the resolution or resolutions establishing the class or series; and
(2) may incorporate by reference some or all of the terms of any agreements, contracts,
or other arrangements entered into by the limited liability company in connection with the
establishment of the class or series if the limited liability company retains at its principal
executive office a copy of the agreements, contracts, or other arrangements or the portions
incorporated by reference.
(b) A statement setting forth the name of the limited liability company and the text of the
resolution and certifying the adoption of the resolution and the date of adoption must be filed
with the secretary of state before the acceptance of any contributions for which the resolution
creates rights or preferences not set forth in the articles of organization or a member control
agreement. However, where the members have received notice of the creation of membership
interests with rights or preferences not set forth in the articles of organization or a member control
agreement before the acceptance of the contributions with respect to the membership interests,
the statement may be filed any time within one year after the acceptance of contributions. The
resolution is effective when the statement has been filed with the secretary of state; or, if it is not
required to be filed with the secretary of state before the acceptance of contributions, on the
date of its adoption by the governors.
(c) Filing a statement with the secretary of state in accordance with paragraph (b) is not
considered an amendment of the articles of organization for purposes of sections 322B.15,
322B.155, and 322B.383. Filing an amendment of such a statement with the secretary of state
is considered an amendment of the articles for purposes of sections 322B.15, 322B.155, and
322B.383.
    Subd. 7. Specific terms. Without limiting the authority granted in this section, a limited
liability company may have membership interests of a class or series:
(1) subject to the right of the limited liability company to redeem any of those membership
interests at the price fixed for their redemption by the articles of organization or by the board of
governors;
(2) entitling the members to cumulative, partially cumulative, or noncumulative distributions;
(3) having preference over any class or series of membership interests for the payment
of distributions of any or all kinds;
(4) convertible into membership interests of any other class or any series of the same
or another class; or
(5) having full, partial, or no voting rights, except as provided in section 322B.155.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 52; 1996 c 361 s 30; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 44-46; 2004 c 199
art 14 s 45
322B.41 RESTATEMENT OF VALUE OF PREVIOUS CONTRIBUTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. As used in this section, an "old" contribution is a contribution
reflected in the required records of a limited liability company before the time the limited liability
company accepts a new contribution.
    Subd. 2. Restatement required. Whenever a limited liability company accepts a new
contribution, the board shall restate, as required by this section, the value of all old contributions.
    Subd. 3. Restatement as to the particular series or class to which the new contribution
pertains. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or a member control
agreement, this subdivision states the method of restating the value of old contributions that
pertain to the same series or class to which the new contribution pertains:
(1) state the value the limited liability company has accorded to the new contribution under
section 322B.40, subdivision 3, clause (1);
(2) determine what percentage the value stated under clause (1) will constitute, after the
restatement required by this subdivision, of the total value of all contributions that pertain to the
particular series or class to which the new contribution pertains;
(3) divide the value stated under clause (1) by the percentage determined under clause (2),
yielding the total value, after the restatement required by this subdivision, of all contributions
pertaining to the particular series or class;
(4) subtract the value stated under clause (1) from the value determined under clause
(3), yielding the total value, after the restatement required by this subdivision, of all the old
contributions pertaining to the particular series or class;
(5) subtract the value, as reflected in the required records before the restatement required by
this subdivision, of the old contributions from the value determined under clause (4), yielding
the value to be allocated among and added to the old contributions pertaining to the particular
series or class; and
(6) allocate the value determined under clause (5) proportionally among the old contributions
pertaining to the particular series or class, add the allocated values to those old contributions,
and change the required records accordingly.
The values determined under clause (5) and allocated and added under clause (6) may be
positive, negative, or zero.
    Subd. 4. Restatement method for other series or classes. Unless otherwise provided in
the articles of organization or a member control agreement, this subdivision states the method of
restating the value of old contributions that do not pertain to the same series or class to which the
new contribution pertains;
(1) determine the percentage by which the restatement under subdivision 3 has changed the
total contribution value reflected in the required records for the series or class to which the new
contribution pertains; and
(2) as to each old contribution that does not pertain to the same series or class to which the
new contribution pertains, change the value reflected in the required records by the percentage
determined under clause (1). The percentage determined under clause (1) may be positive,
negative, or zero.
    Subd. 5. New contributions may be aggregated. If a limited liability company accepts
more than one contribution pertaining to the same series or class at the same time, then for the
purpose of the restatement required by this section the limited liability company may consider all
those new contributions as if they were a single contribution.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 53; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 47,48
322B.42 CONTRIBUTION AGREEMENTS.
    Subdivision 1. Signed writing. A contribution agreement, whether made before or after the
formation of the limited liability company, is not enforceable against the would-be contributor
unless it is in writing and signed by the would-be contributor.
    Subd. 2. Irrevocable period. Unless otherwise provided in the contribution agreement, or
unless all of the would-be contributors and, if in existence, the limited liability company, consent
to a shorter or longer period, a contribution agreement is irrevocable for a period of six months.
    Subd. 3. Current and deferred payment. A contribution agreement, whether made before
or after the formation of a limited liability company, must be paid or performed in full at the time
or times, or in the installments, if any, specified in the contribution agreement. In the absence of
a provision in the contribution agreement specifying the time at which the contribution is to be
paid or performed, the contribution must be paid or performed at the time or times determined by
the board of governors, but a call made by the board of governors for payment or performance
on contributions must be uniform for all membership interests of the same class or for all
membership interests of the same series.
    Subd. 4. Failure to pay remedies. (a) Unless otherwise provided in the contribution
agreement, in the event of default in the payment or performance of an installment or call when
due, the limited liability company may proceed to collect the amount due in the same manner
as a debt due the limited liability company. If a would-be contributor does not make a required
contribution of property or services, the limited liability company shall require the would-be
contributor to contribute cash equal to that portion of the value, as stated in the limited liability
company required records, of the contribution that has not been made.
(b) If the amount due under a contribution agreement remains unpaid for a period of 20 days
after written notice of demand for payment has been given to the delinquent would-be contributor,
the membership interests that were subject to the contribution agreement may be offered for sale
by the limited liability company for a price in money equaling or exceeding the sum of the full
balance owed by the delinquent would-be contributor plus the expenses incidental to the sale.
If the membership interests that were subject to the contribution agreement are sold
according to this paragraph, the limited liability company shall pay to the delinquent would-be
contributor or to the delinquent would-be contributor's legal representative the lesser of (i) the
excess of net proceeds realized by the limited liability company over the sum of the amount owed
by the delinquent would-be contributor plus the expenses incidental to the sale, and (ii) the
amount actually paid by the delinquent would-be contributor. If the membership interests that
were subject to the contribution agreement are not sold according to this paragraph, the limited
liability company may collect the amount due in the same manner as a debt due the limited
liability company or cancel the contribution agreement according to paragraph (c).
(c) If the amount due under a contribution agreement remains unpaid for a period of 20 days
after written notice of demand for payment has been given to the delinquent would-be contributor
and the membership interests that were subject to the defaulted contribution agreement have not
been sold according to paragraph (b), the limited liability company may cancel the contribution
agreement, the limited liability company may retain the portion of the contribution agreement
price actually paid that does not exceed ten percent of the contribution agreement, and the limited
liability company shall refund to the delinquent would-be contributor or the delinquent would-be
contributor's legal representatives that portion of the contribution agreement price actually paid
that exceeds ten percent of the contribution agreement price.
    Subd. 5. Restrictions on assignment. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of
organization or a member control agreement, a would-be contributor's rights under a contribution
agreement may not be assigned, in whole or in part, to a person who was not a member at the time
of the assignment, unless all the members approve the assignment by unanimous written consent.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 54; 1996 c 361 s 31,32; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 49
322B.43 CONTRIBUTION ALLOWANCE AGREEMENTS.
    Subdivision 1. Agreements permitted. Subject to any restrictions in the articles of
organization or a member control agreement, a limited liability company may enter into
contribution allowance agreements under the terms, provisions, and conditions fixed by the board
of governors or by a manager pursuant to board authorization.
    Subd. 2. Writing required and terms to be stated. Any contribution allowance agreement
must be in writing, and the writing must state in full, summarize, or incorporate by reference all
the agreement's terms, provisions, and conditions.
    Subd. 3. Restrictions on assignment. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of
organization or a member control agreement, a would-be contributor's rights under a contribution
allowance agreement may not be assigned in whole or in part to a person who was not a member
at the time of the assignment, unless all the members approve the assignment by unanimous
written consent.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 55; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 50,51; 2000 c 264 s 10

DISTRIBUTIONS

322B.50 SHARING OF DISTRIBUTIONS.
Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization, or a member control agreement,
or by the board of governors under section 322B.40, subdivisions 5 and 6, distributions of cash
or other assets of a limited liability company, including distributions on termination of the
limited liability company, must be allocated in proportion to the value of the contributions of
the members reflected in the required records.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 56; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 52
322B.51 INTERIM DISTRIBUTIONS.
Except as provided in the articles of organization or a member control agreement, a member
is entitled to receive distributions before the limited liability company's termination only as
specified in the bylaws or by the act of the board of governors.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 57; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 53,96
322B.52 DISTRIBUTION IN KIND.
Except as provided in the articles of organization or a member control agreement, a member,
regardless of the nature of the member's contribution, has no right to demand and receive any
distribution from a limited liability company in any form other than cash. Except as provided in
the articles of organization or a member control agreement, a member may not be compelled to
accept a distribution of any asset in kind from a limited liability company to the extent that the
percentage of the asset distributed to the member exceeds a percentage of that asset that is equal
to the percentage in which the member shares in distributions from the limited liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 58; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 54
322B.53 STATUS AS A CREDITOR.
At the time a member becomes entitled to receive a distribution, the member has the status
of, and is entitled to all remedies available to, a creditor of the limited liability company with
respect to the distribution.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 59
322B.54 LIMITATIONS ON DISTRIBUTION.
    Subdivision 1. When distributions are permitted. (a) The board of governors may
authorize and cause the limited liability company to make a distribution only if the board of
governors determines, in accordance with subdivision 2, that the limited liability company will
be able to pay its debts in the ordinary course of business after making the distribution and the
board of governors does not know before the distribution is made that the determination was
or has become erroneous.
(b) The limited liability company may make the distribution if it is able to pay its debts in
the ordinary course of business after making the distribution.
(c) The effect of a distribution on the ability of the limited liability company to pay its debts
in the ordinary course of business after making the distribution must be measured in accordance
with subdivision 3.
(d) The right of the board of governors to authorize, and the limited liability company to
make, distributions may be prohibited, limited, or restricted by the articles of organization, a
member control agreement, or bylaws or an agreement.
    Subd. 2. Determination presumed proper. A determination that the limited liability
company will be able to pay its debts in the ordinary course of business after the distribution is
presumed to be proper if the determination is made in compliance with the standard of conduct
provided in section 322B.663 on the basis of financial information prepared in accordance with
accounting methods, or a fair valuation or other method, reasonable in the circumstances. No
liability under section 322B.663 or 322B.56 will accrue if the requirements of this subdivision
have been met.
    Subd. 3. Effect measured. (a) In the case of a distribution made by a limited liability
company in connection with a redemption of its membership interests, the effect of the distribution
must be measured as of the date on which money or other property is transferred, or indebtedness
payable in installments or otherwise is incurred, by the limited liability company, or as of the
date on which the member ceases to be a member of the limited liability company, whichever is
the earliest.
(b) The effect of any other distribution must be measured as of the date of its authorization if
payment occurs 120 days or less following the date of authorization, or as of the date of payment
if payment occurs more than 120 days following the date of authorization.
(c) Indebtedness of a limited liability company incurred or issued in a distribution in
accordance with this section to a member who as a result of the transaction is no longer a member
is on a parity with the indebtedness of the limited liability company to its general unsecured
creditors, except to the extent subordinated, agreed to, or secured by a pledge of any assets of the
limited liability company or a related organization, or subject to any other agreement between
the limited liability company and the member.
(d) Sections 322B.54 to 322B.56 supersede all other statutes of this state with respect to
distributions, and the provisions of sections 513.41 to 513.51 do not apply to distributions made
by a limited liability company governed by this chapter.
    Subd. 4. Restrictions. (a) A distribution may be made to the owners of a class or series of
membership interests only if:
(1) all amounts payable to the owners of membership interests having a preference for the
payment of that kind of distribution, other than those owners who give notice to the limited
liability company of their agreement to waive their rights to that payment, are paid; and
(2) the payment of the distribution does not reduce the remaining net assets of the limited
liability company below the aggregate preferential amount payable in the event of liquidation to
the owners of membership interests having preferential rights, unless the distribution is made
to those members in the order and to the extent of their respective priorities or the owners of
membership interests who do not receive distributions in that order give notice to the limited
liability company of their agreement to waive their rights to that distribution.
A determination that the payment of the distribution does not reduce the remaining net assets
of the limited liability company below the aggregate preferential amount payable in the event
of termination to the owners of membership interests having preferential rights is presumed to
be proper if the determination is made in compliance with the standard of conduct provided in
section 322B.663 on the basis of financial information prepared in accordance with accounting
methods, or a fair valuation or other method, reasonable in the circumstances. Liability under
section 322B.663 or 322B.56 will not arise if the requirements of this paragraph are met.
(b) If the money or property available for distribution is insufficient to satisfy all preferences,
the distributions shall be made pro rata according to the order of priority of preferences by classes
and by series within those classes unless those owners who do not receive distributions in
that order give notice to the limited liability company of their agreement to waive their rights
to that distribution.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 60; 1993 c 137 s 40; 1996 c 361 s 33; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 55,96
322B.55 LIABILITY OF MEMBERS FOR ILLEGAL DISTRIBUTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Liability. A member who receives a distribution made in violation of section
322B.54 is liable to the limited liability company, its receiver or other person winding up its
affairs, or a governor under section 322B.56, subdivision 2, but only to the extent that the
distribution received by the member exceeded the amount that properly could have been paid
under section 322B.54.
    Subd. 2. Statute of limitations. An action must not be commenced under this section more
than two years from the date of the distribution.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 61
322B.56 LIABILITY OF GOVERNORS FOR ILLEGAL DISTRIBUTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Liability. In addition to any other liabilities, a governor who is present at a
meeting and fails to vote against, or who consents in writing to, a distribution made in violation of
section 322B.54, subdivision 1 or 4, or a restriction contained in the articles of organization, a
member control agreement, or bylaws or an agreement, and who fails to comply with the standard
of conduct provided in section 322B.663, is liable to the limited liability company, its receiver or
any other person winding up its affairs jointly and severally with all other governors so liable and
to other governors under subdivision 3, but only to the extent that the distribution exceeded the
amount that properly could have been paid under section 322B.54.
    Subd. 2. Contribution from members. A governor against whom an action is brought under
this section with respect to a distribution may implead in that action all members who received
the distribution and may compel pro rata contribution from them in that action to the extent
provided in section 322B.55, subdivision 1.
    Subd. 3. Impleader and contribution from governors. A governor against whom an action
is brought under this section with respect to a distribution may implead in that action all other
governors who voted for or consented in writing to the distribution and may compel pro rata
contribution from them in that action.
    Subd. 4. Statute of limitations. An action must not be commenced under this section more
than two years from the date of the distribution.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 62; 1996 c 361 s 34; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 56,96

ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNANCE

322B.60 ORGANIZATION.
    Subdivision 1. Role of organizers. If the first board of governors is not named in the articles
of organization, the organizers may elect the first board of governors or may act as governors with
all of the powers, rights, duties, and liabilities of governors, until governors are elected or until a
contribution is accepted, whichever occurs first.
    Subd. 2. Meeting. After the filing of articles of organization, the organizers or the governors
named in the articles of organization shall either hold an organizational meeting at the call of a
majority of the organizers or of the governors named in the articles, or take written action, for
the purposes of transacting business and taking actions necessary or appropriate to complete
the organization of the limited liability company, including, without limitation, amending the
articles, electing governors, adopting bylaws, electing managers, adopting banking resolutions,
authorizing or ratifying the purchase, lease, or other acquisition of suitable space, furniture,
furnishings, supplies, and materials, approving a limited liability company seal, adopting a fiscal
year for the limited liability company, contracting to receive and accept contributions, and making
any appropriate tax elections. If a meeting is held, the person or persons calling the meeting
shall give at least three days' notice of the meeting to each organizer or governor named, stating
the date, time, and place of the meeting. Organizers and governors may waive notice of an
organizational meeting in the same manner that a governor may waive notice of meetings of the
board under section 322B.643, subdivision 5.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 63; 1996 c 361 s 35; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 96
322B.603 BYLAWS.
    Subdivision 1. Generally. A limited liability company may, but need not, have bylaws,
which may, but need not, be known as an operating agreement. The bylaws may contain any
provision relating to the management of the business or the regulation of the affairs of the limited
liability company not inconsistent with law or the articles of organization. An act of the board
under subdivision 2 and of the members under subdivision 3 will be considered part of the bylaws
only if the act expressly states that it is intended to constitute or revise the bylaws.
    Subd. 2. Power of board of governors. Initial bylaws may be adopted pursuant to section
322B.60 by the organizers or by the first board of governors. Unless reserved by the articles of
organization or a member control agreement to the members, the power to adopt, amend, or
repeal the bylaws is vested in the board of governors. The power of the board of governors is
subject to the power of the members, exercisable in the manner provided in subdivision 3, to
adopt, amend, or repeal the bylaws adopted, amended, or repealed by the board of governors.
After the adoption of the initial bylaws, the board of governors shall not adopt, amend, or repeal a
bylaws provision fixing a quorum for meetings of members, prescribing procedures for removing
governors or filling vacancies in the board of governors, or fixing the number of governors or
their classifications, qualifications, or terms of office, but may adopt or amend a bylaws provision
to increase the number of governors.
    Subd. 3. Power of members and procedure. If a member or members owning three percent
or more of the voting power of the members entitled to vote propose a resolution for action by
the members to adopt, amend, or repeal bylaws provisions adopted, amended, or repealed by the
board of governors and the resolution sets forth the provision or provisions proposed for adoption,
amendment, or repeal, the limitations and procedures for submitting, considering, and adopting
the resolution are the same as provided in section 322B.15, subdivisions 2 to 4, for amendment of
the articles of organization.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 64; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 57,96

BOARD OF GOVERNORS

322B.606 BOARD OF GOVERNORS.
    Subdivision 1. Board of governors to manage. The business and affairs of a limited liability
company is to be managed by or under the direction of a board of governors, subject to the
provisions of subdivision 2 and section 322B.37. The first board of governors may be named in
the articles of organization or a member control agreement or elected by the organizers pursuant
to section 322B.60 or by the members.
    Subd. 2. Member management. The owners of the membership interests entitled to vote for
governors of the limited liability company may, by unanimous affirmative vote, take any action
that this chapter requires or permits the board of governors to take. As to an action taken by the
members in that manner:
(1) the governors have no duties, liabilities, or responsibilities as governors under this
chapter with respect to or arising from the action;
(2) the members collectively and individually have all of the duties, liabilities, and
responsibilities of governors under this chapter with respect to and arising from the action;
(3) if the action relates to a matter required or permitted by this chapter or by any other law
to be approved or adopted by the board of governors, either with or without approval or adoption
by the members, the action is considered to have been approved or adopted by the board of
governors; and
(4) a requirement that an instrument filed with a governmental agency contain a statement
that the action has been approved and adopted by the board of governors is satisfied by a statement
that the members have taken the action under this subdivision.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 65; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 58
322B.61 NUMBER.
The board of governors consists of one or more governors. The number of governors
must be fixed by or in the manner provided in the articles of organization, a member control
agreement, or the bylaws. The number of governors may be increased or, subject to section
322B.636, decreased at any time by amendment to or in the manner provided in the articles, a
member control agreement, or bylaws.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 66; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 59,96
322B.613 QUALIFICATIONS AND ELECTION.
Governors must be natural persons. The method of election and any additional qualifications
for governors may be imposed by or in the manner provided in the articles, a member control
agreement, or bylaws.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 67; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 60,96
322B.616 TERMS.
Unless fixed terms are provided for in the articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws, a
governor serves for an indefinite term that expires at the next regular meeting of the members.
A fixed term of a governor must not exceed five years. A governor holds office for the term for
which the governor was elected and until a successor is elected and has qualified, or until the
earlier death, resignation, removal, or disqualification of the governor.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 68; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 61,96
322B.62 ACTS NOT VOID OR VOIDABLE.
The expiration of a governor's term with or without the election of a qualified successor does
not make prior or subsequent acts of the governors or the board of governors void or voidable.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 69
322B.623 COMPENSATION.
Subject to any limitations in the articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws, the board
of governors may fix the compensation of governors.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 70; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 62,96
322B.626 CLASSIFICATION OF GOVERNORS.
Governors may be divided into classes as provided in the articles, a member control
agreement, or bylaws.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 71; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 63,96
322B.63 VOTING FOR GOVERNORS; CUMULATIVE VOTING.
    Subdivision 1. Required vote. Unless otherwise provided in the articles or a member control
agreement, governors are elected by a plurality of the voting power of the membership interests
present and entitled to vote on the election of governors at a meeting at which a quorum is present.
    Subd. 2. Cumulative voting rights. Unless the articles of organization or a member control
agreement provide that there is no cumulative voting, and except as provided in section 322B.636,
subdivision 5
, each member entitled to vote for governors has the right to cumulate voting power
in the election of governors by giving written notice of intent to cumulate voting power to any
manager of the limited liability company before the meeting, or to the presiding manager at
the meeting at which the election is to occur at any time before the election of governors at
the meeting, in which case:
(1) the presiding manager at the meeting shall announce, before the election of governors,
that members shall cumulate their voting power; and
(2) each member shall cumulate that voting power either by casting for one candidate the
amount of voting power equal to the number of governors to be elected multiplied by the voting
power represented by the membership interests owned by that member, or by distributing all of
that voting power on the same principle among any number of candidates.
    Subd. 3. Modifications of cumulative voting. No amendment to the articles or bylaws that
has the effect of denying, limiting, or modifying the right to cumulative voting for members
provided in this section may be adopted if the votes of a proportion of the voting power sufficient
to elect a governor at an election of the entire board of governors under cumulative voting are
cast against the amendment.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 72; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 64,96; 2004 c 199 art 14 s 46; 2006 c
250 art 2 s 18
322B.633 RESIGNATION.
A governor may resign at any time by giving written notice to the limited liability company.
The resignation is effective without acceptance when the notice is given to the limited liability
company, unless a later effective time is specified in the notice.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 73
322B.636 REMOVAL OF GOVERNORS.
    Subdivision 1. Modification. The provisions of this section apply unless modified by the
articles of organization, a member control agreement, or the bylaws.
    Subd. 2. Removal of governors. A governor may be removed at any time, with or without
cause, if:
(1) the governor was named by the board of governors to fill a vacancy;
(2) the members have not elected governors in the interval between the time of the
appointment to fill a vacancy and the time of the removal; and
(3) a majority of the remaining governors present affirmatively vote to remove the governor.
    Subd. 3. Removal by members. Except as provided in subdivision 4, any one or all of
the governors may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of
the owners of a majority of the voting power of all membership interests entitled to vote at an
election of governors; provided that if a governor has been elected solely by the holders of a
class or series of membership interests, as stated in the articles, any member control agreement,
or bylaws, then that governor may be removed only by the affirmative vote of the holders of a
majority of the voting power of all membership interests of that class or series entitled to vote at
an election of that governor.
    Subd. 4. Exception for limited liability companies with cumulative voting. In a limited
liability company having cumulative voting, unless the entire board of governors is removed
simultaneously, a governor is not removed from the board of governors if there are cast against
removal of the governor the votes of a proportion of the voting power sufficient to elect the
governor at an election of the entire board of governors under cumulative voting.
    Subd. 5. Election of replacements. New governors may be elected at a meeting at which
governors are removed. If the limited liability company allows cumulative voting and a member
notifies the presiding manager at any time before the election of new governors of intent to
cumulate the votes of the member, the presiding manager shall announce before the election that
cumulative voting is in effect, and members shall cumulate their votes as provided in section
322B.63, subdivision 1, clause (2).
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 74; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 65,66,96
322B.64 VACANCIES.
Unless different rules for filling vacancies are provided for in the articles, a member control
agreement, or bylaws:
(1)(i) vacancies on the board of governors resulting from the death, resignation, removal, or
disqualification of a governor may be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining
governors, even though less than a quorum; and
(ii) vacancies on the board of governors resulting from newly created governorships may be
filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the governors serving at the time of the increase; and
(2) each governor elected under this section to fill a vacancy holds office until a qualified
successor is elected by the members at the next regular or special meeting of the members.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 75; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 67,96
322B.643 BOARD OF GOVERNORS MEETINGS.
    Subdivision 1. Time and place. Meetings of the board of governors may be held from time
to time as provided in the articles of organization, a member control agreement, or bylaws at any
place within or without the state that the board of governors may select or by any means described
in subdivision 2. If the board of governors fails to select a place for a meeting, the meeting
must be held at the principal executive office, unless the articles, a member control agreement,
or bylaws provide otherwise. The board of governors may determine under subdivision 2 that a
meeting of the board of governors shall be held solely by means of remote communication.
    Subd. 2.MS 2000 [Paragraph (b) renumbered subd 3]
    Subd. 2. Meetings solely by means of remote communication. Any meeting among
governors may be conducted solely by one or more means of remote communication through
which all of the governors may participate with each other during the meeting, if the same notice
is given of the meeting as would be required by subdivision 4, and if the number of governors
participating in the meeting would be sufficient to constitute a quorum. Participation in a meeting
by that means constitutes presence at the meeting.
    Subd. 3.MS 2000 [Renumbered subd 4]
    Subd. 3. Participation in meetings by means of remote communication. A governor may
participate in a board of governors meeting by means of conference telephone or, if authorized
by the board, by such other means of remote communication, in each case through which the
governor, other governors so participating, and all governors physically present at the meeting
may participate with each other during the meeting. Participation in a meeting by that means
constitutes presence at the meeting.
    Subd. 4.MS 2000 [Renumbered subd 5]
    Subd. 4. Calling meetings and notice. (a) Unless the articles of organization, a member
control agreement, or bylaws provide for a different time period, a governor may call a board
meeting by giving at least ten days' notice or, in the case of organizational meetings under section
322B.60, subdivision 2, at least three days' notice to all governors of the date, time, and place of
the meeting. The notice need not state the purpose of the meeting unless the articles, a member
control agreement, or bylaws require it.
(b) Any notice to a governor given under any provision of this chapter, the articles, a member
control agreement, or the bylaws by a form of electronic communication consented to by the
governor to whom the notice is given is effective when given. The notice is deemed given if by:
(1) facsimile communication, when directed to a telephone number at which the governor
has consented to receive notice;
(2) electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the governor has
consented to receive notice; and
(3) any other form of electronic communication by which the governor has consented to
receive notice, when directed to the governor.
(c) Consent by a governor to notice given by electronic communication may be given in
writing or by authenticated electronic communication. Any consent so given may be relied upon
until revoked by the governor, provided that no revocation affects the validity of any notice given
before receipt of revocation of the consent.
    Subd. 5.MS 2000 [Renumbered subd 6]
    Subd. 5. Previously scheduled meetings. If the day or date, time, and place of a board of
governors meeting have been provided in the articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws,
or announced at a previous meeting of the board of governors, no notice is required. Notice of
an adjourned meeting need not be given other than by announcement at the meeting at which
adjournment is taken.
    Subd. 6. Waiver of notice. A governor may waive notice of a meeting of the board of
governors. A waiver of notice by a governor entitled to notice is effective whether given before,
at, or after the meeting, and whether given in writing, orally, by authenticated electronic
communication, or by attendance. Attendance by a governor at a meeting is a waiver of notice of
that meeting, except where the governor objects at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction
of business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened and does not participate
in the meeting after the objection.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 76; 1996 c 361 s 36; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 68-70,96; 2002 c 311 art
2 s 14; 2004 c 199 art 14 s 47,48
322B.646 ABSENT GOVERNORS.
If the articles of organization, a member control agreement, or bylaws so provide, a governor
may give advance written consent or opposition to a proposal to be acted on at a board of
governors meeting. If the governor is not present at the meeting, consent or opposition to a
proposal does not constitute presence for purposes of determining the existence of a quorum, but
consent or opposition must be counted as the vote of a governor present at the meeting in favor
of or against the proposal and must be entered in the minutes or other record of action at the
meeting, if the proposal acted on at the meeting is substantially the same or has substantially the
same effect as the proposal to which the governor has consented or objected.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 77; 1996 c 361 s 37; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 71,96
322B.65 QUORUM.
A majority, or a larger or smaller proportion or number provided in the articles of
organization, a member control agreement, or bylaws, of the governors currently holding office is
a quorum for the transaction of business. In the absence of a quorum, a majority of the governors
present may adjourn a meeting from time to time until a quorum is present. If a quorum is present
when a duly called or held meeting is convened, the governors present may continue to transact
business until adjournment, even though the withdrawal of a number of governors originally
present leaves less than the proportion or number otherwise required for a quorum.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 78; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 72,96
322B.653 ACT OF THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS.
The board of governors shall take action by the affirmative vote of the greater of (1) a
majority of governors present at a duly held meeting at the time the action is taken, or (2) a
majority of the minimum proportion or number of governors that would constitute a quorum for
the transaction of business at the meeting, except where this chapter, the articles, or a member
control agreement require the affirmative vote of a larger proportion or number. If the articles or a
member control agreement require a larger proportion or number than is required by this chapter
for a particular action, the articles or member control agreement control.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 79; 1996 c 361 s 38; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 73
322B.656 ACTION WITHOUT A MEETING.
    Subdivision 1. Method. An action required or permitted to be taken at a board of governors
meeting may be taken by written action signed, or consented to by authenticated electronic
communication, by all of the governors. If the articles or a member control agreement so provide,
any action, other than an action requiring member approval, may be taken by written action
signed, or consented to by authenticated electronic communication, by the number of governors
that would be required to take the same action at a meeting of the board of governors at which
all governors were present.
    Subd. 2. Effective time. The written action is effective when signed, or consented to by
authenticated electronic communication, by the required number of governors, unless a different
effective time is provided in the written action.
    Subd. 3. Notice and liability. When written action is permitted to be taken by less than all
governors, all governors must be notified immediately of its text and effective date. Failure to
provide the notice does not invalidate the written action. A governor who does not sign or consent
to the written action has no liability for the action or actions taken by the written action.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 80; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 74; 2002 c 311 art 2 s 15,16
322B.66 COMMITTEES.
    Subdivision 1. Generally. A resolution approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the
board of governors may establish committees having the authority of the board in the management
of the business of the limited liability company only to the extent provided in the resolution.
Committees may include a special litigation committee consisting of one or more independent
governors or other independent persons to consider legal rights or remedies of the limited liability
company and whether those rights and remedies should be pursued. Committees other than special
litigation committees are subject at all times to the direction and control of the board of governors.
    Subd. 2. Membership. Committee members must be natural persons. Unless the articles,
or a member control agreement, or bylaws provide for a different membership or manner of
appointment, a committee consists of one or more persons, who need not be governors, appointed
by affirmative vote of a majority of the governors present.
    Subd. 3. Procedure. Sections 322B.643 to 322B.656 apply to committees and members of
committees to the same extent as those sections apply to the board of governors and governors.
    Subd. 4. Minutes. Minutes, if any, of committee meetings must be made available upon
request to members of the committee and to any governor.
    Subd. 5. Standard of conduct. The establishment of, delegation of authority to, and action
by a committee does not alone constitute compliance by a governor with the standard of conduct
set forth in section 322B.663.
    Subd. 6. Committee members considered governors. Committee members are considered
to be governors for purposes of sections 322B.663, 322B.666, and 322B.699.
    Subd. 7. Subcommittees. Unless otherwise provided in the articles, the bylaws, a member
control agreement, or the resolution of the board establishing the committee, a committee may
create one or more subcommittees, each consisting of one or more members of the committee,
and may delegate to a subcommittee any or all of the authority of the committee. In this chapter,
unless the language or context clearly indicates that a different meaning is intended, any reference
to a committee is deemed to include a subcommittee, and any reference to a committee member is
deemed to include a subcommittee member.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 81; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 75,96; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 19
322B.663 STANDARD OF CONDUCT.
    Subdivision 1. Standard and liability. A governor shall discharge the duties of the position
of governor in good faith, in a manner the governor reasonably believes to be in the best interests
of the limited liability company, and with the care an ordinarily prudent person in a like position
would exercise under similar circumstances. A person who so performs those duties is not liable
by reason of being or having been a governor of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 2. Reliance. (a) A governor is entitled to rely on information, opinions, reports,
or statements, including financial statements and other financial data, in each case prepared
or presented by:
(1) one or more managers or employees of the limited liability company whom the governor
reasonably believes to be reliable and competent in the matters presented;
(2) counsel, public accountants, or other persons as to matters that the governor reasonably
believes are within the person's professional or expert competence; or
(3) a committee of the board of governors upon which the governor does not serve, duly
established in accordance with section 322B.66, as to matters within its designated authority, if
the governor reasonably believes the committee to merit confidence.
(b) Paragraph (a) does not apply to a governor who has knowledge concerning the matter in
question that makes the reliance otherwise permitted by paragraph (a) unwarranted.
    Subd. 3. Presumption of assent and dissent. A governor who is present at a meeting of
the board of governors when an action is approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the
governors present is presumed to have assented to the action approved, unless the governor:
(1) objects at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of business because the meeting
is not lawfully called or convened and does not participate in the meeting after the objection, in
which case the governor is not considered to be present at the meeting for any purpose of this
chapter;
(2) votes against the action at the meeting; or
(3) is prohibited by section 322B.666 from voting on the action.
    Subd. 4. Elimination or limitation of liability. A governor's personal liability to the limited
liability company or its members for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a governor
may be eliminated or limited in the articles of organization or a member control agreement.
Neither the articles nor a member control agreement may eliminate or limit the liability of a
governor:
    (1) for any breach of the governor's duty of loyalty to the limited liability company or its
members;
    (2) for acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a
knowing violation of law;
    (3) under section 80A.76 or 322B.56;
    (4) for any transaction from which the governor derived an improper personal benefit; or
    (5) for any act or omission occurring before the date when the provision in the articles of
organization or a member control agreement eliminating or limiting liability becomes effective.
    Subd. 5. Considerations. In discharging the duties of the position of governor, a governor
may, in considering the best interests of the limited liability company, consider the interests of the
limited liability company's employees, customers, suppliers, and creditors, the economy of the
state and nation, community and societal considerations, and the long-term as well as short-term
interests of the limited liability company and its members including the possibility that these
interests may be best served by the continued independence of the limited liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 82; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 76; 2006 c 196 art 2 s 11
NOTE: The amendment to subdivision 4 by Laws 2006, chapter 196, article 2, section 11, is
effective August 1, 2007. Laws 2006, chapter 196, article 1, section 52.
322B.666 GOVERNOR CONFLICTS OF INTEREST.
    Subdivision 1. Conflict and procedure when conflict arises. A contract or other transaction
between a limited liability company and one or more of its governors, or between a limited liability
company and an organization in or of which one or more of its governors are governors, directors,
managers, officers, or legal representatives or have a material financial interest, is not void or
voidable because the governor or governors or the other organizations are parties or because the
governor or governors are present at the meeting of the members or the board of governors or a
committee at which the contract or transaction is authorized, approved, or ratified, if:
(1) the contract or transaction was, and the person asserting the validity of the contract
or transaction sustains the burden of establishing that the contract or transaction was, fair and
reasonable as to the limited liability company at the time it was authorized, approved, or ratified;
(2) the material facts as to the contract or transaction and as to the governor's or governors'
interest are fully disclosed or known to the members, whether or not entitled to vote, and the
contract or transaction is approved in good faith by (i) the owners of two-thirds of the voting
power of the membership interests entitled to vote that are owned by persons other than the
interested governor or governors, or (ii) the unanimous affirmative vote of all members, whether
or not entitled to vote;
(3) the material facts as to the contract or transaction and as to the governor's or governors'
interest are fully disclosed or known to the board of governors or a committee, and the board of
governors or committee authorizes, approves, or ratifies the contract or transaction in good faith
by a majority of the board of governors or committee, but the interested governor or governors are
not counted in determining the presence of a quorum and must not vote; or
(4) the contract or transaction is a distribution described in section 322B.54, subdivision 1,
or a merger or exchange described in section 322B.70, subdivision 1 or 2.
    Subd. 2. Material financial interest. For purposes of this section:
(1) a resolution fixing the compensation of a governor or fixing the compensation of another
governor as a governor, manager, employee, or agent of the limited liability company, is not
void or voidable or considered to be a contract or other transaction between a limited liability
company and one or more of its governors for purposes of this section even though the governor
receiving the compensation fixed by the resolution is present and voting at the meeting of the
board or a committee at which the resolution is authorized, approved, or ratified or even though
other governors voting upon the resolution are also receiving compensation from the limited
liability company; and
(2) a governor has a material financial interest in each organization in which the governor, or
the spouse, parents, children and spouses of children, brothers and sisters and spouses of brothers
and sisters, and the brothers and sisters of the spouse of the governor, or any combination of them
have a material financial interest. For purposes of this section, a contract or other transaction
between a limited liability company and the spouse, parents, children and spouses of children,
brothers and sisters, spouses of brothers and sisters, and the brothers and sisters of the spouse of
a governor, or any combination of them, is considered to be a transaction between the limited
liability company and the governor.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 83; 1996 c 361 s 39; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 77; 2000 c 264 s 11

