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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

CHAPTER 169. TRAFFIC REGULATIONS

Table of Sections
SectionHeadnote
169.001APPLICATION OF LAWS 2005, CHAPTER 56, TERMINOLOGY CHANGES.
169.01DEFINITIONS.

APPLICABILITY; EXCEPTIONS

169.02SCOPE.
169.022UNIFORM APPLICATION.
169.025APPLICATION OF MOTOR CARRIER RULES.
169.03EMERGENCY VEHICLES; EXEMPTIONS; APPLICATION.
169.04LOCAL AUTHORITY.

TOWING

169.041TOWING AUTHORIZED.
169.042TOWING; NOTICE TO VICTIM OF VEHICLE THEFT.

APPLICABILITY; LOCAL OR PRIVATE ROAD

169.045SPECIAL VEHICLE USE ON ROADWAY.
169.05PRIVATE ROADWAYS.

SIGNS AND SIGNALS

169.06SIGNS, SIGNALS, MARKINGS.
169.07UNAUTHORIZED SIGN, SIGNAL, OR MARKING.
169.072UNAUTHORIZED MAILBOX INSTALLATION.
169.073PROHIBITED LIGHT OR SIGNAL.
169.08UNLAWFUL TO POSSESS, ALTER, DEFACE, OR REMOVE SIGN.

TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

169.09ACCIDENTS.
169.10STATISTICAL INFORMATION.
169.11CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE.
169.12Repealed, 1957 c 297 s 2
169.121
169.1211Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.1215Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.1216Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.1217Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.1218Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.1219Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.122Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.123
169.1231Repealed, 1983 c 306 s 7
169.124Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.125Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.126Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.1261Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.1265Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.127Repealed, 1978 c 727 s 11
169.128Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8
169.129

DRIVING RULES

169.13RECKLESS OR CARELESS DRIVING.
169.131Repealed, 1976 c 103 s 1
169.132Repealed, 1977 c 347 s 29
169.14SPEED LIMITS, ZONES; RADAR.
169.141Repealed, 1996 c 455 art 1 s 11
169.145IMPLEMENT OF HUSBANDRY; SPEED, BRAKES.
169.15IMPEDING TRAFFIC.
169.16SPEED ON BRIDGE.
169.17EMERGENCY VEHICLE.
169.18DRIVING RULES.
169.19TURNING, STARTING, AND SIGNALING.
169.20RIGHT-OF-WAY.
169.201YIELD SIGN.

PEDESTRIANS

169.202BLIND PERSON CARRYING WHITE CANE.
169.21PEDESTRIAN.
169.212OPERATION OF ELECTRIC PERSONAL ASSISTIVE MOBILITY DEVICES.
169.215CROSSING FOR SENIORS OR DISABLED PERSONS.
169.2151PEDESTRIAN SAFETY CROSSINGS.
169.219PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS.
169.22HITCHHIKING; SOLICITATION OF BUSINESS.
169.221Repealed, 1978 c 739 s 15

BICYCLES AND MOTORIZED BICYCLES

169.222OPERATION OF BICYCLE.
169.223MOTORIZED BICYCLE.
169.224169.224 NEIGHBORHOOD ELECTRIC VEHICLES.

MOTORIZED FOOT SCOOTER

169.225MOTORIZED FOOT SCOOTER.
169.23Repealed, 1965 c 45 s 73
169.24Repealed, 1961 c 561 s 17

SAFETY ZONES

169.25SAFETY ZONE.

RAILROAD CROSSINGS

169.26SPECIAL STOPS AT RAILROAD CROSSING.
169.27Repealed, 1976 c 166 s 119
169.28CERTAIN VEHICLES TO STOP AT RAILROAD CROSSING.
169.29CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS WITH CERTAIN EQUIPMENT.

CONTROLLED-ACCESS AND THROUGH HIGHWAYS

169.30DESIGNATION OF THROUGH HIGHWAYS.
169.305CONTROLLED-ACCESS RULES AND PENALTIES.

BUS USE OF SHOULDERS

169.306USE OF SHOULDERS BY BUSES.

OTHER TRAFFIC RULES

169.31STOP AT SIDEWALK.
169.315OPENING AND CLOSING VEHICLE DOOR.

STOPPING, PARKING PROVISIONS

169.32STOPPING, STANDING, AND PARKING.
169.33POLICE MAY MOVE VEHICLE.
169.34PROHIBITIONS; STOPPING, PARKING.
169.342GOOD SAMARITAN; EXCEPTION TO STOPPING AND PARKING.
169.345PARKING PRIVILEGE FOR PHYSICALLY DISABLED.
169.346DISABILITY PARKING AREAS; CRITERIA, ENFORCEMENT.
169.35PARKING.
169.36PARKING; BRAKE SET AND WHEELS TURNED.

OTHER TRAFFIC RULES

169.37OBSTRUCTING VIEW OF DRIVER.
169.38Repealed, 2001 c 24 s 5
169.39COASTING.
169.40FIRE TRUCK; FIRE STATION.
169.41CROSSING FIRE HOSE.
169.42LITTERING; DROPPING OBJECT ON VEHICLE; MISDEMEANOR.
169.421CIVIL LIABILITY FOR LITTERING.
169.43SWINGING GATE ON TRUCK.

SCHOOL BUS SAFETY

169.435STATE SCHOOL BUS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION.
169.44Repealed, 1991 c 277 s 18
169.441SCHOOL BUS IDENTIFICATION.
169.442SCHOOL BUS SIGNALS.
169.443SAFETY OF SCHOOL CHILDREN; BUS DRIVER'S DUTIES.
169.444SAFETY OF SCHOOL CHILDREN; DUTIES OF OTHER DRIVERS.
169.445COOPERATION WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT; INFORMATION; RULES.
169.446SAFETY OF SCHOOL CHILDREN; TRAINING AND EDUCATION RULES.
169.447SCHOOL BUS AND HEAD START BUS SAFETY.
169.448OTHER BUSES.
169.449SCHOOL BUS OPERATION.
169.45Repealed, 1994 c 647 art 12 s 43
169.4501SCHOOL BUS EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.
169.4502ADDITIONAL MINNESOTA SCHOOL BUS CHASSIS STANDARDS.
169.4503ADDITIONAL MINNESOTA SCHOOL BUS BODY STANDARDS.
169.4504ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR SPECIALLY EQUIPPED BUS.
169.451INSPECTING SCHOOL AND HEAD START BUSES; RULES; MISDEMEANOR.
169.4511SCHOOL BUS ACCIDENT AND SUBSEQUENT OPERATION.
169.452Repealed, 1998 c 398 art 6 s 38
169.454TYPE III VEHICLE STANDARDS.
169.4581CRIMINAL CONDUCT ON SCHOOL BUS.
169.4582REPORTABLE OFFENSE ON SCHOOL BUS.

VEHICLE EQUIPMENT, SAFETY

169.46HITCHING BEHIND VEHICLE.
169.467MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS; DEFINITIONS.
169.468VEHICLE SAFETY RULES; FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS.
169.469INJUNCTION.
169.47UNSAFE EQUIPMENT.
169.471TELEVISION; HEADPHONES.
169.48VEHICLE LIGHTING.
169.49HEADLAMPS.
169.50REAR LAMPS.
169.51CLEARANCE AND MARKER LAMPS.
169.52PROJECTING LOAD; LIGHT OR FLAG.
169.522SLOW-MOVING VEHICLE, SIGN REQUIRED.
169.53LIGHTS FOR PARKED VEHICLES.
169.54Repealed, 1951 c 132 s 1
169.541LIGHTING EXEMPTION FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT; STANDARDS.
169.55LIGHTS ON ALL VEHICLES.
169.56AUXILIARY LIGHTS.
169.57VEHICLE SIGNALS.
169.58IDENTIFICATION LAMPS.
169.59WARNING LIGHTS.
169.60DISTRIBUTION OF LIGHT.
169.61COMPOSITE BEAM.
169.62CERTAIN LIGHTS PERMITTED ON OLD MOTOR VEHICLES.
169.63NUMBER OF LAMPS.
169.64PROHIBITED LIGHTS; EXCEPTIONS.
169.65SPECIFICATIONS FOR LIGHTING AND OTHER DEVICES.
169.66HEARING ON SPECIFICATIONS.
169.67BRAKES.
169.672Repealed, 1984 c 549 s 34
169.68HORN, SIREN.
169.684SEAT BELT; DECLARATION OF POLICY.
169.685SEAT BELT; PASSENGER RESTRAINT SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN.
169.686SEAT BELT USE REQUIRED; PENALTY.
169.69MUFFLER.
169.691Repealed, 1974 c 500 s 2
169.692Repealed, 1974 c 500 s 2
169.693MOTOR VEHICLE NOISE LIMITS.
169.70REAR VIEW MIRROR.
169.71WINDSHIELD.
169.72TIRE SURFACE; METAL STUDS.
169.721UNSAFE TIRES; DEFINITIONS.
169.722RULES FOR TIRE SAFETY.
169.723TIRES CONSIDERED UNSAFE.
169.724PROHIBITION; OPERATING AUTOMOBILE WITH UNSAFE TIRES.
169.725TIRE SAFETY ENFORCEMENT.
169.726AUTOMOBILE SALE PROHIBITED UNLESS TIRES ARE SAFE.
169.727UNSAFE TIRES; MISDEMEANOR.
169.73BUMPERS, SAFEGUARDS.
169.733WHEEL FLAPS ON TRUCK AND TRAILER.
169.734AUTOMOBILE FENDERS.
169.74SAFETY GLASS.
169.743BUG DEFLECTOR.
169.75FLARES, FLAGS, OR REFLECTORS REQUIRED.

FIRST AID EQUIPMENT IN POLICE VEHICLES

169.751DEFINITIONS.
169.752PATROL MOTOR VEHICLES, FIRST AID EQUIPMENT.
169.753LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS TRAINED IN FIRST AID.
169.754APPROPRIATIONS AUTHORIZED.
169.755Repealed, 1984 c 549 s 34
169.76Repealed, 1984 c 520 s 26

TRANSPORTING PRESSURIZED GAS

169.762PRESSURIZED FLAMMABLE GAS.

VEHICLE INSPECTIONS

169.77Repealed, 1993 c 26 s 11
169.771SPOT CHECK OF MOTOR VEHICLE.
169.78MUNICIPAL INSPECTION STATION.
169.781ANNUAL COMMERCIAL VEHICLE INSPECTION; INSPECTORS, FEE, PENALTY.
169.782DAILY COMMERCIAL VEHICLE INSPECTION; PENALTY.
169.783COMMERCIAL VEHICLE ACCIDENT; REINSPECTION.
169.79VEHICLE REGISTRATION; DISPLAYING LICENSE PLATES.

VEHICLE INSURANCE

169.791CRIMINAL PENALTY FOR FAILURE TO PRODUCE PROOF OF INSURANCE.
169.792REVOCATION OF LICENSE FOR FAILURE TO PRODUCE PROOF OF INSURANCE.
169.793VEHICLE INSURANCE; UNLAWFUL ACTS, PENALTIES.
169.794Repealed, 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 79
169.795VEHICLE INSURANCE RULES.
169.796VERIFICATION OF INSURANCE COVERAGE.
169.797PENALTIES FOR FAILURE TO PROVIDE VEHICLE INSURANCE.
169.798RULES OF COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC SAFETY.
169.799Repealed, 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 79

REQUIREMENT TO SHOW RENTAL AGREEMENT

169.7995FAILURE TO PRODUCE RENTAL OR LEASE AGREEMENT.

SIZE, WEIGHT, AND LOAD RESTRICTIONS AND PERMITS

169.80SIZE, WEIGHT, LOAD.
169.801IMPLEMENT OF HUSBANDRY.
169.81HEIGHT AND LENGTH LIMITATIONS.
169.82TRAILER EQUIPMENT.
169.822WEIGHT LIMITATIONS; DEFINITIONS.
169.823TIRE WEIGHT LIMITS.
169.824GROSS WEIGHT SCHEDULE.
169.825
169.826GROSS WEIGHT SEASONAL INCREASES.
169.8261GROSS WEIGHT LIMITATIONS; FOREST PRODUCTS.
169.827GROSS WEIGHT REDUCTION ON RESTRICTED ROUTE.
169.828AXLE RESTRICTIONS.
169.829WEIGHT LIMITS NOT APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN VEHICLES.
169.83
169.831Repealed, 1976 c 343 s 6
169.832WEIGHT LIMITATIONS ON DESIGNATED ROUTES.
169.833Repealed, 1991 c 339 s 12
169.834Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12
169.835FEDERAL QUALIFYING HIGHWAY.
169.84LOAD LIMIT ON BRIDGE.
169.85WEIGHING; PENALTY.
169.851WEIGHT RECORD.
169.86SPECIAL PERMIT TO EXCEED HEIGHT, WIDTH, OR LOAD; FEES.
169.861Repealed, 1982 c 617 s 27
169.862PERMIT FOR WIDE LOAD OF BALED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT.
169.863SPECIAL PULPWOOD VEHICLE PERMIT.
169.864SPECIAL PAPER PRODUCTS VEHICLE PERMITS.
169.87SEASONAL LOAD RESTRICTION; ROUTE DESIGNATION.
169.871EXCESS WEIGHT; CIVIL PENALTY.
169.872RECEIPT OF CERTAIN OVERWEIGHT LOADS.
169.88DAMAGES; LIABILITY.

OFFENSES, PENALTIES, AND JUDICIAL PROVISIONS

169.89PENALTIES.
169.891JURISDICTION; LIMITATION OF ACTIONS.
169.90OFFENSES.
169.901Repealed, 2001 c 24 s 5

ARREST AND APPEARANCE PROCEDURES

169.91ARREST.
169.92FAILURE TO APPEAR.
169.93ARREST WITHOUT WARRANT.

RECORDS

169.94RECORD OF CONVICTION.
169.95COURT TO KEEP SEPARATE RECORDS OF VIOLATIONS.

UNIFORM INTERPRETATION

169.96INTERPRETATION AND EFFECT.

UNIVERSITY TRAFFIC RULES

169.965UNIVERSITY REGENTS TO REGULATE TRAFFIC AND PARKING.
169.966BOARD TO REGULATE TRAFFIC ON STATE UNIVERSITIES.

CITATION

169.97CITATION; HIGHWAY TRAFFIC REGULATION ACT.

DRIVER IMPROVEMENT CLINICS

169.971DRIVER IMPROVEMENT CLINICS; DEFINITIONS.
169.972ESTABLISHMENT OF DRIVER IMPROVEMENT CLINIC; FEES.
169.973REGULATION OF CLINIC; DIRECTOR.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

169.974MOTORCYCLE, MOTOR SCOOTER, MOTOR BIKE.
169.98POLICE, PATROL, OR SECURITY GUARD VEHICLE.
169.983SPEEDING VIOLATION; CREDIT CARD PAYMENT OF FINE.

TRAFFIC CITATIONS

169.985TRAFFIC CITATION QUOTA PROHIBITED.
169.99UNIFORM TRAFFIC TICKET.
169.991Expired
169.992Expired
169.993Expired
169.994Expired
169.995Expired
169.996Expired
169.997Expired
169.998Expired
169.001 APPLICATION OF LAWS 2005, CHAPTER 56, TERMINOLOGY CHANGES.
State agencies shall use the terminology changes specified in Laws 2005, chapter 56, section
1, when printed material and signage are replaced and new printed material and signage are
obtained. State agencies do not have to replace existing printed material and signage to comply
with Laws 2005, chapter 56, sections 1 and 2. Language changes made according to Laws 2005,
chapter 56, sections 1 and 2, shall not expand or exclude eligibility to services.
History: 2005 c 56 s 3
169.01 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Terms. For the purposes of this chapter, the terms defined in this section shall
have the meanings ascribed to them.
    Subd. 2. Vehicle. "Vehicle" means every device in, upon, or by which any person or property
is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices used exclusively upon
stationary rails or tracks.
    Subd. 3. Motor vehicle. "Motor vehicle" means every vehicle which is self-propelled and
every vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires. Motor
vehicle does not include an electric personal assistive mobility device or a vehicle moved solely
by human power.
    Subd. 3a. Passenger vehicle. "Passenger vehicle" means a passenger automobile defined in
section 168.011, subdivision 7; a pickup truck defined in section 168.011, subdivision 29; a van
defined in section 168.011, subdivision 28; and a self-propelled, recreational vehicle licensed
under chapter 168 to use the public streets or highways. "Passenger vehicle" does not include
a motorcycle, motorized bicycle, bus, school bus, a vehicle designed to operate exclusively
on railroad tracks, a farm truck defined in section 168.011, subdivision 17, or special mobile
equipment defined in section 168.011, subdivision 22.
    Subd. 4. Motorcycle. "Motorcycle" means every motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for
the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the
ground, including motor scooters and bicycles with motor attached, other than those vehicles
defined as motorized bicycles in subdivision 4a, but excluding a tractor.
    Subd. 4a. Motorized bicycle. "Motorized bicycle" means a bicycle that is propelled by an
electric or a liquid fuel motor of a piston displacement capacity of 50 cubic centimeters or less,
and a maximum of two brake horsepower, which is capable of a maximum speed of not more
than 30 miles per hour on a flat surface with not more than one percent grade in any direction
when the motor is engaged. "Motorized bicycle" includes an electric-assisted bicycle as defined in
subdivision 4b.
    Subd. 4b. Electric-assisted bicycle. "Electric-assisted bicycle" means a motor vehicle
with two or three wheels that:
(1) has a saddle and fully operable pedals for human propulsion;
(2) meets the requirements of federal motor vehicle safety standards in Code of Federal
Regulations, title 49, sections 571.01 et seq.; and
(3) has an electric motor that (i) has a power output of not more than 1,000 watts, (ii) is
incapable of propelling the vehicle at a speed of more than 20 miles per hour, (iii) is incapable of
further increasing the speed of the device when human power alone is used to propel the vehicle
at a speed of more than 20 miles per hour, and (iv) disengages or ceases to function when the
vehicle's brakes are applied.
    Subd. 4c. Motorized foot scooter. "Motorized foot scooter" means a device with handlebars
designed to be stood or sat upon by the operator, and powered by an internal combustion engine
or electric motor that is capable of propelling the device with or without human propulsion,
and that has either (1) no more than two ten-inch or smaller diameter wheels or (2) an engine
or motor that is capable of a maximum speed of 15 miles per hour on a flat surface with not
more than one percent grade in any direction when the motor is engaged. An electric personal
assistive mobility device, a motorized bicycle, an electric-assisted bicycle, or a motorcycle is
not a motorized foot scooter.
    Subd. 5. Authorized emergency vehicle. "Authorized emergency vehicle" means any of
the following vehicles when equipped and identified according to law: (1) a vehicle of a fire
department; (2) a publicly owned police vehicle or a privately owned vehicle used by a police
officer for police work under agreement, express or implied, with the local authority to which
the officer is responsible; (3) a vehicle of a licensed land emergency ambulance service, whether
publicly or privately owned; (4) an emergency vehicle of a municipal department or a public
service corporation, approved by the commissioner of public safety or the chief of police of a
municipality; (5) any volunteer rescue squad operating pursuant to Laws 1959, chapter 53; (6) a
vehicle designated as an authorized emergency vehicle upon a finding by the commissioner of
public safety that designation of that vehicle is necessary to the preservation of life or property or
to the execution of emergency governmental functions.
    Subd. 6. School bus. "School bus" means a motor vehicle used to transport pupils to or from
a school defined in section 120A.22, or to or from school-related activities, by the school or a
school district, or by someone under an agreement with the school or a school district. A school
bus does not include a motor vehicle transporting children to or from school for which parents
or guardians receive direct compensation from a school district, a motor coach operating under
charter carrier authority, a transit bus providing services as defined in section 174.22, subdivision
7
, a multifunction school activity bus as defined by federal motor vehicle safety standards, or
a vehicle otherwise qualifying as a type III vehicle under paragraph (5), when the vehicle is
properly registered and insured and being driven by an employee or agent of a school district for
nonscheduled or nonregular transportation. A school bus may be type A, type B, type C, or type
D, or type III as follows:
(1) A "type A school bus" is a van conversion or bus constructed utilizing a cutaway front
section vehicle with a left-side driver's door. The entrance door is behind the front wheels. This
definition includes two classifications: type A-I, with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) less
than or equal to 10,000 pounds; and type A-II, with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds.
(2) A "type B school bus" is constructed utilizing a stripped chassis. The entrance door is
behind the front wheels. This definition includes two classifications: type B-I, with a GVWR less
than or equal to 10,000 pounds; and type B-II, with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds.
(3) A "type C school bus" is constructed utilizing a chassis with a hood and front fender
assembly. The entrance door is behind the front wheels.
(4) A "type D school bus" is constructed utilizing a stripped chassis. The entrance door is
ahead of the front wheels.
(5) Type III school buses and type III Head Start buses are restricted to passenger cars,
station wagons, vans, and buses having a maximum manufacturer's rated seating capacity of ten
or fewer people, including the driver, and a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less.
In this subdivision, "gross vehicle weight rating" means the value specified by the manufacturer
as the loaded weight of a single vehicle. A "type III school bus" and "type III Head Start bus"
must not be outwardly equipped and identified as a type A, B, C, or D school bus or type A, B, C,
or D Head Start bus. A van or bus converted to a seating capacity of ten or fewer and placed in
service on or after August 1, 1999, must have been originally manufactured to comply with the
passenger safety standards.
    Subd. 7. Truck-tractor. "Truck-tractor" means:
(1) a motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not
constructed to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and load drawn; and
(2) a motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles used exclusively
for transporting motor vehicles or boats and capable of carrying motor vehicles or boats on its
own structure.
    Subd. 8. Farm tractor. "Farm tractor" means every motor vehicle designed and used
primarily as a farm implement for drawing plows, mowing machines, and other implements of
husbandry.
    Subd. 9. Road tractor. "Road tractor" means every motor vehicle designed and used for
drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry any load thereon either independently or
any part of the weight of a vehicle or load so drawn.
    Subd. 10. Trailer. "Trailer" means any vehicle designed for carrying property or passengers
on its own structure and for being drawn by a motor vehicle but does not include a trailer drawn
by a truck-tractor semitrailer combination or an auxiliary axle on a motor vehicle which carries a
portion of the weight of the motor vehicle to which it is attached.
    Subd. 11. Semitrailer. "Semitrailer" means a vehicle of the trailer type so designed and
used in conjunction with a truck-tractor that a considerable part of its own weight or that of its
load rests upon and is carried by the truck-tractor and includes a trailer drawn by a truck-tractor
semitrailer combination.
    Subd. 12. Pneumatic tire. "Pneumatic tire" means every tire in which compressed air is
designed to support the load.
    Subd. 13. Solid tire. "Solid tire" means every tire of rubber or other resilient material which
does not depend upon compressed air for the support of the load.
    Subd. 14. Metal tire. "Metal tire" means every tire the surface of which in contact with the
highway is wholly or partly of metal or other hard nonresilient material.
    Subd. 15. Railroad. "Railroad" means a carrier of persons or property upon cars, other
than streetcars, operated upon stationary rails.
    Subd. 16. Railroad train. "Railroad train" means a steam engine, electric or other motor,
with or without cars coupled thereto, operated upon rails, except streetcars.
    Subd. 17.[Repealed, 1961 c 561 s 17]
    Subd. 18.[Repealed, 2001 c 24 s 5]
    Subd. 19. Explosives. "Explosives" means any chemical compound or mechanical mixture
that is commonly used or intended for the purpose of producing an explosion and which contains
any oxidizing and combustive units or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities, or packing
that an ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, or by detonator of any part of
the compound or mixture may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated gases that the
resultant gaseous pressures are capable of producing destructible effects on contiguous objects or
of destroying life or limb.
    Subd. 20. Flammable liquid. "Flammable liquid" means any liquid which has a flash point of
70 degrees Fahrenheit, or less, as determined by a tagliabue or equivalent closed cup test device.
    Subd. 21. Commissioner. Unless stated otherwise, "commissioner" means the commissioner
of transportation of this state. Regardless of the commissioner referred to, however, the
commissioner is to be considered as acting directly or through the commissioner's duly authorized
officers and agents.
    Subd. 22. Department. Unless stated otherwise, "department" means the Department
of Transportation of this state. Regardless of the department referred to, however, it is to be
considered as acting directly or through its duly authorized officers and agents.
    Subd. 23. Person. "Person" means every natural person, firm, copartnership, association,
or corporation.
    Subd. 24. Pedestrian. "Pedestrian" means any person afoot or in a wheelchair.
    Subd. 24a. Wheelchair. For the purposes of this chapter, "wheelchair" is defined to include
any manual or motorized wheelchair, scooter, tricycle, or similar device used by a disabled person
as a substitute for walking.
    Subd. 25. Driver. "Driver" means every person who drives or is in actual physical control of
a vehicle.
    Subd. 26. Owner. "Owner" means a person who holds the legal title of a vehicle, or in
the event a vehicle is the subject of an agreement for the conditional sale or lease thereof with
the right of purchase upon performance of the conditions stated in the agreement and with
an immediate right of possession vested in the conditional vendee or lessee, or in the event
a mortgagor of a vehicle is entitled to possession, then such conditional vendee or lessee or
mortgagor shall be deemed the owner for the purpose of this chapter.
    Subd. 27. Police officer. "Police officer" means every officer authorized to direct or regulate
traffic or to make arrests for violations of traffic rules.
    Subd. 28. Local authorities. "Local authorities" means every county, municipal, and other
local board or body having authority to adopt local police regulations under the Constitution and
laws of this state, and the Regents of the University of Minnesota, with reference to property
owned, leased, or occupied by the Regents of the University of Minnesota or the University of
Minnesota.
    Subd. 29. Street or highway. "Street or highway" means the entire width between boundary
lines of any way or place when any part thereof is open to the use of the public, as a matter
of right, for the purposes of vehicular traffic.
    Subd. 30. Private road or driveway. "Private road or driveway" means every way or place
in private ownership and used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or
implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons.
    Subd. 31. Roadway. "Roadway" means that portion of a highway improved, designed, or
ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the sidewalk or shoulder. In the event a highway
includes two or more separate roadways, the term "roadway" as used herein shall refer to any
such roadway separately but not to all such roadways collectively.
    Subd. 32. One-way roadway. "One-way roadway" means a street or roadway designated
and signposted for one-way traffic and on which all vehicles are required to move in one indicated
direction.
    Subd. 33. Sidewalk. "Sidewalk" means that portion of a street between the curb lines, or the
lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines intended for the use of pedestrians.
    Subd. 34. Laned highway. "Laned highway" means a highway the roadway of which is
divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.
    Subd. 35. Through highway. "Through highway" means every highway or portion thereof
at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required by law to stop
before entering or crossing the same and when stop signs are erected as provided in this chapter.
    Subd. 36. Intersection. (a) "Intersection" means the area embraced within the prolongation
or connection of the lateral curb lines or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways
of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles or the area within
which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict.
(b) Where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing
of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a
separate intersection. In the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30
feet or more apart, then every crossing of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded
as a separate intersection.
    Subd. 37. Crosswalk. "Crosswalk" means (1) that portion of a roadway ordinarily included
with the prolongation or connection of the lateral lines of sidewalks at intersections; (2) any
portion of a roadway distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings
on the surface.
    Subd. 38. Safety zone. "Safety zone" means the area or space officially set apart within a
roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and which is protected or is so marked or indicated
by adequate signs as to be plainly visible at all times set apart as a safety zone.
    Subd. 39. Business district. "Business district" means the territory contiguous to and
including a highway when 50 percent or more of the frontage thereon for a distance of 300 feet or
more is occupied by buildings in use for business.
    Subd. 40. Residence district. "Residence district" means the territory contiguous to and
including a highway not comprising a business district when the property on such highway for a
distance of 300 feet or more is in the main improved with residences or residences and buildings
in use for business.
    Subd. 41. Official traffic control devices. "Official traffic control devices" means all signs,
signals, markings, and devices not inconsistent with this chapter placed or erected by authority of
a public body or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding
traffic.
    Subd. 42. Traffic control signal. "Traffic control signal" means any device, whether
manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop
and permitted to proceed.
    Subd. 43. Railroad sign or signal. "Railroad sign or signal" means any sign, signal, or
device erected by authority of a public body or official or by a railroad and intended to give notice
of the presence of railroad tracks or the approach of a railroad train.
    Subd. 44. Traffic. "Traffic" means pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars,
and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using any highway for purposes of travel.
    Subd. 45. Right-of-way. "Right-of-way" means the privilege of the immediate use of
highway.
    Subd. 46. Gross vehicle weight. "Gross vehicle weight" means the greater of:
(1) the unloaded weight of a vehicle or the unloaded weight of a truck-tractor and semitrailer
combination, plus the weight of the load; or
(2) the value specified by the manufacturer as the maximum gross weight or gross vehicle
weight rating.
    Subd. 47. Custom service vehicles. "Custom service vehicles" means all vehicles used as
well-drilling machine, wood-sawing machine, cement mixer, rock crusher, road grader, ditch
digger, or elevating grader, and similar service equipment.
    Subd. 48. Motor vehicle dealer. "Motor vehicle dealer" means any person engaged in the
business of manufacturing or selling new and unused motor vehicles, or used motor vehicles,
or both, having an established place of business for the sale, trade, and display of such motor
vehicles, and having in possession motor vehicles for the purpose of sale or trade.
    Subd. 49. Truck. "Truck" means every motor vehicle designed, used or maintained primarily
for the transportation of property.
    Subd. 50. Bus. "Bus" means every motor vehicle designed for carrying more than 15
passengers including the driver and used for the transportation of persons.
    Subd. 51. Bicycle. "Bicycle" means every device propelled solely by human power upon
which any person may ride, having two tandem wheels except scooters and similar devices
and including any device generally recognized as a bicycle though equipped with two front
or rear wheels.
    Subd. 52. Tow truck or towing vehicle. "Tow truck" or "towing vehicle" means a motor
vehicle having a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of 8,000 pounds or more, equipped
with a crane and winch, or an attached device used exclusively to transport vehicles, and further
equipped to control the movement of the towed or transported vehicle.
    Subd. 53. Bug deflector. "Bug deflector" means a nonilluminated, transparent device
attached to the hood of a motor vehicle so as to deflect the air stream.
    Subd. 54. Controlled-access highway. "Controlled-access highway" means, in this chapter,
every highway, street, or roadway in respect to which the right of access of the owners or
occupants of abutting lands and other persons has been acquired and to which the owners or
occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no legal right of access to or from the same
except at such points only and in such manner as may be determined by the public authority
having jurisdiction over such highway, street or roadway.
    Subd. 55. Implement of husbandry. "Implement of husbandry" has the meaning given
in section 168A.01, subdivision 8.
    Subd. 56. Stand or standing. "Stand or standing" means the halting of a vehicle, whether
occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in
receiving or discharging passengers.
    Subd. 57. Stop. "Stop" means complete cessation from movement.
    Subd. 58. Stopping. "Stopping" means any halting even momentarily of a vehicle, whether
occupied or not, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with
the directions of a police officer or traffic control sign or signal.
    Subd. 59. Urban district. "Urban district" means the territory contiguous to and including
any street which is built up with structures devoted to business, industry, or dwelling houses
situated at intervals of less than 100 feet for a distance of a quarter of a mile or more.
    Subd. 60. Service vehicle. "Service vehicle" means a motor vehicle owned and operated by a
person, firm or corporation engaged in a business which includes the repairing or servicing of
vehicles. The term also includes snow removal and road maintenance equipment not operated by
or under contract to the state or a governmental subdivision.
    Subd. 61.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 62. Bicycle route. The term "bicycle route" means a roadway or shoulder signed
to encourage bicycle use.
    Subd. 63. Ride-sharing arrangement. "Ridesharing arrangement" means the transportation
of persons, for a fee or otherwise, in a motor vehicle when the transportation is incidental to
another purpose of the driver. The term includes the forms of shared transportation known as
car pools, commuter vanpools, and bus pools, whether or not furnished by an employer. A
"ride-sharing arrangement" does not include transportation of employees by an employer from
one place of employment to another.
    Subd. 64. Bus pool. "Bus pool" means a prearranged ridesharing arrangement in which a
group of persons travel together on a regular basis in a bus, especially to and from their place of
employment or to and from a transit stop authorized by a local transit authority.
    Subd. 65. Car pool. "Car pool" means a prearranged ride-sharing arrangement in which two
or more persons travel together on a regular basis in an automobile, especially to and from their
place of employment or to and from a transit stop authorized by a local transit authority.
    Subd. 66. Commuter vanpool. "Commuter vanpool" means a prearranged ride-sharing
arrangement in which seven to 16 persons travel together on a regular basis in a commuter van,
especially to and from their place of employment or to and from a transit stop authorized by a
local transit authority.
    Subd. 67. Alleyway. "Alleyway" means a private or public passage or way located in a
municipality and which (1) is less than the usual width of a street, (2) may be open to but is not
designed primarily for general vehicular traffic, (3) intersects or opens to a street, and (4) is
primarily used for the ingress and egress or other convenience of two or more owners of abutting
real properties.
    Subd. 68.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 69. Bicycle path. "Bicycle path" means a bicycle facility designed for exclusive or
preferential use by persons using bicycles and constructed or developed separately from the
roadway or shoulder.
    Subd. 70. Bicycle lane. "Bicycle lane" means a portion of a roadway or shoulder designed
for exclusive or preferential use by persons using bicycles. Bicycle lanes are to be distinguished
from the portion of the roadway or shoulder used for motor vehicle traffic by physical barrier,
striping, marking, or other similar device.
    Subd. 71. Bicycle trail. "Bicycle trail" means a bicycle route or bicycle path developed by
the commissioner of natural resources under section 85.016.
    Subd. 72. Bikeway. "Bikeway" means a bicycle lane, bicycle path, or bicycle route,
regardless of whether it is designed for the exclusive use of bicycles or is to be shared with
other transportation modes.
    Subd. 73. Shoulder. "Shoulder" means that part of a highway which is contiguous to the
regularly traveled portion of the highway and is on the same level as the highway. The shoulder
may be pavement, gravel, or earth.
    Subd. 74. Mobile crane. "Mobile crane" means a vehicle (1) not designed or used to
transport persons or property, (2) operated only incidentally on the highway and not subject to
vehicle registration under chapter 168, and (3) comprising a boom and hoisting mechanism used
in the construction industry. Mobile crane does not include a motor vehicle, designed to transport
persons or property, to which a boom, hoist, crane, or other machinery has been attached.
    Subd. 75. Commercial motor vehicle. (a) "Commercial motor vehicle" means a motor
vehicle or combination of motor vehicles used to transport passengers or property if the motor
vehicle:
(1) has a gross vehicle weight of more than 26,000 pounds;
(2) has a towed unit with a gross vehicle weight of more than 10,000 pounds and the
combination of vehicles has a combined gross vehicle weight of more than 26,000 pounds;
(3) is a bus;
(4) is of any size and is used in the transportation of hazardous materials that are required to
be placarded under Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, parts 100-185; or
(5) is outwardly equipped and identified as a school bus, except for type A-I and type III
school buses as defined in subdivision 6.
(b) For purposes of chapter 169A:
(1) a commercial motor vehicle does not include a farm truck, an authorized emergency
vehicle, or a recreational vehicle being operated by a person within the scope of section 171.02,
subdivision 2
, paragraph (b); and
(2) a commercial motor vehicle includes a vehicle capable of or designed to meet the
standards described in paragraph (a), clause (2), whether or not the towed unit is attached to the
truck-tractor at the time of the violation or stop.
    Subd. 76. Hazardous materials. "Hazardous materials" means those materials found to be
hazardous for the purposes of the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act and that require
the motor vehicle to be placarded under Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, parts 100-185.
    Subd. 77. Transit bus. "Transit bus" means a bus engaged in regular route transit as defined
in section 174.22, subdivision 8.
    Subd. 78. Recreational vehicle combination. (a) "Recreational vehicle combination"
means a combination of vehicles consisting of a pickup truck as defined in section 168.011,
subdivision 29
, attached by means of a fifth-wheel coupling to a camper-semitrailer which
has hitched to it a trailer carrying a watercraft as defined in section 86B.005, subdivision 18;
off-highway motorcycle as defined in section 84.787, subdivision 7; motorcycle; motorized
bicycle; snowmobile as defined in section 84.81, subdivision 3; all-terrain vehicle as defined in
section 84.92, subdivision 8; motorized golf cart; or equestrian equipment or supplies.
(b) For purposes of this subdivision:
(1) A "fifth-wheel coupling" is a coupling between a camper-semitrailer and a towing pickup
truck in which a portion of the weight of the camper-semitrailer is carried over or forward of
the rear axle of the towing pickup.
(2) A "camper-semitrailer" is a trailer, other than a manufactured home as defined in section
327B.01, subdivision 13, designed for human habitation and used for vacation or recreational
purposes for limited periods.
    Subd. 79. Rural mail carrier vehicle. "Rural mail carrier vehicle" is a motor vehicle
operated by a rural mail carrier on a rural mail route.
    Subd. 80. Head Start bus. (a) "Head Start bus" means a motor vehicle used to transport
children and parents to or from a Head Start facility, or to or from Head Start-related activities, by
the Head Start grantee, or by someone under an agreement with the Head Start grantee. A Head
Start bus does not include a motor vehicle transporting children or parents to or from a Head Start
facility for which parents or guardians receive direct compensation from a Head Start grantee, a
motor coach operating under charter carrier authority, or a transit bus providing services as
defined in section 174.22, subdivision 7. A Head Start bus may be a type A, B, C, or D bus
or type III bus, as described in subdivision 6.
(b) A Head Start bus manufactured after December 31, 1994, must meet the same standards
as a type A, B, C, or D school bus, except that a Head Start bus is not required to be equipped
with the warning signals required for a school bus under section 169.442, subdivision 1. A Head
Start bus must be painted colors other than national school bus yellow.
    Subd. 81. Residential roadway. "Residential roadway" means a street or portion of a street
that is less than one-half mile in length and is functionally classified as a local street by the
road authority having jurisdiction.
    Subd. 82.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 83.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 84. Daytime. For purposes of regulating the operation of a motor vehicle, "daytime"
means the time from one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after sunset.
    Subd. 85. Nighttime. For purposes of regulating the operation of a motor vehicle,
"nighttime" means the time from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise.
    Subd. 86.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 87.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 88.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 89.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 90. Electric personal assistive mobility device. "Electric personal assistive mobility
device" means a self-balancing device with two nontandem wheels, designed to transport not
more than one person, and operated by an electric propulsion system that limits the maximum
speed of the device to 15 miles per hour.
    Subd. 91. Neighborhood electric vehicle. "Neighborhood electric vehicle" means an
electrically powered motor vehicle that has four wheels, and has a speed attainable in one mile of
at least 20 miles per hour but not more than 25 miles per hour on a paved level surface.
History: (2720-151) 1937 c 464 s 1; Ex1937 c 38 s 1; 1939 c 430 s 1; 1947 c 204 s 1; 1947 c
428 s 1-4; 1949 c 90 s 1; 1949 c 247 s 1; 1951 c 114 s 1; 1951 c 331 s 1; 1953 c 289 s 1; 1953 c
303 s 1; 1955 c 536 s 1; 1959 c 521 s 1; 1961 c 42 s 1; 1963 c 357 s 1; 1971 c 164 s 1,2; 1973 c
27 s 1; 1974 c 379 s 1; 1975 c 29 s 2; 1976 c 104 s 1; 1976 c 166 s 7; 1977 c 214 s 6,7; 1978 c
494 s 1; 1978 c 613 s 4; 1978 c 727 s 1; 1978 c 739 s 1-5; 1981 c 321 s 2; 1982 c 468 s 1,2; 1983
c 198 s 4; 1983 c 311 s 3-6; 1984 c 403 s 1; 1984 c 417 s 23; 1984 c 430 s 1; 1984 c 549 s 26-28;
1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 310 s 1; 1986 c 398 art 13 s 2; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 255 s 7-13; 1987 c
269 s 4; 1989 c 209 art 2 s 1; 1989 c 250 s 1; 1989 c 307 s 2,3; 1990 c 497 s 9; 1990 c 529 s 1,2;
1991 c 112 s 1; 1991 c 277 s 2,17; 1991 c 333 s 10,11; 1992 c 513 art 3 s 33; 1992 c 578 s 4;
1993 c 83 s 1; 1993 c 111 s 1,3; 1993 c 117 s 5; 1993 c 187 s 2; 1994 c 478 s 1; 1994 c 603 s 1,2;
1994 c 635 art 1 s 10; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 11; 1995 c 3 s 1; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 2 s 30; 1996 c 412 art
2 s 14; 1996 c 435 s 13,14; 1996 c 442 s 3,4; 1997 c 143 s 5-8; 1997 c 159 art 2 s 17; 1Sp1997
c 2 s 21-25; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 5; 1998 c 397 art 11 s 3; 1998 c 398 art 6 s 30; 1999 c 241
art 9 s 40; 2000 c 478 art 2 s 7; 2001 c 97 s 1,5; 2001 c 119 s 1; 2001 c 161 s 58; 1Sp2001 c
8 art 2 s 7; 2002 c 285 s 2,3; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 64; 2004 c 294 art 2 s 17,18; 2005 c 135 s
4,5; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 36-38; 2006 c 189 s 4; 2006 c 231 s 1