MANAGERS

322B.67 MANAGERS REQUIRED.
A limited liability company must have one or more natural persons exercising the functions
of the offices, however designated, of chief manager and treasurer.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 84
322B.673 DUTIES OF REQUIRED MANAGERS.
    Subdivision 1. Presumption and modification. Unless the articles of organization, a
member control agreement, or the bylaws provide otherwise, the chief manager and treasurer
have the duties specified in this section.
    Subd. 2. Chief manager. The chief manager shall:
(1) have general active management of the business of the limited liability company;
(2) when present, preside at all meetings of the board of governors and of the members;
(3) see that all orders and resolutions of the board of governors are carried into effect;
(4) sign and deliver in the name of the limited liability company any deeds, mortgages,
bonds, contracts or other instruments pertaining to the business of the limited liability company,
except in cases in which the authority to sign and deliver is required by law to be exercised by
another person or is expressly delegated by the articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws or
the board of governors to some other manager or agent of the limited liability company;
(5) maintain records of and, whenever necessary, certify all proceedings of the board
of governors and the members; and
(6) perform other duties prescribed by the board of governors.
    Subd. 3. Treasurer. The treasurer shall:
(1) keep accurate financial records for the limited liability company;
(2) deposit all money, drafts, and checks in the name of and to the credit of the limited
liability company in the banks and depositories designated by the board of governors;
(3) endorse for deposit all notes, checks, and drafts received by the limited liability company
as ordered by the board of governors, making proper vouchers for them;
(4) disburse limited liability company funds and issue checks and drafts in the name of the
limited liability company, as ordered by the board of governors;
(5) give to the chief manager and the board of governors, whenever requested, an account of
all transactions by the treasurer and of the financial condition of the limited liability company; and
(6) perform other duties prescribed by the board of governors or by the chief manager.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 85; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 78,79,96
322B.676 OTHER MANAGERS.
The board of governors may elect or appoint, in a manner set forth in the articles of
organization, a member control agreement, or bylaws or in a resolution approved by the
affirmative vote of a majority of the governors present, any other managers or agents the board of
governors considers necessary for the operation and management of the limited liability company.
Each of these managers and agents has the powers, rights, duties, responsibilities, and terms in
office provided for in the articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws or determined by the
board of governors.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 86; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 80,96
322B.679 MULTIPLE MANAGERIAL POSITIONS.
Any number of managerial positions or functions of those positions may be held or exercised
by the same person. If a document must be signed by persons holding different positions or
functions and a person holds or exercises more than one of those positions or functions, that
person may sign the document in more than one capacity, but only if the document indicates each
capacity in which the person signs.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 87
322B.68 MANAGERS CONSIDERED ELECTED.
In the absence of an election or appointment of managers by the board of governors, the
person or persons exercising the principal functions of the chief manager or the treasurer are
considered to have been elected to those offices, except for the purpose of determining the
location of the principal executive office, which in that case is the registered office of the limited
liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 88
322B.683 CONTRACT RIGHTS.
The election or appointment of a person as a manager or agent does not, of itself, create
contract rights. A limited liability company may enter into a contract with a manager or agent
for a period of time if, in the board of governors' judgment, the contract would be in the best
interests of the limited liability company. The fact that the contract may be for a term longer
than the terms of the governors who authorized or approved the contract does not make the
contract void or voidable.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 89
322B.686 RESIGNATION, REMOVAL AND VACANCY.
    Subdivision 1. Resignation. A manager may resign at any time by giving written notice to
the limited liability company. The resignation is effective without acceptance when the notice is
given to the limited liability company, unless a later effective date is specified in the notice.
    Subd. 2. Removal. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization, the bylaws, or a
member control agreement, a manager may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by a
resolution approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the governors present. The articles
of organization, the bylaws, or the member control agreement may provide other manners of
removing a manager. Removal is without prejudice to any contractual rights of the manager.
    Subd. 3. Vacancy. A vacancy in an office because of death, resignation, removal,
disqualification, or other cause may, or in the case of a vacancy in the office of chief manager
or treasurer must, be filled for the unexpired portion of the term in the manner provided in the
articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws, or determined by the board of governors, or
pursuant to section 322B.68.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 90; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 81,96; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 20
322B.689 DELEGATION.
Unless prohibited by the articles, a member control agreement, or bylaws or by a resolution
approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the governors present, a manager elected or
appointed by the board of governors may, without the approval of the board, delegate some or all
of the duties and powers of an office to other persons. A manager who delegates the duties or
powers of an office remains subject to the standard of conduct for a manager with respect to the
discharge of all duties and powers so delegated.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 91; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 82,96
322B.69 STANDARD OF CONDUCT.
A manager shall discharge the duties of an office in good faith, in a manner the manager
reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the limited liability company, and with the care
an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would exercise under similar circumstances. A
person exercising the principal functions of an office or to whom some or all of the duties and
powers of an office are delegated pursuant to section 322B.689 is considered a manager for
purposes of this section and sections 322B.38 and 322B.699.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 92

LOANS AND OBLIGATIONS

322B.693 LOANS, GUARANTEES AND SURETYSHIP.
    Subdivision 1. Prerequisites. A limited liability company may lend money to, guarantee
an obligation of, become a surety for, or otherwise financially assist a person, if the transaction,
or a class of transactions to which the transaction belongs, is approved by the affirmative vote
of a majority of the governors present and:
(1) is in the usual and regular course of business of the limited liability company;
(2) is with, or for the benefit of, a related organization, an organization in which the limited
liability company has a financial interest, an organization with which the limited liability
company has a business relationship, or an organization to which the limited liability company
has the power to make donations, any of which relationships constitute consideration sufficient
to make the loan, guarantee, suretyship, or other financial assistance so approved enforceable
against the limited liability company;
(3) is with, or for the benefit of, a member who provides services to the limited liability
company, or a manager or other employee of the limited liability company or a subsidiary,
including a member, manager, or employee who is a governor of the limited liability company
or a subsidiary, and may reasonably be expected, in the judgment of the board of governors, to
benefit the limited liability company; or
(4) whether or not any separate consideration has been or promised to the limited liability
company, has been approved by the owners of two-thirds of the voting power of persons other
than the interested person or persons, or the unanimous affirmative vote of all members, whether
or not ordinarily entitled to vote.
    Subd. 2. Interest and security. A loan, guaranty, surety contract, or other financial assistance
under subdivision 1 may be with or without interest and may be unsecured or may be secured in
any manner, including, without limitation, a grant of a security interest in a member's financial
rights in the limited liability company.
    Subd. 3. Banking authority not granted. This section does not grant any authority to act as
a bank or to carry on the business of banking.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 93; 1993 c 137 s 41; 1996 c 361 s 40
322B.696 ADVANCES.
A limited liability company may, without a vote of the governors or its members, advance
money to its members who provide services, governors, managers, or employees to cover
expenses that can reasonably be anticipated to be incurred by them in the performance of their
duties and for which they would be entitled to reimbursement in the absence of an advance.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 94; 1993 c 137 s 42
322B.699 INDEMNIFICATION.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) For purposes of this section, the terms defined in this
subdivision have the meanings given them.
(b) "Limited liability company" includes a domestic or foreign limited liability company that
was the predecessor of the limited liability company referred to in this section in a merger or other
transaction in which the predecessor's existence ceased upon consummation of the transaction.
(c) "Official capacity" means (1) with respect to a governor, the position of governor in a
limited liability company, (2) with respect to a person other than a governor, the elective or
appointive office or position held by a manager, member of a committee of the board of governors,
the employment relationship undertaken by an employee of the limited liability company, or
the scope of the services provided by members of the limited liability company who provide
services to the limited liability company, and (3) with respect to a governor, manager, member, or
employee of the limited liability company who, while a member, governor, manager, or employee
of the limited liability company, is or was serving at the request of the limited liability company
or whose duties in that position involve or involved service as a governor, director, manager,
officer, member, partner, trustee, employee, or agent of another organization or employee benefit
plan, the position of that person as a governor, director, manager, officer, member, partner, trustee,
employee, or agent, as the case may be, of the other organization or employee benefit plan.
(d) "Proceeding" means a threatened, pending, or completed civil, criminal, administrative,
arbitration, or investigative proceeding, including a proceeding by or in the right of the limited
liability company.
(e) "Special legal counsel" means counsel who has not represented the limited liability
company or a related organization, or a governor, manager, member of a committee of the board
of governors, or employee, whose indemnification is in issue.
    Subd. 2. Indemnification. (a) Subject to the provisions of subdivision 4, a limited liability
company shall indemnify a person made or threatened to be made a party to a proceeding by
reason of the former or present official capacity of the person against judgments, penalties, fines,
including, without limitation, excise taxes assessed against the person with respect to an employee
benefit plan, settlements, and reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees and disbursements,
incurred by the person in connection with the proceeding, if, with respect to the acts or omissions
of the person complained of in the proceeding, the person:
(1) has not been indemnified by another organization or employee benefit plan for the same
judgments, penalties, fines, including, without limitation, excise taxes assessed against the
person with respect to an employee benefit plan, settlements, and reasonable expenses, including
attorney's fees and disbursements, incurred by the person in connection with the proceeding
with respect to the same acts or omissions;
(2) acted in good faith;
(3) received no improper personal benefit and section 322B.666, if applicable, has been
satisfied;
(4) in the case of a criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the conduct
was unlawful; and
(5) in the case of acts or omissions occurring in the official capacity described in subdivision
1, paragraph (c), clause (1) or (2), reasonably believed that the conduct was in the best interests of
the limited liability company, or in the case of acts or omissions occurring in the official capacity
described in subdivision 1, paragraph (c), clause (3), reasonably believed that the conduct was not
opposed to the best interests of the limited liability company. If the person's acts or omissions
complained of in the proceeding relate to conduct as a director, officer, trustee, employee, or agent
of an employee benefit plan, the conduct is not considered to be opposed to the best interests of
the limited liability company if the person reasonably believed that the conduct was in the best
interests of the participants or beneficiaries of the employee benefit plan.
(b) The termination of a proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a
plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent does not, of itself, establish that the person did not
meet the criteria set forth in this subdivision.
    Subd. 3. Advances. Subject to the provisions of subdivision 4, if a person is made or
threatened to be made a party to a proceeding, the person is entitled, upon written request to the
limited liability company, to payment or reimbursement by the limited liability company of
reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees and disbursements, incurred by the person in
advance of the final disposition of the proceeding:
(1) upon receipt by the limited liability company of a written affirmation by the person
of a good faith belief that the criteria for indemnification set forth in subdivision 2 have been
satisfied and a written undertaking by the person to repay all amounts so paid or reimbursed by
the limited liability company, if it is ultimately determined that the criteria for indemnification
have not been satisfied; and
(2) after a determination that the facts then known to those making the determination would
not preclude indemnification under this section.
The written undertaking required by clause (1) is an unlimited general obligation of the
person making it, but need not be secured and shall be accepted without reference to financial
ability to make the repayment.
    Subd. 4. Prohibition or limit on indemnification or advances. The articles of organization,
a member control agreement, or bylaws either may prohibit indemnification or advances of
expenses otherwise required by this section or may impose conditions on indemnification or
advances of expenses in addition to the conditions contained in subdivisions 2 and 3 including,
without limitation, monetary limits on indemnification or advances of expenses, if the conditions
apply equally to all persons or to all persons within a given class. A prohibition or limit on
indemnification or advances may not apply to or affect the right of a person to indemnification
or advances of expenses with respect to any acts or omissions of the person occurring before
the effective date of a provision in the articles of organization, a member control agreement,
or the date of adoption of a provision in the bylaws establishing the prohibition or limit on
indemnification or advances.
    Subd. 5. Reimbursement to witnesses. This section does not require, or limit the ability of,
a limited liability company to reimburse expenses, including attorney's fees and disbursements,
incurred by a person in connection with an appearance as a witness in a proceeding at a time when
the person has not been made or threatened to be made a party to a proceeding.
    Subd. 6. Determination of eligibility. (a) All determinations whether indemnification of a
person is required because the criteria set forth in subdivision 2 have been satisfied and whether a
person is entitled to payment or reimbursement of expenses in advance of the final disposition
of a proceeding as provided in subdivision 3 must be made:
(1) by the board of governors by a majority of a quorum. If the governors who are, at the
time, parties to the proceeding are not counted for determining either a majority or the presence of
a quorum;
(2) if a quorum under clause (1) cannot be obtained, by a majority of a committee of the
board of governors, consisting solely of two or more governors not at the time parties to the
proceeding, duly designated to act in the matter by a majority of the full board of governors
including governors who are parties;
(3) if a determination is not made under clause (1) or (2), by special legal counsel, selected
either by a majority of the board of governors or a committee by vote pursuant to clause (1) or (2)
or, if the requisite quorum of the full board of governors cannot be obtained and the committee
cannot be established, by a majority of the full board of governors including governors who
are parties;
(4) if a determination is not made under clauses (1) to (3), by the affirmative vote of the
members required by section 322B.346, but the membership interests held by parties to the
proceeding must not be counted in determining the presence of a quorum and are not considered
to be present and entitled to vote on the determination; or
(5) if an adverse determination is made under clauses (1) to (4) or under paragraph (b), or if
no determination is made under clauses (1) to (4) or under paragraph (b) within 60 days after (i)
the later to occur of the termination of a proceeding or a written request for indemnification to the
limited liability company or (ii) a written request for an advance of expenses, as the case may
be, by a court in this state, which may be the same court in which the proceeding involving the
person's liability took place, upon application of the person and any notice the court requires.
The person seeking indemnification or payment or reimbursement of expenses pursuant to this
clause has the burden of establishing that the person is entitled to indemnification or payment or
reimbursement or expenses.
(b) With respect to a person who is not, and was not at the time of the acts or omissions
complained of in the proceedings, a governor, manager, or person possessing, directly or
indirectly, the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the limited
liability company, the determination whether indemnification of this person is required because
the criteria set forth in subdivision 2 have been satisfied and whether this person is entitled to
payment or reimbursement of expenses in advance of the final disposition of a proceeding as
provided in subdivision 3 may be made by an annually appointed committee of the board of
governors, having at least one member who is a governor. The committee shall report at least
annually to the board of governors concerning its actions.
    Subd. 7. Insurance. A limited liability company may purchase and maintain insurance on
behalf of a person in that person's official capacity against any liability asserted against and
incurred by the person in or arising from that capacity, whether or not the limited liability
company would have been required to indemnify the person against the liability under the
provisions of this section.
    Subd. 8. Disclosure. A limited liability company that indemnifies or advances expenses to a
person in accordance with this section in connection with a proceeding by or on behalf of the
limited liability company shall report to the members in writing the amount of the indemnification
or advance and to whom and on whose behalf it was paid not later than the next meeting of
members.
    Subd. 9. Indemnification of other persons. Nothing in this section must be construed to
limit the power of the limited liability company to indemnify persons other than a governor,
manager, member, employee, or member of a committee of the board of the limited liability
company, by contract or otherwise.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 95; 1993 c 137 s 43; 1996 c 361 s 41; 1997 c 10 art 4 s 16; 1999
c 85 art 2 s 83,96; 2000 c 264 s 12