APPLICABILITY; EXCEPTIONS

169.02 SCOPE.
    Subdivision 1. Application to persons, places, and vehicles. The provisions of this chapter
relating to the operation of vehicles refer exclusively to the operation of vehicles upon highways,
and upon highways, streets, private roads, and roadways situated on property owned, leased, or
occupied by the regents of the University of Minnesota, or the University of Minnesota, except:
(1) where a different place is specifically referred to in a given section;
(2) the provisions of sections 169.09 to 169.13 apply to any person who drives, operates, or
is in physical control of a motor vehicle within this state or upon the ice of any boundary water of
this state, and to any person who drives, operates, or is in physical control of a snowmobile on a
snowmobile trail within this state.
    Subd. 2. Penalty for not complying with peace officer. It is a misdemeanor for any person
to willfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order or direction of any peace officer
invested by law with authority to direct, control, or regulate traffic.
History: (2720-152, 2720-153, 2720-154) 1937 c 464 s 2-4; 1947 c 204 s 2; Ex1971 c 27 s
1; 1Sp1985 c 4 s 2; 1989 c 331 s 21; 2001 c 161 s 58; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 2 s 7
169.022 UNIFORM APPLICATION.
The provisions of this chapter shall be applicable and uniform throughout this state and in all
political subdivisions and municipalities therein, and no local authority shall enact or enforce any
rule or regulation in conflict with the provisions of this chapter unless expressly authorized herein.
Local authorities may adopt traffic regulations which are not in conflict with the provisions of this
chapter; provided, that when any local ordinance regulating traffic covers the same subject for
which a penalty is provided for in this chapter, then the penalty provided for violation of said local
ordinance shall be identical with the penalty provided for in this chapter for the same offense.
History: (2720-157) 1937 c 464 s 7; 1945 c 383 s 1; 1949 c 521; 1957 c 130 s 1; 1959 c 66 s
1; 1973 c 28 s 1; 1974 c 23 s 1; 1974 c 350 s 1 subd 9
169.025 APPLICATION OF MOTOR CARRIER RULES.
Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter other than section 169.67, a vehicle, driver,
or carrier that is subject to a motor carrier safety rule adopted under section 221.031 or 221.605
shall comply with the more stringent or additional requirement imposed by that motor carrier
safety rule.
History: 1988 c 544 s 1
169.03 EMERGENCY VEHICLES; EXEMPTIONS; APPLICATION.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. The provisions of this chapter applicable to the drivers of vehicles
upon the highways shall apply to the drivers of all vehicles owned or operated by the United
States, this state, or any county, city, town, district, or any other political subdivision of the state,
subject to such specific exemptions as are set forth in this chapter with reference to authorized
emergency vehicles.
    Subd. 2. Stops. The driver of any authorized emergency vehicle, when responding to
an emergency call, upon approaching a red or stop signal or any stop sign shall slow down as
necessary for safety, but may proceed cautiously past such red or stop sign or signal after sounding
siren and displaying red lights, except that a law enforcement vehicle responding to an emergency
call shall sound its siren or display at least one lighted red light to the front.
    Subd. 3. One-way roadway. The driver of any authorized emergency vehicle, when
responding to any emergency call, may enter against the run of traffic on any one-way street, or
highway where there is authorized division of traffic, to facilitate traveling to the area in which
an emergency has been reported; and the provisions of this section shall not affect any cause of
action arising prior to its passage.
    Subd. 4. Parking at emergency scene. An authorized emergency vehicle, when at the scene
of a reported emergency, may park or stand, notwithstanding any law or ordinance to the contrary.
    Subd. 5. Course of duty. No driver of any authorized emergency vehicle shall assume any
special privilege under this chapter except when such vehicle is operated in response to any
emergency call or in the immediate pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law.
    Subd. 6. Working on highway. (a) The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to persons,
motor vehicles, and other equipment while actually engaged in work upon the highway, except as
provided in paragraphs (b) and (c).
(b) This chapter shall apply to those persons and vehicles when traveling to or from such
work, except that persons operating equipment owned, rented or hired by road authorities shall be
exempt from the width, height and length provisions of sections 169.80 and 169.81 and shall be
exempt from the weight limitations of this chapter while engaged in snow or ice removal and
while engaged in flood control operations on behalf of the state or a local governmental unit.
(c) Chapter 169A and section 169.444 apply to persons while actually engaged in work
upon the highway.
    Subd. 7. Streetcars. Streetcars, except where otherwise specifically provided, shall be
governed by the same rules as provided in this chapter for vehicles and motor vehicles, only
insofar as such rules apply to speed, stopped at through streets and railroad tracks, and obeying
signals of traffic-control devices and rights-of-way, driving under the influence of drugs or
intoxicating liquor, careless driving, and the stopping at the scene of an accident and giving the
information as required by this chapter, and following vehicles too closely, and shall be entitled
to the same rights and benefits of this chapter, as to warning, turning and stopping signals and
rights-of-way, as any vehicles or motor vehicle in the streets and highways of this state.
    Subd. 8. Transportation by animal. Every person riding an animal or driving any animal
drawing a vehicle upon a roadway shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter applicable to
the driver of a vehicle, except those provisions which by their nature can have no application.
    Subd. 9.[Renumbered 169.022]
History: (2720-155, 2720-156) 1937 c 464 s 5-7; 1945 c 383 s 1; 1949 c 521; 1957 c 130 s 1;
1959 c 66 s 1; 1973 c 28 s 1; 1974 c 23 s 1; 1974 c 350 s 1; 1978 c 739 s 6; 1981 c 321 s 3; 1985 c
248 s 70; 1987 c 63 s 1; 1999 c 241 art 9 s 41; 2000 c 478 art 2 s 7; 2001 c 24 s 1; 2002 c 319 s 1
169.04 LOCAL AUTHORITY.
(a) The provisions of this chapter shall not be deemed to prevent local authorities, with
respect to streets and highways under their jurisdiction, and with the consent of the commissioner,
with respect to state trunk highways, within the corporate limits of a municipality, or within the
limits of a town in a county in this state now having or which may hereafter have, a population of
500,000 or more, and a land area of not more than 600 square miles, and within the reasonable
exercise of the police power from:
(1) regulating the standing or parking of vehicles;
(2) regulating traffic by means of police officers or traffic-control signals;
(3) regulating or prohibiting processions or assemblages on the highways;
(4) designating particular highways as one-way roadways and requiring that all vehicles,
except emergency vehicles, when on an emergency run, thereon be moved in one specific
direction;
(5) designating any highway as a through highway and requiring that all vehicles stop before
entering or crossing the same, or designating any intersection as a stop intersection, and requiring
all vehicles to stop at one or more entrances to such intersections;
(6) restricting the use of highways as authorized in sections 169.80 to 169.88.
(b) No ordinance or regulation enacted under paragraph (a), clause (4), (5), or (6), shall be
effective until signs giving notice of such local traffic regulations are posted upon and kept posted
upon or at the entrance to the highway or part thereof affected as may be most appropriate.
(c) No ordinance or regulation enacted under paragraph (a), clause (3), or any other provision
of law shall prohibit:
(1) the use of motorcycles or vehicles utilizing flashing red lights for the purpose of escorting
funeral processions, oversize buildings, heavy equipment, parades or similar processions or
assemblages on the highways; or
(2) the use of motorcycles or vehicles that are owned by the funeral home and that utilize
flashing red lights for the purpose of escorting funeral processions.
History: (2720-158) 1937 c 464 s 8; 1939 c 359; 1957 c 130 s 2; 1969 c 429 s 1; 2002
c 316 s 1

TOWING

169.041 TOWING AUTHORIZED.
    Subdivision 1. Towing authority. For purposes of this section, "towing authority" means any
local authority authorized by section 169.04 to enforce the traffic laws, and also includes a private
towing company authorized by a local authority to tow vehicles on behalf of that local authority.
    Subd. 2. Towing order required. A towing authority may not tow a motor vehicle from
public property unless a peace officer or parking enforcement officer has prepared, in addition
to the parking citation, a written towing report describing the motor vehicle and the reasons for
towing. The report must be signed by the officer and the tow driver.
    Subd. 3. Four-hour waiting period. In enforcing state and local parking and traffic laws,
a towing authority may not tow, or allow or require the towing of, a motor vehicle from public
property for a parking or traffic violation until four hours after issuance of the traffic ticket or
citation, except as provided in this section or as provided for an unauthorized vehicle in section
168B.04.
    Subd. 4. Towing allowed. A towing authority may tow a motor vehicle without regard
to the four-hour waiting period if:
(1) the vehicle is parked in violation of snow emergency regulations;
(2) the vehicle is parked in a rush-hour restricted parking area;
(3) the vehicle is blocking a driveway, alley, or fire hydrant;
(4) the vehicle is parked in a bus lane, or at a bus stop, during hours when parking is
prohibited;
(5) the vehicle is parked within 30 feet of a stop sign and visually blocking the stop sign;
(6) the vehicle is parked in a disability transfer zone or disability parking space without a
disability parking certificate or disability license plates;
(7) the vehicle is parked in an area that has been posted for temporary restricted parking (i)
at least 12 hours in advance in a home rule charter or statutory city having a population under
50,000, or (ii) at least 24 hours in advance in another political subdivision;
(8) the vehicle is parked within the right-of-way of a controlled-access highway or within the
traveled portion of a public street when travel is allowed there;
(9) the vehicle is unlawfully parked in a zone that is restricted by posted signs to use by fire,
police, public safety, or emergency vehicles;
(10) the vehicle is unlawfully parked on property at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International
Airport owned by the Metropolitan Airports Commission;
(11) a law enforcement official has probable cause to believe that the vehicle is stolen, or
that the vehicle constitutes or contains evidence of a crime and impoundment is reasonably
necessary to obtain or preserve the evidence;
(12) the driver, operator, or person in physical control of the vehicle is taken into custody
and the vehicle is impounded for safekeeping;
(13) a law enforcement official has probable cause to believe that the owner, operator,
or person in physical control of the vehicle has failed to respond to five or more citations for
parking or traffic offenses;
(14) the vehicle is unlawfully parked in a zone that is restricted by posted signs to use
by taxicabs;
(15) the vehicle is unlawfully parked and prevents egress by a lawfully parked vehicle;
(16) the vehicle is parked, on a school day during prohibited hours, in a school zone on a
public street where official signs prohibit parking; or
(17) the vehicle is a junk, abandoned, or unauthorized vehicle, as defined in section
168B.011, and subject to immediate removal under chapter 168B.
    Subd. 5. Towing prohibited. Unless the vehicle is described in subdivision 4, a towing
authority may not tow a motor vehicle because:
(1) the vehicle has expired registration tabs that have been expired for less than 90 days;
(2) the vehicle is at a parking meter on which the time has expired and the vehicle has
fewer than five unpaid parking tickets.
    Subd. 6. Private property. This section does not restrict the authority of the owner of private
property to authorize under chapter 168B the towing of a motor vehicle unlawfully parked on
the private property.
    Subd. 7. Damages. The owner or driver of a motor vehicle towed in violation of this section
is entitled to recover from the towing authority the greater of $100 or two times the actual damages
sustained as a result of the violation. Damages recoverable under this subdivision include but are
not limited to costs of recovering the vehicle, including time spent and transportation costs.
History: 1989 c 256 s 1; 1990 c 503 s 1; 1992 c 580 s 1; 1994 c 536 s 19; 1995 c 137 s
10-12; 2005 c 56 s 1
169.042 TOWING; NOTICE TO VICTIM OF VEHICLE THEFT.
    Subdivision 1. Notification. The law enforcement agency that originally received the
report of a vehicle theft shall make a reasonable and good-faith effort to notify the victim of the
reported vehicle theft within 48 hours after recovering the vehicle or receiving notification that
the vehicle has been recovered. The notice must specify when the recovering law enforcement
agency expects to release the vehicle to the owner and where the owner may pick up the vehicle.
The law enforcement agency that recovers the vehicle must promptly inform the agency that
received the theft report that the vehicle is recovered, where the vehicle is located, and when the
vehicle can be released to the owner.
    Subd. 2. Violation dismissal. A traffic violation citation given to the owner of the vehicle as
a result of the vehicle theft must be dismissed if the owner presents, by mail or in person, a police
report or other verification that the vehicle was stolen at the time of the violation.
History: 1993 c 326 art 6 s 1; 1997 c 239 art 7 s 1

APPLICABILITY; LOCAL OR PRIVATE ROAD

169.045 SPECIAL VEHICLE USE ON ROADWAY.
    Subdivision 1. Designation of roadway, permit. The governing body of any county, home
rule charter or statutory city, or town may by ordinance authorize the operation of motorized
golf carts, or four-wheel all-terrain vehicles, on designated roadways or portions thereof under
its jurisdiction. Authorization to operate a motorized golf cart or four-wheel all-terrain vehicle
is by permit only. For purposes of this section, a four-wheel all-terrain vehicle is a motorized
flotation-tired vehicle with four low-pressure tires that is limited in engine displacement of less
than 800 cubic centimeters and total dry weight less than 600 pounds.
    Subd. 2. Ordinance. The ordinance shall designate the roadways, prescribe the form of the
application for the permit, require evidence of insurance complying with the provisions of section
65B.48, subdivision 5 and may prescribe conditions, not inconsistent with the provisions of this
section, under which a permit may be granted. Permits may be granted for a period of not to
exceed one year, and may be annually renewed. A permit may be revoked at any time if there is
evidence that the permittee cannot safely operate the motorized golf cart or four-wheel all-terrain
vehicle on the designated roadways. The ordinance may require, as a condition to obtaining a
permit, that the applicant submit a certificate signed by a physician that the applicant is able to
safely operate a motorized golf cart or four-wheel all-terrain vehicle on the roadways designated.
    Subd. 3. Times of operation. Motorized golf carts and four-wheel all-terrain vehicles may
only be operated on designated roadways from sunrise to sunset. They shall not be operated in
inclement weather or when visibility is impaired by weather, smoke, fog or other conditions, or at
any time when there is insufficient light to clearly see persons and vehicles on the roadway at a
distance of 500 feet.
    Subd. 4. Slow-moving vehicle emblem. Motorized golf carts shall display the slow-moving
vehicle emblem provided for in section 169.522, when operated on designated roadways.
    Subd. 5. Crossing intersecting highways. The operator, under permit, of a motorized golf
cart or four-wheel all-terrain vehicle may cross any street or highway intersecting a designated
roadway.
    Subd. 6. Application of traffic laws. Every person operating a motorized golf cart or
four-wheel all-terrain vehicle under permit on designated roadways has all the rights and duties
applicable to the driver of any other vehicle under the provisions of this chapter, except when
those provisions cannot reasonably be applied to motorized golf carts or four-wheel all-terrain
vehicles and except as otherwise specifically provided in subdivision 7.
    Subd. 7. Nonapplication of certain laws. The provisions of chapter 171, are not applicable
to persons operating motorized golf carts or four-wheel all-terrain vehicles under permit on
designated roadways pursuant to this section. Except for the requirements of section 169.70, the
provisions of this chapter relating to equipment on vehicles is not applicable to motorized golf
carts or four-wheel all-terrain vehicles operating, under permit, on designated roadways.
    Subd. 8. Insurance. In the event persons operating a motorized golf cart or four-wheel,
all-terrain vehicle under this section cannot obtain liability insurance in the private market, that
person may purchase automobile insurance, including no-fault coverage, from the Minnesota
Automobile Assigned Risk Plan at a rate to be determined by the commissioner of commerce.
History: 1982 c 549 s 2; 1986 c 452 s 19; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 2 s 12; 1987 c 337 s 121,122;
1997 c 159 art 2 s 18
169.05 PRIVATE ROADWAYS.
Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent the owner of real property used by the
public for purposes of vehicular travel by permission of the owner and not as a matter of right,
from prohibiting such use, or from requiring other or different or additional conditions than those
specified in this chapter, or otherwise regulating such use as may seem best to such owner.
History: (2720-159) 1937 c 464 s 9