MERGER, EXCHANGE, TRANSFER

322B.70 MERGER, EXCHANGE, TRANSFER.
    Subdivision 1. Merger. With or without a business purpose, a limited liability company
may merge with:
(1) one or more limited liability companies pursuant to a plan of merger approved in the
manner provided in sections 322B.71 to 322B.75;
(2) one or more domestic corporations under a plan of merger approved in the manner
provided in sections 322B.71 to 322B.75;
(3) one or more foreign corporations or foreign limited liability companies pursuant to a plan
of merger approved in the manner provided in sections 322B.71 to 322B.75 and 322B.76; and
(4) one or more cooperatives organized under chapter 308A or 308B, in the manner provided
by and subject to the limitations in sections 322B.71 to 322B.75 and 322B.755.
    Subd. 2. Exchange. (a) A limited liability company may acquire all of the ownership
interests of one or more classes or series of another domestic or foreign limited liability company
pursuant to a plan of exchange approved in the manner provided in sections 322B.71 to 322B.75.
(b) A limited liability company may acquire all of the ownership interests of one or more
classes or series of a domestic or foreign corporation pursuant to a plan of exchange approved in
the manner provided in sections 322B.71 to 322B.75.
(c) A domestic corporation may acquire all of the ownership interests of one or more classes
or series of a limited liability company pursuant to a plan of exchange approved in the manner
provided in sections 322B.71 to 322B.75.
(d) A foreign corporation or foreign limited liability company may acquire all of the
ownership interests of one or more classes or series of a limited liability company pursuant to a
plan of exchange approved in the manner provided in sections 322B.71 to 322B.75 and 322B.76.
    Subd. 3. Transfer. A limited liability company may sell, lease, transfer, or otherwise dispose
of all or substantially all of its property and assets in the manner provided in section 322B.77.
    Subd. 4. Permitted transactions. A limited liability company may participate in a merger or
exchange only as permitted by this section.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 96; 1997 c 10 art 3 s 14,15; 2003 c 105 art 2 s 3; 2006 c
250 art 2 s 21,22
322B.71 PLAN OF MERGER OR EXCHANGE.
    Subdivision 1. Contents of plan. A plan of merger or exchange must contain:
(1) the name of the limited liability company and each other constituent organization
proposing to merge or participate in an exchange, and:
(i) in the case of a merger, the name of the surviving organization, which may be the limited
liability company or another constituent organization; or
(ii) in the case of an exchange, the name of the acquiring organization;
(2) the terms and conditions of the proposed merger or exchange;
(3)(i) in the case of a merger, the manner and basis of converting the ownership interests
of the constituent organizations into securities of, or other ownership interests in, the surviving
organization or of any other organization, or, in whole or in part, into money or other property; or
(ii) in the case of an exchange, the manner and basis of exchanging the ownership interests to
be acquired for securities of, or other ownership interests in, the acquiring organization or any
other organization or, in whole or part, for money or other property;
(4) in the case of a merger, a statement of any amendments to the articles of organization or
articles of incorporation, as the case may be, of the surviving organization proposed as part of
the merger; and
(5) any other provisions with respect to the proposed merger or exchange that are considered
necessary or desirable.
    Subd. 2. Other agreements. The procedure authorized by this section does not limit the
power of a limited liability company to acquire all or part of the ownership interests of one
or more classes or series of any other organization through a negotiated agreement with the
owners or otherwise.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 97; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 23
322B.72 PLAN APPROVAL BY LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY.
    Subdivision 1. Board of governors approval and notice to members. A resolution
containing the plan of merger or exchange must be approved by the affirmative vote of a
majority of the board members present at a meeting of the board of governors of each constituent
organization that is a limited liability company and must then be submitted at a regular or a
special meeting to the members of the limited liability company. If members owning any class
or series of membership interest in the limited liability company are entitled to vote on the plan
of merger or exchange pursuant to this section, written notice must be given to every member
of the limited liability company, whether or not entitled to vote at the meeting, not less than 14
days nor more than 60 days before the meeting, in the manner provided in section 322B.34. The
written notice must state that a purpose of the meeting is to consider the proposed plan of merger
or exchange. A copy or short description of the plan of merger or exchange must be included in
or enclosed with the notice.
    Subd. 2. Approval by members. (a) At the meeting a vote of the members must be taken on
the proposed plan. The plan of merger or exchange is adopted when approved by the affirmative
vote of the owners of a majority of the voting power of all membership interests entitled to
vote. Except as provided in paragraph (b) or a member control agreement, a class or series of
membership interests of the limited liability company is entitled to vote as a class or series if any
provision of the plan would, if contained in a proposed amendment to the articles of organization,
entitle the class or series of membership interests to vote as a class or series and, in the case of
an exchange, if the class or series is included in the exchange.
(b) A class or series of membership interests of the limited liability company is not entitled
to vote as a class or series if the plan of merger or exchange effects a cancellation or exchange of
all membership interests of the limited liability company of all classes and series that are existing
immediately before the merger or exchange and owners of membership interests of that class or
series are entitled to obtain payment for the fair value of their membership interests under section
322B.383 in the event of the merger or exchange.
    Subd. 3. Approval by other constituent organizations. If a constituent organization in the
merger or exchange is an organization other than a limited liability company, the plan of merger
or exchange must also be approved in the manner provided for in the statute that governs that
constituent organization.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 98; 1996 c 361 s 42,43; 1997 c 10 art 3 s 16,17; 1999 c 85 art 2
s 84,85; 2000 c 264 s 13; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 24
322B.73 ARTICLES OF MERGER OR EXCHANGE AND CERTIFICATE.
    Subdivision 1. Contents of articles of merger or exchange. Upon receiving the approval
required by section 322B.72, articles of merger or exchange must be prepared that contain the
plan of merger or exchange, and a statement that the plan has been approved by each constituent
organization pursuant to this chapter.
    Subd. 2. Articles signed and filed. The articles of merger or exchange must be signed on
behalf of each constituent organization and filed with the secretary of state.
    Subd. 3. Certificate of merger or exchange. The secretary of state shall issue a certificate of
merger to the surviving organization, or its legal representative, and a certificate of exchange to
the acquiring organization, or its legal representative.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 99
322B.74 ABANDONMENT BY LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY.
    Subdivision 1. By members or plan. After a plan of merger or exchange has been approved
by the members entitled to vote on the approval of the plan as provided in section 322B.72, and
before the effective date of the plan, it may be abandoned:
(1) if the members of each limited liability company that is a constituent organization who
hold membership interests entitled to vote on the approval of the plan as provided in section
322B.72 approve the abandonment at a meeting by the affirmative vote of the owners of a
majority of the voting power of the membership interests entitled to vote and, if the members of a
limited liability company that is a constituent organization are not entitled to vote on the approval
of the plan under section 322B.72, the board of governors of that limited liability company has
approved the abandonment by the affirmative vote of a majority of the board members present,
and the abandonment has been approved in the manner provided for in the statute that governs
each constituent organization that is not a limited liability company;
(2) if the plan itself provides for abandonment and all conditions for abandonment set forth
in the plan are met; or
(3) pursuant to subdivision 2.
    Subd. 2. By the board of governors. A plan of merger or exchange may be abandoned,
before the effective date of the plan, by a resolution that abandons the plan of merger or exchange
and is approved by the board of governors of any limited liability company that is a constituent,
subject to the contract rights of any other person under the plan.
    Subd. 3. Filing of articles. If articles of merger or exchange have been filed with the
secretary of state, but have not yet become effective, the constituent organizations, in the case of
abandonment under subdivision 1, clause (1), the constituent organizations or any one of them,
in the case of abandonment under subdivision 1, clause (2), or the abandoning organization in
the case of abandonment under subdivision 2, shall file with the secretary of state articles of
abandonment that contain:
(1) the names of the constituent organizations;
(2) the provision of this section under which the plan is abandoned; and
(3) if the plan is abandoned under subdivision 2, the text of the resolution that was approved
by the board of governors abandoning the plan.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 100; 1997 c 10 art 3 s 18,19; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 25
322B.75 EFFECTIVE DATE OF MERGER OR EXCHANGE AND EFFECT.
    Subdivision 1. Effective date or time. A merger or exchange is effective when the articles
of merger or exchange are filed with the secretary of state or on a later date or at a later time
specified in the articles of merger or exchange.
    Subd. 2. Effect on constituent organizations. When a merger becomes effective:
(1) the constituent organizations become a single entity, the surviving limited liability
company or corporation, as the case may be;
(2) the separate existence of all constituent organizations except the surviving organization
ceases;
(3) as to any limited liability company that was a constituent organization and is not the
surviving organization, the articles of merger serve as the articles of termination, and, unless
previously filed, the notice of dissolution;
(4)(i) if the surviving organization is a limited liability company, the surviving limited
liability company has all the rights, privileges, immunities, and powers, and is subject to all the
duties and liabilities of a limited liability company under this chapter; and
(ii) if the surviving organization is not a limited liability company, the surviving organization
has all the rights, privileges, immunities, and powers, and is subject to all the duties and liabilities
of the organization under its governing law;
(5) the surviving organization, whether a limited liability company, a foreign limited liability
company, a domestic corporation, a foreign corporation, or a cooperative organized under chapter
308A or 308B, possesses all the rights, privileges, immunities, and franchises, of a public as well
as of a private nature, of each of the constituent organizations. All property, real, personal, and
mixed, and all debts due on any account, including subscriptions to shares and contribution
agreements, as the case may be, and all other choses in action, and every other interest of or
belonging to or due to each of the constituent organizations vests in the surviving organization
without any further act or deed. Confirmatory deeds, assignments, or similar instruments to
accomplish that vesting may be signed and delivered at any time in the name of a constituent
organization by its current officers or managers, as the case may be, or, if the organization no
longer exists, by its last officers or managers, as the case may be. The title to any real estate or
any interest in real estate vested in any of the constituent organizations does not revert nor in any
way become impaired by reason of the merger;
(6) the surviving organization is responsible and liable for all the liabilities and obligations
of each of the constituent organizations. A claim of or against or a pending proceeding by or
against a constituent organization may be prosecuted as if the merger had not taken place, or the
surviving organization may be substituted in the place of the constituent organization. Neither the
rights of creditors nor any liens upon the property of a constituent organization are impaired by
the merger; and
(7) the articles of organization or articles of incorporation, as the case may be, of the
surviving organization are considered to be amended to the extent that changes in its articles, if
any, are contained in the plan of merger.
    Subd. 3. Effect on members. When a merger or exchange becomes effective, the
membership interests in a limited liability company to be converted or exchanged under the terms
of the plan cease to exist in the case of a merger, or are considered to be exchanged in the case of
an exchange. The members owning those membership interests are entitled only to the ownership
interests, securities, money, or other property into which those membership interests have been
converted or for which those membership interests have been exchanged in accordance with the
plan, subject to any dissenters' rights under section 322B.383.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 101; 1996 c 361 s 44; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 26,27
322B.755 MERGER OF DOMESTIC COOPERATIVE INTO A DOMESTIC LIMITED
LIABILITY COMPANY.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. As used in this section, "domestic cooperative" means a
cooperative organized under chapter 308A or 308B.
    Subd. 2. Authorization; limitations. (a) A limited liability company may merge with a
domestic cooperative only as provided by this section. A limited liability company may merge
with one or more domestic cooperatives if:
(1) only one limited liability company and only one or more domestic cooperatives are
parties to the merger;
(2) when the merger becomes effective, the separate existence of each domestic cooperative
ceases and the limited liability company is the surviving organization;
(3) as to each domestic cooperative, the plan of merger is initiated and adopted, and the
merger is effectuated, as provided in section 308B.801; and
(4) as to the limited liability company, the plan of merger complies with section 322B.71,
the plan of merger is approved as provided in section 322B.72, and the articles of merger are
prepared, signed, and filed as provided in section 322B.73.
(b) For purposes of a merger authorized by this section:
(1) the term "constituent organization" as used in sections 322B.71, subdivision 1, clause
(1); 322B.71, subdivision 1, clause (3), item (i); 322B.73; and 322B.75, includes a domestic
cooperative;
(2) the term "constituent organization" as used in section 322B.72 does not include a
domestic cooperative;
(3) the term "ownership interests" as used in section 322B.71, subdivision 1, clause (3), item
(i), includes membership interests in a domestic cooperative;
(4) notwithstanding sections 322B.71, subdivision 1, clause (1), item (i); 322B.71,
subdivision 1
, clause (4); 322B.75, subdivision 2, clause (1); 322B.75, subdivision 2, clause
(4), item (i); and 322B.75, subdivision 2, clause (5), the surviving organization must be the
limited liability company;
(5) section 322B.75, subdivision 2, clause (3), does not apply;
(6) the term "ownership interests" includes membership interests in a domestic cooperative
and the term "owners" includes members of a domestic cooperative; and
(7) "dissenters rights" includes dissenters rights under the law governing the domestic
cooperative.
    Subd. 3. Abandonment. Section 308B.835 governs the abandonment by a domestic
cooperative of a merger authorized by this section.
History: 2003 c 105 art 2 s 4; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 28
322B.76 MERGER OR EXCHANGE WITH FOREIGN CORPORATION OR A FOREIGN
LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY.
    Subdivision 1. When permitted. A limited liability company may merge with or participate
in an exchange with a foreign corporation or a foreign limited liability company by following the
procedures set forth in this section, if:
(1) with respect to a merger, the merger is permitted by the laws of the state under which the
foreign corporation or foreign limited liability company is incorporated or organized; and
(2) with respect to an exchange, the organization whose ownership interests will be acquired
is either a limited liability company or a domestic corporation, whether or not the exchange is
permitted by the laws of the state under which the foreign corporation or foreign limited liability
company is incorporated or organized.
    Subd. 2. Laws applicable before transaction. Each limited liability company shall comply
with the provisions of sections 322B.70 to 322B.76 with respect to the merger or exchange of
ownership interests of organizations and each foreign corporation or foreign limited liability
company shall comply with the applicable provisions of the laws under which it was incorporated
or organized or by which it is governed.
    Subd. 3. Surviving domestic limited liability company. If the surviving organization in a
merger will be a domestic limited liability company, it shall comply with all the provisions
of this chapter.
    Subd. 4. Surviving foreign corporation or foreign limited liability company. If the
surviving organization in a merger will be a foreign corporation or foreign limited liability
company and will transact business in this state, it shall comply, as the case may be, with the
provisions of chapter 303 with respect to foreign corporations or with the provisions of this
chapter with respect to foreign limited liability companies. In every case the surviving foreign
corporation or foreign limited liability company shall file with the secretary of state:
(1) an agreement that it may be served with process in this state in a proceeding for the
enforcement of an obligation of a constituent organization and in a proceeding for the enforcement
of the rights of a dissenting owner of an ownership interest of a constituent organization against
the surviving foreign corporation or foreign limited liability company;
(2) an irrevocable appointment of the secretary of state as its agent to accept service of
process in any proceeding, and an address to which process may be forwarded; and
(3) an agreement that it will promptly pay to any dissenting members of each constituent
domestic limited liability company the amount, if any, to which they are entitled under section
322B.386.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 102; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 29
322B.77 TRANSFER OF ASSETS AND WHEN PERMITTED.
    Subdivision 1. Member approval and when not required. A limited liability company
may, by affirmative vote of a majority of the governors present, upon those terms and conditions
and for those considerations, which may be money, securities, or other instruments for the
payment of money or other property, as the board of governors considers expedient, and without
member approval:
(1) sell, lease, transfer, or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its property and
assets in the usual and regular course of its business;
(2) grant a security interest in all or substantially all of its property and assets whether or not
in the usual and regular course of its business; or
(3) transfer any or all of its property to an organization all the ownership interests of which
are owned by the limited liability company.
    Subd. 2. Member approval and when required. (a) A limited liability company, by
affirmative vote of a majority of the governors present, may sell, lease, transfer, or otherwise
dispose of all or substantially all of its property and assets, including its good will, not in the usual
and regular course of its business, upon those terms and conditions and for those considerations,
which may be money, securities, or other instruments for the payment of money or other property,
as the board of governors considers expedient, when approved at a regular or special meeting
of the members by the affirmative vote of the owners of a majority of the voting power of the
interests entitled to vote. Written notice of the meeting must be given to all members whether or
not they are entitled to vote at the meeting. The written notice must state that a purpose of the
meeting is to consider the sale, lease, transfer, or other disposition of all or substantially all of the
property and assets of the limited liability company.
(b) Member approval is not required under paragraph (a) if, following the sale, lease,
transfer, or other disposition of its property and assets, the limited liability company retains a
significant continuing business activity. If a limited liability company retains a business activity
that represented at least (i) 25 percent of the limited liability company's total assets at the end
of the most recently completed fiscal year and (ii) 25 percent of either income from continuing
operations before taxes or revenues from continuing operations for that fiscal year, measured on a
consolidated basis with its subsidiaries for each of clauses (i) and (ii), then the limited liability
company will conclusively be deemed to have retained a significant continuing business activity.
    Subd. 3. Signing of documents. Confirmatory deeds, assignments, or similar instruments to
evidence a sale, lease, transfer, or other disposition may be signed and delivered at any time in
the name of the transferor by its current managers or authorized agents or, if the limited liability
company no longer exists, by its last managers.
    Subd. 4. Transferee liability. The transferee is liable for the debts, obligations, and liabilities
of the transferor only to the extent provided in the contract or agreement between the transferee
and the transferor or to the extent provided by this chapter or other statutes of this state. A
disposition of all or substantially all of a limited liability company's properties and assets under
this section is not considered to be a merger or a de facto merger pursuant to this chapter or
otherwise. The transferee is not liable solely because it is deemed to be a continuation of the
transferor.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 103; 1993 c 137 s 44,45; 1996 c 361 s 45; 2004 c 199 art
14 s 49; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 30,31
322B.78 CONVERSION.
A domestic limited liability company may convert to a domestic corporation pursuant to
sections 302A.681 to 302A.691.
History: 2004 c 199 art 14 s 50