SIGNS AND SIGNALS

169.06 SIGNS, SIGNALS, MARKINGS.
    Subdivision 1. Uniform system. The commissioner shall adopt a manual and specifications
for a uniform system of traffic-control devices consistent with the provisions of this chapter
for use upon highways within this state. Such uniform system shall correlate with and so far
as possible conform to the system then current as approved by the American Association of
State Highway Officials. The manual and specifications must include the design and wording
of minimum-maintenance road signs. The adoption of the manual and specifications by the
commissioner as herein provided is specifically exempted from chapter 14, including section
14.386.
    Subd. 2. Placement and maintenance on trunk highway. (a) The commissioner shall place
and maintain such traffic-control devices, conforming to the manual and specifications, upon all
state trunk highways as the commissioner shall deem necessary to indicate and to carry out the
provisions of this chapter or to regulate, warn, or guide traffic. The commissioner may construct
and maintain signs at the entrance of each city, which sign shall have placed thereon the name
of the city and the population thereof. The commissioner may construct and maintain other
directional signs upon the trunk highways and such signs shall be uniform. The commissioner
may authorize variations from the manual and specifications for the purpose of investigation and
research into the use and development of traffic control devices. When such authorized variation
pertains to the regulation of traffic, notice of the intended regulatory purpose shall be published in
a qualified newspaper of general circulation in the area where the research is being conducted.
(b) No other authority shall place or maintain any traffic control device upon any highway
under the jurisdiction of the commissioner except by the latter's permission.
    Subd. 3. Placement and maintenance by local authority. Local authorities in their
respective jurisdictions shall place and maintain such traffic-control devices upon highways under
their jurisdiction as they may deem necessary to indicate and to carry out the provisions of this
chapter or local traffic ordinances, or to regulate, warn, or guide traffic. All such traffic-control
devices hereafter erected shall conform to the state manual and specifications.
    Subd. 4. Obedience to traffic-control signal or flagger; presumptions. (a) The driver of
any vehicle shall obey the instructions of any official traffic-control device applicable thereto
placed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, unless otherwise directed by a traffic or
police officer, subject to the exceptions granted the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle
in this chapter.
(b) No provision of this chapter for which official traffic-control devices are required shall be
enforced against an alleged violator if at the time and place of the alleged violation an official
device is not in proper position and sufficiently legible to be seen by an ordinarily observant
person. Whenever a particular section does not state that official traffic-control devices are
required, such section shall be effective even though no devices are erected or in place.
(c) Whenever official traffic-control devices are placed in position approximately conforming
to the requirements of this chapter, such devices shall be presumed to have been so placed by the
official act or direction of lawful authority, unless the contrary shall be established by competent
evidence.
(d) Any official traffic-control device placed pursuant to the provisions of this chapter and
purporting to conform to the lawful requirements pertaining to such devices shall be presumed
to comply with the requirements of this chapter, unless the contrary shall be established by
competent evidence.
(e) A flagger in a designated work zone may stop vehicles and hold vehicles in place until it
is safe for the vehicles to proceed. A person operating a motor vehicle that has been stopped by a
flagger in a designated work zone may proceed after stopping only on instruction by the flagger.
    Subd. 5. Traffic-control signal. (a) Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals
exhibiting different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, successively one at a time or in
combination, only the colors Green, Red, and Yellow shall be used, except for special pedestrian
signals carrying a word or legend. The traffic-control signal lights or colored lighted arrows
indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles and pedestrians as follows:
(1) Green indication:
(i) Vehicular traffic facing a circular green signal may proceed straight through or turn right
or left unless a sign at such place prohibits either turn. But vehicular traffic, including vehicles
turning right or left, shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicles and to pedestrians lawfully
within the intersection or adjacent crosswalk at the time this signal is exhibited.
(ii) Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another
indication, may cautiously enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by the
arrow, or other movement as permitted by other indications shown at the same time. Such
vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk
and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.
(iii) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in subdivision 6,
pedestrians facing any green signal, except when the sole green signal is a turn arrow, may proceed
across the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk. Every driver of a vehicle shall
yield the right-of-way to such pedestrian, except that the pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to
vehicles lawfully within the intersection at the time that the green signal indication is first shown.
(2) Steady yellow indication:
(i) Vehicular traffic facing a circular yellow signal is thereby warned that the related green
movement is being terminated or that a red indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter
when vehicular traffic must not enter the intersection, except for the continued movement allowed
by any green arrow indication simultaneously exhibited.
(ii) Pedestrians facing a circular yellow signal, unless otherwise directed by a
pedestrian-control signal as provided in subdivision 6, are thereby advised that there is insufficient
time to cross the roadway before a red indication is shown and no pedestrian shall then start
to cross the roadway.
(iii) Vehicular traffic facing a steady yellow arrow signal is thereby warned that the
protected vehicular movement permitted by the corresponding prior green arrow indication
is being terminated.
(3) Steady red indication:
(i) Vehicular traffic facing a circular red signal alone must stop at a clearly marked stop line
but, if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then
before entering the intersection and shall remain standing until a green indication is shown,
except as follows: (A) the driver of a vehicle stopped as close as practicable at the entrance to the
crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then at the entrance to the intersection
in obedience to a red or stop signal, and with the intention of making a right turn may make the
right turn, after stopping, unless an official sign has been erected prohibiting such movement, but
shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians and other traffic lawfully proceeding as directed by the
signal at that intersection; or (B) the driver of a vehicle on a one-way street intersecting another
one-way street on which traffic moves to the left shall stop in obedience to a red or stop signal
and may then make a left turn into the one-way street, unless an official sign has been erected
prohibiting the movement, but shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians and other traffic lawfully
proceeding as directed by the signal at that intersection.
(ii) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in subdivision 6,
pedestrians facing a steady red signal alone shall not enter the roadway.
(iii) Vehicular traffic facing a steady red arrow signal, with the intention of making a
movement indicated by the arrow, must stop at a clearly marked stop line but, if none, before
entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then before entering
the intersection and must remain standing until a permissive signal indication permitting the
movement indicated by the red arrow is displayed, except as follows: when an official sign has
been erected permitting a turn on a red arrow signal, the vehicular traffic facing a red arrow
signal indication is permitted to enter the intersection to turn right, or to turn left from a one-way
street into a one-way street on which traffic moves to the left, after stopping, but must yield
the right-of-way to pedestrians and other traffic lawfully proceeding as directed by the signal
at that intersection.
(b) In the event an official traffic-control signal is erected and maintained at a place other
than an intersection, the provisions of this section are applicable except those which can have no
application. Any stop required must be made at a sign or marking on the pavement indicating
where the stop must be made, but in the absence of any such sign or marking the stop must
be made at the signal.
(c) When a traffic-control signal indication or indications placed to control a certain
movement or lane are so identified by placing a sign near the indication or indications, no other
traffic-control signal indication or indications within the intersection controls vehicular traffic
for that movement or lane.
    Subd. 5a. Traffic control signal; override system. All electronic traffic control signals
installed by a road authority on and after January 1, 1995, must be prewired to facilitate a later
addition of a system that allows the operator of an authorized emergency vehicle to activate a
green traffic signal for the vehicle.
    Subd. 5b. Possession of traffic signal-override device. (a) For purposes of this subdivision,
"traffic signal-override device" means a device located in a motor vehicle that permits activation
of a traffic signal-override system described in subdivision 5a.
(b) No person may operate a motor vehicle that contains a traffic signal-override device,
other than:
(1) an authorized emergency vehicle described in section 169.01, subdivision 5, clause
(1), (2), or (3);
(2) a vehicle, including a rail vehicle, engaged in providing bus rapid transit service or
light rail transit service;
(3) a signal maintenance vehicle of a road authority; or
(4) a vehicle authorized to contain such a device by order of the commissioner of public
safety.
(c) No person may possess a traffic signal-override device, other than:
(1) a person authorized to operate a vehicle described in paragraph (b), clauses (1) and
(2), but only for use in that vehicle;
(2) a person authorized by a road authority to perform signal maintenance, while engaged in
such maintenance; or
(3) a person authorized by order of the commissioner of public safety to possess a traffic
signal-override device, but only to the extent authorized in the order.
(d) A violation of this subdivision is a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 6. Pedestrian control signal. (a) Whenever special pedestrian-control signals
exhibiting the words "Walk" or "Don't Walk" or symbols of a "walking person" or "upraised
hand" are in place, the signals or symbols indicate as follows:
(1) A steady "Walk" signal or the symbol of a "walking person" indicates that a pedestrian
facing either of these signals may proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal,
possibly in conflict with turning vehicles. Every driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to
such pedestrian except that the pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully within
the intersection at the time that either signal indication is first shown.
(2) A "Don't Walk" signal or the symbol of an "upraised hand," flashing or steady, indicates
that a pedestrian shall not start to cross the roadway in the direction of either signal, but any
pedestrian who has partially crossed on the "Walk" or "walking person" signal indication shall
proceed to a sidewalk or safety island while the signal is showing.
(b) A pedestrian crossing a roadway in conformity with this section is lawfully within the
intersection and, when in a crosswalk, is lawfully within the crosswalk.
    Subd. 7. Flashing signal. When flashing red or yellow signals are used they shall require
obedience by vehicular traffic as follows:
(a) When a circular red lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of vehicles
shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side
of the intersection, or if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver
has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the intersection, and
the right to proceed shall be subject to the rules applicable after making a stop at a stop sign.
(b) When a red arrow lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes drivers of vehicles
with the intention of making a movement indicated by the arrow shall stop at a clearly marked
stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none,
then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching
traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the intersection, and the right to proceed shall
be subject to the rules applicable after making a stop at a stop sign.
(c) When a circular yellow lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of
vehicles may proceed through the intersection or past the signals only with caution.
(d) When a yellow arrow indication is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of
vehicles with the intention of making a movement indicated by the arrow may proceed through
the intersection or past the signals only with caution.
    Subd. 8. Lane-direction-control signal. When lane-direction-control signals are placed over
individual lanes of a street or highway, vehicular traffic may travel in lanes as follows:
(a) Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow indication is permitted to drive in the lane over
which the arrow signal is located.
(b) Vehicular traffic facing a red "X" indication shall not drive in the lane over which the
signal is located.
(c) Vehicular traffic facing a steady yellow "X" indication is thereby warned that use of the
lane over which the signal is located is being terminated, or that a red "X" indication will be
exhibited immediately thereafter when vehicular traffic shall not drive in the lane.
(d) Vehicular traffic facing a yellow "X" indication illuminated with rapid intermittent
flashes is permitted to use a lane over which the signal is located for a left turn or for a passing
maneuver, using proper caution.
    Subd. 9. Affirmative defense relating to unchanging traffic-control signal. (a) A person
operating a motorcycle who violates subdivision 4 by entering or crossing an intersection
controlled by a traffic-control signal against a red light has an affirmative defense to that charge if
the person establishes all of the following conditions:
(1) the motorcycle has been brought to a complete stop;
(2) the traffic-control signal continues to show a red light for an unreasonable time;
(3) the traffic-control signal is apparently malfunctioning or, if programmed or engineered
to change to a green light only after detecting the approach of a motor vehicle, the signal has
apparently failed to detect the arrival of the motorcycle; and
(4) no motor vehicle or person is approaching on the street or highway to be crossed or
entered or is so far away from the intersection that it does not constitute an immediate hazard.
(b) The affirmative defense in this subdivision applies only to a violation for entering or
crossing an intersection controlled by a traffic-control signal against a red light and does not
provide a defense to any other civil or criminal action.
History: (2720-160, 2720-161, 2720-162, 2720-163, 2720-164, 2720-165) 1937 c 464 s
10-15; 1939 c 413; 1941 c 419; 1947 c 428 s 5,6; 1955 c 325 s 1; 1957 c 369 s 1; 1961 c 31 s 1;
1963 c 357 s 2-4; 1965 c 31 s 1; 1965 c 51 s 23; 1965 c 133 s 1; 1969 c 876 s 1-6; 1971 c 17 s 1;
1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1975 c 49 s 1; 1982 c 424 s 130; 1985 c 215 s 2; 1986 c 444; 1993 c 115 s 1;
1994 c 635 art 1 s 11; 1995 c 233 art 2 s 56; 1997 c 159 art 2 s 19; 1997 c 187 art 5 s 24; 2002 c
371 art 1 s 42; 2005 c 136 art 18 s 1; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 39,40
169.07 UNAUTHORIZED SIGN, SIGNAL, OR MARKING.
(a) No person shall place, maintain, or display upon or in view of any highway any
unauthorized sign, signal, marking, or device which purports to be or is an imitation of or
resembles an official traffic-control device or railroad sign or signal, or which attempts to direct
the movement of traffic, or which hides from view or interferes with the effectiveness of any
official traffic-control device or any railroad sign or signal, and no person shall place or maintain,
nor shall any public authority permit, upon any highway any traffic sign or signal bearing thereon
any commercial advertising. This shall not be deemed to prohibit (1) the erection upon private
property adjacent to highways of signs giving useful directional information and of a type that
cannot be mistaken for official signs, or (2) the temporary placement by auctioneers licensed or
exempt from licensing under section 330.01, for a period of not more than eight consecutive
hours, on or adjacent to the right-of-way of a highway not more than four signs directing motorists
to the location of an auction.
(b) Every such prohibited sign, signal, or marking is hereby declared to be a public nuisance,
and the authority having jurisdiction over the highways is hereby empowered to remove the
same, or cause it to be removed, without notice.
History: (2720-166) 1937 c 464 s 16; 1986 c 454 s 18; 1996 c 455 art 3 s 19
169.072 UNAUTHORIZED MAILBOX INSTALLATION.
    Subdivision 1. Public hazard. A mailbox installation or support on a public highway that
does not meet the breakaway and location standards contained in rules adopted under subdivision
2 is declared to be a public nuisance, a road hazard, and a danger to the health and safety of
the traveling public.
    Subd. 2. Standards; rulemaking. The commissioner shall by January 1, 1993, adopt rules
that provide for standards and permissible locations of mailbox installations and supports on
a street or highway. The commissioner shall base the rules substantially on federal highway
administration regulations or recommendations, or other national standards or recommendations
regarding the location and construction of safe, breakaway mailbox installations or supports. In
adopting the rules, the commissioner shall consider the safety of the traveling public relative to
the convenience and expense of owners of nonconforming mailbox installations or supports. The
commissioner may provide for alternative standards to allow variances from the rules.
    Subd. 3. Removal, notice. (a) After adoption of the rules authorized under subdivision 2,
the commissioner or a road authority as defined in section 160.02, subdivision 25, may remove
and replace a mailbox installation or support that is (1) located on a street or highway under
the jurisdiction of the commissioner or road authority, and (2) does not conform to the rules
adopted under subdivision 2. The commissioner or road authority may remove and replace a
nonconforming mailbox installation or support not less than 60 days after giving notice, by
personal notice or certified mail to the owner or the resident at the address served by the mailbox,
of its intent to remove and replace the installation or support. The commissioner or road authority
may charge the owner or resident not more than $75 for the cost of the removal and replacement.
(b) The notice must at a minimum:
(1) inform the owner of the nonconforming installation or support;
(2) inform the owner or resident of the applicable law and rules, including the rules that
contain the standards for mailbox installations and supports on public streets and highways;
(3) inform the owner or resident that the owner or resident must remove the installation or
support or bring it into compliance with the rules within 60 days of the date of the notice;
(4) inform the owner or resident of the applicable laws and rules and the standards for
mailbox installations and supports on public streets and highways, and provide plans or diagrams
of examples of conforming installations or supports;
(5) inform the owner or resident that if the nonconforming installation or support is not
removed or replaced within 60 days of the date of the notice, the commissioner or road authority
may remove and replace the installation or support at a cost of up to $75 to the owner or resident;
and
(6) inform the owner or resident that where the replacement is made in conjunction with
certain federally aided highway construction projects the replacement may be made at partial
or no cost to the owner or resident.
History: 1991 c 339 s 6
169.073 PROHIBITED LIGHT OR SIGNAL.
(a) No person or corporation shall place, maintain or display any red light or red sign,
signal, or lighting device or maintain it in view of any highway or any line of railroad on or over
which trains are operated in such a way as to interfere with the effectiveness or efficiency of any
highway traffic-control device or signals or devices used in the operation of a railroad. Upon
written notice from the commissioner of transportation, a person or corporation maintaining or
owning or displaying a prohibited light shall promptly remove it, or change the color of it to some
other color than red. Where a prohibited light or sign interferes with the effectiveness or efficiency
of the signals or devices used in the operation of a railroad, the Department of Transportation
may cause the removal of it and the department may issue notices and orders for its removal. The
department shall proceed as provided in sections 216.13, 216.14, 216.15, 216.16, and 216.17,
with a right of appeal to the aggrieved party in accordance with chapter 14.
(b) No person or corporation shall maintain or display any light after written notice from the
commissioner of transportation that the light constitutes a traffic hazard and that the commissioner
has ordered the removal thereof.
History: 1943 c 141; 1961 c 560 s 15; 1971 c 25 s 67; Ex1971 c 27 s 2; 1976 c 166 s 7;
1983 c 247 s 69; 1Sp2001 c 4 art 6 s 24; 2002 c 379 art 1 s 52
169.08 UNLAWFUL TO POSSESS, ALTER, DEFACE, OR REMOVE SIGN.
No person shall, without lawful authority, possess, or attempt to or in fact alter, deface,
injure, knock down, or remove any official traffic-control device or any railroad sign or signal or
any inscription, shield, or insignia thereon, or any other part thereof. A person who voluntarily
notifies a law enforcement agency that the person is in possession of such an article, and
who returns the article within ten days after gaining possession thereof, shall not be subject
to prosecution for such possession.
History: (2720-167) 1937 c 464 s 17; 1978 c 638 s 1; 1986 c 444

TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

169.09 ACCIDENTS.
    Subdivision 1. Driver to stop for accident with individual. The driver of any motor vehicle
involved in an accident resulting in immediately demonstrable bodily injury to or death of any
individual shall immediately stop the vehicle at the scene of the accident, or as close to the scene
as possible but shall then return to and in every event shall remain at the scene of the accident,
until the driver has fulfilled the requirements of this section as to the giving of information. The
stop must be made without unnecessarily obstructing traffic.
    Subd. 2. Driver to stop for accident to property. The driver of any motor vehicle involved
in an accident to a vehicle driven or attended by any individual shall immediately stop the motor
vehicle at the scene of the accident, or as close to the accident as possible but shall forthwith
return to and in every event shall remain at the scene of the accident, until the driver has fulfilled
the requirements of this section as to the giving of information. The stop must be made without
unnecessarily obstructing traffic.
    Subd. 3. Driver to give information. (a) The driver of any motor vehicle involved in an
accident resulting in bodily injury to or death of any individual, or damage to any vehicle driven
or attended by any individual, shall stop and give the driver's name, address, and date of birth
and the registration plate number of the vehicle being driven. The driver shall, upon request and
if available, exhibit the driver's license or permit to drive to the individual struck or the driver
or occupant of or individual attending any vehicle collided with. The driver also shall give the
information and upon request exhibit the license or permit to any peace officer at the scene of the
accident or who is investigating the accident. The driver shall render reasonable assistance to any
individual injured in the accident.
(b) If not given at the scene of the accident, the driver, within 72 hours after the accident,
shall give, on request to any individual involved in the accident or to a peace officer investigating
the accident, the name and address of the insurer providing vehicle liability insurance coverage,
and the local insurance agent for the insurer.
    Subd. 4. Collision with unattended vehicle. The driver of any motor vehicle that collides
with and damages any vehicle that is unattended shall immediately stop and either locate and
notify the driver or owner of the vehicle of the name and address of the driver and registered owner
of the vehicle striking the unattended vehicle, shall report this same information to a peace officer,
or shall leave in a conspicuous place in or secured to the vehicle struck, a written notice giving the
name and address of the driver and of the registered owner of the vehicle doing the striking.
    Subd. 5. Notify owner of damaged property. The driver of any vehicle involved in an
accident resulting only in damage to fixtures legally upon or adjacent to a highway shall take
reasonable steps to locate and notify the owner or person in charge of the property of that fact,
of the driver's name and address, and of the registration plate number of the vehicle being
driven and shall, upon request and if available, exhibit the driver's license, and make report
of the accident in every case. The report must be made in the same manner as a report made
pursuant to subdivision 7.
    Subd. 5a. Driver deemed agent of owner. Whenever any motor vehicle shall be operated
within this state, by any person other than the owner, with the consent of the owner, express or
implied, the operator thereof shall in case of accident, be deemed the agent of the owner of
such motor vehicle in the operation thereof.
    Subd. 6. Notice of personal injury. The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting
in bodily injury to or death of any individual shall, after compliance with this section and by the
quickest means of communication, give notice of the accident to the local police department if the
accident occurs within a municipality, to a State Patrol officer if the accident occurs on a trunk
highway, or to the office of the sheriff of the county.
    Subd. 7. Accident report to commissioner. (a) The driver of a vehicle involved in an
accident resulting in bodily injury to or death of any individual or total property damage to
an apparent extent of $1,000 or more, shall forward a written report of the accident to the
commissioner of public safety within ten days of the accident. On the required report, the driver
shall provide the commissioner with the name and policy number of the insurer providing vehicle
liability insurance coverage at the time of the accident.
(b) On determining that the original report of any driver of a vehicle involved in an accident
of which report must be made as provided in this section is insufficient, the commissioner of
public safety may require the driver to file supplementary information.
    Subd. 8. Officer to report accident to commissioner. A peace officer who, in the regular
course of duty, investigates an accident that must be reported under this section shall, within ten
days after the date of the accident, forward an electronic or written report of the accident as
prescribed by the commissioner of public safety.
    Subd. 9. Accident report format. The commissioner of public safety shall prescribe the
format for the accident reports required under this section. Upon request the commissioner shall
make available the format to police departments, coroners, sheriffs, garages, and other suitable
agencies or individuals. The electronic or written report to be completed by individuals involved
in accidents and by investigating peace officers must disclose the causes, existing conditions, and
the individuals and vehicles involved.
    Subd. 10.[Repealed, 2005 c 163 s 89]
    Subd. 11. Coroner to report death. Every coroner or other official performing like functions
shall report in writing to the commissioner of public safety the death of any individual within the
coroner's jurisdiction as the result of an accident involving a vehicle and the circumstances of the
accident. The report must be made within 15 days after the death.
In the case of drivers killed in vehicle accidents and of the death of pedestrians 16 years of
age or older, who die within four hours after an accident, the coroner or other official performing
like functions shall examine the body and shall make tests as are necessary to determine the
presence and percentage concentration of alcohol, and drugs if feasible, in the blood of the
victim. This information must be included in each report submitted pursuant to the provisions
of this subdivision and shall be tabulated on a monthly basis by the commissioner of public
safety. This information may be used only for statistical purposes that do not reveal the identity
of the deceased.
    Subd. 12. Garage to report bullet damage. The individual in charge of any garage or repair
shop to which is brought any vehicle that shows evidence of having been struck by any bullet
shall immediately report to the local police or sheriff and to the commissioner of public safety
within 24 hours after the vehicle is received, giving the engine number if any, registration plate
number, and the name and address of the registered owner or operator of the vehicle.
    Subd. 13. Reports confidential; evidence, fee, penalty, appropriation. (a) All reports and
supplemental information required under this section must be for the use of the commissioner of
public safety and other appropriate state, federal, county, and municipal governmental agencies
for accident analysis purposes, except:
(1) the commissioner of public safety or any law enforcement agency shall, upon written
request of any individual involved in an accident or upon written request of the representative
of the individual's estate, surviving spouse, or one or more surviving next of kin, or a trustee
appointed under section 573.02, disclose to the requester, the requester's legal counsel, or a
representative of the requester's insurer the report required under subdivision 8;
(2) the commissioner of public safety shall, upon written request, provide the driver filing a
report under subdivision 7 with a copy of the report filed by the driver;
(3) the commissioner of public safety may verify with insurance companies vehicle insurance
information to enforce sections 65B.48, 169.792, 169.793, 169.796, and 169.797;
(4) the commissioner of public safety shall provide the commissioner of transportation the
information obtained for each traffic accident involving a commercial motor vehicle, for purposes
of administering commercial vehicle safety regulations; and
(5) the commissioner of public safety may give to the United States Department of
Transportation commercial vehicle accident information in connection with federal grant
programs relating to safety.
(b) Accident reports and data contained in the reports are not discoverable under any
provision of law or rule of court. No report shall be used as evidence in any trial, civil or criminal,
or any action for damages or criminal proceedings arising out of an accident. However, the
commissioner of public safety shall furnish, upon the demand of any person who has or claims to
have made a report or upon demand of any court, a certificate showing that a specified accident
report has or has not been made to the commissioner solely to prove compliance or failure to
comply with the requirements that the report be made to the commissioner.
(c) Nothing in this subdivision prevents any individual who has made a report under
this section from providing information to any individuals involved in an accident or their
representatives or from testifying in any trial, civil or criminal, arising out of an accident, as to
facts within the individual's knowledge. It is intended by this subdivision to render privileged the
reports required, but it is not intended to prohibit proof of the facts to which the reports relate.
(d) Disclosing any information contained in any accident report, except as provided in this
subdivision, section 13.82, subdivision 3 or 6, or other statutes, is a misdemeanor.
(e) The commissioner of public safety shall charge authorized persons as described in
paragraph (a) a $5 fee for a copy of an accident report. Ninety percent of the $5 fee collected
under this paragraph must be deposited in the special revenue fund and credited to the driver
services operating account established in section 299A.705 and ten percent must be deposited
in the general fund. The commissioner may also furnish an electronic copy of the database of
accident records, which must not contain personal or private data on an individual, to private
agencies as provided in paragraph (g), for not less than the cost of preparing the copies on a bulk
basis as provided in section 13.03, subdivision 3.
(f) The fees specified in paragraph (e) notwithstanding, the commissioner and law
enforcement agencies shall charge commercial users who request access to response or incident
data relating to accidents a fee not to exceed 50 cents per record. "Commercial user" is a user
who in one location requests access to data in more than five accident reports per month, unless
the user establishes that access is not for a commercial purpose. Of the money collected by the
commissioner under this paragraph, 90 percent must be deposited in the special revenue fund
and credited to the driver services operating account established in section 299A.705 and ten
percent must be deposited in the general fund.
(g) The fees in paragraphs (e) and (f) notwithstanding, the commissioner shall provide an
electronic copy of the accident records database to the public on a case-by-case basis using the
cost-recovery charges provided for under section 13.03, subdivision 3. The database provided
must not contain personal or private data on an individual. However, unless the accident records
data base includes the vehicle identification number, the commissioner shall include the vehicle
registration plate number if a private agency certifies and agrees that the agency:
(1) is in the business of collecting accident and damage information on vehicles;
(2) will use the vehicle registration plate number only for identifying vehicles that have been
involved in accidents or damaged, to provide this information to persons seeking access to a
vehicle's history and not for identifying individuals or for any other purpose; and
(3) will be subject to the penalties and remedies under sections 13.08 and 13.09.
    Subd. 14. Penalties. (a) The driver of any vehicle who violates subdivision 1 or 6 and who
did not cause the accident is punishable as follows:
(1) if the accident results in the death of any individual, the driver is guilty of a felony and
may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than three years, or to payment of a fine of not
more than $5,000, or both;
(2) if the accident results in great bodily harm to any individual, as defined in section 609.02,
subdivision 8
, the driver is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more
than two years, or to payment of a fine of not more than $4,000, or both; or
(3) if the accident results in substantial bodily harm to any individual, as defined in section
609.02, subdivision 7a, the driver may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year,
or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
(b) The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident not resulting in substantial bodily harm
or death who violates subdivision 1 or 6 may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one
year, or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both.
(c) Any person who violates subdivision 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, or 12 is guilty of a misdemeanor.
(d) The attorney in the jurisdiction in which the violation occurred who is responsible for
prosecution of misdemeanor violations of this section shall also be responsible for prosecution of
gross misdemeanor violations of this section.
    Subd. 14a. Suspension of license for failure to report accident. The commissioner may
suspend the license, or any nonresident's operating privilege, of any person who willfully fails,
refuses, or neglects to make report of a traffic accident as required by the laws of this state. A
license suspension under this section is subject to the notice requirements of section 171.18,
subdivision 2
.
    Subd. 15. Defense. It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under subdivisions 1, 2, and
6 that the driver left the scene of the accident to take any individual suffering immediately
demonstrable bodily injury in the accident to receive emergency medical care if the driver of the
involved vehicle gives notice to a law enforcement agency as required by subdivision 6 as soon as
reasonably feasible after the emergency medical care has been undertaken.
    Subd. 16. Commissioner as agent for service of process. The use and operation by a
resident of this state or the resident's agent, or by a nonresident or the nonresident's agent, of a
motor vehicle within the state of Minnesota, is deemed an irrevocable appointment by the resident
if absent from this state continuously for six months or more following an accident, or by the
nonresident at any time, of the commissioner of public safety to be the resident's or nonresident's
true and lawful attorney upon whom may be served all legal process in any action or proceeding
against the resident or nonresident or the executor, administrator, or personal representative of
the resident or nonresident growing out of the use and operation of a motor vehicle within this
state, resulting in damages or loss to person or property, whether the damage or loss occurs
on a highway or on abutting public or private property. This appointment is binding upon the
nonresident's executor, administrator, or personal representative. The use or operation of a motor
vehicle by the resident or nonresident is a signification of agreement that any process in any action
against the resident or nonresident or executor, administrator, or personal representative of the
resident or nonresident that is so served has the same legal force and validity as if served upon the
resident or nonresident personally or on the executor, administrator, or personal representative
of the resident or nonresident. Service of process must be made by serving a copy thereof upon
the commissioner or by filing a copy in the commissioner's office, together with payment of a
fee of $20, and is deemed sufficient service upon the absent resident or the nonresident or the
executor, administrator, or personal representative of the resident or nonresident; provided that
notice of service and a copy of the process are sent by mail by the plaintiff within ten days to the
defendant at the defendant's last known address and that the plaintiff's affidavit of compliance
with the provisions of this chapter is attached to the summons.
    Subd. 17. Information access by vehicle owners. If an accident report has been prepared by
a person involved in an accident and no report has been prepared by a law enforcement officer,
the owners of the vehicles involved in an accident shall have the same access to information
maintained by the Department of Public Safety, Driver and Vehicle Services Division, about the
vehicles, their owners, and their drivers that would have been available to a law enforcement
officer reporting on the accident.
    Subd. 18. Continuance of court proceeding; costs. The court in which the action is pending
may order a continuance as may be necessary to afford the defendant reasonable opportunity to
defend the action, not exceeding 90 days from the date of filing of the action in that court. The fee
of $20 paid by the plaintiff to the commissioner at the time of service of the proceedings must
be taxed in the plaintiff's cost if the plaintiff prevails in the suit. The commissioner shall keep a
record of all processes so served, which must show the day and hour of service.
History: (2720-168, 2720-169, 2720-170, 2720-171, 2720-172, 2720-173) 1937 c 464 s
18-23; 1939 c 430 s 2,3; 1941 c 439; 1943 c 548 s 1; 1945 c 207 s 1; 1945 c 285 s 4,34; 1947 c
114 s 1; 1947 c 428 s 7-10; 1959 c 679 s 1; 1963 c 280 s 1; 1963 c 634 s 1; 1965 c 815 s 1; 1967 c
397 s 1; Ex1967 c 3 s 1; 1971 c 491 s 5-11; Ex1971 c 27 s 3-5; 1974 c 22 s 1-4; 1974 c 343 s 1;
1977 c 53 s 1; 1978 c 461 s 1,2; 1978 c 679 s 1; 1980 c 498 s 2,3; 1981 c 37 s 2; 1981 c 357
s 60; 1982 c 545 s 22; 1982 c 617 s 6; 1983 c 345 s 2-7; 1984 c 622 s 1-4; 1984 c 628 art 3 s
11; 1Sp1985 c 4 s 3; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 180 s 1; 1987 c 383 s 5; 1989 c 290 art 6 s 1; 1989 c
321 s 9; 1991 c 319 s 16; 1993 c 351 s 27,28; 1994 c 399 s 1; 1996 c 346 s 3; 1996 c 408 art 3
s 1; 1997 c 230 s 2; 1999 c 227 s 22; 2001 c 91 s 1; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 2 s 39-41; 2005 c 163 s
60-75,88; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 2 s 35
169.10 STATISTICAL INFORMATION.
The Department of Public Safety shall tabulate and may analyze all accident reports and
shall publish annually or at more frequent intervals statistical information based thereon as to the
number and circumstances of traffic accidents.
History: (2720-174) 1937 c 464 s 24; 1971 c 491 s 12
169.11 CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE.
The commissioner of public safety shall revoke the driver's license of any person convicted
of the crime of criminal negligence in the operation of a vehicle resulting in the death of a human
being.
History: (2720-175) 1937 c 464 s 25; 1963 c 753 art 2 s 1; 1969 c 1129 art 1 s 15,18;
1981 c 363 s 26
169.12 [Repealed, 1957 c 297 s 2]
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 1a.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 1b.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 1c.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 1d.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 3a.[Repealed, 1Sp1997 c 2 s 69]
    Subd. 3b.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 3c.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 3d.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 3e.[Repealed, 1999 c 194 s 11]
    Subd. 3f.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 5a.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 5b.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 8.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 10.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 10a.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 11.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 12.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.1211 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.1215 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.1216 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.1217 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.1218 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.1219 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.122 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 2a.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 2b.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 2c.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 5a.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 5b.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 5c.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 8.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 1984 c 622 s 26]
    Subd. 10.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.1231 [Repealed, 1983 c 306 s 7]
169.124 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.125 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.126 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.1261 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.1265 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
169.127 [Repealed, 1978 c 727 s 11]
169.128 [Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1999 c 194 s 11]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 2000 c 478 art 2 s 8]