DISSOLUTION

322B.80 DISSOLUTION.
    Subdivision 1. Dissolution events. A limited liability company dissolves upon the
occurrence of any of the following events:
(1) when the period, if any, fixed in the articles of organization for the duration of the limited
liability company expires, or if the limited liability company's term expires pursuant to section
322B.20, subdivision 2, paragraph (a);
(2) by order of a court pursuant to sections 322B.833 and 322B.843;
(3) by action of the organizers pursuant to section 322B.803;
(4) by action of the members pursuant to section 322B.806;
(5)(i) for limited liability companies whose existence begins before August 1, 1999, except
as otherwise provided in the articles or a member control agreement, upon the occurrence of an
event that terminates the continued membership of a member in the limited liability company,
but the limited liability company is not dissolved and is not required to be wound up by reason
of any event that terminates the continued membership of a member if (A) there is at least one
remaining member and the existence and business of the limited liability company is continued by
the consent of all the remaining members obtained no later than 90 days after the termination
of the continued membership, or (B) if the membership of the last or sole member terminates
and the legal representative of that last or sole member causes the limited liability company to
admit at least one member;
(ii) for limited liability companies whose existence begins on or after August 1, 1999, upon
the occurrence of an event that terminates the continued membership of a member in the limited
liability company, but only if: (A) the articles of organization or a member control agreement
specifically provide that the termination causes dissolution and in that event only as provided in
the articles or member control agreement; or (B) if the membership of the last or sole member
terminates and the legal representative of that last or sole member does not cause the limited
liability company to admit at least one member within 180 days after the termination;
(6) a merger in which the limited liability company is not the surviving organization; or
(7) when terminated by the secretary of state according to section 322B.960.
    Subd. 2. Procedures following dissolution. A limited liability company dissolved by one
of the dissolution events specified in subdivision 1 must be wound up and terminated under
the following dissolution provisions:
(1) when a limited liability company is dissolved under subdivision 1, clause (1), by reason
of the expiration of its limited period of duration, the limited liability company must be wound up
and terminated under sections 322B.81 to 322B.82, 322B.826, 322B.83, and 322B.873;
(2) when a limited liability company is dissolved under subdivision 1, clause (2), by reason
of a court order, the limited liability company must be wound up and terminated under sections
322B.83 to 322B.856;
(3) when a limited liability company is dissolved under subdivision 1, clause (3), by its
organizers, the limited liability company must be wound up and terminated under sections
322B.803 and 322B.81 to 322B.83;
(4) when a limited liability company is dissolved under subdivision 1, clause (4), by its
members, the limited liability company must be wound up and terminated under sections
322B.806 to 322B.83 and 322B.873; and
(5) when a limited liability company is dissolved under subdivision 1, clause (5), by reason
of a termination of the continued membership of a member, the limited liability company must be
wound up and terminated under sections 322B.81 to 322B.82, 322B.826, 322B.83, and 322B.873.
    Subd. 3. Security interests. Notwithstanding any provision of law, articles of organization,
member control agreement, bylaws, other agreement, resolution, or action to the contrary, a
limited liability company is not dissolved and is not required to be wound up upon the granting of
a security interest in a member's membership interest, governance rights, or financial rights, or
upon the foreclosure or other enforcement of a security interest in a member's financial rights, or
upon the secured party's assignment, acceptance, or retention of a member's financial rights in
accordance with chapter 336.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 104; 1993 c 137 s 46,47; 1995 c 128 art 3 s 8; 1997 c 10 art 2 s
8; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 86,96; 2006 c 250 art 2 s 32
322B.803 NONJUDICIAL DISSOLUTION AND TERMINATION BY ORGANIZERS.
    Subdivision 1. Manner. A limited liability company that has not accepted contributions may
be dissolved and terminated by the organizers or governors in the manner set forth in this section.
    Subd. 2. Articles of dissolution and termination. (a) A majority of the organizers or
governors shall sign articles of dissolution and termination containing:
(1) the name of the limited liability company;
(2) the date of organization;
(3) a statement that contributions have not been accepted;
(4) a statement that no debts remain unpaid.
(b) The articles of dissolution and termination shall be filed with the secretary of state.
    Subd. 3. Effective date. When the articles of dissolution and termination have been filed
with the secretary of state, the limited liability company is terminated.
    Subd. 4. Certificate of termination. The secretary of state shall issue to the terminated
limited liability company or its legal representative a certificate of termination that contains:
(1) the name of the limited liability company;
(2) the date and time the articles of dissolution and termination were filed with the secretary
of state; and
(3) a statement that the limited liability company is terminated.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 105; 1996 c 361 s 46,47
322B.806 NONJUDICIAL DISSOLUTION BY MEMBERS.
    Subdivision 1. Manner. A limited liability company may be dissolved by the members when
authorized in the manner set forth in this section.
    Subd. 2. Notice and approval. (a) Written notice shall be given to each member, whether
or not entitled to vote at a meeting of members, within the time and in the manner provided in
section 322B.34 for notice of meetings of members and, whether the meeting is a regular or a
special meeting, must state that a purpose of the meeting is to consider dissolving the limited
liability company and that dissolution must be followed by the winding up and termination of the
limited liability company.
(b) The proposed dissolution must be submitted for approval at a meeting of members. If
the proposed dissolution is approved at a meeting by the affirmative vote of the owners of a
majority of the voting power of all membership interests entitled to vote, the limited liability
company is dissolved.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 106
322B.81 FILING NOTICE OF DISSOLUTION AND EFFECT.
    Subdivision 1. Contents. If dissolution of the limited liability company is approved pursuant
to section 322B.806, subdivision 2, or it occurs under section 322B.80, subdivision 1, clause (1)
or (5), the limited liability company shall file with the secretary of state a notice of dissolution.
The notice must contain:
(1) the name of the limited liability company;
(2)(i) if the dissolution is approved pursuant to section 322B.806, subdivision 2, the date and
place of the meeting at which the resolution was approved; and a statement that the requisite vote
of the members was received, or that members validly took action without a meeting;
(ii) if the dissolution occurs under section 322B.80, subdivision 1, clause (1), by the
expiration of the limited liability company's duration, a statement of the expiration date; and
(iii) if the dissolution occurs under section 322B.80, subdivision 1, clause (5), by the
termination of a membership interest of a member, a statement that the continued membership
of a member has terminated and the date of that termination.
    Subd. 2. Winding up. When the notice of dissolution has been filed with the secretary of
state, and subject to section 322B.823, the limited liability company shall cease to carry on its
business, except to the extent necessary for the winding up of the business of the limited liability
company. The members shall retain the right to revoke the dissolution in accordance with section
322B.823 and the right to remove governors or fill vacancies on the board of governors. The
limited liability company existence continues to the extent necessary to wind up the affairs of
the limited liability company until the dissolution is revoked or articles of termination are filed
with the secretary of state.
    Subd. 3. Certain mergers permitted during winding up. As part of winding up, the limited
liability company may participate in a merger with another limited liability company or with a
domestic or foreign corporation under sections 322B.70 to 322B.76, but the dissolved limited
liability company shall not be the surviving organization.
    Subd. 4. Remedies continued. The filing with the secretary of state of a notice of dissolution
does not affect any remedy in favor of the limited liability company or any remedy against it or its
governors, managers, or members in those capacities, except as provided in section 322B.816,
322B.82, or 322B.863.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 107
322B.813 PROCEDURE IN WINDING UP.
    Subdivision 1. Procedures to be followed where winding up accomplished by merger.
If the business of the limited liability company is wound up and terminated by merging the
dissolved limited liability company into a successor organization:
(1) the procedures stated in sections 322B.70 to 322B.76 must be followed;
(2) sections 322B.816 to 322B.823 and 322B.863 to 322B.866 do not apply; and
(3) once the merger is effective, a creditor or claimant of the terminated limited liability
company, and all those claiming through or under the creditor or claimant, are barred from suing
the terminated limited liability company on that claim or otherwise realizing upon or enforcing it
against the terminated limited liability company, but the creditor, claimant, and those claiming
under the creditor and claimant, may, if not otherwise barred by law, assert their claims against
the surviving organization of the merger.
    Subd. 2. Procedures to be followed otherwise. If the business of the limited liability
company is to be wound up and terminated other than by merging the dissolved limited liability
company into a successor organization, the procedures stated in subdivisions 3 to 5 must be
followed.
    Subd. 3. Collection and payment. When a notice of dissolution has been filed with the
secretary of state, the board of governors, or the managers acting under the direction of the board
of governors, shall proceed as soon as possible:
(1) to give notice to creditors and claimants under section 322B.816 or to proceed under
section 322B.82;
(2) to collect or make provision for the collection of all known debts due or owing to the
limited liability company, including unperformed contribution agreements; and
(3) except as provided in sections 322B.816, 322B.82, and 322B.863, to pay or make
provision for the payment of all known debts, obligations, and liabilities of the limited liability
company according to their priorities under section 322B.873.
    Subd. 4. Transfer of assets. Notwithstanding section 322B.77, when a notice of dissolution
has been filed with the secretary of state, the governors may sell, lease, transfer, or otherwise
dispose of all or substantially all of the property and assets of a dissolved limited liability
company without a vote of the members.
    Subd. 5. Distribution to members. All tangible or intangible property, including money,
remaining after the discharge of, or after making adequate provision for the discharge of, the
debts, obligations, and liabilities of the limited liability company must be distributed to the
members in accordance with sections 322B.52 and 322B.873.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 108; 1996 c 361 s 48; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 87
322B.816 WINDING UP PROCEDURE FOR LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES THAT
GIVE NOTICE TO CREDITORS AND CLAIMANTS.
    Subdivision 1. When permitted and how given. When a notice of dissolution has been filed
with the secretary of state, and the business of the limited liability company is not to be wound up
and terminated by merging the dissolved limited liability company into a successor organization
under section 322B.81, subdivision 3, then the limited liability company may give notice of the
filing to each creditor of and claimant against the limited liability company known or unknown,
present or future, and contingent or noncontingent. If notice to creditors and claimants is given,
it must be given by publishing the notice once each week for four successive weeks in a legal
newspaper in the county or counties where the registered office and the principal executive office
of the limited liability company are located and by giving written notice to known creditors and
claimants pursuant to section 322B.03, subdivision 32.
    Subd. 2. Required contents. The notice to creditors and claimants must contain:
(1) a statement that the limited liability company has dissolved and is in the process of
winding up its affairs;
(2) a statement that the limited liability company has filed with the secretary of state a
notice of dissolution;
(3) the date of filing the notice of dissolution;
(4) the address of the office to which written claims against the limited liability company
must be presented; and
(5) the date by which all the claims must be received, which must be the later of 90 days
after published notice or, with respect to a particular known creditor or claimant, 90 days after the
date on which written notice was given to that creditor or claimant. Published notice is considered
given on the date of first publication for the purpose of determining this date.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1999 c 85 art 2 s 95]
    Subd. 4. Claims against limited liability companies that give notice. (a) A limited liability
company that gives notice to creditors and claimants has 30 days from the receipt of each claim
filed according to the procedures set forth by the limited liability company on or before the
date set forth in the notice to accept or reject the claim by giving written notice to the person
submitting it. A claim not expressly rejected in this manner is considered accepted.
(b) A creditor or claimant to whom notice is given and whose claim is rejected by the limited
liability company has 60 days from the date of rejection, 180 days from the date the limited
liability company filed with the secretary of state the notice of dissolution, or 90 days after the
date on which notice was given to the creditor or claimant, whichever is longer, to pursue any
other remedies with respect to the claim.
(c) A creditor or claimant to whom notice is given who fails to file a claim according to
the procedures set forth by the limited liability company on or before the date set forth in the
notice is barred from suing the dissolved limited liability company on that claim or otherwise
realizing upon or enforcing it against the dissolved limited liability company, except as provided
in section 322B.863.
(d) A creditor or claimant whose claim is rejected by the limited liability company under
paragraph (b) is barred from suing on that claim or otherwise realizing upon or enforcing it
whether against the dissolved limited liability company or any successor organization, if the
creditor or claimant does not initiate legal, administrative, or arbitration proceedings with respect
to the claim within the time provided in paragraph (b).
    Subd. 5. Articles of termination and when filed. Articles of termination for a limited
liability company that has given notice to creditors and claimants under this section must be
filed with the secretary of state after:
(1) the 90-day period in subdivision 2, clause (5), has expired and the payment of claims of
all creditors and claimants filing a claim within that period has been made or provided for; or
(2) the longest of the periods described in subdivision 4, paragraph (b), has expired and there
are no pending legal, administrative, or arbitration proceedings by or against the limited liability
company commenced within the time provided in subdivision 4, paragraph (b).
    Subd. 6. Contents of articles of termination. The articles of termination must state:
(1) the last date on which the notice was given and that the payment of all creditors and
claimants filing a claim within the 90-day period in subdivision 2, clause (5), has been made or
provided for, or the date on which the longest of the periods described in subdivision 4, paragraph
(b), expired;
(2) that the remaining property, assets, and claims of the limited liability company have been
distributed in accordance with section 322B.873, or that adequate provision has been made for
that distribution; and
(3) that there are no pending legal, administrative, or arbitration proceedings by or against
the limited liability company commenced within the time provided in subdivision 4, paragraph
(b), or that adequate provision has been made for the satisfaction of any judgment, order, or
decree that may be entered against it in a pending proceeding.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 109; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 88
322B.82 WINDING UP PROCEDURE FOR LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES THAT
DO NOT GIVE NOTICE TO CREDITORS AND CLAIMANTS.
    Subdivision 1. Articles of termination and when filed. Articles of termination for a limited
liability company whose business is not to be wound up and terminated by merging the dissolved
limited liability company into a successor organization under section 322B.81, subdivision 3, and
that has not given notice to creditors and claimants in the manner provided in section 322B.816
must be filed with the secretary of state after:
(1) the payment of claims of all known creditors and claimants has been made or provided
for; or
(2) at least two years have elapsed from the date of filing the notice of dissolution.
    Subd. 2. Contents. The articles of termination must state:
(1) if articles of termination are being filed pursuant to subdivision 1, clause (1), that all
known debts, obligations, and liabilities of the limited liability company have been paid and
discharged or that adequate provision has been made for payment or discharge;
(2) that the remaining property, assets, and claims of the limited liability company have been
distributed in accordance with section 322B.873, or that adequate provision has been made for
that distribution; and
(3) that there are no pending legal, administrative, or arbitration proceedings by or against
the limited liability company, or that adequate provision has been made for the satisfaction of any
judgment, order, or decree that may be entered against it in a pending proceeding.
    Subd. 3. Claims against limited liability companies that do not give notice and are
not wound up and terminated through merger. (a) If the limited liability company has paid
or provided for all known creditors or claimants at the time articles of termination are filed, a
creditor or claimant who does not file a claim or pursue a remedy in a legal, administrative, or
arbitration proceeding within two years after the date of filing the notice of dissolution is barred
from suing on that claim or otherwise realizing upon or enforcing it.
(b) If the limited liability company has not paid or provided for all known creditors and
claimants at the time articles of termination are filed, a person who does not file a claim or pursue
a remedy in a legal, administrative, or arbitration proceeding within two years after the date of
filing the notice of dissolution is barred from suing on that claim or otherwise realizing upon or
enforcing it, except as provided in section 322B.863.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 110
322B.823 REVOCATION OF DISSOLUTION.
    Subdivision 1. Generally. Except as provided in subdivisions 4 and 5, winding up
proceedings commenced pursuant to section 322B.806 may be revoked before the filing of
articles of termination.
    Subd. 2. Notice to members and approval. Written notice must be given to every member
entitled to vote at a members' meeting within the time and in the manner provided in section
322B.34 for notice of meetings of members and must state that a purpose of the meeting is to
consider the advisability of revoking the dissolution. The proposed revocation must be submitted
to the members at the meeting. If the proposed revocation is approved at a meeting by the
affirmative vote of the owners of a majority of the voting power of all membership interests
entitled to vote, the dissolution is revoked.
    Subd. 3. Effective date and effect. Revocation of dissolution is effective when a notice of
revocation is filed with the secretary of state. After the notice is filed the limited liability company
may cease to wind up and resume business.
    Subd. 4. Restrictions on revocation. If a dissolved limited liability company is being
wound up and terminated by being merged into a successor organization under section 322B.81,
subdivision 3
, and the plan of merger has been approved under section 322B.72, then the
dissolution may be revoked under this section only after the plan of merger has been properly
abandoned under section 322B.74.
    Subd. 5. Revocation prohibited. When dissolution occurs under section 322B.80,
subdivision 1
, clause (1), (2), or (5), revocation is prohibited.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 111
322B.826 EFFECTIVE DATE OF TERMINATION AND CERTIFICATE OF
TERMINATION.
    Subdivision 1. Effective date. When the articles of termination have been filed with the
secretary of state, or on a later date or a later time each within 30 days after filing if the articles of
termination so provide, the limited liability company is terminated.
    Subd. 2. Certificate. The secretary of state shall issue to the limited liability company or its
legal representative a certificate of termination that contains:
(1) the name of the limited liability company;
(2) the date and time the termination is effective; and
(3) a statement that the limited liability company is terminated at the effective date and
time of the termination.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 112; 2002 c 311 art 2 s 17
322B.83 SUPERVISED WINDING UP AND TERMINATION FOLLOWING A
NONJUDICIAL DISSOLUTION.
After an event of dissolution has occurred and before a certificate of termination has been
issued, the limited liability company or, for good cause shown, a member or creditor may apply to
a court within the county in which the registered office of the limited liability company is situated
to have the dissolution conducted or continued under the supervision of the court as provided
in sections 322B.833 to 322B.863.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 113
322B.833 JUDICIAL INTERVENTION AND EQUITABLE REMEDIES, DISSOLUTION,
AND TERMINATION.
    Subdivision 1. When permitted. A court may grant any equitable relief it considers just
and reasonable in the circumstances or may dissolve, wind up, and terminate a limited liability
company:
(1) in a supervised winding up and termination pursuant to section 322B.83;
(2) in an action by a member when it is established that:
(i) the governors or the persons having the authority otherwise vested in the board of
governors are deadlocked in the management of the affairs of the limited liability company and
the members are unable to break the deadlock;
(ii) the governors or those in control of the limited liability company have acted fraudulently,
illegally, or in a manner unfairly prejudicial toward one or more members in their capacities as
members or governors of any limited liability company, or as managers or employees of a closely
held limited liability company;
(iii) the members of the limited liability company are so divided in voting power that, for
a period that includes the time when two consecutive regular meetings were held, they have
failed to elect successors to governors whose terms have expired or would have expired upon the
election and qualification of their successors;
(iv) the limited liability company assets are being misapplied or wasted; or
(v) an event of dissolution has occurred under section 322B.80, subdivision 1, clause (1), (4)
or (5) but the limited liability company is not acting to wind up its affairs;
(3) in an action by a creditor when:
(i) the claim of the creditor has been reduced to judgment and an execution on the judgment
has been returned unsatisfied; or
(ii) the limited liability company has admitted in writing that the claim of the creditor is due
and owing and it is established that the limited liability company is unable to pay its debts in
the ordinary course of business; or
(4) in an action by the attorney general to dissolve the limited liability company in accordance
with section 322B.843 when it is established that a decree of termination is appropriate.
    Subd. 2. Buy-out on motion. In an action under subdivision 1, clause (2), in which one or
more of the circumstances described in that clause is established, the court may, upon motion
of a limited liability company or a member, order the sale by a plaintiff or a defendant of all
membership interests of the limited liability company held by the plaintiff or defendant to either
the limited liability company or the moving members, whichever is specified in the motion, if the
court determines in its discretion that an order would be fair and equitable to all parties under
all of the circumstances of the case.
The purchase price of any membership interest so sold must be the fair value of the
membership interest as of the date of the commencement of the action or as of another date found
equitable by the court. If the articles of organization or a member control agreement states a price
for the redemption or buy-out of membership interests, the court shall order the sale for the
price and on the terms set forth in them, unless the court determines that the price or terms are
unreasonable under all the circumstances of the case.
Within five days after the entry of the order, the limited liability company shall provide
each selling member with the information it is required to provide under section 322B.386,
subdivision 5
, paragraph (a).
If the parties are unable to agree on fair value within 40 days of entry of the order,
the court shall determine the fair value of the membership interests under the provisions of
section 322B.386, subdivision 7, may allow interest or costs as provided in section 322B.386,
subdivisions 1 and 8
, and may allocate payment among the member whose membership interest is
being sold and any assignees of the financial rights of that member.
The purchase price must be paid in one or more installments as agreed on by the parties,
or, if no agreement can be reached within 40 days of entry of the order, as ordered by the court.
Upon entry of an order for the sale of a membership interest under this subdivision and provided
that the limited liability company or the moving members post a bond in adequate amount with
sufficient sureties or otherwise satisfy the court that any full purchase price of the membership
interest, plus the additional costs, expenses, and fees awarded by the court, will be paid when
due and payable, the selling member shall no longer have any rights or status as a member,
manager, or governor, except the right to receive the fair value of the membership interest plus
other amounts as might be awarded.
    Subd. 3. Condition of limited liability company. In determining whether to order relief
under this section and in determining what particular relief to order, the court shall take into
consideration the financial condition of the limited liability company but shall not refuse to
order any particular form of relief solely on the ground that the limited liability company has
accumulated or current operating profits.
    Subd. 4. Considerations in granting relief involving closely held limited liability
companies. In determining whether to order relief under this section and in determining what
particular relief to order, the court shall take into consideration the duty that all members in a
closely held limited liability company owe one another to act in an honest, fair, and reasonable
manner in the operation of the limited liability company and the reasonable expectations of all
members as they exist at the inception and develop during the course of the members' relationship
with the limited liability company and with each other. For purposes of this section, any written
agreements, including employment agreements and buy-sell agreements, between or among
members or between or among one or more members and the limited liability company are
presumed to reflect the parties' reasonable expectations concerning matters dealt with in the
agreements.
    Subd. 5. Considerations as to dissolution. In determining what relief to order, the court
shall take into account that relief that results in the termination of a member's membership interest
may cause dissolution of the limited liability company. If the court orders relief that results in
dissolution of the limited liability company, the court shall make appropriate orders providing for
the winding up and termination of the dissolved limited liability company.
    Subd. 6. Liquidation remedy. In deciding whether to order winding up through liquidation,
the court shall consider whether lesser relief suggested by one or more parties, or provided in a
member control agreement, such as any form of equitable relief, or a buy-out or partial liquidation
coupled with the continuation of the business of the dissolved limited liability company through a
successor organization, would be adequate to permanently relieve the circumstances established
under subdivision 1, clause (2) or (3). Lesser relief may be ordered in any case where it would be
appropriate under all the facts and circumstances of the case.
    Subd. 7. Expenses. If the court finds that a party to a proceeding brought under this section
has acted arbitrarily, vexatiously, or otherwise not in good faith, it may in its discretion award
reasonable expenses, including attorneys' fees and disbursements, to any of the other parties.
    Subd. 8. Venue and parties. Proceedings under this section must be brought in a court
within the county in which the registered office of the limited liability company is located. It is
not necessary to make members parties to the action or proceeding unless relief is sought against
them personally.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 114; 1996 c 361 s 49-51; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 89-91
322B.836 JUDICIAL INTERVENTION PROCEDURES.
    Subdivision 1. Action before hearing. In proceedings under section 322B.833, the court
may issue injunctions, appoint receivers with all powers and duties the court directs, take other
actions required to preserve the limited liability company assets wherever situated, and carry on
the business of the limited liability company until a full hearing can be held.
    Subd. 2. Action after hearing. After a full hearing has been held, upon whatever notice
the court directs to be given to all parties to the proceedings and to any other parties in interest
designated by the court, the court may appoint a receiver to collect the limited liability company
assets, including all amounts owing to the limited liability company by persons who have made
contribution agreements and by persons who have made contributions by means of enforceable
promises of future performance. A receiver has authority, subject to the order of the court, to
continue the business of the limited liability company and to sell, lease, transfer, or otherwise
dispose of all or any of the property and assets of the limited liability company either at public
or private sale.
    Subd. 3. Discharge of obligations upon liquidation. If the court determines that the limited
liability company is to be dissolved with winding up to be accomplished by liquidation, then the
assets of the limited liability company or the proceeds resulting from a sale, lease, transfer, or other
disposition must be applied in the following order of priority to the payment and discharge or:
(1) the costs and expenses of the proceedings, including attorneys' fees and disbursements;
(2) debts, taxes, and assessments due the United States, the state of Minnesota and their
subdivisions, and other states and their subdivisions, in that order;
(3) claims duly proved and allowed to employees under the provisions of chapter 176;
provided, that claims under this clause shall not be allowed if the limited liability company carried
workers' compensation insurance, as provided by law, at the time the injury was sustained;
(4) claims, including the value of all compensation paid in any medium other than money,
duly proved and allowed to employees for services performed within three months preceding
the appointment of the receiver, if any; and
(5) other claims duly proved and allowed.
    Subd. 4. Remainder to members. After payment of the expenses of receivership and claims
of creditors duly proved under subdivision 3, the remaining assets, if any, must be distributed to
the members in accordance with section 322B.873, subdivision 1.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 115
322B.84 QUALIFICATIONS OF RECEIVERS AND POWERS.
    Subdivision 1. Qualifications. A receiver shall be a natural person or a domestic or foreign
organization authorized to transact business in this state. A receiver shall give bond as directed by
the court with the sureties required by the court.
    Subd. 2. Powers. A receiver may sue and defend in all courts as receiver of the limited
liability company. The court appointing the receiver has exclusive jurisdiction of the limited
liability company and its property.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 116
322B.843 ACTION BY ATTORNEY GENERAL.
    Subdivision 1. When permitted. A limited liability company may be involuntarily
dissolved, wound up and terminated by a decree of a court in this state in an action filed by the
attorney general when it is established that:
(1) the articles of organization were procured through fraud;
(2) the limited liability company was organized for a purpose not permitted by section
322B.10;
(3) the limited liability company failed to comply with the requirements of sections 322B.10
to 322B.18 essential to organization under this chapter;
(4) the limited liability company has flagrantly violated a provision of this chapter, or has
violated a provision of this chapter more than once, or has violated more than one provision of
this chapter; or
(5) the limited liability company has acted, or failed to act, in a manner that constitutes
surrender or abandonment of the limited liability company privileges or enterprise.
    Subd. 2. Notice to limited liability company and correction. An action must not be
commenced under this section until 30 days after notice to the limited liability company by the
attorney general of the reason for the filing of the action. If the reason for filing the action is an
act that the limited liability company has done, or omitted to do, and the act or omission may be
corrected by an amendment of the articles of organization, a member control agreement, or the
bylaws or by performance of or abstention from the act, the attorney general shall give the limited
liability company 30 additional days in which to effect the correction before filing the action.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 117; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 92,96
322B.846 FILING CLAIMS IN JUDICIAL INTERVENTION PROCEEDINGS.
    Subdivision 1. Judicial intervention proceedings. In proceedings referred to in section
322B.833, the court may require all creditors and claimants of the limited liability company to file
their claims under oath with the court administrator or with the receiver in a form prescribed by
the court.
    Subd. 2. Filing of claims. If the court requires the filing of claims, it shall fix a date not less
than 120 days from the date of the order as the last day for the filing of claims, and shall prescribe
the notice of the fixed date that shall be given to creditors and claimants. Before the fixed date, the
court may extend the time for filing claims. Creditors and claimants failing to file claims on or
before the fixed date may be barred, by order of court, from claiming an interest in or receiving
payment out of the property or assets of the limited liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 118
322B.85 DISCONTINUANCE OF PROCEEDINGS FOR WINDING UP THROUGH
LIQUIDATION.
If the court has determined that the limited liability company is to be dissolved, with winding
up to be accomplished by liquidation, and subsequently the court determines that the grounds for
dissolution no longer exist or that the grounds for ordering winding up through liquidation no
longer exist, the court shall make whatever orders are just and reasonable under the circumstances.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 119
322B.853 DECREE OF TERMINATION.
    Subdivision 1. When entered. If the court has ordered a dissolution, or the court has
intervened under section 322B.833, subdivision 1, clause (1), or has ordered or caused a
dissolution under any other provision of that subdivision, then after the affairs of the dissolved
limited liability company have been appropriately wound up the court shall enter a decree
terminating the dissolved limited liability company.
    Subd. 2. Effective date. When the decree terminating the limited liability company has been
entered, the limited liability company is terminated.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 120
322B.856 FILING DECREE.
After the court enters a decree terminating a limited liability company, the court administrator
shall cause a certified copy of the decree to be filed with the secretary of state. The secretary of
state shall not charge a fee for filing the decree.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 121
322B.86 DEPOSIT WITH COMMISSIONER OF FINANCE OF AMOUNT DUE
CERTAIN MEMBERS.
Upon termination of a limited liability company, the portion of the assets distributable to
a member who is unknown or cannot be found, or who is under disability, if there is no person
legally competent to receive the distributive portion, must be reduced to money and deposited
with the commissioner of finance. The amount deposited is appropriated to the commissioner of
finance and must be paid over to the member or a legal representative, upon proof satisfactory to
the commissioner of finance of a right to payment.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 122; 2003 c 112 art 2 s 50
322B.863 CLAIMS BARRED AND EXCEPTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Claims barred. Except as provided in this section, a creditor or claimant
whose claims are barred under section 322B.816, 322B.82, or 322B.846 includes a person who
is or becomes a creditor or claimant at any time before, during, or following the conclusion of
termination proceedings, and all those claiming through or under the creditor or claimant.
    Subd. 2. Claims reopened. At any time within one year after articles of termination have
been filed with the secretary of state pursuant to section 322B.816 or 322B.82, subdivision 1,
clause (2), or a decree of termination has been entered, a creditor or claimant who shows good
cause for not having previously filed the claim may apply to a court in this state to allow a claim:
(1) against the limited liability company to the extent of undisposed assets; or
(2) if the undisposed assets are not sufficient to satisfy the claim, against a member, whose
liability is limited to a portion of the claim that is equal to the portion of the distributions to
members in liquidation or termination received by the member, but in no event may a member's
liability exceed the amount that the member actually received in the termination.
    Subd. 3. Obligations incurred during termination proceedings. All known contractual
debts, obligations, and liabilities incurred in the course of winding up and terminating the
limited liability company's affairs must be paid or provided for by the limited liability company
before the distribution of assets to a member. A person to whom this kind of debt, obligation,
or liability is owed but not paid may pursue any remedy before the expiration of the applicable
statute of limitations against the managers and governors of the limited liability company who
are responsible for, but who fail to cause, the limited liability company to pay or make provision
for payment of the debts, obligations, and liabilities or against members to the extent permitted
under section 322B.56. This subdivision does not apply to dissolution and termination under
the supervision or order of a court.
    Subd. 4. Statutory homeowner warranty claims preserved. The statutory warranties
provided under section 327A.02 are not affected by a dissolution under this chapter.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 123; 2006 c 202 s 4
322B.866 RIGHT TO SUE OR DEFEND AFTER TERMINATION.
After a limited liability company has been terminated, any of its former managers, governors,
or members may assert or defend, in the name of the limited liability company, any claim by or
against the limited liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 124
322B.87 OMITTED ASSETS.
Title to assets remaining after payment of all debts, obligations, or liabilities and after
distributions to members may be transferred by a court in this state.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 125
322B.873 DISPOSITION OF ASSETS UPON DISSOLUTION.
    Subdivision 1. Disposition upon liquidation. Subject to subdivision 4, except when the
dissolved limited liability company is being wound up and terminated under section 322B.81,
subdivision 3
, the assets of the dissolved limited liability company must be disposed of to satisfy
liabilities according to the following priorities:
(1) to creditors, including members who are creditors, to the extent otherwise permitted
by law, in satisfaction of liabilities of the limited liability company other than liabilities for
interim distributions to members under section 322B.51 or termination distributions under section
322B.50;
(2) unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or a member control agreement,
to members and former members of the limited liability company in satisfaction of liabilities for
distributions under section 322B.50 or 322B.51; and
(3) unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or a member control agreement,
to members first for a return of their contributions, as restated from time to time under section
322B.41, and secondly respecting their membership interests in the proportions in which the
members share in distributions.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1999 c 85 art 2 s 95]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1999 c 85 art 2 s 95]
    Subd. 4. Damages and offsets for wrongful dissociation and breach of a member
control agreement. A member who wrongfully resigns or retires is liable to the limited liability
company for any damages caused by the member's wrongful resignation or retirement. Any
member who breaches a member control agreement is liable to the limited liability company for
any damages caused by the breach. Any payment due a member under this section, including
payments, if any, to dissenters due to winding up merger under section 322B.81, subdivision 3,
is subject to offset these damages.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 126; 1993 c 137 s 48; 1999 c 85 art 2 s 93,94