DRIVING RULES

169.13 RECKLESS OR CARELESS DRIVING.
    Subdivision 1. Reckless driving. (a) Any person who drives any vehicle in such a manner as
to indicate either a willful or a wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property is guilty of
reckless driving and such reckless driving is a misdemeanor.
(b) A person shall not race any vehicle upon any street or highway of this state. Any person
who willfully compares or contests relative speeds by operating one or more vehicles is guilty of
racing, which constitutes reckless driving, whether or not the speed contested or compared is in
excess of the maximum speed prescribed by law.
    Subd. 2. Careless driving. Any person who operates or halts any vehicle upon any street or
highway carelessly or heedlessly in disregard of the rights of others, or in a manner that endangers
or is likely to endanger any property or any person, including the driver or passengers of the
vehicle, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3. Application. (a) The provisions of this section apply, but are not limited in
application, to any person who drives any vehicle in the manner prohibited by this section:
(1) upon the ice of any lake, stream, or river, including but not limited to the ice of any
boundary water; or
(2) in a parking lot ordinarily used by or available to the public though not as a matter of
right, and a driveway connecting the parking lot with a street or highway.
(b) This section does not apply to:
(1) an authorized emergency vehicle, when responding to an emergency call or when in
pursuit of an actual or suspected violator;
(2) the emergency operation of any vehicle when avoiding imminent danger; or
(3) any raceway, racing facility, or other public event sanctioned by the appropriate
governmental authority.
History: (2720-177) 1937 c 464 s 27; 1939 c 430 s 5; 1947 c 428 s 11; 1967 c 569 s 2;
Ex1971 c 27 s 7; 1983 c 236 s 1; 1984 c 622 s 15; 2006 c 260 art 2 s 1
169.131 [Repealed, 1976 c 103 s 1]
169.132 [Repealed, 1977 c 347 s 29]
169.14 SPEED LIMITS, ZONES; RADAR.
    Subdivision 1. Duty to drive with due care. No person shall drive a vehicle on a highway at
a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions. Every driver is responsible for
becoming and remaining aware of the actual and potential hazards then existing on the highway
and must use due care in operating a vehicle. In every event speed shall be so restricted as may
be necessary to avoid colliding with any person, vehicle or other conveyance on or entering the
highway in compliance with legal requirements and the duty of all persons to use due care.
    Subd. 1a. License revocation for extreme speed. The driver's license of a person who
violates any speed limit established in this section, by driving in excess of 100 miles per hour, is
revoked for six months under section 171.17, or for a longer minimum period of time applicable
under section 169A.53, 169A.54, or 171.174.
    Subd. 2. Speed limits. (a) Where no special hazard exists the following speeds shall be
lawful, but any speeds in excess of such limits shall be prima facie evidence that the speed is not
reasonable or prudent and that it is unlawful; except that the speed limit within any municipality
shall be a maximum limit and any speed in excess thereof shall be unlawful:
(1) 30 miles per hour in an urban district or on a town road in a rural residential district;
(2) 65 miles per hour on noninterstate freeways and expressways, as defined in section
160.02, subdivision 19;
(3) 55 miles per hour in locations other than those specified in this section;
(4) 70 miles per hour on interstate highways outside the limits of any urbanized area with a
population of greater than 50,000 as defined by order of the commissioner of transportation;
(5) 65 miles per hour on interstate highways inside the limits of any urbanized area with a
population of greater than 50,000 as defined by order of the commissioner of transportation;
(6) ten miles per hour in alleys; and
(7) 25 miles per hour in residential roadways if adopted by the road authority having
jurisdiction over the residential roadway.
(b) A speed limit adopted under paragraph (a), clause (7), is not effective unless the road
authority has erected signs designating the speed limit and indicating the beginning and end of the
residential roadway on which the speed limit applies.
(c) For purposes of this subdivision, "rural residential district" means the territory contiguous
to and including any town road within a subdivision or plat of land that is built up with dwelling
houses at intervals of less than 300 feet for a distance of one-quarter mile or more.
(d) Notwithstanding section 609.0331 or 609.101 or other law to the contrary, a person who
violates a speed limit established in this subdivision, or a speed limit designated on an appropriate
sign under subdivision 4, 5, 5b, 5c, or 5e, by driving 20 miles per hour or more in excess of the
applicable speed limit, is assessed an additional surcharge equal to the amount of the fine imposed
for the speed violation, but not less than $25.
    Subd. 3. Reduced speed required. (a) The driver of any vehicle shall, consistent with the
requirements, drive at an appropriate reduced speed when approaching or passing an authorized
emergency vehicle stopped with emergency lights flashing on any street or highway, when
approaching and crossing an intersection or railway grade crossing, when approaching and going
around a curve, when approaching a hill crest, when traveling upon any narrow or winding
roadway, and when special hazards exist with respect to pedestrians or other traffic or by reason
of weather or highway conditions.
(b) A person who fails to reduce speed appropriately when approaching or passing an
authorized emergency vehicle stopped with emergency lights flashing on a street or highway
shall be assessed an additional surcharge equal to the amount of the fine imposed for the speed
violation, but not less than $25.
    Subd. 4. Establishment of zones by commissioner. On determining upon the basis of an
engineering and traffic investigation that any speed set forth in this section is greater or less than
is reasonable or safe under the conditions found to exist on any trunk highway or upon any part
thereof, the commissioner may erect appropriate signs designating a reasonable and safe speed
limit thereat, which speed limit shall be effective when such signs are erected. Any speeds in
excess of such limits shall be prima facie evidence that the speed is not reasonable or prudent
and that it is unlawful; except that any speed limit within any municipality shall be a maximum
limit and any speed in excess thereof shall be unlawful. On determining upon that basis that a part
of the trunk highway system outside a municipality should be a zone of maximum speed limit,
the commissioner may establish that part as such a zone by erecting appropriate signs showing
the beginning and end of the zone, designating a reasonable and safe speed therefor, which
may be different than the speed set forth in this section, and that it is a zone of maximum speed
limit. The speed so designated by the commissioner within any such zone shall be a maximum
speed limit, and speed in excess of such limit shall be unlawful. The commissioner may in the
same manner from time to time alter the boundary of such a zone and the speed limit therein or
eliminate such zone.
    Subd. 4a.[Repealed, 1997 c 143 s 20]
    Subd. 5. Zoning within local area. When local authorities believe that the existing speed
limit upon any street or highway, or part thereof, within their respective jurisdictions and not a
part of the trunk highway system is greater or less than is reasonable or safe under existing
conditions, they may request the commissioner to authorize, upon the basis of an engineering
and traffic investigation, the erection of appropriate signs designating what speed is reasonable
and safe, and the commissioner may authorize the erection of appropriate signs designating a
reasonable and safe speed limit thereat, which speed limit shall be effective when such signs
are erected. Any speeds in excess of these speed limits shall be prima facie evidence that the
speed is not reasonable or prudent and that it is unlawful; except that any speed limit within
any municipality shall be a maximum limit and any speed in excess thereof shall be unlawful.
Alteration of speed limits on streets and highways shall be made only upon authority of the
commissioner except as provided in subdivision 5a.
    Subd. 5a. Speed zoning in school zone; surcharge. (a) Local authorities may establish a
school speed limit within a school zone of a public or nonpublic school upon the basis of an
engineering and traffic investigation as prescribed by the commissioner of transportation. The
establishment of a school speed limit on any trunk highway shall be with the consent of the
commissioner of transportation. Such school speed limits shall be in effect when children are
present, going to or leaving school during opening or closing hours or during school recess
periods. The school speed limit shall not be lower than 15 miles per hour and shall not be more
than 30 miles per hour below the established speed limit on an affected street or highway.
(b) The school speed limit shall be effective upon the erection of appropriate signs
designating the speed and indicating the beginning and end of the reduced speed zone. Any speed
in excess of such posted school speed limit is unlawful. All such signs shall be erected by the
local authorities on those streets and highways under their respective jurisdictions and by the
commissioner of transportation on trunk highways.
(c) For the purpose of this subdivision, "school zone" means that section of a street or
highway which abuts the grounds of a school where children have access to the street or
highway from the school property or where an established school crossing is located provided
the school advance sign prescribed by the manual on uniform traffic control devices adopted
by the commissioner of transportation pursuant to section 169.06 is in place. All signs erected
by local authorities to designate speed limits in school zones shall conform to the Manual on
Uniform Control Devices.
(d) Notwithstanding section 609.0331 or 609.101 or other law to the contrary, a person who
violates a speed limit established under this subdivision is assessed an additional surcharge equal
to the amount of the fine imposed for the violation, but not less than $25.
    Subd. 5b. Segment in urban district. When any segment of at least a quarter-mile in
distance of any city street, municipal state-aid street, or town road on which a speed limit
in excess of 30 miles per hour has been established pursuant to an engineering and traffic
investigation by the commissioner meets the definition of "urban district" as defined in section
169.01, subdivision 59, the governing body of the city or town may by resolution declare the
segment to be an urban district and may establish on the segment the speed limit for urban
districts prescribed in subdivision 2. The speed limit so established shall be effective upon the
erection of appropriate signs designating the speed and indicating the beginning and end of the
segment on which the speed limit is established, and any speed in excess of such posted limits
shall be unlawful. A copy of the resolution shall be transmitted to the commissioner at least ten
days prior to the erection of the signs.
    Subd. 5c. Speed zoning in alleyway. Local authorities may regulate speed limits for
alleyways as defined in section 169.01 based on their own engineering and traffic investigations.
Alleyway speed limits established at other than ten miles per hour shall be effective when proper
signs are posted.
    Subd. 5d. Speed zoning in work zone; surcharge. (a) The commissioner, on trunk
highways and temporary trunk highways, and local authorities, on streets and highways under
their jurisdiction, may authorize the use of reduced maximum speed limits in highway work
zones. The commissioner or local authority is not required to conduct an engineering and traffic
investigation before authorizing a reduced speed limit in a highway work zone.
(b) The minimum highway work zone speed limit is 20 miles per hour. The work zone speed
limit must not reduce the established speed limit on the affected street or highway by more than
15 miles per hour, except that the highway work zone speed limit must not exceed 40 miles
per hour. The commissioner or local authority shall post the limits of the work zone. Highway
work zone speed limits are effective on erection of appropriate regulatory speed limit signs. The
signs must be removed or covered when they are not required. A speed greater than the posted
highway work zone speed limit is unlawful.
(c) Notwithstanding paragraph (b), on divided highways the commissioner or local authority
may establish a highway work zone speed limit that does not exceed 55 miles per hour.
(d) For purposes of this subdivision, "highway work zone" means a segment of highway
or street where a road authority or its agent is constructing, reconstructing, or maintaining the
physical structure of the roadway, its shoulders, or features adjacent to the roadway, including
underground and overhead utilities and highway appurtenances, when workers are present.
(e) Notwithstanding section 609.0331 or 609.101 or other law to the contrary, a person who
violates a speed limit established under paragraph (b) or (c), or who violates any other provision
of this section while in a highway work zone, is assessed an additional surcharge equal to the
amount of the fine imposed for the speed violation, but not less than $25.
    Subd. 5e. Speed limit on park road. The political subdivision with authority over a park
may establish a speed limit on a road located within the park. A speed limit established under
this subdivision on a trunk highway is effective only with the commissioner's approval. A speed
limit established under this subdivision must be based on an engineering and traffic investigation
prescribed by the commissioner of transportation and must not be lower than 20 miles per hour,
and no speed limit established under this subdivision may reduce existing speed limits by more
than 15 miles per hour. A speed limit established under this subdivision is effective on the erection
of appropriate signs designating the speed limit and indicating the beginning and end of the
reduced speed zone. Any speed in excess of the posted speed is unlawful.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, Ex1971 c 27 s 49]
    Subd. 7. Burden of proof. The provisions of this chapter declaring speed limitation shall not
be construed to relieve the plaintiff in any civil action from the burden of proving negligence on
the part of the defendant as the proximate cause of an accident.
    Subd. 8. Minimum speeds. On determining upon the basis of an engineering and traffic
investigation that a speed at least as great as, or in excess of, a specified and determined
minimum is necessary to the reasonable and safe use of any trunk highway or portion thereof,
the commissioner may erect appropriate signs specifying the minimum speed on such highway
or portion thereof. The minimum speed shall be effective when such signs are erected. Any
speeds less than the posted minimum speeds shall be prima facie evidence that the speed is not
reasonable or prudent and that it is unlawful.
    Subd. 9. Standards of evidence. In any prosecution in which the rate of speed of a motor
vehicle is relevant, evidence of the speed of a motor vehicle as indicated on the speedometer
thereof shall be admissible on a showing that a vehicle is regularly used in traffic law enforcement
and that the speedometer thereon is regularly and routinely tested for accuracy and a record of
the results of said tests kept on file by the agency having control of said vehicle. Evidence as to
the speed indicated on said speedometer shall be prima facie evidence that the said vehicle was,
at the time said reading was observed, traveling at the rate of speed so indicated; subject to
correction by the amount of error, if any, shown to exist by the test made closest in time to the
time of said reading.
Records of speedometer tests kept in the regular course of operations of any law enforcement
agency shall be admissible without further foundation, as to the results of said tests. Such records
shall be available to the defendant upon demand. Nothing herein shall be construed to preclude or
interfere with the cross examination or impeachment of evidence of rate of speed as indicated
by speedometer readings, pursuant to the Rules of Evidence.
    Subd. 10. Radar; speed-measuring device; standards of evidence. (a) In any prosecution in
which the rate of speed of a motor vehicle is relevant, evidence of the speed as indicated on radar
or other speed-measuring device is admissible in evidence, subject to the following conditions:
(1) the officer operating the device has sufficient training to properly operate the equipment;
(2) the officer testifies as to the manner in which the device was set up and operated;
(3) the device was operated with minimal distortion or interference from outside sources; and
(4) the device was tested by an accurate and reliable external mechanism, method, or system
at the time it was set up.
(b) Records of tests made of such devices and kept in the regular course of operations of any
law enforcement agency are admissible in evidence without further foundation as to the results of
the tests. The records shall be available to a defendant upon demand. Nothing in this subdivision
shall be construed to preclude or interfere with cross examination or impeachment of evidence of
the rate of speed as indicated on the radar or speed-measuring device.
    Subd. 11. Hand-held police traffic radar. (a) Law enforcement agencies that use hand-held
radar units shall establish operating procedures to reduce the operator's exposure to microwave
radiation.
(b) The procedures, at a minimum, must require:
(1) that the operator turn the unit off when it is not in use;
(2) if the unit has a stand-by mode, that the operator use this mode except when measuring a
vehicle's speed;
(3) that the operator not allow the antenna to rest against the operator's body while it is in
operation; and
(4) that the operator always point the antenna unit away from the operator and any other
person in very close proximity to the unit.
    Subd. 12. Radar jammer. For purposes of this section, "radar jammer" means any
instrument, device, or equipment designed or intended for use with a vehicle or otherwise to jam
or interfere in any manner with a speed-measuring device operated by a peace officer.
No person shall sell, offer for sale, use, or possess any radar jammer in this state.
History: (2720-178) 1937 c 464 s 28; 1939 c 430 s 6; 1947 c 428 s 12,13; 1955 c 802 s 1,2;
1957 c 580 s 1; 1963 c 843 s 1-4; 1969 c 623 s 1; 1975 c 53 s 1; 1975 c 363 s 1,2; 1976 c 166 s 7;
1979 c 60 s 1; 1980 c 498 s 4; 1984 c 417 s 24,25; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 319 s 1; 1991 c 298 art 4 s
9; 1993 c 26 s 1; 1993 c 61 s 1; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 12; 1994 c 640 s 1; 1994 c 645 s 1; 1995 c 118
s 1; 1995 c 265 art 2 s 18; 1996 c 455 art 1 s 5,6; 1997 c 143 s 9-11; 1997 c 159 art 2 s 20,21;
1999 c 44 s 1; 2001 c 213 s 9; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 27; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 41,42
169.141 [Repealed, 1996 c 455 art 1 s 11]
169.145 IMPLEMENT OF HUSBANDRY; SPEED, BRAKES.
No person may:
(1) drive or tow an implement of husbandry that exceeds 6,000 pounds registered gross
weight or gross vehicle weight and is not equipped with brakes; or
(2) tow a vehicle registered as a farm trailer that exceeds 6,000 pounds registered gross
weight or gross vehicle weight and is not equipped with brakes, at a speed in excess of 30 miles
per hour.
History: 1977 c 397 s 1; 1988 c 636 s 7; 1993 c 187 s 3; 1997 c 7 art 1 s 79; 1997 c 143 s 12
169.15 IMPEDING TRAFFIC.
No person shall drive a motor vehicle at such a slow speed as to impede or block the normal
and reasonable movement of traffic except when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or
in compliance with law or except when the vehicle is temporarily unable to maintain a greater
speed due to a combination of the weight of the vehicle and the grade of the highway.
History: (2720-179) 1937 c 464 s 29; Ex1971 c 27 s 8
169.16 SPEED ON BRIDGE.
(a) No person shall drive a vehicle over any bridge or other elevated structure constituting a
part of a highway at a speed which is greater than the maximum speed which can be maintained
with safety to such bridge or structure, when such structure is signposted as provided in this
section.
(b) The commissioner, upon request from any local authority, shall, or, upon the
commissioner's own initiative, may, conduct an investigation of any bridge or other elevated
structure constituting a part of a highway, and on finding that such structure cannot with safety
to itself withstand vehicles traveling at the speed otherwise permissible under this chapter, the
commissioner shall determine and declare the maximum speed of vehicles which such structure
can withstand and cause or permit suitable signs stating such maximum speed to be erected and
maintained at a distance of 100 feet before each end of such structure.
(c) Upon the trial of any person charged with a violation of this section, proof of the
determination of the maximum speed by the commissioner and the existence of the signs shall
constitute conclusive evidence of the maximum speed which can be maintained with safety
to such bridge or structure.
History: (2720-180) 1937 c 464 s 30; 1986 c 444
169.17 EMERGENCY VEHICLE.
The speed limitations set forth in sections 169.14 to 169.17 do not apply to an authorized
emergency vehicle responding to an emergency call. Drivers of all emergency vehicles shall
sound an audible signal by siren and display at least one lighted red light to the front, except that
law enforcement vehicles shall sound an audible signal by siren or display at least one lighted red
light to the front. This provision does not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle
from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of persons using the street, nor does it protect
the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the consequence of a reckless disregard of
the safety of others.
History: (2720-181) 1937 c 464 s 31; 1947 c 428 s 14; 1997 c 143 s 13; 1997 c 159 art 2
s 22; 1998 c 263 s 1
169.18 DRIVING RULES.
    Subdivision 1. Keep to the right. Upon all roadways of sufficient width a vehicle shall be
driven upon the right half of the roadway, except as follows:
(1) when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction under
the rules governing such movement;
(2) when the right half of a roadway is closed to traffic while under construction or repair;
(3) upon a roadway divided into three marked lanes for traffic under the rules applicable
thereon;
(4) upon a roadway designated and signposted for one-way traffic as a one-way roadway; or
(5) as necessary to comply with subdivision 11 when approaching an authorized emergency
vehicle parked or stopped on the roadway.
    Subd. 2. Meeting. Drivers of vehicles proceeding in opposite directions, shall pass each
other to the right, and upon roadways having width for not more than one line of traffic in each
direction each driver shall give to the other at least one-half of the main traveled portion of
the roadway, as nearly as possible.
    Subd. 3. Passing. The following rules shall govern the overtaking and passing of vehicles
proceeding in the same direction, subject to the limitations, exceptions, and special rules
hereinafter stated:
(1) the driver of a vehicle overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction
shall pass to the left thereof at a safe distance and shall not again drive to the right side of the
roadway until safely clear of the overtaken vehicle;
(2) except when overtaking and passing on the right is permitted, the driver of an overtaken
vehicle shall give way to the right in favor of the overtaking vehicle on audible warning, and
shall not increase the speed of the overtaken vehicle until completely passed by the overtaking
vehicle; and
(3) the operator of a motor vehicle overtaking a bicycle or individual proceeding in the
same direction on the roadway shall leave a safe distance, but in no case less than three feet
clearance, when passing the bicycle or individual and shall maintain clearance until safely past
the overtaken bicycle or individual.
    Subd. 4. Passing on the right. The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass upon the right
of another vehicle only upon the following conditions:
(1) when the vehicle overtaken is making or about to make a left turn;
(2) upon a street or highway with unobstructed pavement not occupied by parked vehicles of
sufficient width for two or more lines of moving vehicles in each direction;
(3) upon a one-way street, or upon any roadway on which traffic is restricted to one direction
of movement, where the roadway is free from obstructions and of sufficient width for two or more
lines of moving vehicles;
(4) when the driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass another vehicle upon the right only
under conditions permitting such movement in safety. In no event shall such movement be made
by driving onto the shoulder, whether paved or unpaved, or off the pavement or main-traveled
portion of the roadway.
    Subd. 5. Driving left of roadway center; exception. (a) No vehicle shall be driven to the
left side of the center of the roadway in overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the
same direction unless such left side is clearly visible and is free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient
distance ahead to permit such overtaking and passing to be completely made without interfering
with the safe operation of any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction or any vehicle
overtaken. In every event the overtaking vehicle must return to the right-hand side of the roadway
before coming within 100 feet of any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction.
(b) Except on a one-way roadway or as provided in paragraph (c), no vehicle shall, in
overtaking and passing another vehicle or at any other time, be driven to the left half of the
roadway under the following conditions:
(1) when approaching the crest of a grade or upon a curve in the highway where the driver's
view along the highway is obstructed within a distance of 700 feet;
(2) when approaching within 100 feet of any underpass or tunnel, railroad grade crossing,
intersection within a city, or intersection outside of a city if the presence of the intersection is
marked by warning signs; or
(3) where official signs are in place prohibiting passing, or a distinctive centerline is marked,
which distinctive line also so prohibits passing, as declared in the Manual on Uniform Traffic
Control Devices adopted by the commissioner.
(c) Paragraph (b) does not apply to a self-propelled or towed implement of husbandry that (1)
is escorted at the front by a registered motor vehicle that is displaying vehicular hazard warning
lights visible to the front and rear in normal sunlight, and (2) does not extend into the left half of
the roadway to any greater extent than made necessary by the total width of the right half of the
roadway together with any adjacent shoulder that is suitable for travel.
(d) Paragraph (b) does not apply to a self-propelled or towed implement of husbandry that
is operated to the left half of the roadway if such operation is not to a greater extent than is
necessary to avoid collision with a parked vehicle, sign, or other stationary object located on
the highway right-of-way.
    Subd. 6. One-way traffic. (a) Upon a roadway designated and signposted for one-way traffic
as a one-way roadway, a vehicle shall be driven only in the direction designated;
(b) A vehicle passing around a rotary traffic island shall be driven only to the right of such
island.
    Subd. 7. Laned highway. When any roadway has been divided into two or more clearly
marked lanes for traffic, the following rules, in addition to all others consistent herewith, shall
apply:
(a) A vehicle shall be driven as nearly as practicable entirely within a single lane and shall
not be moved from such lane until the driver has first ascertained that such movement can
be made with safety.
(b) Upon a roadway which is not a one-way roadway and which is divided into three lanes, a
vehicle shall not be driven in the center lane except when overtaking and passing another vehicle
where the roadway is clearly visible and such center lane is clear of traffic within a safe distance,
or in preparation for a left turn or where such center lane is at the time allocated exclusively to
traffic moving in the direction the vehicle is proceeding, and is signposted to give notice of such
allocation. The left lane of a three-lane roadway which is not a one-way roadway shall not be used
for overtaking and passing another vehicle.
(c) Official signs may be erected directing slow-moving traffic to use a designated lane or
allocating specified lanes to traffic moving in the same direction, and drivers of vehicles shall
obey the directions of every such sign.
(d) Whenever a bicycle lane has been established on a roadway, any person operating a
motor vehicle on such roadway shall not drive in the bicycle lane except to park where parking is
permitted, to enter or leave the highway, or to prepare for a turn as provided in section 169.19,
subdivision 1
.
    Subd. 8. Following vehicle too closely. (a) The driver of a motor vehicle shall not follow
another vehicle more closely than is reasonable and prudent, having due regard for the speed of
such vehicles and the traffic upon and the conditions of the highway.
(b) The driver of any motor vehicle drawing another vehicle, or the driver of any motor
truck or bus, when traveling upon a roadway outside of a business or residence district, shall not
follow within 500 feet of another vehicle. The provisions of this clause shall not be construed to
prevent overtaking and passing nor shall the same apply upon any lane specially designated for
use by motor trucks.
(c) The driver of a motor vehicle shall not follow within 500 feet of an authorized emergency
vehicle that is traveling in response to an emergency.
    Subd. 9. Divided highway; crossovers. Whenever any highway has been divided into two
or more roadways by leaving an intervening space or by a physical barrier or clearly indicated
dividing section so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic, every vehicle shall be driven only
upon the right-hand roadway unless directed or permitted to use another roadway by official
traffic-control devices or police officers. No vehicle shall be driven over, across, or within any
such dividing space, barrier section, except through an opening in such physical barrier, or
dividing section or space or at a crossover or intersection established by public authority.
    Subd. 10. Slow-moving vehicle. Upon all roadways any vehicle proceeding at less than the
normal speed of traffic at the time and place and under the conditions then existing shall be driven
in the right-hand lane then available for traffic, or as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or
edge of the roadway, except when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same
direction, or when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway, or
when a specific lane is designated and posted for a specific type of traffic.
    Subd. 11. Passing parked emergency vehicle; citation; probable cause. (a) When
approaching and before passing an authorized emergency vehicle with its emergency lights
activated that is parked or otherwise stopped on or next to a street or highway having two lanes in
the same direction, the driver of a vehicle shall safely move the vehicle to the lane farthest away
from the emergency vehicle, if it is possible to do so.
(b) When approaching and before passing an authorized emergency vehicle with its
emergency lights activated that is parked or otherwise stopped on or next to a street or highway
having more than two lanes in the same direction, the driver of a vehicle shall safely move the
vehicle so as to leave a full lane vacant between the driver and any lane in which the emergency
vehicle is completely or partially parked or otherwise stopped, if it is possible to do so.
(c) A peace officer may issue a citation to the driver of a motor vehicle if the peace officer has
probable cause to believe that the driver has operated the vehicle in violation of this subdivision
within the four-hour period following the termination of the incident or a receipt of a report
under paragraph (d). The citation may be issued even though the violation was not committed
in the presence of the peace officer.
(d) Although probable cause may be otherwise satisfied by other evidentiary elements or
factors, probable cause is sufficient for purposes of this subdivision when the person cited is
operating the vehicle described by a member of the crew of an authorized emergency vehicle
responding to an incident in a timely report of the violation of this subdivision, which includes a
description of the vehicle used to commit the offense and the vehicle's license plate number. For
the purposes of issuance of a citation under paragraph (c), "timely" means that the report must be
made within a four-hour period following the termination of the incident.
(e) For purposes of paragraphs (a) and (b) only, the terms "authorized emergency vehicle" and
"emergency vehicle" include a towing vehicle defined in section 169.01, subdivision 52, that has
activated flashing lights authorized under section 169.64, subdivision 3, in addition to the vehicles
described in the definition for "authorized emergency vehicle" in section 169.01, subdivision 5.
History: (2720-182, 2720-183, 2720-184, 2720-185, 2720-186, 2720-187, 2720-188,
2720-189) 1937 c 464 s 32-39; 1939 c 430 s 7; 1947 c 428 s 15; 1951 c 363 s 1; 1959 c 521 s 2;
1963 c 357 s 5; 1963 c 627 s 1; 1971 c 138 s 1; 1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1978 c 739 s 7; 1986 c
444; 1993 c 26 s 2,3; 1993 c 187 s 4; 1995 c 72 s 1; 1996 c 456 s 20; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 2 s 42,43;
2005 c 120 s 2; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 43-45; 2006 c 212 art 1 s 9
169.19 TURNING, STARTING, AND SIGNALING.
    Subdivision 1. Turning at intersection. The driver of a vehicle intending to turn at an
intersection shall do so as follows:
(a) Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn shall be made as close as practicable to
the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway.
(b) Approach for a left turn on other than one-way roadways shall be made in that portion of
the right half of the roadway nearest the centerline thereof, and after entering the intersection
the left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection to the right of the centerline of the
roadway being entered. Whenever practicable the left turn shall be made in that portion of the
intersection to the left of the center of the intersection.
(c) Approach for a left turn from a two-way roadway into a one-way roadway shall be made
in that portion of the right half of the roadway nearest the centerline thereof and by passing to the
right of such centerline where it enters the intersection.
(d) A left turn from a one-way roadway into a two-way roadway shall be made from the
left hand lane and by passing to the right of the centerline of the roadway being entered upon
leaving the intersection.
(e) Where both streets or roadways are one way, both the approach for a left turn and a left
turn shall be made as close as practicable to the left-hand curb or edge of the roadway.
(f) Local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may cause markers, buttons, or signs to
be placed within or adjacent to intersections and thereby require and direct that a different course
from that specified in this section be traveled by vehicles turning at an intersection, and when
markers, buttons, or signs are so placed no driver of a vehicle shall turn a vehicle at an intersection
other than as directed and required by such markers, buttons, or signs.
(g) Whenever it is necessary for the driver of a motor vehicle to cross a bicycle lane adjacent
to the driver's lane of travel to make a turn, the driver shall drive the motor vehicle into the bicycle
lane prior to making the turn, and shall make the turn, yielding the right-of-way to any vehicles
approaching so close thereto as to constitute an immediate hazard.
    Subd. 2. U-turn. No vehicle shall be turned so as to proceed in the opposite direction upon
any curve, or upon the approach to or near the crest of a grade, where such vehicle cannot be
seen by the driver of any other vehicle approaching from either direction within 1,000 feet, nor
shall the driver of a vehicle turn the vehicle so as to proceed in the opposite direction unless the
movement can be made safely and without interfering with other traffic.
    Subd. 3. Starting parked car. No person shall start a vehicle which is stopped, standing, or
parked unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety.
    Subd. 4. Change of course. No person shall turn a vehicle at an intersection unless the
vehicle is in proper position upon the roadway as required in this section, or turn a vehicle to
enter a private road or driveway or otherwise turn a vehicle from a direct course or move right
or left upon a highway unless and until the movement can be made with reasonable safety after
giving an appropriate signal in the manner hereinafter provided.
    Subd. 5. Signal to turn. A signal of intention to turn right or left shall be given continuously
during not less than the last 100 feet traveled by the vehicle before turning.
    Subd. 6. Signal to stop. No person shall stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a vehicle
without first giving an appropriate signal in the manner provided herein to the driver of any vehicle
immediately to the rear unless there is a good and sufficient reason for not being able to do so.
    Subd. 7. Signaling methods. The signals herein required shall be given either by means of
the hand and arm or by a signal lamp or signal device of a type approved by the commissioner of
public safety, but when a vehicle is so constructed or loaded that a hand and arm signal would
not be visible in normal sunlight, and at night both to the front and rear of such vehicle, then the
signals must be given by such a lamp or device.
    Subd. 8. Hand signals. When the signal is given by means of the hand and arm the driver
shall indicate intention to start, stop, or turn by extending the hand and arm from and beyond the
left side of the vehicle in the following manner and these signals shall indicate as follows:
(1) left turn: hand and arm extended horizontally;
(2) right turn: hand and arm extended upward, except that a bicyclist or motorcyclist may
extend the right hand and arm horizontally to the right side of the bicycle or motorcycle;
(3) stop or decrease speed: hand and arm extended downward.
History: (2720-190, 2720-191, 2720-192, 2720-193, 2720-194, 2720-195) 1937 c 464 s
40-45; 1939 c 430 s 8; 1947 c 428 s 16; 1959 c 521 s 3; 1971 c 286 s 1; 1978 c 587 s 1; 1978 c
739 s 8,9; 1986 c 444; 1989 c 204 s 1
169.20 RIGHT-OF-WAY.
    Subdivision 1. Approaching intersection. (a) When two vehicles enter an uncontrolled
intersection from different highways at approximately the same time, the driver of the vehicle on
the left shall yield the right-of-way to the vehicle on the right.
(b) When two vehicles enter an intersection controlled by stop signs or by blinking red traffic
signals requiring drivers or vehicles from any direction to stop before proceeding, the driver of
the vehicle on the left shall yield the right-of-way to the vehicle on the right.
(c) At an uncontrolled approach to a T-shaped intersection, the driver required to turn shall
yield to the cross traffic.
(d) The driver of any vehicle traveling at an unlawful speed shall forfeit any right-of-way
which the driver might otherwise have hereunder.
(e) The foregoing rules are modified as hereinafter stated in this section.
    Subd. 2. Left turn. The driver of a vehicle intending to turn to the left within an intersection
or into an alley, private road, or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle approaching
from the opposite direction which is within the intersection or so close thereto as to constitute
an immediate hazard.
    Subd. 3. Through highway; stop sign. (a) The driver of a vehicle shall stop as required by
this chapter at the entrance to a through highway and shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicles
which have entered the intersection from the through highway or which are approaching so closely
on the through highway as to constitute an immediate hazard, but the driver having so yielded may
proceed, and the drivers of all other vehicles approaching the intersection on the through highway
shall yield the right-of-way to the vehicles so proceeding into or across the through highway.
(b) The driver of a vehicle shall likewise stop in obedience to a stop sign, as required herein,
at an intersection where a stop sign is erected at one or more entrances thereto although not a
part of a through highway, and shall proceed cautiously, yielding to vehicles not so obliged to
stop which are within the intersection or approaching so closely as to constitute an immediate
hazard, but may then proceed.
    Subd. 4. Vehicle entering roadway. The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a roadway
from any place other than a roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on
the roadway to be entered or crossed.
    Subd. 5. Emergency vehicle; penalties. (a) Upon the immediate approach of an authorized
emergency vehicle equipped with at least one lighted lamp exhibiting red light visible under
normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of 500 feet to the front of the vehicle and, except
as otherwise provided in paragraph (b), when the driver is giving audible signal by siren, the
driver of each other vehicle shall yield the right-of-way and shall immediately drive to a position
parallel to and as close as possible to the right-hand edge or curb of the highway clear of any
intersection, and shall stop and remain in this position until the authorized emergency vehicle has
passed, except when otherwise directed by a police officer. The driver of another vehicle on a
one-way roadway shall drive to the closest edge or curb and stop.
(b) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle escorting the movement of an oversize or
overweight vehicle or load need not sound an audible signal by siren but shall exhibit the light
required by paragraph (a). The driver of each other vehicle then shall yield the right-of-way,
as required by paragraph (a), to the emergency vehicle escorting the oversize or overweight
vehicle or load.
(c) Upon the approach of an authorized emergency vehicle the driver of each streetcar
shall immediately stop the car clear of any intersection and keep it in this position and keep the
doors and gates of the streetcar closed until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed, except
when otherwise directed by a police officer.
(d) This subdivision does not operate to relieve the driver of an authorized emergency
vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of persons using the highways.
(e) A driver who fails to comply with paragraph (a), (b), or (c) is guilty of a petty
misdemeanor and may be penalized according to section 169.89.
(f) A driver who intentionally obstructs an emergency vehicle or otherwise intentionally fails
to comply with paragraph (a), (b), or (c) is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 5a. Arrest; citation; probable cause. (a) A peace officer may arrest the driver of a
motor vehicle if the peace officer has probable cause to believe that the driver has operated
the vehicle in violation of subdivision 5, paragraph (a), (b), or (f), within the four-hour period
following the termination of the emergency incident or a receipt of a report under paragraph
(c). The arrest may be made even though the violation was not committed in the presence
of the peace officer.
(b) A peace officer may issue a citation in lieu of arrest to the driver of a motor vehicle if the
peace officer has probable cause to believe that the driver has operated the vehicle in violation of
subdivision 5.
(c) Although probable cause may be otherwise satisfied by other evidentiary elements or
factors, probable cause is sufficient for purposes of this subdivision when a member of the crew
of an authorized emergency vehicle responding to an emergency incident makes a timely report
of the violation of subdivision 5 and provides a description of the vehicle used to commit the
offense and the vehicle's license plate number. For the purposes of an arrest under paragraph (a),
"timely" means that the report must be made within a four-hour period following the termination
of the emergency incident.
    Subd. 5b. Violation; penalty for owner or lessee. (a) If a motor vehicle is operated in
violation of subdivision 5, the owner of the vehicle, or for a leased motor vehicle the lessee of
the vehicle, is guilty of a petty misdemeanor.
(b) Paragraph (a) does not apply if (1) a person other than the owner or lessee was operating
the vehicle at the time the violation occurred, or (2) the owner presents written evidence that the
motor vehicle had been reported to a law enforcement agency as stolen at the time of the violation.
(c) Paragraph (a) does not apply to a lessor of a motor vehicle if the lessor keeps a record of
the name and address of the lessee.
(d) Paragraph (a) does not prohibit or limit the prosecution of a motor vehicle operator
for violating subdivision 5.
(e) A violation under paragraph (a) does not constitute grounds for revocation or suspension
of the owner's or lessee's driver's license.
    Subd. 6. Funeral procession. When any funeral procession identifies itself by using regular
lights on all cars and by keeping all cars in close formation, the driver of every other vehicle,
except an emergency vehicle, shall yield the right-of-way.
    Subd. 7. Transit bus. The driver of a vehicle traveling in the right-hand lane of traffic shall
yield the right-of-way to any transit bus attempting to enter that lane from a bus stop or shoulder,
as indicated by a flashing left turn signal.
History: (2720-196, 2720-197, 2720-198, 2720-199, 2720-200, 2720-201) 1937 c 464 s
46-51; 1939 c 430 s 9; 1947 c 428 s 17; 1955 c 595 s 1; 1965 c 423 s 1; 1967 c 268 s 1; 1978
c 739 s 10; 1985 c 249 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 383 s 9; 1990 c 503 s 2; 1993 c 83 s 2; 1993 c
304 s 1,2; 1997 c 239 art 3 s 1; 2001 c 24 s 2; 2002 c 319 s 2,3
169.201 YIELD SIGN.
The driver of a vehicle approaching a YIELD sign shall slow to a speed that is reasonable
for conditions of traffic and visibility, and stop if necessary, and yield the right-of-way to any
pedestrian legally crossing the roadway, and to all vehicles on the intersecting street or highway
which are so close as to constitute an immediate hazard.
History: 1955 c 606 s 1; 1959 c 521 s 4; 1961 c 65 s 1; 1986 c 444

PEDESTRIANS

169.202 BLIND PERSON CARRYING WHITE CANE.
    Subdivision 1. Limitation on carrying. It shall be unlawful for any person to carry a white
painted cane unless said person is a blind person.
    Subd. 2. Blind pedestrian has right-of-way. Any person operating a motor vehicle in
this state shall bring such motor vehicle to a stop and give the right-of-way at any intersection
of any street, avenue, alley or other public highway to a blind pedestrian who is carrying a cane
predominantly white or metallic in color, with or without red tip, or using a guide dog, when such
blind person enters said intersection.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, Ex1971 c 27 s 49]
History: 1945 c 369 s 1-3; 1949 c 391 s 1-3; 1971 c 70 s 2
169.21 PEDESTRIAN.
    Subdivision 1. Obey traffic-control signals. Pedestrians shall be subject to traffic-control
signals at intersections as heretofore declared in this chapter, but at all other places pedestrians
shall be accorded the privileges and shall be subject to the restrictions stated in this section
and section 169.22.
    Subd. 2. Rights in absence of signal. (a) Where traffic-control signals are not in place or in
operation, the driver of a vehicle shall stop to yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian crossing the
roadway within a marked crosswalk or at an intersection with no marked crosswalk. The driver
must remain stopped until the pedestrian has passed the lane in which the vehicle is stopped. No
pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a
vehicle which is so close that it is impossible for the driver to yield. This provision shall not apply
under the conditions as otherwise provided in this subdivision.
(b) When any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at an intersection with no marked
crosswalk to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching
from the rear shall not overtake and pass the stopped vehicle.
(c) It is unlawful for any person to drive a motor vehicle through a column of school children
crossing a street or highway or past a member of a school safety patrol or adult crossing guard,
while the member of the school safety patrol or adult crossing guard is directing the movement of
children across a street or highway and while the school safety patrol member or adult crossing
guard is holding an official signal in the stop position. A peace officer may arrest the driver of a
motor vehicle if the peace officer has probable cause to believe that the driver has operated the
vehicle in violation of this paragraph within the past four hours.
(d) A person who violates this subdivision is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person who violates
this subdivision a second or subsequent time within one year of a previous conviction under this
subdivision is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
    Subd. 3. Crossing between intersections. (a) Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any
point other than within a marked crosswalk or at an intersection with no marked crosswalk shall
yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.
(b) Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead
pedestrian crossing has been provided shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the
roadway.
(c) Between adjacent intersections at which traffic-control signals are in operation
pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk.
(d) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section every driver of a vehicle shall (1)
exercise due care to avoid colliding with any bicycle or pedestrian upon any roadway and (2) give
an audible signal when necessary and exercise proper precaution upon observing any child or any
obviously confused or incapacitated person upon a roadway.
    Subd. 4. Use right half of crosswalk. Pedestrians shall move when practicable upon the
right half of crosswalks.
    Subd. 5. Walk on left side of roadway. Pedestrians when walking or moving in a wheelchair
along a roadway shall, when practicable, walk or move on the left side of the roadway or its
shoulder giving way to oncoming traffic. Where sidewalks are provided and are accessible and
usable it shall be unlawful for any pedestrian to walk or move in a wheelchair along and upon
an adjacent roadway.
History: (2720-202, 2720-203, 2720-204, 2720-205, 2720-207) 1937 c 464 s 52-55,57;
1939 c 430 s 10; 1947 c 428 s 18; 1973 c 193 s 1; 1974 c 379 s 2; 1978 c 739 s 11; 1982 c 468 s
3; 1986 c 444; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 12; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 2 s 31; 1996 c 333 s 1; 1997 c 159 art 2 s
23; 2000 c 488 art 6 s 3,4; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 72; 2005 c 10 art 3 s 11
169.212 OPERATION OF ELECTRIC PERSONAL ASSISTIVE MOBILITY DEVICES.
    Subdivision 1. Rights and responsibilities of pedestrians. Except as otherwise provided
by law, a person operating an electric personal assistive mobility device has the rights and
responsibilities of a pedestrian.
    Subd. 2. Operation. (a) An electric personal assistive mobility device may be operated on
a bicycle path.
(b) No person may operate an electric personal assistive mobility device on a roadway,
sidewalk, or bicycle path at a rate of speed that is not reasonable and prudent under the conditions.
Every person operating an electric personal assistive mobility device on a roadway, sidewalk, or
bicycle path is responsible for becoming and remaining aware of the actual and potential hazards
then existing on the roadway or sidewalk and must use due care in operating the device.
(c) An electric personal assistive mobility device may be operated on a roadway only:
(1) while making a direct crossing of a roadway in a marked or unmarked crosswalk;
(2) where no sidewalk is available;
(3) where a sidewalk is so obstructed as to prevent safe use;
(4) when so directed by a traffic control device or by a peace officer; or
(5) temporarily in order to gain access to a motor vehicle.
(d) An electric personal assistive mobility device may not be operated at any time on a
roadway with a speed limit of more than 35 miles per hour except to make a direct crossing of
the roadway in a marked crosswalk.
(e) An electric personal assistive mobility device may not be operated at any time while
carrying more than one person.
(f) A person operating an electric personal assistive mobility device on a sidewalk must yield
the right-of-way to pedestrians at all times. A person operating an electric personal assistive
mobility device on a bicycle path must yield the right-of-way to bicycles at all times.
    Subd. 3. Reflectors. An electric personal assistive mobility device may not be operated
unless the device bears reflectorized material on the front, back, and wheels, visible at night from
600 feet when illuminated by the lower beams of headlamps of a motor vehicle.
    Subd. 4. Local regulation. A local road authority may not further regulate the operation
of electric personal assistive mobility devices, except that a local road authority may allow and
regulate the operation of these devices on roadways within its jurisdiction that have a speed
limit of more than 35 miles per hour.
History: 2002 c 285 s 4
169.215 CROSSING FOR SENIORS OR DISABLED PERSONS.
    Subdivision 1. Designation of crossings. Local authorities may designate a crossing for
senior citizens or disabled persons on any street or highway in the vicinity of a senior citizen
housing project, senior citizen nursing home, or residential care facility for disabled persons on
the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation prescribed by the commissioner and subject
to the uniform specifications adopted pursuant to subdivision 2. Designation of a crossing for
senior citizens or disabled persons on a trunk highway is subject to the written consent of the
commissioner.
    Subd. 2. Uniform specifications. The commissioner shall adopt uniform specifications for
crossings for senior citizens or disabled persons. The specifications shall include criteria for
determining the need for a crossing and the type and design of traffic control devices or signals
that may be used at the crossing. The specifications shall be incorporated as a part of the Manual
on Uniform Traffic Control Devices required pursuant to section 169.06.
History: 1979 c 185 s 1; 1990 c 497 s 10
169.2151 PEDESTRIAN SAFETY CROSSINGS.
A local road authority may provide by ordinance for the designation of pedestrian
safety crossings on highways under the road authority's jurisdiction where pedestrian safety
considerations require extra time for pedestrian crossing in addition to the time recommended
under the Minnesota Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for pedestrian signals. The
ordinance may provide for timing of pedestrian signals for such crossings, consistent with the
recommendations of the uniform manual for pedestrian signal timing at senior citizen and
disabled pedestrian crossings. Cities other than cities of the first class may designate a pedestrian
safety crossing only with the approval of the road authority having jurisdiction over the crossing.
The authority of local road authorities to determine pedestrian signal timing under this section is
in addition to any other control exercised by local road authorities over the timing of pedestrian
signals.
History: 2000 c 488 art 6 s 5; 2005 c 56 s 1
169.219 PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS.
The commissioner of public safety shall include in the department's series of public service
announcements information that educates the public about traffic regulations that are frequently
violated, including the requirement for a vehicle driver to stop to yield the right-of-way to a
pedestrian in a crosswalk. The commissioner shall distribute these announcements for broadcast
in this state on radio and television.
History: 1996 c 333 s 3
169.22 HITCHHIKING; SOLICITATION OF BUSINESS.
    Subdivision 1. Soliciting ride. No person shall stand in a roadway for the purpose of
soliciting a ride from the driver of any private vehicle.
    Subd. 2. Soliciting employment, business, or contributions. No person shall stand on a
roadway for the purpose of soliciting employment, business, or contributions from the occupant
of any vehicle.
History: (2720-206) 1937 c 464 s 56; 1974 c 379 s 3
169.221 [Repealed, 1978 c 739 s 15]

BICYCLES AND MOTORIZED BICYCLES

169.222 OPERATION OF BICYCLE.
    Subdivision 1. Traffic laws apply. Every person operating a bicycle shall have all of the
rights and duties applicable to the driver of any other vehicle by this chapter, except in respect to
those provisions in this chapter relating expressly to bicycles and in respect to those provisions of
this chapter which by their nature cannot reasonably be applied to bicycles.
    Subd. 2. Manner and number riding. No bicycle shall be used to carry more persons at one
time than the number for which it is designed and equipped, except (1) on a baby seat attached to
the bicycle, provided that the baby seat is equipped with a harness to hold the child securely in
the seat and that protection is provided against the child's feet hitting the spokes of the wheel or
(2) in a seat attached to the bicycle operator.
    Subd. 3. Clinging to vehicle. Persons riding upon any bicycle, coaster, roller skates,
toboggan, sled, skateboard, or toy vehicle shall not attach the same or themselves to any street car
or vehicle upon a roadway.
    Subd. 4. Riding on roadway or shoulder. (a) Every person operating a bicycle upon a
roadway shall ride as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway except
under any of the following situations:
(1) when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction;
(2) when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway;
(3) when reasonably necessary to avoid conditions, including fixed or moving objects,
vehicles, pedestrians, animals, surface hazards, or narrow width lanes, that make it unsafe to
continue along the right-hand curb or edge.
(b) If a bicycle is traveling on a shoulder of a roadway, the bicycle shall travel in the same
direction as adjacent vehicular traffic.
(c) Persons riding bicycles upon a roadway or shoulder shall not ride more than two abreast
and shall not impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic and, on a laned roadway,
shall ride within a single lane.
(d) A person operating a bicycle upon a sidewalk, or across a roadway or shoulder on a
crosswalk, shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian and shall give an audible signal when
necessary before overtaking and passing any pedestrian. No person shall ride a bicycle upon a
sidewalk within a business district unless permitted by local authorities. Local authorities may
prohibit the operation of bicycles on any sidewalk or crosswalk under their jurisdiction.
(e) An individual operating a bicycle or other vehicle on a bikeway shall leave a safe distance
when overtaking a bicycle or individual proceeding in the same direction on the bikeway, and
shall maintain clearance until safely past the overtaken bicycle or individual.
(f) A person lawfully operating a bicycle on a sidewalk, or across a roadway or shoulder
on a crosswalk, shall have all the rights and duties applicable to a pedestrian under the same
circumstances.
    Subd. 5. Carrying articles. No person operating a bicycle shall carry any package, bundle,
or article which prevents the driver from keeping at least one hand upon the handle bars or from
properly operating the brakes of the bicycle.
    Subd. 6. Bicycle equipment. (a) No person shall operate a bicycle at nighttime unless
the bicycle or its operator is equipped with a lamp which shall emit a white light visible from
a distance of at least 500 feet to the front and with a red reflector of a type approved by the
Department of Public Safety which is visible from all distances from 100 feet to 600 feet to
the rear when directly in front of lawful lower beams of headlamps on a motor vehicle. No
person may operate a bicycle at any time when there is not sufficient light to render persons and
vehicles on the highway clearly discernible at a distance of 500 feet ahead unless the bicycle or its
operator is equipped with reflective surfaces that shall be visible during the hours of darkness
from 600 feet when viewed in front of lawful lower beams of headlamps on a motor vehicle.
The reflective surfaces shall include reflective materials on each side of each pedal to indicate
their presence from the front or the rear and with a minimum of 20 square inches of reflective
material on each side of the bicycle or its operator. Any bicycle equipped with side reflectors as
required by regulations for new bicycles prescribed by the United States Consumer Product Safety
Commission shall be considered to meet the requirements for side reflectorization contained in
this subdivision. A bicycle may be equipped with a rear lamp that emits a red flashing signal.
(b) No person shall operate a bicycle unless it is equipped with a brake which will enable the
operator to make the braked wheels skid on dry, level, clean pavement.
(c) No person shall operate upon a highway any bicycle equipped with handlebars so raised
that the operator must elevate the hands above the level of the shoulders in order to grasp the
normal steering grip area.
(d) No person shall operate upon a highway any bicycle which is of such a size as to prevent
the operator from stopping the bicycle, supporting it with at least one foot on the highway surface
and restarting in a safe manner.
    Subd. 7. Sale with reflectors and other equipment. No person shall sell or offer for
sale any new bicycle unless it is equipped with reflectors and other equipment as required by
subdivision 6, clauses (a) and (b) and by the regulations for new bicycles prescribed by the United
States Consumer Product Safety Commission.
    Subd. 8. Turning, lane change. An arm signal to turn right or left shall be given continuously
during the last 100 feet traveled by the bicycle before turning, unless the arm is needed to control
the bicycle, and shall be given while the bicycle is stopped waiting to turn.
    Subd. 9. Bicycle parking. (a) A person may park a bicycle on a sidewalk unless prohibited
or restricted by local authorities. A bicycle parked on a sidewalk shall not impede the normal and
reasonable movement of pedestrian or other traffic.
(b) A bicycle may be parked on a roadway at any location where parking is allowed if it is
parked in such a manner that it does not obstruct the movement of a legally parked motor vehicle.
    Subd. 10. Bicycle events. (a) Bicycle events, parades, contests, or racing on a highway
shall not be unlawful when approved by state or local authorities having jurisdiction over that
highway. Approval shall be granted only under conditions which assure reasonable safety for all
participants, spectators and other highway users, and which prevent unreasonable interference
with traffic flow which would seriously inconvenience other highway users.
(b) By agreement with the approving authority, participants in an approved bicycle highway
event may be exempted from compliance with any traffic laws otherwise applicable thereto,
provided that traffic control is adequate to assure the safety of all highway users.
    Subd. 11. Peace officer operating bicycle. The provisions of this section governing operation
of bicycles do not apply to bicycles operated by peace officers while performing their duties.
History: 1978 c 739 s 12; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 255 s 14; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 2; art 7 s
2; 1995 c 72 s 2
169.223 MOTORIZED BICYCLE.
    Subdivision 1. Safety equipment; parking. Except as otherwise provided in this section,
section 169.974 relating to motorcycles is applicable to motorized bicycles, except that:
(1) protective headgear includes headgear that meets the American National Standard for
Protective Headgear for Bicyclists, ANSI Z90.4-1984, approved by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc.;
(2) a motorized bicycle equipped with a headlight and taillight meeting the requirements of
lighting for motorcycles may be operated during nighttime hours;
(3) except as provided in clause (5), protective headgear is not required for operators 18
years of age or older;
(4) the provisions of section 169.222 governing the parking of bicycles apply to motorized
bicycles;
(5) the operator of an electric-assisted bicycle must wear properly fitted and fastened
headgear that meets the American National Standard for Protective Headgear for Bicyclists, ANSI
Z90.4-1984, approved by the American National Standards Institute, Inc., when operating the
electric-assisted bicycle on a street or highway; and
(6) eye protection devices are not required for operators of electric-assisted bicycles.
    Subd. 2. License or permit. (a) A motorized bicycle may be operated under either a driver's
license or a motorized bicycle permit issued under section 171.02, subdivision 3.
(b) A person under the age of 16 operating a motorized bicycle under a motorized bicycle
permit is subject to the restrictions imposed by section 169.974, subdivision 2, on operation of a
motorcycle under a two-wheel instruction permit, except that:
(1) a parent or guardian of an operator under the age of 16 may also ride on the motorized
bicycle as a passenger or operator if the motorized bicycle is equipped with a seat and footrests
for a second passenger;
(2) a motorized bicycle equipped with a headlight and taillight meeting the requirements of
lighting for motorcycles may be operated during nighttime hours;
(3) protective headgear includes headgear described in subdivision 1; and
(4) protective headgear is required only until the operator reaches the age of 18 years.
    Subd. 3. Sidewalk and passenger prohibitions. No person shall operate a motorized bicycle
upon a sidewalk at any time, except when such operation is necessary for the most direct access to
a roadway from a driveway, alley or building. No person shall operate a motorized bicycle that is
carrying any person other than the operator, except as allowed under subdivision 2.
    Subd. 4. Headlight requirement. The provisions of section 169.974, subdivision 5,
paragraph (i), apply to motorized bicycles that are equipped with headlights. After June 1, 1987, a
new motorized bicycle sold or offered for sale in Minnesota must be equipped with a headlight.
    Subd. 5. Other operation requirements and prohibitions. (a) A person operating a
motorized bicycle on a roadway shall ride as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of
the roadway except in one of the following situations:
(1) when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction;
(2) when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway; or
(3) when reasonably necessary to avoid conditions, including fixed or moving objects,
vehicles, pedestrians, animals, surface hazards, or narrow width lanes, that make it unsafe to
continue along the right-hand curb or edge.
(b) Persons operating motorized bicycles on a roadway may not ride more than two abreast
and may not impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic. On a laned roadway, a person
operating a motorized bicycle shall ride within a single lane.
(c) This section does not permit the operation of a motorized bicycle on a bicycle path or
bicycle lane that is reserved for the exclusive use of nonmotorized traffic.
(d) Subject to the provisions of section 160.263, subdivision 3, a person may operate an
electric-assisted bicycle on a bicycle lane. A person may operate an electric-assisted bicycle on
the shoulder of a roadway if the electric-assisted bicycle is traveling in the same direction as the
adjacent vehicular traffic.
History: 1977 c 214 s 8; 1979 c 227 s 1; 1987 c 269 s 5; 1989 c 331 s 22; 1996 c 435 s 15,16
169.224 NEIGHBORHOOD ELECTRIC VEHICLES.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. For purposes of this section, "road authority" means the
commissioner, as to trunk highways; the county board, as to county state-aid highways and county
highways; the town board, as to town roads; and the governing body of a city, as to city streets.
    Subd. 2. Required equipment. Notwithstanding any other law, a neighborhood electric
vehicle may be operated on public streets and highways if it meets all equipment and vehicle
safety requirements in Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, section 571.500, and successor
requirements.
    Subd. 3. Operation. A neighborhood electric vehicle may not be operated on a street or
highway with a speed limit greater than 35 miles per hour, except to make a direct crossing
of that street or highway.
    Subd. 4. Restrictions and prohibitions. (a) A road authority, including the commissioner of
transportation by order, may prohibit or further restrict the operation of neighborhood electric
vehicles on any street or highway under the road authority's jurisdiction.
(b) A neighborhood electric vehicle may not be used to take any examination to demonstrate
ability to exercise control in the operation of a motor vehicle as required under section 171.13.
History: 2006 c 189 s 5