ACTIONS AGAINST COMPANIES

322B.876 SERVICE OF PROCESS ON LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY.
    Subdivision 1. Who may be served. A process, notice, or demand required or permitted by
law to be served upon a limited liability company may be served either upon the registered agent,
if any, of the limited liability company named in the articles of organization, or upon a manager of
the limited liability company, or upon the secretary of state as provided in section 5.25.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1995 c 128 art 1 s 20]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1995 c 128 art 1 s 20]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1995 c 128 art 1 s 20]
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 127; 1995 c 128 art 1 s 13
322B.88 WHEN A MEMBER IS NOT A PROPER PARTY.
A member of a limited liability company is not a proper party to a proceeding by or against a
limited liability company except when:
(1) the object of the proceeding is to determine or enforce a member's right against, or
liability to, the limited liability company; or
(2) the proceeding involves a claim of personal liability or responsibility of that member and
that claim has some basis other than the member's status as a member.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 128
322B.883 STATE INTERESTED IN PROCEEDINGS.
If it appears at any stage of a proceeding in a court in this state that the state is, or is likely
to be, interested in the proceeding or that it is a matter of general public interest, the court shall
order that a copy of the complaint or petition be served upon the attorney general in the same
manner prescribed for serving a summons in a civil action. The attorney general shall intervene in
a proceeding when the attorney general determines that the public interest requires it, whether
or not the attorney general has been served.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 129