MOTORIZED FOOT SCOOTER

169.225 MOTORIZED FOOT SCOOTER.
    Subdivision 1. Application of traffic laws. Every person operating a motorized foot scooter
shall have all rights and duties applicable to the operator of a bicycle, except in respect to those
provisions relating expressly to motorized foot scooters and in respect to those provisions of law
that by their nature cannot reasonably be applied to motorized foot scooters.
    Subd. 2. Sidewalk and passenger prohibition. No person may operate a motorized foot
scooter upon a sidewalk, except when necessary to enter or leave adjacent property. No person
may operate a motorized foot scooter that is carrying any person other than the operator.
    Subd. 3. Minimum age for operator. No person under the age of 12 years may operate a
motorized foot scooter.
    Subd. 4. Protective headgear. No person under the age of 18 years may operate a motorized
foot scooter without wearing properly fitted and fastened protective headgear that complies with
standards established by the commissioner of public safety.
    Subd. 5. Required lighting equipment. A motorized foot scooter must be equipped with a
headlight and a taillight that comply with standards established by the commissioner of public
safety if the vehicle is operated under conditions when vehicle lights are required by law.
    Subd. 6. Operation requirements and prohibitions. (a) A person operating a motorized
foot scooter on a roadway shall ride as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the
roadway, except in the following situations:
(1) when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction;
(2) when preparing for a left turn, in which case the operator shall stop and dismount at the
right-hand curb or right edge of the roadway, and shall complete the turn by crossing the roadway
on foot, subject to restrictions placed by law on pedestrians; or
(3) when reasonably necessary to avoid impediments or conditions that make it unsafe to
continue along the right-hand curb or edge, including, but not limited to, fixed or moving objects,
vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians, animals, surface hazards, or narrow lanes.
(b) A person may operate a motorized foot scooter on a bicycle path, bicycle lane, bicycle
trail, or bikeway that is not reserved for the exclusive use of nonmotorized traffic, unless the local
authority or governing body having jurisdiction over that path, lane, trail, or bikeway prohibits
operation by law.
History: 2005 c 135 s 6
169.23 [Repealed, 1965 c 45 s 73]
169.24 [Repealed, 1961 c 561 s 17]

SAFETY ZONES

169.25 SAFETY ZONE.
No vehicle shall at any time be driven through a safety zone.
History: (2720-210) 1937 c 464 s 60

RAILROAD CROSSINGS

169.26 SPECIAL STOPS AT RAILROAD CROSSING.
    Subdivision 1. Requirements. (a) Except as provided in section 169.28, subdivision 1, when
any person driving a vehicle approaches a railroad grade crossing under any of the circumstances
stated in this paragraph, the driver shall stop the vehicle not less than ten feet from the nearest
railroad track and shall not proceed until safe to do so and until the roadway is clear of traffic
so that the vehicle can proceed without stopping until the rear of the vehicle is at least ten feet
past the farthest railroad track. These requirements apply when:
(1) a clearly visible electric or mechanical signal device warns of the immediate approach
of a railroad train; or
(2) an approaching railroad train is plainly visible and is in hazardous proximity.
(b) The fact that a moving train approaching a railroad grade crossing is visible from the
crossing is prima facie evidence that it is not safe to proceed.
(c) The driver of a vehicle shall stop and remain stopped and not traverse the grade crossing
when a human flagger signals the approach or passage of a train or when a crossing gate is
lowered warning of the immediate approach or passage of a railroad train. No person may drive a
vehicle past a flagger at a railroad crossing until the flagger signals that the way is clear to proceed
or drive a vehicle past a lowered crossing gate.
    Subd. 1a. Violation. A police officer may arrest the driver of a motor vehicle if the police
officer has probable cause to believe that the driver has operated the vehicle in violation of
subdivision 1 within the past four hours.
    Subd. 2. Misdemeanor. (a) A driver who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of a misdemeanor.
(b) The owner or, in the case of a leased vehicle, the lessee of a motor vehicle is guilty of a
petty misdemeanor if a motor vehicle owned or leased by that person is operated in violation of
subdivision 1. This paragraph does not apply to a lessor of a motor vehicle if the lessor keeps a
record of the name and address of the lessee. This paragraph does not apply if the motor vehicle
operator is prosecuted for violating subdivision 1. A violation of this paragraph does not constitute
grounds for revocation or suspension of the owner's or lessee's driver's license.
    Subd. 3. Driver training. All driver education courses approved by the commissioner
of public safety must include instruction on railroad-highway grade crossing safety. The
commissioner of public safety shall by rule establish minimum standards of course content
relating to operation of vehicles at railroad-highway grade crossings.
History: (2720-211) 1937 c 464 s 61; 1986 c 444; 1990 c 468 s 2; 1991 c 298 art 2 s 2;
1Sp1995 c 3 art 16 s 13; 1998 c 403 s 13; 2002 c 371 art 1 s 43; 1Sp2003 c 9 art 10 s 7; 2004
c 229 s 1
169.27 [Repealed, 1976 c 166 s 119]
169.28 CERTAIN VEHICLES TO STOP AT RAILROAD CROSSING.
    Subdivision 1. Requirements. (a) The driver of any motor vehicle carrying passengers for
hire, or of any school bus whether carrying passengers or not, or of any Head Start bus whether
carrying passengers or not, or of any vehicle that is required to stop at railroad grade crossings
under Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, section 392.10, before crossing at grade any track or
tracks of a railroad, shall stop the vehicle not less than 15 feet nor more than 50 feet from the
nearest rail of the railroad and while so stopped shall listen and look in both directions along the
track for any approaching train, and for signals indicating the approach of a train, except as
hereinafter provided, and shall not proceed until safe to do so and until the roadway is clear of
traffic so that the vehicle can proceed without stopping until the rear of the vehicle is at least ten
feet past the farthest railroad track. The driver must not shift gears while crossing the railroad
tracks.
(b) A school bus or Head Start bus shall not be flagged across railroad grade crossings except
at those railroad grade crossings that the local school administrative officer may designate.
(c) A type III school bus, as defined in section 169.01, is exempt from the requirement of
school buses to stop at railroad grade crossings.
(d) The requirements of this subdivision do not apply to the crossing of light rail vehicle
track or tracks that are located in a public street when:
(1) the crossing occurs within the intersection of two or more public streets;
(2) the intersection is controlled by a traffic control signal; and
(3) the intersection is marked with signs indicating to drivers that the requirements of this
subdivision do not apply. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the owner or operator of
the track or tracks is authorized to place, maintain, and display the signs upon and in the view of
the public street or streets.
    Subd. 2. Exempt crossing. (a) The commissioner may designate a crossing as an exempt
crossing:
(1) if the crossing is on a rail line on which service has been abandoned;
(2) if the crossing is on a rail line that carries fewer than five trains each year, traveling at
speeds of ten miles per hour or less; or
(3) as agreed to by the operating railroad and the Department of Transportation, following a
diagnostic review of the crossing.
(b) The commissioner shall direct the railroad to erect at the crossing signs bearing the
word "Exempt" that conform to section 169.06. The installation or presence of an exempt sign
does not relieve a driver of the duty to use due care. A train must not proceed across an exempt
crossing unless a police officer is present to direct traffic or a railroad employee is on the ground
to warn traffic until the train enters the crossing.
(c) A vehicle that must stop at grade crossings under subdivision 1 is not required to stop at a
marked exempt crossing unless directed otherwise by a police officer or a railroad employee.
History: (2720-213) 1937 c 464 s 63; Ex1937 c 38 s 1; 1961 c 29 s 1; 1969 c 146 s 2; 1982 c
444 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 397 s 1; 1994 c 603 s 3; 2002 c 371 art 1 s 44; 1Sp2003 c 9 art 1
s 44; 2004 c 229 s 2; 2004 c 245 s 1; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 46
169.29 CROSSING RAILROAD TRACKS WITH CERTAIN EQUIPMENT.
(a) No person shall operate or move any caterpillar tractor, steam shovel, derrick, roller, or
any equipment or structure having a normal operating speed of six or less miles per hour or a
vertical body or load clearance of less than nine inches above the level surface of a roadway upon
or across any tracks at a railroad grade crossing without first complying with this section.
(b) Before making any crossing, the person operating or moving any vehicle or equipment
set forth in this section shall first stop the same not less than ten, nor more than 50, feet from the
nearest rail of the railway, and while so stopped shall listen and look in both directions along the
track for any approaching train and for signals indicating the approach of a train, and shall not
proceed until the crossing can be made safely.
(c) No crossing shall be made when warning is given by automatic signal or crossing gates
or a flagger or otherwise of the immediate approach of a railroad train or car.
(d) No stop need be made at a crossing on a rail line on which service has been abandoned
and where a sign erected in conformance with section 169.06 and bearing the word "Exempt" has
been installed, unless directed otherwise by a flagger. The installation or presence of an exempt
sign shall not relieve any driver of the duty to use due care.
History: (2720-214) 1937 c 464 s 64; 1982 c 444 s 2; 1986 c 444

CONTROLLED-ACCESS AND THROUGH HIGHWAYS

169.30 DESIGNATION OF THROUGH HIGHWAYS.
(a) The commissioner, with reference to state trunk highways, and local authorities, with
reference to other highways under their jurisdiction, may designate through highways by erecting
stop signs or yield signs at entrances thereto or may designate any intersection as a stop or yield
intersection by erecting like signs at one or more entrances to such intersection; provided, that
local authorities, with the consent of the commissioner, may designate through highway or stop or
yield intersections on state trunk highways.
(b) Every driver of a vehicle shall stop at a stop sign or at a clearly marked stop line before
entering the intersection, except when directed to proceed by a police officer or traffic-control
signal.
History: (2720-215) 1937 c 464 s 65; 1939 c 430 s 11; 1961 c 16 s 1
169.305 CONTROLLED-ACCESS RULES AND PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Entrance and exit; crossover; use regulations; signs; rules. (a) No person
shall drive a vehicle onto or from any controlled-access highway except at such entrances and
exits as are established by public authority.
(b) When special crossovers between the main roadways of a controlled-access highway are
provided for emergency vehicles or maintenance equipment and such crossovers are signed to
prohibit "U" turns, it shall be unlawful for any vehicle, except an emergency vehicle, maintenance
equipment, or construction equipment including contractor's and state-owned equipment when
operating within a marked construction zone, to use such crossover. Vehicles owned and operated
by elderly and needy persons under contract with the commissioner of transportation pursuant to
section 160.282 for maintenance services on highway rest stop and tourist centers outside the
seven-county metropolitan area as defined in section 473.121, may also use these crossovers while
those persons are proceeding to or from work in the rest area or tourist center if authorized by the
commissioner, and the vehicle carries on its roof a distinctive flag designed and issued by the
commissioner. For the purposes of this clause "emergency vehicle" includes a tow truck or towing
vehicle if it is on the way to the location of an accident or a disabled vehicle.
(c) The commissioner of transportation may by order, and any public authority may by
ordinance, with respect to any controlled-access highway under their jurisdictions prohibit or
regulate the use of any such highway by pedestrians, bicycles, or other nonmotorized traffic, or
by motorized bicycles, or by any class or kind of traffic which is found to be incompatible with
the normal and safe flow of traffic.
(d) The commissioner of transportation or the public authority adopting any such prohibitory
rules shall erect and maintain official signs on the controlled-access highway on which such rules
are applicable and when so erected no person shall disobey the restrictions stated on such signs.
    Subd. 2. Backing. Except for a driver of an authorized emergency vehicle in the course of
performing duties, no driver of a vehicle shall back the same upon the roadway or shoulder
of any controlled-access highway.
    Subd. 3. Petty misdemeanor. Any person violating the provisions of this section or any
order or ordinance promulgated or enacted by the commissioner of transportation or a public
authority pursuant thereto is guilty of a petty misdemeanor.
History: 1959 c 439 s 1; 1961 c 72 s 1; 1971 c 236 s 1; Ex1971 c 27 s 9; 1974 c 406 s 39;
1976 c 166 s 7; 1977 c 214 s 9; 1978 c 494 s 2; 1980 c 533 s 12; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444;
1991 c 112 s 5; 1995 c 186 s 119

BUS USE OF SHOULDERS

169.306 USE OF SHOULDERS BY BUSES.
(a) The commissioner of transportation may permit the use by transit buses and metro
mobility buses of a shoulder of a freeway or expressway, as defined in section 160.02, in the
seven-county metropolitan area.
(b) If the commissioner permits the use of a freeway or expressway shoulder by transit buses,
the commissioner shall also permit the use on that shoulder of a bus with a seating capacity of
40 passengers or more operated by a motor carrier of passengers, as defined in section 221.011,
subdivision 48
, while operating in intrastate commerce.
(c) Buses authorized to use the shoulder under this section may be operated on the shoulder
only when main line traffic speeds are less than 35 miles per hour. Drivers of buses being operated
on the shoulder may not exceed the speed of main line traffic by more than 15 miles per hour and
may never exceed 35 miles per hour. Drivers of buses being operated on the shoulder must yield
to merging, entering, and exiting traffic and must yield to other vehicles on the shoulder. Buses
operated on the shoulder must be registered with the Department of Transportation.
(d) For the purposes of this section, the term "metro mobility bus" means a motor vehicle
of not less than 20 feet in length engaged in providing special transportation services under
section 473.386 that is:
(1) operated by the Metropolitan Council, or operated by a public or private entity receiving
financial assistance from the Metropolitan Council; and
(2) authorized by the council to use freeway or expressway shoulders.
History: 2002 c 364 s 10; 2005 c 51 s 1

OTHER TRAFFIC RULES

169.31 STOP AT SIDEWALK.
The driver of a vehicle within a business or residence district emerging from an alley,
driveway, or building shall stop such vehicle immediately prior to driving onto a sidewalk or into
the sidewalk area and shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian and all other traffic on the
sidewalk.
History: (2720-216) 1937 c 464 s 66; 1978 c 739 s 13
169.315 OPENING AND CLOSING VEHICLE DOOR.
No person shall open any door on a motor vehicle unless and until it is reasonably safe to do
so and can be done without interfering with the movement of other traffic. No person shall allow
any door on the side of a vehicle adjacent to moving traffic to remain open for a period of time
longer than necessary to load or unload passengers.
History: 1978 c 739 s 14

STOPPING, PARKING PROVISIONS

169.32 STOPPING, STANDING, AND PARKING.
(a) Upon any highway outside of a business or residence district no person shall stop, park,
or leave standing any vehicle, whether attended or unattended, upon the paved or improved or
main traveled part of the highway when it is practical to stop, park, or so leave such vehicle off
such part of said highway, but in every event a clear and unobstructed width of at least 20 feet
of such part of the highway opposite such standing vehicle shall be left for the free passage of
other vehicles and a clear view of such stopped vehicle be available from a distance of 200 feet in
each direction upon such highway.
(b) This section shall not apply to the driver of any vehicle which is disabled while on the
paved or improved or main traveled portion of a highway in such a manner and to such extent that
it is impossible to avoid stopping and temporarily leaving such disabled vehicle in such position.
(c) This section shall not apply to the driver of a school bus stopped for the purpose of
receiving or discharging any school child or school children provided the school bus is equipped
and identified as provided in sections 169.441 and 169.442, subdivision 1, and is displaying the
flashing red lamps and stop arm required therein.
History: (2720-217) 1937 c 464 s 67; 1969 c 146 s 3; 1991 c 277 s 17
169.33 POLICE MAY MOVE VEHICLE.
(a) When any police officer finds a vehicle standing upon a highway in violation of any of the
provisions of section 169.32, such officer is hereby authorized to move such vehicle, or require
the driver or other person in charge of the vehicle to move the same, to a position off the paved or
improved or main traveled part of such highway.
(b) When any police officer finds a vehicle unattended upon any street or highway or upon
any bridge or causeway or in any tunnel where such vehicle constitutes an obstruction to traffic,
such officer is hereby authorized to provide for the removal of such vehicle and remove the same
to the nearest convenient garage or other place of safety.
History: (2720-218) 1937 c 464 s 68; 1939 c 430 s 12
169.34 PROHIBITIONS; STOPPING, PARKING.
(a) No person shall stop, stand, or park a vehicle, except when necessary to avoid conflict
with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a police officer or traffic-control device,
in any of the following places:
(1) on a sidewalk;
(2) in front of a public or private driveway;
(3) within an intersection;
(4) within ten feet of a fire hydrant;
(5) on a crosswalk;
(6) within 20 feet of a crosswalk at an intersection;
(7) within 30 feet upon the approach to any flashing beacon, stop sign, or traffic-control
signal located at the side of a roadway;
(8) between a safety zone and the adjacent curb or within 30 feet of points on the curb
immediately opposite the ends of a safety zone, unless a different length is indicated by signs or
markings;
(9) within 50 feet of the nearest rail of a railroad crossing;
(10) within 20 feet of the driveway entrance to any fire station and on the side of a street
opposite the entrance to any fire station within 75 feet of said entrance when properly signposted;
(11) alongside or opposite any street excavation or obstruction when such stopping, standing,
or parking would obstruct traffic;
(12) on the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the edge or curb of a street;
(13) upon any bridge or other elevated structure upon a highway or within a highway tunnel,
except as otherwise provided by ordinance;
(14) at any place where official signs prohibit stopping.
(b) No person shall move a vehicle not owned by such person into any prohibited area or
away from a curb such distance as is unlawful.
(c) No person shall, for camping purposes, leave or park a travel trailer on or within the
limits of any highway or on any highway right-of-way, except where signs are erected designating
the place as a campsite.
(d) No person shall stop or park a vehicle on a street or highway when directed or ordered to
proceed by any peace officer invested by law with authority to direct, control, or regulate traffic.
History: (2720-219) 1937 c 464 s 69; Ex1937 c 38 s 1; 1939 c 430 s 13; 1989 c 342 s 16
169.342 GOOD SAMARITAN; EXCEPTION TO STOPPING AND PARKING.
(a) A person who stops or parks that person's motor vehicle on any highway or street for
the sole purpose of aiding another motorist who signals for assistance by raising the hood of the
vehicle or displaying a flag, flare or similar signal is not in violation of any law, ordinance, or
rule prohibiting the stopping or parking of a motor vehicle, and no peace officer shall issue
a traffic ticket therefor if:
(1) the motorist in distress is not already being given aid or assistance;
(2) the person takes reasonable safety precautions in stopping and parking the vehicle, and
conforms with other laws regulating the stopping and parking of vehicles;
(3) the person is not in violation of traffic laws or rules other than the prohibition against
stopping and parking; and
(4) the person promptly leaves the scene if directed to leave by a peace officer.
(b) This section does not apply to any person who stops or parks a vehicle next to an
unattended vehicle.
History: 1977 c 167 s 1; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444
169.345 PARKING PRIVILEGE FOR PHYSICALLY DISABLED.
    Subdivision 1. Scope of privilege. (a) A motor vehicle that prominently displays the
certificate authorized by this section or that bears disability plates issued under section 168.021
may be parked by or solely for the benefit of a physically disabled person:
(1) in a designated parking space for disabled persons, as provided in section 169.346;
(2) in a metered parking space without obligation to pay the meter fee and without time
restrictions unless time restrictions are separately posted on official signs; and
(3) without time restrictions in a nonmetered space where parking is otherwise allowed for
passenger vehicles but restricted to a maximum period of time and that does not specifically
prohibit the exercise of disabled parking privileges in that space.
A person may park a motor vehicle for a physically disabled person in a parking space described in
clause (1) or (2) only when actually transporting the physically disabled person for the sole benefit
of that person and when the parking space is within a reasonable distance from the drop-off point.
(b) For purposes of this subdivision, a certificate is prominently displayed if it is displayed
so that it may be viewed from the front and rear of the motor vehicle by hanging it from the
rearview mirror attached to the front windshield of the motor vehicle. If there is no rearview
mirror or if the certificate holder's disability precludes placing the certificate on the mirror, the
certificate must be displayed on the dashboard on the driver's side of the vehicle. No part of the
certificate may be obscured.
(c) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), clauses (1), (2), and (3), this section does not permit
parking in areas prohibited by sections 169.32 and 169.34, in designated no parking spaces, or
in parking spaces reserved for specified purposes or vehicles. A local governmental unit may,
by ordinance, prohibit parking on any street or highway to create a fire lane, or to accommodate
heavy traffic during morning and afternoon rush hours and these ordinances also apply to
physically disabled persons.
    Subd. 2. Definitions. (a) For the purpose of section 168.021 and this section, the following
terms have the meanings given them in this subdivision.
(b) "Health professional" means a licensed physician, registered physician assistant,
advanced practice registered nurse, or licensed chiropractor.
(c) "Long-term certificate" means a certificate issued for a period greater than 12 months but
not greater than 71 months.
(d) "Organization certificate" means a certificate issued to an entity other than a natural
person for a period of three years.
(e) "Permit" refers to a permit that is issued for a period of 30 days, in lieu of the certificate
referred to in subdivision 3, while the application is being processed.
(f) "Physically disabled person" means a person who:
(1) because of disability cannot walk without significant risk of falling;
(2) because of disability cannot walk 200 feet without stopping to rest;
(3) because of disability cannot walk without the aid of another person, a walker, a cane,
crutches, braces, a prosthetic device, or a wheelchair;
(4) is restricted by a respiratory disease to such an extent that the person's forced (respiratory)
expiratory volume for one second, when measured by spirometry, is less than one liter;
(5) has an arterial oxygen tension (PAO2) of less than 60 mm/Hg on room air at rest;
(6) uses portable oxygen;
(7) has a cardiac condition to the extent that the person's functional limitations are classified
in severity as class III or class IV according to standards set by the American Heart Association;
(8) has lost an arm or a leg and does not have or cannot use an artificial limb; or
(9) has a disability that would be aggravated by walking 200 feet under normal environmental
conditions to an extent that would be life threatening.
(g) "Short-term certificate" means a certificate issued for a period greater than six months but
not greater than 12 months.
(h) "Six-year certificate" means a certificate issued for a period of six years.
(i) "Temporary certificate" means a certificate issued for a period not greater than six months.
    Subd. 2a. Health professional's medical statement. (a) The commissioner shall develop a
format for the medical statement. The medical statement must be signed by a health professional
who certifies that the applicant is a physically disabled person as defined in subdivision 2. The
commissioner may request additional information from the health professional if needed to verify
the applicant's eligibility. The medical statement that the applicant is a physically disabled person
must specify whether the disability is permanent or temporary and, if temporary, the opinion of
the health professional as to the duration of the disability. A health professional who fraudulently
certifies to the commissioner that a person is a physically disabled person as defined in subdivision
2, and that the person is entitled to the disability plates authorized by section 168.021 or to the
certificate authorized by this section, is guilty of a misdemeanor and is subject to a fine of $500.
(b) The commissioner may waive the requirement of providing a statement of a health
professional if the applicant has previously filed with the commissioner a statement of a health
professional certifying that the applicant has a permanent physical disability.
    Subd. 3. Identifying certificate. (a) The commissioner shall issue (1) immediately, a permit
valid for 30 days if the person is eligible for the certificate issued under this section and (2) an
identifying certificate for a motor vehicle when a physically disabled applicant submits proof of
physical disability under subdivision 2a. The commissioner shall design separate certificates for
persons with permanent and temporary disabilities that can be readily distinguished from each
other from outside a motor vehicle at a distance of 25 feet. An applicant may be issued up to two
certificates if the applicant has not been issued disability plates under section 168.021.
(b) The operator of a motor vehicle displaying a certificate has the parking privileges
provided in subdivision 1 only while the motor vehicle is actually parked while transporting a
physically disabled person.
(c) The commissioner shall cancel all certificates issued to an applicant who fails to comply
with the requirements of this subdivision.
    Subd. 3a. Organization certificates. (a) An organization providing transportation to one or
more physically disabled persons may apply to the commissioner for one or more organization
certificates for motor vehicles owned or operated on behalf of the organization.
(b) The organization shall submit a written statement of intent to the commissioner signed by
an officer of the organization. The statement must:
(1) indicate the number of certificates requested;
(2) state that all issued certificates must be used solely for the benefit of physically disabled
persons;
(3) state that the organization shall report lost or stolen certificates to the commissioner
within 24 hours of first discovery; and
(4) state that the organization shall immediately notify the commissioner of any misuse or
suspected misuse of any certificate issued to the organization.
(c) An organization shall include with the application a description of the internal controls
to be used to ensure the proper use of certificates and to account for all issued certificates. The
controls must include:
(1) maintenance of a current list of the make, model, and plate number of all motor vehicles
in which a certificate issued to the organization will be used; and
(2) maintenance of a current list of the name and driver's license number of all individuals
authorized to operate the motor vehicle in which certificates issued to the organization will be
used.
(d) When the commissioner is satisfied that an organization will use a certificate to transport
physically disabled persons, the commissioner shall issue without charge (1) immediately, a
permit valid for 30 days if the organization is eligible for a certificate and (2) an organization
certificate for the motor vehicle.
(e) The certificate issued to an organization transporting physically disabled persons must
be renewed every third year. On original application and renewal, the organization must present
evidence that each certificate issued continues to be used exclusively to transport physically
disabled persons.
(f) The commissioner shall cancel all certificates issued to an applicant who fails to comply
with the requirements of this subdivision.
    Subd. 3b. Certificate design, format, information. A certificate must be made of plastic or
similar durable material and must bear its expiration date prominently on both sides. A certificate
issued to a temporarily disabled person must display the date of expiration of the duration of
the disability, as determined under subdivision 3 or 3a. Each applicant must be provided a
summary of the parking privileges and restrictions that apply to each motor vehicle for which
the certificate is used.
    Subd. 3c. Fees; organization, temporary, and short-term certificates. The commissioner
may charge a fee of $5 for issuance of each organization certificate, each temporary certificate,
and each short-term certificate and a fee of $5 for a duplicate to replace a lost, stolen, or damaged
organization, temporary, or short-term certificate. The commissioner shall not issue more than
three duplicate certificates for lost, stolen, or canceled certificates within any six-year period
without the approval of the Minnesota State Council on Disability.
    Subd. 4. Unauthorized use or noncompliance; cancellation; misdemeanor. (a) If a peace
officer, authorized parking enforcement employee or agent of a statutory or home rule charter
city or town, representative of the Minnesota State Council on Disability, or an authorized agent
of a citizen enforcement program under section 169.346, subdivision 4, finds that a certificate,
permit, or disability plate is being improperly used, or the applicant is no longer eligible, the
officer, municipal employee, representative, or agent shall report the violation or situation to the
commissioner. The commissioner may cancel the certificate, permit, or disability plates issued
under section 168.021 on determining that:
(1) the certificate, permit, or plates were used improperly;
(2) the certificate, permit, or plates were fraudulently obtained;
(3) the certificate, permit, or plates were issued in error;
(4) the person who was issued the certificate, permit, or plates is deceased;
(5) the person who was issued the certificate, permit, or plates no longer maintains a
Minnesota address; or
(6) the person or organization has failed to comply with the requirements of this section.
(b) A person who uses a certificate, permit, or disability plates in violation of this section is
guilty of a misdemeanor and is subject to a fine of $500.
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 1967 c 389 s 2]
History: 1965 c 844 s 1-5; 1967 c 389 s 1; 1969 c 1129 art 1 s 15; Ex1971 c 27 s 10; 1977
c 22 s 1,2; 1979 c 31 s 1; 1979 c 277 s 4; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 355 s 7; 1988
c 642 s 7,8; 1989 c 209 art 1 s 17; 1989 c 234 s 3-5; 1989 c 301 s 3; 1990 c 497 s 11; 1991 c
301 s 4; 1993 c 98 s 4,5; 1994 c 536 s 20,21; 1995 c 85 s 2-4; 1999 c 238 art 2 s 16-18; 2003 c
108 s 2; 2005 c 64 s 7
169.346 DISABILITY PARKING AREAS; CRITERIA, ENFORCEMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Disability parking space prohibitions. A person shall not:
(1) park a motor vehicle in or obstruct access to a parking space or associated access aisle
designated and reserved for the physically disabled, on either private or public property;
(2) park a motor vehicle in or obstruct access to an area designated by a local governmental
unit as a transfer zone for disabled persons;
(3) alter a certificate;
(4) exercise the parking privilege provided in section 169.345, unless:
(i) that person is a physically disabled person as defined in section 169.345, subdivision 2, or
the person is transporting or parking a motor vehicle for a physically disabled person; and
(ii) the motor vehicle visibly displays one of the following: a disability plate issued under
section 168.021, a certificate issued under section 169.345, a permit valid for 30 days issued
under section 168.021 or 169.345, or an equivalent certificate, insignia, or plate issued by another
state, a foreign country, or one of its political subdivisions; or
(5) park a motor vehicle in an area used as a regular route transit stopping point where a
transit vehicle that is accessible to the physically disabled regularly stops and a sign that bears
the international symbol of access in white on blue is posted. A sign posted under this clause
may display other information relating to the regular route transit service. For purposes of this
clause, an area used as a regular route transit stopping point consists of the 80 feet immediately
preceding the sign described in this clause.
    Subd. 2. Disability parking space signs. (a) Parking spaces reserved for physically disabled
persons must be designated and identified by the posting of signs incorporating the international
symbol of access in white on blue and indicating that violators are subject to a fine of up to
$200. These parking spaces are reserved for disabled persons with motor vehicles displaying the
required certificate, plates, permit valid for 30 days, or insignia.
(b) For purposes of this subdivision, a parking space that is clearly identified as reserved
for physically disabled persons by a permanently posted sign that does not meet all design
standards, is considered designated and reserved for physically disabled persons. A sign posted
for the purpose of this section must be visible from inside a motor vehicle parked in the space,
be kept clear of snow or other obstructions which block its visibility, and be nonmovable or
only movable by authorized persons.
    Subd. 2a. Parking space free of obstruction; penalty. The owner or manager of the
property on which the designated parking space is located shall ensure that the parking space and
associated access aisle are kept free of obstruction. If the owner or manager does not have the
parking space properly posted or allows the parking space or access aisle to be blocked by snow,
merchandise, or similar obstructions for 24 hours after receiving a warning from a peace officer,
the owner or manager is guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to a fine of up to $500.
    Subd. 3. Misdemeanor; enforcement. A person who violates subdivision 1 is guilty of a
misdemeanor and must be fined not less than $100 and not more than $200. This subdivision
must be enforced in the same manner as parking ordinances or regulations in the governmental
subdivision in which the violation occurs. Law enforcement officers may tag motor vehicles
parked on either private or public property in violation of subdivision 1. Parking enforcement
employees or agents of statutory or home rule charter cities or towns may tag or otherwise issue
citations for motor vehicles parked on public property in violation of subdivision 1. If a holder
of a disability certificate or disability plates allows a person who is not otherwise eligible to
use the certificate or plates, then the holder is not eligible to be issued or to use a disability
certificate or plates for 12 months after the date of violation. A physically disabled person, or a
person parking a motor vehicle for a disabled person, who is charged with violating subdivision 1
because the person parked in a parking space for physically disabled persons without the required
certificate, license plates, or permit must not be convicted if the person produces in court or
before the court appearance the required certificate, permit, or evidence that the person has been
issued plates under section 168.021, and demonstrates entitlement to the certificate, plates, or
permit at the time of arrest or tagging.
    Subd. 4. Local ordinance; citizen enforcement program. A statutory or home rule charter
city may, by ordinance, establish a program to enforce the parking restrictions of this section or
any similar local ordinance, relating to parking spaces for the physically disabled, by using
citizen volunteers to issue citations to violators. The ordinance shall contain a process for training
program participants in the requirements of the law, the method of issuing citations, and other
related matters. Program participants who satisfy the training requirements of the ordinance are
authorized to issue citations for violations of this section and are exempt from any other training
or licensure requirements imposed on law enforcement officers by chapter 626.
    Subd. 5. Local ordinance; long-term parking. A statutory or home rule charter city may
enact an ordinance establishing a permit program for long-term parking.
History: 1977 c 205 s 1; 1979 c 31 s 3; 1979 c 277 s 5-7; 1983 c 24 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1987 c
355 s 8; 1990 c 482 s 2; 1990 c 497 s 12; 1991 c 301 s 5,6; 1992 c 424 s 1; 1993 c 83 s 3; 1993 c
98 s 6-8; 1993 c 130 s 1; 1994 c 495 s 1; 1999 c 238 art 2 s 19,20; 2005 c 64 s 8-11
169.35 PARKING.
    Subdivision 1. Parallel to curb. Except where angle parking is permitted by local ordinance,
each vehicle stopped or parked upon a two-way roadway where there is an adjacent curb shall
be so stopped or parked with the right-hand wheels of the vehicle parallel with and within 12
inches of the right-hand curb, provided, that such exception shall only apply to a state trunk
highway after approval by the commissioner.
    Subd. 2. Where no curb. Upon streets and highways not having a curb each vehicle stopped
or parked shall be stopped or parked parallel with and to the right of the paved or improved or
main traveled part of the street or highway.
    Subd. 3. One-way roadway. Local authorities with respect to streets and highways under
their jurisdiction and with the consent of the commissioner with respect to state trunk highways
may by ordinance permit parking of vehicles with the left hand wheels adjacent to and within 12
inches of the left hand curb of a one-way roadway.
History: (2720-220) 1937 c 464 s 70; Ex1937 c 38 s 1; 1939 c 430 s 14; 1947 c 428 s 21
169.36 PARKING; BRAKE SET AND WHEELS TURNED.
No person driving or in charge of a motor vehicle shall permit it to stand unattended without
effectively setting the brake thereon and turning the front wheels to the curb or side of the highway.
History: (2720-221) 1937 c 464 s 71

OTHER TRAFFIC RULES

169.37 OBSTRUCTING VIEW OF DRIVER.
No person shall drive a vehicle when it is so loaded, or when there are in the front seat such
number of persons, exceeding three, as to obstruct the view of the driver to the front or sides of
the vehicle or as to interfere with the driver's control over the driving mechanism of the vehicle.
No passenger in a vehicle or streetcar shall ride in such position as to interfere with the
driver's view ahead or to the sides, or to interfere with the driver's control over the driving
mechanism of the vehicle or streetcar.
History: (2720-222) 1937 c 464 s 72; 1986 c 444
169.38 [Repealed, 2001 c 24 s 5]
169.39 COASTING.
(a) The driver of any motor vehicle when traveling upon a downgrade shall not coast with
the gears of such vehicle in neutral.
(b) The driver of a commercial motor vehicle when traveling upon a downgrade shall not
coast with the clutch disengaged.
History: (2720-224) 1937 c 464 s 74
169.40 FIRE TRUCK; FIRE STATION.
    Subdivision 1. Following fire truck; parking at fire scene. The driver of any vehicle
other than one on official business shall not follow any fire apparatus traveling in response to a
fire alarm closer than 500 feet, or drive into or park such vehicle within the block where a fire
apparatus has stopped in answer to a fire alarm.
    Subd. 2. Fire station entrance. No person shall drive a vehicle within 50 feet of the
driveway entrance to any fire station while a fire apparatus is being driven into the fire station
unless on official business.
History: (2720-225) 1937 c 464 s 75; 1967 c 281 s 1; 1986 c 444
169.41 CROSSING FIRE HOSE.
No streetcar or vehicle shall be driven over any unprotected hose of a fire department when
laid down on any street, private driveway, or streetcar track, to be used at any fire or alarm of fire,
without the consent of the fire department official in command.
History: (2720-226) 1937 c 464 s 76
169.42 LITTERING; DROPPING OBJECT ON VEHICLE; MISDEMEANOR.
    Subdivision 1. Objects on highway. No person shall throw, deposit, place, or dump, or cause
to be thrown, deposited, placed, or dumped upon any street or highway or upon any public or
privately owned land adjacent thereto without the owner's consent any snow, ice, glass bottle,
glass, nails, tacks, wire, cans, garbage, swill, papers, ashes, cigarette filters, debris from fireworks,
refuse, carcass of any dead animal, offal, trash or rubbish or any other form of offensive matter, or
any other substance likely to injure any person, animal, or vehicle upon any such street or highway.
    Subd. 2.MS 1969 [Repealed, Ex1971 c 27 s 49]
    Subd. 2. Dropping dangerous object on highway. Any person who drops, or permits to
be dropped or thrown, upon any highway any of the material specified in subdivision 1, shall
immediately remove the same or cause it to be removed.
    Subd. 3. Removing object; responsibility. Any person removing a wrecked or damaged
vehicle from a highway shall remove any glass or other injurious substance dropped upon the
highway from such vehicle.
    Subd. 4. Dropping object on vehicle. No person shall drop or hurl any destructive or
injurious material or object at or upon any motor vehicle upon any highway or the occupants
thereof.
    Subd. 5. Misdemeanor. Any person violating the provisions of this section is guilty of a
misdemeanor. The record of any conviction of or plea of guilty under this section of a person
operating a motor vehicle shall be immediately forwarded to the Department of Public Safety
for inclusion upon that offender's driving record. Any second or subsequent offense under this
section shall require a minimum fine in the amount of $400. Any judge may, for any violation
of this section, order the offender to pick up litter along any public highway or road for four
to eight hours under the direction of the Department of Transportation, with the option of a
jail sentence being imposed.
History: (2720-227) 1937 c 464 s 77; 1951 c 663 s 1,2; 1967 c 104 s 1; 1973 c 299 s 1;
1976 c 166 s 7; 1980 c 533 s 13; 1983 c 359 s 11; 1991 c 138 s 1; 2003 c 28 art 1 s 17
169.421 CIVIL LIABILITY FOR LITTERING.
    Subdivision 1. Finding. The legislature finds that the cost of removal and disposal of solid
waste, including litter, from vehicles is an onerous burden upon the public, and that the criminal
law is not always adequate in dealing with the problem. This requires the imposition of civil
liability as provided in this section.
    Subd. 2. Definition. For purposes of this section, "owner" as to a vehicle means the owner of
the vehicle, but in the case of a leased vehicle means the lessee.
    Subd. 3. Civil liability imposed. If any solid waste, including litter, glass, nails, tacks,
wire, cans, bottles, garbage, papers, refuse, trash, cigarette filters, debris from fireworks, or
any form of offensive matter is thrown, deposited, placed, or dumped from a vehicle upon any
street or highway, public land, or upon private land without the consent of the owner of the
land, a violation of this subdivision occurs and civil liability is imposed upon the owner of the
vehicle. The driver and passengers riding in a vehicle are constituted as the agents of the owner
of the vehicle for purposes of this subdivision. It is a defense to any action brought pursuant to
this section that the vehicle was stolen. This section is not applicable to the owner of a vehicle
transporting persons for hire or transporting school children.
    Subd. 4. Civil penalty; damages. A person who violates this section is subject to the civil
penalties for littering and an action for damages as specified in section 115A.99.
    Subd. 5. Procedures. A civil action may be commenced as is any civil action or by the
issuance of a citation to the owner of the vehicle by any law enforcement officer who has reason
to believe that a violation has occurred. Actions commenced by the issuance of a citation by a
law enforcement officer shall be tried by the prosecuting authority responsible for misdemeanor
prosecutions in the jurisdiction where a violation occurs. Any damages recovered in an action
brought by a public agency shall be deposited in the treasury of the jurisdiction trying the action
and distributed as provided in section 487.33. Any district court may establish a separate civil
calendar for cases brought under this section.
    Subd. 6. Relationship to criminal law; election of remedy. If an act is a violation of this
section and of a statute or ordinance providing a criminal penalty, a public agency elects its
remedy by commencing either an action under this section or a criminal prosecution, and the
commencement of one type of action by a public agency is a bar to its bringing of the other.
    Subd. 7. Payment. Any district court may establish a schedule of costs and civil damages,
and procedures for payment, in cases brought by a public agency under which the defendant may
consent to default judgment and make payment according to the schedule without making a
personal appearance in court.
    Subd. 8. Citation. This section may be cited as the Civil Litter Act.
History: 1979 c 235 s 1; 1991 c 138 s 2; 1994 c 412 s 3; 1998 c 254 art 2 s 14,15; 2003
c 28 art 1 s 18
169.43 SWINGING GATE ON TRUCK.
(a) No truck shall be operated on any highway with gate, loading rack, or partition carried in
any manner on any part of the exterior of the truck, unless the top and bottom of such gate, loading
rack or partition is securely attached to the truck, so as to prevent swinging or becoming loose.
(b) No truck shall be driven or parked on any highway with tailgate or tailboard hanging
down or projecting from the vehicle except while such vehicle is being loaded or unloaded, and
except when a load on the tailboard renders impossible the closing of the tailboard.
History: (2720-228, 2720-229) 1937 c 464 s 78,79; 1947 c 428 s 22; 1949 c 263; 1971
c 320 s 1