FOREIGN COMPANIES

322B.90 GOVERNING LAW.
    Subdivision 1. State of organization. Subject to the Constitution of this state, the laws of the
jurisdiction under which a foreign limited liability company is organized govern its organization
and internal affairs and the liability of its members. A foreign limited liability company may not
be denied a certificate of authority to transact business in this state by reason of any difference
between those laws and the laws of this state.
    Subd. 2. Limitations. A foreign limited liability company holding a valid certificate of
authority in this state has no greater rights and privileges than a domestic limited liability
company. The certificate of authority does not authorize the foreign limited liability company to
exercise any of its powers or purposes that a domestic limited liability company is forbidden by
law to exercise in this state.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 130
322B.901 [Repealed, 1995 c 128 art 3 s 27]
322B.905 NAME.
A foreign limited liability company may apply for a certificate of authority under any name
that would be available to a domestic limited liability company, whether or not the name is the
name under which it is authorized in its jurisdiction of organization.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 131
322B.91 APPLICATION FOR CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
    Subdivision 1. Application information. Before transacting business in this state, a foreign
limited liability company shall obtain a certificate of authority. An applicant for the certificate
shall file with the secretary of state a certificate of status from the filing office in the jurisdiction
in which the foreign limited liability company is organized and an application executed by an
authorized person and setting forth:
(1) the name of the foreign limited liability company and, if different, the name under which
it proposes to transact business in this state;
(2) the jurisdiction of its organization;
(3) the name and business address of the proposed registered agent in this state, which agent
shall be an individual resident of this state, a domestic corporation, or a foreign corporation
having a place of business in, and authorized to do business in, this state;
(4) the address of the office required to be maintained in the jurisdiction of its organization
by the laws of that jurisdiction or, if not so required, of the principal place of business of the
foreign limited liability company; and
(5) the date the foreign limited liability company expires in the jurisdiction of its organization.
    Subd. 2. Fees. The application must be accompanied by payment of $185, which includes a
$150 initial license fee in addition to the $35 filing fee required by section 322B.03, subdivision
18
.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 132; 1993 c 137 s 50
322B.915 ISSUANCE OF CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
    Subdivision 1. Issuance of certificate. If the secretary of state finds that an application for a
certificate of authority conforms to law and all fees have been paid, the secretary shall:
(1) endorse on the application the word "Filed" and the date of the filing of it;
(2) file the original of the application; and
(3) return the original of the application to the person who filed it with a certificate of
authority issued by the secretary of state.
    Subd. 2. Effective date of certificate. A certificate of authority issued under this section
is effective from the date the application is filed with the secretary of state accompanied by
the payment of the requisite fees.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 133
322B.92 AMENDMENTS TO THE CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
If any statement in the application for a certificate of authority by a foreign limited liability
company was false when made or any arrangements or other facts described have changed,
making the application inaccurate in any respect, the foreign limited liability company shall
promptly file with the secretary of state:
(1) in the case of a change in its name, a termination or a merger, a certificate to that effect
authenticated by the proper officer of the state or country under the laws of which the foreign
limited liability company is organized;
(2) in the case of a change in the name or address of the registered agent required to be
maintained by section 322B.925, an amendment to the certificate of authority signed by an
authorized person; or
(3) in the case of an election, rescission, or change in the specification of professional
services under section 319B.04, a notice which:
(i) states the election, rescission, or change in specification;
(ii) has been approved in accordance with the foreign limited liability company's generally
applicable governing law, as that term is defined in section 319B.02, subdivision 8; and
(iii) has been signed on behalf of the foreign limited liability company.
The fee for filing the document is the same as for filing an amendment.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 134; 1993 c 137 s 51; 1997 c 22 art 2 s 5
322B.925 REGISTERED AGENT AND CERTAIN REPORTS.
A foreign limited liability company authorized to transact business in this state shall:
(1) appoint and continuously maintain a registered agent in the same manner as provided in
section 322B.13; or
(2) file a report upon any change in the name or business address of its registered agent in the
same manner as provided in section 322B.135, subdivision 3.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 135
322B.93 CERTIFICATE OF WITHDRAWAL.
A foreign limited liability company authorized to transact business in this state may
withdraw from this state upon procuring from the secretary of state a certificate of withdrawal. In
order to procure the certificate, the foreign limited liability company shall file with the secretary
of state an application for withdrawal, which must set forth:
(1) the name of the limited liability company and the state or country under the laws of
which it is organized;
(2) that the limited liability company is not transacting business in this state;
(3) that the limited liability company surrenders its authority to transact business in this state;
(4) that the limited liability company revokes the authority of its registered agent in this
state to accept service of process and consents to that service of process in any action, suit, or
proceeding based upon any cause of action arising in this state during the time the limited liability
company was authorized to transact business in this state may be made on the limited liability
company by service upon the secretary of state; and
(5) a post office address to which a person may mail a copy of any process against the
limited liability company.
The filing with the secretary of state of a certificate of termination or a certificate of merger
if the limited liability company is not the surviving organization from the proper officer of the
state or country under the laws of which the limited liability company is organized constitutes
a valid application of withdrawal and the authority of the limited liability company to transact
business in this state shall cease upon filing of the certificate.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 136; 1993 c 137 s 52
322B.935 REVOCATION OF CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
    Subdivision 1. Revocation procedure. The certificate of authority of a foreign limited
liability company to transact business in this state may be revoked by the secretary of state
upon the occurrence of any of these events:
(1) the foreign limited liability company has failed to appoint and maintain a registered agent
as required by this chapter, file a report upon any change in the name or business address of the
registered agent, or file in the office of the secretary of state any amendment to its application
for a certificate of authority as specified in section 322B.92; or
(2) a misrepresentation has been made of any material matter in any application, report,
affidavit, or other document submitted by the foreign limited liability company pursuant to this
chapter.
    Subd. 2. Revocation notice. No certificate of authority of a foreign limited liability company
shall be revoked by the secretary of state unless:
(1) the secretary has given the foreign limited liability company not less than 60 days' notice
by mail addressed to its registered office in this state or, if the foreign limited liability company
fails to appoint and maintain a registered agent in this state, addressed to the office address in
the jurisdiction of organization; and
(2) during the 60-day period, the foreign limited liability company has failed to file
the report of change regarding the registered agent, to file any amendment, or to correct the
misrepresentation.
    Subd. 3. Effective date. Upon the expiration of 60 days after the mailing of the notice, the
authority of the foreign limited liability company to transact business in this state ceases. The
secretary of state shall issue a certificate of revocation and shall mail the certificate to the address
of the principal place of business or the office required to be maintained in the jurisdiction of
organization of the foreign limited liability company.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 137; 1993 c 137 s 53,54
322B.94 TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS WITHOUT CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY.
    Subdivision 1. Access to courts. A foreign limited liability company transacting business
in this state may not maintain any action, suit, or proceeding in any court of this state until it
possesses a certificate of authority.
    Subd. 2. Contracts and defense suits. The failure of a foreign limited liability company to
obtain a certificate of authority does not impair the validity of any contract or act of the foreign
limited liability company or prevent the foreign limited liability company from defending any
action, suit, or proceeding in any court of this state.
    Subd. 3. Designated registered agent. A foreign limited liability company, by transacting
business in this state without a certificate of authority, appoints the secretary of state as its agent
upon whom any notice, process, or demand may be served.
    Subd. 4. Fees. A foreign limited liability company that transacts business in this state
without a valid certificate of authority is liable to the state for the years or parts of years during
which it transacted business in this state without the certificate in an amount equal to all fees
that would have been imposed by this chapter upon that limited liability company had it duly
obtained the certificate, filed all reports required by this chapter, and paid all penalties imposed by
this chapter. The attorney general shall bring proceedings to recover all amounts due this state
under the provisions of this section.
    Subd. 5. Civil penalty. A foreign limited liability company that transacts business in this
state without a valid certificate of authority is subject to a civil penalty, payable to the state, not
to exceed $5,000. Each governor or, in the absence of governors, each member or agent who
authorizes, directs, or participates in the transaction of business in this state on behalf of a foreign
limited liability company that does not have a certificate is subject to a civil penalty, payable
to the state, not to exceed $1,000.
    Subd. 6. Injunction. The civil penalties set forth in subdivision 5 may be recovered in an
action brought within the District Court for Ramsey County by the attorney general. Upon a
finding by the court that a foreign limited liability company or any of its members, governors,
or agents have transacted business in this state in violation of this chapter, the court shall issue,
in addition to the imposition of a civil penalty, an injunction restraining the further transaction
of the business of the foreign limited liability company and the further exercise of any limited
liability company's rights and privileges in this state. The foreign limited liability company
must be enjoined from transacting business in this state until all civil penalties plus any interest
and court costs that the court may assess have been paid and until the foreign limited liability
company has otherwise complied with the provisions of this chapter.
    Subd. 7. Member limited liability. A member of a foreign limited liability company is
not liable for the debts and obligations of the limited liability company solely by reason of the
company's having transacted business in this state without a valid certificate of authority.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 138
322B.945 TRANSACTIONS NOT CONSTITUTING TRANSACTING BUSINESS.
    Subdivision 1. Excluded acts. The following activities of a foreign limited liability company,
among others, do not constitute transacting business within the meaning of this chapter:
(1) maintaining, defending, or settling any proceeding;
(2) holding meetings of its members or carrying on any other activities concerning its
internal affairs;
(3) maintaining bank accounts;
(4) maintaining offices or agencies for the transfer, exchange, and registration of the foreign
limited liability company's own securities or maintaining trustees or depositories with respect to
those securities;
(5) selling through independent contractors;
(6) soliciting or obtaining orders, whether by mail or through employees or agents or
otherwise, if the orders require acceptance outside this state before they become contracts;
(7) creating or acquiring indebtedness, mortgages, and security interests in real or personal
property;
(8) securing or collecting debts or enforcing mortgages, and security interests in property
securing the debts;
(9) holding, protecting, renting, maintaining and operating real or personal property in
this state so acquired;
(10) selling or transferring title to property in this state to any person; or
(11) conducting an isolated transaction that is completed within 30 days and that is not one in
the course of repeated transactions of a like manner.
    Subd. 2. Effect of personal jurisdiction. The term "transacting business" as used in this
section has no effect on personal jurisdiction under section 543.19.
    Subd. 3. Ownership of income-producing property. For purposes of this section, any
foreign limited liability company that owns income-producing real or tangible personal property
in this state, other than property exempted under subdivision 1, will be considered transacting
business in this state.
    Subd. 4. Scope of excluded transactions definitions. The list of activities in subdivision 1
is not exhaustive. This section does not apply in determining the contracts or activities that may
subject a foreign limited liability company to service of process or taxation in this state or to
regulation under any other law of this state.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 139
322B.95 ACTION BY ATTORNEY GENERAL.
The attorney general may bring an action to restrain a foreign limited liability company from
transacting business in this state in violation of this chapter.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 140
322B.955 SERVICE OF PROCESS.
Service of process on a foreign limited liability company must be as provided in section 5.25.
History: 1992 c 517 art 2 s 141; 1995 c 128 art 1 s 14
322B.960 ANNUAL REGISTRATION.
    Subdivision 1. Annual registration form. (a) The secretary of state must send annually
to each limited liability company at the registered office of the corporation a postcard notice
announcing the need to file the annual registration and informing the limited liability company
that the annual registration may be filed online and that paper filings may also be made, and
informing the limited liability company that failing to file the annual registration will result in
an administrative termination of the limited liability company.
(b) Each calendar year beginning in the calendar year following the calendar year in which
a limited liability company files articles of organization, a limited liability company must file
with the secretary of state by December 31 of each calendar year a registration containing the
information listed in subdivision 2.
    Subd. 2. Information required; fees. The registration must include:
(1) the name of the limited liability company or the name under which a foreign limited
liability company has registered in this state;
(2) the address of its principal executive office, if different from the registered address;
(3) the address of its registered office;
(4) the name of its registered agent, if any;
(5) the state or jurisdiction of organization; and
(6) the name and business address of the manager or other person exercising the principal
functions of the chief manager of the limited liability company.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 2000 c 395 s 23]
    Subd. 4.MS 1998 [Repealed by amendment, 2000 c 395 s 13]
    Subd. 4. Penalty. (a) A domestic limited liability company that has not filed a registration
pursuant to the requirements of subdivision 2, is administratively terminated. The secretary of
state shall issue a certificate of administrative termination which must be filed in the office of
the secretary of state. The secretary of state must also make available in an electronic format the
names of the terminated limited liability companies.
(b) A non-Minnesota limited liability company that has not filed a registration pursuant to
the requirements of subdivision 2, shall have its authority to do business in Minnesota revoked.
The secretary of state must issue a certificate of revocation which must be filed in the Office of the
Secretary of State. The secretary of state must also make available in an electronic format the
names of the revoked non-Minnesota limited liability companies.
    Subd. 5.MS 1998 [Renumbered subd 4]
    Subd. 5. Reinstatement. If a limited liability company is administratively terminated or has
its authority to do business in Minnesota revoked, it may retroactively reinstate its existence or
authority to do business by filing a single annual registration and paying a $25 fee.
(a) For a domestic limited liability company, filing the annual registration with the secretary
of state:
(1) returns the limited liability company to active status as of the date of the administrative
termination;
(2) validates contracts or other acts within the authority of the articles, and the limited
liability company is liable for those contracts or acts; and
(3) restores to the limited liability company all assets and rights of the limited liability
company and its members to the extent they were held by the limited liability company and its
members before the administrative termination occurred, except to the extent that assets or rights
were affected by acts occurring after the termination, sold, or otherwise distributed after that time.
(b) For a non-Minnesota limited liability company, filing the annual registration restores the
limited liability company's ability to do business in Minnesota and the rights and privileges which
accompany that authority.
    Subd. 6.[Renumbered subd 5]
History: 1993 c 131 s 1; 1995 c 128 art 3 s 9,10; 2000 c 395 s 13; 2001 c 7 s 64; 2003
c 2 art 1 s 37,45 subd 6; 2004 c 251 s 8-10