SCHOOL BUS SAFETY

169.435 STATE SCHOOL BUS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION.
    Subdivision 1. Responsibility; Department of Public Safety. The Department of Public
Safety has the primary responsibility for school transportation safety. The commissioner or
the commissioner's designee shall serve as state director of pupil transportation according to
subdivision 3.
    Subd. 2.[Expired]
    Subd. 3. Pupil transportation safety director. (a) The commissioner of public safety or the
commissioner's designee shall serve as pupil transportation safety director.
(b) The duties of the pupil transportation safety director shall include:
(1) overseeing all department activities related to school bus safety;
(2) assisting in the development, interpretation, and implementation of laws and policies
relating to school bus safety;
(3) supervising preparation of the School Bus Inspection Manual; and
(4) in conjunction with the Department of Education, assisting school districts in developing
and implementing comprehensive transportation policies.
History: 1994 c 647 art 12 s 13; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 16 s 13; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 6; 1Sp2003
c 9 art 12 s 17
169.44 [Repealed, 1991 c 277 s 18]
169.441 SCHOOL BUS IDENTIFICATION.
    Subdivision 1. Identification and signal requirements, generally. For purposes of sections
169.441 to 169.448, school bus means a motor vehicle that is outwardly equipped and identified
as a school bus. A motor vehicle that satisfies the identification requirements of this section and
the signal equipment requirements of section 169.442 is considered outwardly equipped and
identified as a school bus.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1994 c 647 art 12 s 43]
    Subd. 2a. Head Start bus; color; identification. (a) A Head Start bus is exempt from the
color requirements of this chapter.
(b) A type A, B, C, or D Head Start bus must bear on its front and rear a plainly visible sign
containing the words "Head Start bus" in letters at least eight inches in height.
    Subd. 3. Sign on bus; application of other law. Sections 169.443, subdivision 2; and
169.444, subdivisions 1, 4, and 5, apply only if the school bus bears on its front and rear a plainly
visible sign containing the words "school bus" in letters at least eight inches in height.
Except as provided in section 169.443, subdivision 8, the sign must be removed or covered
when the vehicle is being used as other than a school bus.
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1Sp2003 c 9 art 10 s 14]
    Subd. 5. Optional markings; rules. A school district may elect to show on the front and rear
of the school buses that it owns or contracts for, a plainly visible, summary message explaining
section 169.444, subdivisions 1 and 2. If the school district elects to display the message, it must
conform with the rules of the commissioner of public safety. The commissioner shall adopt rules
governing the size, type, design, display, and content of the summary message that may be shown.
History: 1991 c 277 s 3; 1992 c 516 s 1; 1994 c 603 s 4,5; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 15; 1Sp1995
c 3 art 16 s 13; 1996 c 398 s 55; 1Sp2003 c 9 art 10 s 13
169.442 SCHOOL BUS SIGNALS.
    Subdivision 1. Signals required. A type A, B, C, or D school bus must be equipped with at
least one stop-signal arm, prewarning flashing amber signals, and flashing red signals.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1994 c 647 art 12 s 43]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1994 c 647 art 12 s 43]
    Subd. 4. Optional warning system. In addition to equipment required under subdivision
1, and notwithstanding section 169.64, a school bus may be equipped with a driver-activated,
exterior student-control, warning system. The driver shall activate this system when the use of the
stop-signal arm and flashing red signals is required under section 169.443, subdivision 1.
    Subd. 5. White strobe lamps on certain buses transporting children. (a) Notwithstanding
section 169.55, subdivision 1, or 169.57, subdivision 3, paragraph (b), or other law to the contrary,
a school bus that is subject to and complies with the equipment requirements of subdivision 1 and
section 169.441, subdivision 1, or a Head Start bus that is not a type III bus defined in section
169.01, subdivision 6, may be equipped with a flashing strobe lamp. The lamp may be used
only as provided in this subdivision.
(b) The lamp must be permanently mounted on the longitudinal centerline of the bus roof not
less than two feet forward of the rear roof edge.
(c) The strobe lamp may be lighted only when atmospheric conditions or terrain restrict the
visibility of school bus lamps and signals or Head Start bus lamps and signals so as to require use
of the bright strobe lamp to alert motorists to the presence of the school bus or Head Start bus. A
strobe lamp may not be lighted unless the school bus or Head Start bus is actually being used
as a school bus or Head Start bus.
History: 1991 c 277 s 4; 1994 c 603 s 6; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 16; 2004 c 294 art 2 s 19,20
169.443 SAFETY OF SCHOOL CHILDREN; BUS DRIVER'S DUTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Using bus signals. A driver of a school bus shall activate the prewarning
flashing amber signals of the bus before stopping to load or unload school children. The driver
shall activate and continuously operate the amber signals for a distance of at least 100 feet before
stopping in a speed zone of 35 miles per hour or less and at least 300 feet before stopping in a
speed zone of more than 35 miles per hour. On stopping for this purpose, the driver shall extend
the stop-signal arm system and activate the flashing red signals. The driver shall not retract
the stop-signal arm system nor extinguish the flashing red signals until loading or unloading is
completed, students are seated, and children who must cross the roadway are safely across.
    Subd. 2. Use of stop-signal arm. (a) The stop-signal arm system of a school bus must be
used in conjunction with the flashing red signals only when the school bus is stopped on a street
or highway to load or unload school children.
(b) A local authority, including the governing body of an Indian tribe, may by ordinance
require that a school bus activate the stop-signal arm system and flashing red signals while stopped
to unload school children at a location other than a location on a street or highway. The ordinance
must designate each location where the requirement is imposed. The requirement is effective only
if the local authority has erected signs at or near the location to provide adequate notice that other
vehicles are required to obey section 169.444, subdivision 1, when those signals are activated.
    Subd. 3. When signals not used. School bus drivers shall not activate the prewarning
flashing amber signals or flashing red signals and shall not use the stop arm signal:
(1) in special school bus loading areas where the bus is entirely off the traveled portion
of the roadway and where no other motor vehicle traffic is moving or is likely to be moving
within 20 feet of the bus;
(2) when directed not to do so, in writing, by the local school board;
(3) when a school bus is being used on a street or highway for purposes other than the
actual transportation of school children to or from school or a school-approved activity, except as
provided in subdivision 8;
(4) at railroad grade crossings; and
(5) when loading and unloading people at designated school bus stops where people are not
required to cross the street or highway, while the bus is completely off the traveled portion of a
roadway that has adequate shoulders. The driver shall drive the bus completely off the traveled
portion of this roadway before loading or unloading people. A school bus stop is designated under
this clause if the transportation director of the school district in which the bus stop is located, in
consultation with the road authority, certifies the integrity of the shoulder and the safety of the
location for loading and unloading people. Each designated school bus stop must be documented
and approved by the school board.
    Subd. 4. Street crossings. Where school children must cross a roadway before getting
on or after getting off the school bus, the driver of the school bus or a school bus patrol may
supervise the crossing, using the standard school patrol flag or signal as approved and prescribed
by the commissioner of public safety. Before moving the school bus, the driver of the bus shall
visually determine that all children have crossed the roadway and that those who are to do so
have boarded the school bus.
    Subd. 5. Moving bus after children unloaded. When children are getting off a school
bus or Head Start bus, the driver shall visually determine that they are a safe distance from the
bus before moving the bus.
    Subd. 6. Type III buses. The driver of a type III school bus or type III Head Start bus
shall load or unload school children or Head Start passengers only from the right-hand side of
the vehicle, provided that on a one-way street the driver shall load or unload school children or
Head Start passengers only from the curb side of the vehicle. When loading or unloading school
children or Head Start passengers, the driver shall activate the vehicle's four-way hazard lights
described in section 169.59, subdivision 4.
    Subd. 7. Misdemeanor. A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 8. Use for recreational or educational activity. A school bus that transports over
regular routes and on regular schedules persons age 18 or under to and from a regularly scheduled
recreational or educational activity must comply with subdivisions 1 and 7. Notwithstanding
section 169.441, subdivision 3, a school bus may provide such transportation only if (1) the
"school bus" sign is plainly visible; (2) the school bus has a valid certificate of inspection under
section 169.451; (3) the driver of the school bus possesses a driver's license with a valid school
bus endorsement under section 171.10; and (4) the entity that organizes the recreational or
educational activity, or the contractor who provides the school buses to the entity, consults with
the superintendent of the school district in which the activity is located or the superintendent's
designee on the safety of the regular routes used.
History: 1991 c 277 s 5; 1992 c 516 s 2,3; 1993 c 78 s 1; 1994 c 465 art 1 s 25; 1994 c 603 s
7,8; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 17; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 7; 2000 c 426 s 25; 2004 c 294 art 2 s 21,22
169.444 SAFETY OF SCHOOL CHILDREN; DUTIES OF OTHER DRIVERS.
    Subdivision 1. Children getting on or off school bus. When a school bus is stopped on
a street or highway, or other location where signs have been erected under section 169.443,
subdivision 2
, paragraph (b), and is displaying an extended stop-signal arm and flashing red lights,
the driver of a vehicle approaching the bus shall stop the vehicle at least 20 feet away from the
bus. The vehicle driver shall not allow the vehicle to move until the school bus stop-signal arm is
retracted and the red lights are no longer flashing.
    Subd. 1a. Passing on right. No person may pass or attempt to pass a school bus in a motor
vehicle on the right-hand, passenger-door side of the bus when the school bus is displaying the
prewarning flashing amber signals as required in section 169.443, subdivision 1.
    Subd. 2. Violations by drivers; penalties. (a) A person who fails to stop a vehicle or to keep
it stopped, as required in subdivision 1, or who violates subdivision 1a, is guilty of a misdemeanor
punishable by a fine of not less than $300.
(b) A person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor if the person fails to stop a motor vehicle or
to keep it stopped, as required in subdivision 1, or who violates subdivision 1a, and commits
either or both of the following acts:
(1) passes or attempts to pass the school bus in a motor vehicle on the right-hand,
passenger-door side of the bus; or
(2) passes or attempts to pass the school bus in a motor vehicle when a school child is outside
of and on the street or highway used by the school bus or on the adjacent sidewalk.
    Subd. 3. Prosecutor. (a) The attorney in the jurisdiction in which the violation occurred who
is responsible for prosecution of misdemeanor violations of this section shall also be responsible
for prosecution of gross misdemeanor violations of this section.
(b) When an attorney responsible for prosecuting gross misdemeanors under this section
requests criminal history information relating to prior convictions under this section from a court,
the court must furnish the information without charge.
    Subd. 4. Exception for separated roadway. (a) A person driving a vehicle on a street or
highway with separated roadways is not required to stop the vehicle when approaching or meeting
a school bus that is on a different roadway.
(b) "Separated roadway" means a road that is separated from a parallel road by a safety isle
or safety zone.
    Subd. 5. Cause for arrest. A peace officer may arrest the driver of a motor vehicle if the
peace officer has probable cause to believe that the driver has operated the vehicle in violation of
subdivision 1 or 1a within the past four hours.
    Subd. 6. Violation; penalty for owner or lessee. (a) If a motor vehicle is operated in
violation of subdivision 1 or 1a, the owner of the vehicle, or for a leased motor vehicle the lessee
of the vehicle, is guilty of a petty misdemeanor.
(b) The owner or lessee may not be fined under paragraph (a) if (1) another person is
convicted for that violation, or (2) the motor vehicle was stolen at the time of the violation.
(c) Paragraph (a) does not apply to a lessor of a motor vehicle if the lessor keeps a record of
the name and address of the lessee.
(d) Paragraph (a) does not prohibit or limit the prosecution of a motor vehicle operator for
violating subdivision 1 or 1a.
(e) A violation under paragraph (a) does not constitute grounds for revocation or suspension
of the owner's or lessee's driver's license.
    Subd. 7. Evidentiary presumption. (a) There is a rebuttable presumption that signals
described in section 169.442 were in working order and operable when a violation of subdivision
1, 1a, 2, or 5 was allegedly committed, if the signals of the applicable school bus were inspected
and visually found to be in working order and operable within 12 hours preceding the incident
giving rise to the violation.
(b) There is a rebuttable presumption that a motor vehicle outwardly equipped and identified
as a school bus satisfies all of the identification and equipment requirements of section 169.441
when a violation of subdivision 1, 1a, 2, or 5 was allegedly committed, if the applicable school
bus bears a current inspection certificate issued under section 169.451.
    Subd. 8. Scheduling cases. When necessary or desirable to ensure that a school bus driver
who witnessed or otherwise can provide relevant information concerning a violation of this
section is available to be present at a court proceeding held to determine an alleged violation of
this section, the court administrator shall schedule the proceeding to be held between the hours of
10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.
History: 1991 c 277 s 6; 1993 c 78 s 2; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 2 s 32; 1997 c 159 art 2 s 24-28
169.445 COOPERATION WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT; INFORMATION; RULES.
    Subdivision 1. Cooperation of school authorities. The commissioner of public safety
shall ensure that local authorities having jurisdiction over school buses shall cooperate with law
enforcement and judicial authorities in reporting and prosecuting violators of sections 169.443
and 169.444.
    Subd. 2. Information; rules. The commissioner shall compile information regarding
violations, prosecutions, convictions or other disposition, and penalties imposed under sections
169.443 and 169.444. At the request of the commissioner, local school authorities shall provide
this information. The commissioner may adopt rules governing the content and providing
procedures for the school authorities to provide this information.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1994 c 647 art 12 s 43]
History: 1991 c 277 s 7; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 18,19
169.446 SAFETY OF SCHOOL CHILDREN; TRAINING AND EDUCATION RULES.
    Subdivision 1. Peace officer training. The Board of Peace Officer Standards and Training
shall include sections 169.441 to 169.448 and the enforcement of sections 169.443, 169.444,
169.447, and 169.448 in the instruction for the professional peace officer education program.
The board shall notify the chief law enforcement officer of each law enforcement agency in
the state of these sections.
    Subd. 2. Driver training programs. The commissioner of public safety shall adopt rules
requiring thorough instruction concerning section 169.444 for persons enrolled in driver training
programs offered at private and parochial schools and commercial driver training schools. The
instruction must encompass at least the responsibilities of drivers, the content and requirements of
section 169.444, and the penalties for violating that section.
    Subd. 3. Driver education programs. The commissioner of public safety shall adopt
rules requiring thorough instruction concerning section 169.444 for persons enrolled in driver
education programs offered at public schools. The instruction must encompass at least the
responsibilities of drivers, the content and requirements of section 169.444, and the penalties
for violating that section.
History: 1991 c 277 s 8; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 20
169.447 SCHOOL BUS AND HEAD START BUS SAFETY.
    Subdivision 1. Passenger seating. (a) The number of pupils or other authorized passengers
transported in a school bus or Head Start bus must not be more than the number of pupils
or passengers that can be fully seated. Seating capacity must be adjusted according to each
passenger's individual physical size, but not more than the manufacturers' rated seating capacity.
(b) No person shall stand in the school bus or Head Start bus when the bus is in motion.
    Subd. 2. Driver seat belt. New school buses and Head Start buses manufactured after
December 31, 1994, must be equipped with driver seat belts and seat belt assemblies of the
type described in section 169.685, subdivision 3. School bus drivers and Head Start bus drivers
must use these seat belts.
    Subd. 2a. Passenger lap and shoulder belts. (a) In addition to the requirements in section
169.4501, subdivision 1, a school bus may be equipped with an approved lap belt or an approved
lap and shoulder belt installed for each passenger-seating position on the bus. The design and
installation of lap belts and lap and shoulder belts required under this paragraph must meet the
standards of the commissioner established under paragraph (b).
(b) The commissioner shall consider all concerns necessary to properly integrate lap belts
or lap and shoulder belts into the current compartmentalization safety system and prescribe
standards for the design and installation of lap and shoulder belts required under paragraph (a).
The standards are not subject to chapter 14 and are specifically not subject to section 14.386.
(c) This subdivision does not apply to specially equipped school buses under section
169.4504.
(d) A passenger on a school bus equipped with lap belts or lap and shoulder belts must use
these lap belts or lap and shoulder belts unless the passenger, or if the passenger is a minor, the
passenger's parent or guardian, has notified the school district in writing that the passenger does
not intend to wear the lap belt or lap and shoulder belt.
(e) In an action for personal injury or wrongful death against a school district, a school bus
operator under contract with a school district, or any agent or employee of a school district or
operator, or against a volunteer, no such person or entity shall be held liable solely because the
injured party was not wearing a safety belt; provided, however, that nothing contained herein
shall be construed to grant immunity from liability for failure to:
(1) maintain in operating order any equipment required by statute, rule, or school district
policy; or
(2) comply with an applicable statute, rule, or school district policy.
(f) In an action for personal injury or wrongful death, a school district, a school bus contract
operator, any agent or employee of a school district or operator, or a volunteer is not liable for
failing to assist any child with the adjustment, fastening, unfastening, or other use of the lap
belt or lap and shoulder belt.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1994 c 647 art 12 s 43]
    Subd. 4. Aisle and exit. The driver of a school bus or Head Start bus shall keep the aisle
and emergency exit of a school bus or Head Start bus unobstructed at all times when children
are being transported.
    Subd. 5. Trailer behind school bus. A school bus may pull a trailer, as defined by section
169.01, subdivision 10, only when traveling to or from cocurricular or extracurricular activities,
as defined in section 123B.49.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 2004 c 294 art 2 s 34]
History: 1991 c 277 s 9; 1994 c 603 s 9; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 21; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 8;
1998 c 397 art 11 s 3; 2000 c 489 art 6 s 28
169.448 OTHER BUSES.
    Subdivision 1. Restrictions on appearance; misdemeanor. (a) A bus that is not used as a
school bus may not be operated on a street or highway unless it is painted a color significantly
different than national school bus glossy yellow.
(b) A bus that is not used as a school bus or Head Start bus may not be operated if it is
equipped with school bus or Head Start bus-related equipment and printing.
(c) A violation of this subdivision is a misdemeanor.
(d) This subdivision does not apply to a school bus owned by or under contract to a school
district operated as a charter or leased bus.
(e) This subdivision does not apply to a school bus operated by a licensed child care provider
if:
(1) the stop arm is removed;
(2) the eight-light system is deactivated;
(3) the school bus is identified as a "child care bus" in letters at least eight inches high
on the front and rear top of the bus;
(4) the name, address, and telephone number of the owner or operator of the bus is identified
on each front door of the bus in letters not less than three inches high; and
(5) the conditions under section 171.02, subdivision 2a, paragraph (b), clauses (1) through
(10), (12), and (14), have been met.
    Subd. 2. School motor coach. (a) A school district may not acquire a motor coach for
transportation purposes.
(b) A motor coach acquired by a school district before March 26, 1986, may be used by it
only to transport students participating in school activities, their instructors, and supporting
personnel to and from school activities. A motor coach may not be outwardly equipped and
identified as a school bus. A motor coach operated under this subdivision is not a school bus for
purposes of section 123B.92. The commissioner of education shall implement rules governing
the equipment, identification, operation, inspection, and certification of motor coaches operated
under this subdivision.
(c) After January 1, 1998, a school district may not own or operate a motor coach for any
purpose.
    Subd. 3. Head Start vehicle. Notwithstanding subdivision 1, a vehicle used to transport
students under Public Law 99-425, the Head Start Act, may be equipped as a school bus or
Head Start bus.
    Subd. 4. Day activity center buses. Notwithstanding subdivision 1, a vehicle used to
transport adults to and from a day activity center may be equipped with prewarning flashing
amber signals and a stop-signal arm, and the operator of the vehicle may activate this equipment,
under the following circumstances:
(1) the operator possesses a commercial driver's license with a school bus endorsement;
(2) the vehicle is engaged in picking up or dropping off adults at locations predesignated by
the day activity center that owns or leases the bus;
(3) the vehicle is identified as a "day activity center bus" in letters at least eight inches
high on the front and rear top of the bus; and
(4) the name, address, and telephone number of the owner and operator of the bus is
identified on each front door of the bus in letters not less than three inches high.
The provisions of section 169.444 relating to duties of care of a motorist to a school bus, and
violations thereof, apply to a vehicle described in this section when the vehicle is operated in
conformity with this subdivision. The provisions of section 169.443 relating to bus driver's duties
apply to a vehicle described in this section except those that by their nature have no application.
History: 1991 c 277 s 10; 1994 c 603 s 10,11; 1996 c 398 s 56; 1998 c 397 art 11 s 3; 1998
c 398 art 5 s 55; 2000 c 489 art 6 s 29; 2001 c 97 s 2; 2003 c 130 s 12; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s
28; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 47
169.449 SCHOOL BUS OPERATION.
    Subdivision 1. Rules. The commissioner of public safety shall adopt rules governing the
operation of school buses used for transportation of school children, when owned or operated by
a school or privately owned and operated under a contract with a school, and these rules must
be made a part of that contract by reference. Each school, its officers and employees, and each
person employed under the contract is subject to these rules.
    Subd. 2. Enforcement. The operation of a school bus on the public streets or highways in
violation of rules concerning the operation of school buses adopted by the commissioner under
subdivision 1 is a misdemeanor. The State Patrol shall enforce rules adopted under subdivision 1
when a school bus is operated on a public street or highway.
History: 1994 c 647 art 12 s 22; 1Sp2003 c 9 art 12 s 18
169.45 [Repealed, 1994 c 647 art 12 s 43]
169.4501 SCHOOL BUS EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.
    Subdivision 1. National standards adopted. Except as provided in sections 169.4502 and
169.4503, the construction, design, equipment, and color of types A, B, C, and D school buses
used for the transportation of school children shall meet the requirements of the "bus chassis
standards" and "bus body standards" in the 2000 edition of the "National School Transportation
Specifications and Procedures" adopted by the National Conference on School Transportation.
Except as provided in section 169.4504, the construction, design, and equipment of types A, B,
C, and D school buses used for the transportation of students with disabilities also shall meet
the requirements of the "specially equipped school bus standards" in the 2000 National School
Transportation Specifications and Procedures. The "bus chassis standards," "bus body standards,"
and "specially equipped school bus standards" sections of the 2000 edition of the "National School
Transportation Specifications and Procedures" are incorporated by reference in this chapter.
    Subd. 2. Applicability. (a) The standards adopted in this section and sections 169.4502 and
169.4503, govern the construction, design, equipment, and color of school buses used for the
transportation of school children, when owned or leased and operated by a school or privately
owned or leased and operated under a contract with a school. Each school, its officers and
employees, and each person employed under the contract is subject to these standards.
(b) The standards apply to school buses manufactured after October 31, 2004. Buses
complying with the standards when manufactured need not comply with standards established
later except as specifically provided for by law.
(c) A school bus manufactured on or before October 31, 2004, must conform to the
Minnesota standards in effect on the date the vehicle was manufactured except as specifically
provided for in law.
(d) A new bus body may be remounted on a used chassis provided that the remounted vehicle
meets state and federal standards for new buses which are current at the time of the remounting.
Permission must be obtained from the commissioner of public safety before the remounting is
done. A used bus body may not be remounted on a new or used chassis.
    Subd. 3. Inspection manual. The Department of Public Safety shall develop a School Bus
Inspection Manual based on the national standards adopted in subdivision 1 and Minnesota
standards adopted in sections 169.4502 to 169.4504. The Minnesota State Patrol shall use the
manual as the basis for inspecting buses as provided in section 169.451. The Department of Public
Safety has no rulemaking authority to alter the standards upon which school buses are inspected.
    Subd. 4. Variance. The commissioner of public safety may grant a variance to any of the
school bus standards to accommodate testing of new equipment related to school buses. A variance
from the standards must be for the sole purpose of testing and evaluating new equipment for
increased safety, efficiency, and economy of pupil transportation. The variance expires 18 months
from the date on which it is granted unless the commissioner specifies an earlier expiration date.
History: 1994 c 647 art 12 s 23; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 9,10; 1Sp2003 c 9 art 12 s 19,20;
2004 c 294 art 2 s 23,24
169.4502 ADDITIONAL MINNESOTA SCHOOL BUS CHASSIS STANDARDS.
    Subdivision 1. Relation to national standards. The bus chassis standards contained in
this section are required in addition to those required by section 169.4501. When a Minnesota
standard contained in this section conflicts with a national standard adopted in section 169.4501,
the Minnesota standard contained in this section is controlling.
    Subd. 2. Brakes. The braking system must meet federal motor vehicle safety standards in
effect at the time of manufacture.
    Subd. 3. Certification. A chassis manufacturer shall certify that the product meets Minnesota
standards. All buses with a certified manufacturing date prior to April 1, 1977, shall not be
recertified as a school bus after January 1, 1996.
    Subd. 4. Color of fenders, hood, and grill. Fenders may be painted black. The hood may
be painted nonreflective black or nonreflective yellow. The grill may be manufacturer's standard
color or chrome.
    Subd. 5. Electrical system; battery. (a) The storage battery, as established by the
manufacturer's rating, must be of sufficient capacity to care for starting, lighting, signal devices,
heating, and other electrical equipment. In a bus with a gas-powered chassis, the battery or
batteries must provide a minimum of 800 cold cranking amperes. In a bus with a diesel-powered
chassis, the battery or batteries must provide a minimum of 1050 cold cranking amperes.
(b) In a type B bus with a gross vehicle weight rating of 15,000 pounds or more, and type C
and D buses, the battery shall be temporarily mounted on the chassis frame. The final location
of the battery and the appropriate cable lengths in these buses must comply with the SBMI
design objectives booklet.
(c) All batteries shall be mounted according to chassis manufacturers' recommendations.
(d) In a type C bus, other than are powered by diesel fuel, a battery providing at least 550
cold cranking amperes may be installed in the engine compartment only if used in combination
with a generator or alternator of at least 120 amperes.
(e) A bus with a gross vehicle weight rating of 15,000 pounds or less may be equipped
with a battery to provide a minimum of 550 cold cranking amperes only if used in combination
with an alternator of at least 80 amperes. This paragraph does not apply to those buses with
wheelchair lifts or diesel engines.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 34]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 2004 c 294 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 8. Trailer hitch. Installation of a trailer hitch is permitted. A hitch shall be flush
mounted.
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 2004 c 294 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 10. Horn. A bus shall be equipped with a horn in good working order and capable of
emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than 200 feet.
    Subd. 11. Tire and rim. The use of multipiece rims or tube-type tires is not permitted on
school buses manufactured after October 31, 2004. Radial and bias-ply tires shall not be used
on the same axle. Front tire tread depth shall not be less than 4/32 inch in any major tire tread
groove. Rear tire tread shall not be less than 2/32 inch. Tires must be measured in three locations
around the tire, in two adjoining grooves. No recapped tires shall be used on the front wheels.
Recapped tires are permitted on the rear wheels.
    Subd. 12. Transmission gear shift display. The transmission shifting pattern must be
permanently displayed in the driver's full view.
    Subd. 13.[Repealed, 2004 c 294 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 14.[Repealed, 2004 c 294 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 15. Oil filter or oil filtration system. An oil filtration system may be used in lieu
of an oil filter.
History: 1994 c 647 art 12 s 36; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 2 s 33; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 11-17;
2004 c 294 art 2 s 25
169.4503 ADDITIONAL MINNESOTA SCHOOL BUS BODY STANDARDS.
    Subdivision 1. Relation to national standards. The bus body standards contained in this
section are required in addition to those required by sections 169.4501 and 169.4502. When a
Minnesota standard contained in this section conflicts with a national standard adopted in section
169.4501, the Minnesota standard contained in this section is controlling.
    Subd. 2. Back-up warning alarm. An automatic audible back-up alarm may be installed. A
spring-loaded button in the driver's compartment that will temporarily disable the back-up alarm
is allowed for usage in school bus overnight parking lots and repair facilities.
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 34]
    Subd. 4. Certification. A body manufacturer, school bus dealer, or certified Minnesota
commercial vehicle inspector who is also an employee of an organization purchasing a school
bus shall provide preliminary certification to the Department of Public Safety that the product
meets Minnesota standards. Final certification will be granted within 30 days upon reinspection
by the Department of Public Safety.
    Subd. 5. Colors. Fenderettes may be black. The beltline may be painted yellow over black or
black over yellow. The rub rails shall be black.
    Subd. 6. Communications. All buses manufactured after January 1, 1995, shall have a
two-way voice communications system.
    Subd. 7. Floor construction. The metal floor shall be covered with plywood. The plywood
shall be at least 19/32 inches thick, and must equal or exceed properties of exterior-type softwood
plywood, grade C-D, as specified in product standard PSI-I83 issued by the United States
Department of Commerce. The floor shall be level from front to back, and side to side, except
in wheel housing, toe board, and driver's seat platform areas.
    Subd. 8.[Repealed, 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 34]
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 34]
    Subd. 10.[Repealed, 2004 c 294 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 10a.[Repealed, 2004 c 294 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 11.[Repealed, 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 34]
    Subd. 12.[Repealed, 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 34]
    Subd. 13. Identification. (a) Each bus shall, in the beltline, identify the school district
serviced, or company name, or owner of the bus. Numbers necessary for identification must
appear on the sides and rear of the bus. Symbols or letters may be used on the outside of the
bus near the entrance door for student identification. A manufacturer's nameplate or logo may
be placed on the bus.
(b) Effective December 31, 1994, all buses sold must display lettering "Unlawful to pass
when red lights are flashing" on the rear of the bus. The lettering shall be in two-inch black letters
on school bus yellow background. This message shall be displayed directly below the upper
window of the rear door. On rear engine buses, it shall be centered at approximately the same
location. Only signs and lettering approved or required by state law may be displayed.
    Subd. 14. Insulation. (a) Thermal insulation is required. It shall be fire-resistant, UL
approved, with minimum R-value of 5.5. Insulation shall be installed so as to prevent sagging.
(b) Floor insulation is required. It shall be five-ply nominal five-eighths-inch-thick plywood,
and shall equal or exceed properties of the exterior-type softwood plywood, C-D Grade, as
specified in the standard issued by United States Department of Commerce. All exposed edges
on plywood shall be sealed. Type A-I buses shall be equipped with nominal one-half-inch-thick
plywood or equivalent material meeting the above requirements. Equivalent material may be used
to replace plywood, provided it has an equal or greater insulation R value, deterioration, sound
abatement, and moisture resistance properties.
    Subd. 15. Interior speakers. Interior speakers, except in the driver's compartment, must not
protrude more than one-half inch from the mounting surface.
    Subd. 16. Lamps and signals. (a) If installed, a white flashing strobe shall be of a double
flash type. No roof hatch can be mounted behind the strobe light.
(b) All lamps on the exterior of the vehicle must conform with and be installed as required by
federal motor vehicle safety standard number 108, Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, part 571.
(c) A type A, B, C, or D school bus manufactured for use in Minnesota after December 31,
1994, may not be equipped with red turn-signal lenses on the rear of the bus.
    Subd. 17. Mirrors. After January 1, 1995, all school buses must be equipped with a
minimum of two crossover mirrors, mounted to the left and right sides of the bus.
    Subd. 18. Overall width. The overall width limit excludes mirrors, mirror brackets, and the
stop arm.
    Subd. 19. Rub rail. There shall be one rub rail at the base of the skirt of the bus on all type
A, excluding van conversions, B, C, and D buses.
    Subd. 20. Seat and crash barriers. All restraining barriers and passenger seats shall be
covered with a material that has fire retardant or fire block characteristics.
    Subd. 21.[Repealed, 2004 c 294 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 22.[Repealed, 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 34]
    Subd. 23. Windows. Windshield, entrance, and rear emergency exit doors must be of
approved safety glass. Laminated or tempered glass (AS-2 or AS-3) is permitted in all other
windows. All glass shall be federally approved and marked as provided in section 169.74. The
windshield may be of uniform tint throughout or may have a horizontal gradient band starting
slightly above the line of vision and gradually decreasing in light transmission to 20 percent or less
at the top of the windshield. The use of tinted glass, as approved by section 169.71, is permitted
on side windows and rear windows except for the entrance door, the first window behind the
service door, and the window to the left of the driver. The window to the left of the driver, the
upper service door windows, and the window immediately behind the entrance door must be
thermal glass. The window to the left of the driver for type A buses need not be thermal glass.
    Subd. 24. Wiring. If a master cutoff switch is used, it shall not be wired as to kill power to
the electric brake system.
    Subd. 25.[Repealed, 2004 c 294 art 2 s 34]
    Subd. 26. Crossing control arm. If a bus is equipped with a crossing control arm, an
automatic recycling interrupt switch may be installed for temporary disabling of the crossing
control arm.
History: 1994 c 647 art 12 s 37; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 2 s 34; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 18-27;
1Sp2003 c 9 art 1 s 45; 2004 c 294 art 2 s 26-30
169.4504 ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR SPECIALLY EQUIPPED BUS.
    Subdivision 1. Relation to national standards. The specially equipped school bus standards
contained in this section are required in addition to those required by section 169.4501. When a
Minnesota standard contained in this section conflicts with a national standard adopted in section
169.4501, the Minnesota standard contained in this section is controlling.
    Subd. 2. Communications. All vehicles used to transport disabled students shall be equipped
with a two-way communication system.
    Subd. 3. Restraining devices. Special restraining devices such as shoulder harnesses, lap
belts, and chest restraint systems may be installed to the seats if the devices do not require the
alteration in any form of the seat, seat cushion, framework, or related seat components. The
restraints must be for the sole purpose of restraining students with disabilities.
    Subd. 4. Securement system for mobile seating. Wheelchair securement devices must
comply with all requirements for wheelchair securement systems contained in federal regulation
in effect on the later of the date the bus was manufactured or the date that a wheelchair securement
system was added to the bus.
    Subd. 5. Aisle width. All school buses equipped with a power lift shall provide at least a
12-inch aisle leading from wheelchair position to at least one emergency door and the lift area.
    Subd. 6. Securement and restraint system. The securement and restraint system must be
located and installed so that when an occupied wheelchair or other mobility aid is secured, the
installation meets the requirements of the applicable federal motor vehicle safety standard.
History: 1994 c 647 art 12 s 38; 1996 c 412 art 2 s 15; 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 28,29
169.451 INSPECTING SCHOOL AND HEAD START BUSES; RULES; MISDEMEANOR.
    Subdivision 1. Annual requirement. The Minnesota State Patrol shall inspect every school
bus and every Head Start bus annually to ascertain whether its construction, design, equipment,
and color comply with all provisions of law.
    Subd. 2. Inspection certificate. No person shall drive, or no owner shall knowingly permit
or cause to be driven, any school bus or Head Start bus unless there is displayed thereon a
certificate issued by the commissioner of public safety stating that on a certain date, which shall
be within 13 months of the date of operation, a member of the Minnesota State Patrol inspected
the bus and found that on the date of inspection the bus complied with the applicable provisions
of state law relating to construction, design, equipment, and color.
    Subd. 3. Rules of commissioner. (a) The commissioner of public safety shall provide by rule
for the issuance and display of distinctive inspection certificates.
(b) The commissioner of public safety shall provide by rule a point system for evaluating
the effect on safety operation of any variance from law detected during inspections conducted
pursuant to subdivision 1.
    Subd. 4. Violation; penalty. The State Patrol shall enforce subdivision 2. A violation of
subdivision 2 is a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 5. Random spot inspection. In addition to the annual inspection, the Minnesota
State Patrol has authority to conduct random, unannounced spot inspections of any school bus
or Head Start bus being operated within the state to ascertain whether it is in compliance with
provisions of law, including the Minnesota school bus equipment standards in sections 169.4501
to 169.4504, subject to the procedures approved by the commissioner.
History: 1971 c 327 s 1; 1973 c 80 s 1; 1974 c 332 s 3; 1981 c 37 s 2; 1981 c 357 s 61; 1983
c 216 art 1 s 28; 1991 c 277 s 12; 1994 c 603 s 12; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 2 s 35; 1998 c 398 art 6 s 31
169.4511 SCHOOL BUS ACCIDENT AND SUBSEQUENT OPERATION.
    Subdivision 1. Postcrash inspection. (a) A peace officer responding to an accident involving
a school bus or Head Start bus must immediately notify the State Patrol if the accident results in
death or serious personal injury on the school bus, or property damage to the school bus of an
apparent extent of more than $4,400. No person shall drive or knowingly permit or cause to be
driven, for the purpose of transporting students, any school bus or Head Start bus after such an
accident unless:
(1) the vehicle has been inspected by the Minnesota State Patrol and the State Patrol has
determined that the vehicle may safely be operated; or
(2) a waiver has been granted under subdivision 2.
(b) A violation of this section is a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 2. Waiver. A state trooper or designee of the Minnesota State Patrol called to the
scene of an accident by a responding peace officer under subdivision 1 may waive the inspection
requirement of subdivision 1 if the trooper or State Patrol designee determines that a postcrash
inspection is not needed or cannot be accomplished without unreasonable delay. The trooper or
State Patrol designee granting a waiver must provide to the driver of the school bus for which the
waiver is granted a written statement that the inspection has been waived. The written statement
must include the incident report number assigned to the accident by the State Patrol.
History: 1Sp1995 c 3 art 2 s 36
169.452 [Repealed, 1998 c 398 art 6 s 38]
169.454 TYPE III VEHICLE STANDARDS.
    Subdivision 1. Standards. This section applies to type III vehicles used for the transportation
of school children when owned and operated by a school district or privately owned and operated.
All related equipment provided on the vehicle must comply with federal motor vehicle safety
standards where applicable. If no federal standard applies, equipment must be manufacture's
standard.
    Subd. 2. Age of vehicle. Vehicles 12 years or older must not be used as type III vehicles
to transport school children, except those vehicles that are manufactured to meet the structural
requirements of federal motor vehicle safety standard 222, Code of Federal Regulations, title 49,
part 571.
    Subd. 3. Color. Vehicles must be painted a color other than national school bus yellow.
    Subd. 4. Fire extinguisher. A minimum of one 10BC rated dry chemical type fire
extinguisher is required. The extinguisher must be mounted in a bracket, and must be located in the
driver's compartment and be readily accessible to the driver and passengers. A pressure indicator
is required and must be easily read without removing the extinguisher from its mounted position.
    Subd. 5. First aid kit and body fluids cleanup kit. A minimum of a ten-unit first aid kit,
and a body fluids cleanup kit is required. They must be contained in removable, moisture- and
dust-proof containers mounted in an accessible place within the driver's compartment and must be
marked to indicate their identity and location.
    Subd. 6. Identification. The vehicle must not have the words "school bus" in any location on
the exterior of the vehicle, or in any interior location visible to a motorist.
    Subd. 7. Lamps and signals. Installation and use of the eight-lamp warning system is
prohibited.
All lamps on the exterior of the vehicle must conform with and be installed as required by
federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108, Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, part 571.
    Subd. 8. Stop-signal arm. Installation and use of a stop-signal arm is prohibited.
    Subd. 9. Mirrors. The interior clear rearview mirror must afford a good view of pupils and
roadway to the rear. Two exterior clear rearview mirrors must be provided, one to the left and
one to the right of the driver. Each mirror must be firmly supported and adjustable to give the
driver clear view past the left rear and the right rear of the bus.
    Subd. 10. Warning device. A type III bus must contain at least three red reflectorized
triangle road warning devices. Liquid burning "pot type" flares are not allowed.
    Subd. 11.[Repealed, 1Sp1997 c 4 art 12 s 34]
    Subd. 12. Option. Passenger cars and station wagons may carry fire extinguisher, first aid
kit, and warning triangles in the trunk or trunk area of the vehicle, if a label in the driver and front
passenger area clearly indicates the location of these items.
    Subd. 13. Exemption. When a vehicle otherwise qualifying as a type III vehicle under
section 169.01, subdivision 6, paragraph (5), whether owned and operated by a school district or
privately owned and operated, is used to transport school children in a nonscheduled situation, it
shall be exempt from the vehicle requirements of this section and the licensing requirements of
section 171.321, if the vehicle is properly registered and insured and operated by an employee or
agent of a school district with a valid driver's license.
History: 1994 c 647 art 12 s 25; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 2 s 38,39; 1Sp2003 c 9 art 1 s 46,47
169.4581 CRIMINAL CONDUCT ON SCHOOL BUS.
By January 1, 1995, each local law enforcement agency shall adopt a written policy
regarding procedures for responding to criminal incidents on school buses. In adopting a policy,
each law enforcement agency shall consult with local school officials, with representatives of
private companies that contract with school districts to provide transportation, and with parents
of students. The policy must recognize that responding to reports of criminal conduct on school
buses is the responsibility of law enforcement officials.
History: 1994 c 647 art 12 s 26
169.4582 REPORTABLE OFFENSE ON SCHOOL BUS.
    Subdivision 1. Reportable offense; definition. "Reportable offense" means misbehavior
causing an immediate and substantial danger to self or surrounding persons or property under
section 121A.45.
    Subd. 2. Duty to report; school official. Consistent with the school bus safety policy under
section 123B.91, subdivision 1, the school principal, the school transportation safety director, or
other designated school official shall immediately report to the local law enforcement agency
having jurisdiction where the misbehavior occurred and to the school superintendent if the
reporting school official knows or has reason to believe that a student has committed a reportable
offense on a school bus or in a bus loading or unloading area. The reporting school official shall
issue a report to the commissioner of public safety concerning the incident on a form developed
by the commissioner for that purpose.
History: 1994 c 647 art 12 s 27; 1998 c 397 art 11 s 3

VEHICLE EQUIPMENT, SAFETY

169.46 HITCHING BEHIND VEHICLE.
No person shall hitch a toboggan, hand sled, bicycle, or other similar device onto any motor
vehicle or streetcar while being used on a highway.
History: (2720-232) 1937 c 464 s 82; 2001 c 24 s 3
169.467 MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS; DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. As used in sections 169.467 to 169.469, the terms defined in this
section have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2. Motor vehicle. "Motor vehicle" means any vehicle driven or drawn by mechanical
power manufactured primarily for use on the public streets, roads and highways, except any
vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails.
    Subd. 3. New motor vehicle; new vehicle. "New motor vehicle" or "new vehicle" means a
motor vehicle as defined herein heretofore unregistered.
    Subd. 4. New item of motor vehicle equipment. "New item of motor vehicle equipment"
or "new equipment" means any option, device, accessory or other equipment in the possession
of a retail merchant including an automobile dealer prior to its initial retail sale designed to be
attached to a motor vehicle as a part thereof or to be used in conjunction therewith.
    Subd. 5. Motor vehicle safety standard. "Motor vehicle safety standard" means a minimum
standard for motor vehicle performance, or motor vehicle equipment performance which is
practicable, which meets the need for motor vehicle safety and which provides objective criteria.
History: 1974 c 21 s 1
169.468 VEHICLE SAFETY RULES; FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS.
    Subdivision 1. Federal motor vehicle safety standards. The commissioner of public
safety, pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act, may adopt and enforce rules in substantial
conformity with federal motor vehicle safety standards established by the United States Secretary
of Transportation pursuant to the national Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (Public
Law 89-563) with respect to any new motor vehicle or new item of motor vehicle equipment
applicable to the same aspect of performance of such new vehicle or new equipment.
    Subd. 2. Other safety standards; fee for testing and approval. In the absence of a motor
vehicle safety standard adopted pursuant to the national Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of
1966 or if any such standard is not applicable to new vehicles or new equipment manufactured
and first sold in the state of Minnesota, the commissioner of public safety may require new
vehicles and specific types of new equipment to be tested and approved for compliance with the
requirements of this chapter, or any rule adopted pursuant to this chapter. The commissioner
shall approve or disapprove of the vehicle or equipment within a reasonable time after it is
submitted. Approval may be based upon a certificate of approval or test report furnished to
the commissioner by the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators. If such new
vehicle or new equipment does not conform to the provisions of this chapter, or to such rules
adopted by the commissioner of public safety, no person shall sell, offer for sale, or use any
such new vehicle or new equipment. The commissioner of public safety is authorized to set and
collect a reasonable fee from the manufacturer or distributor for the testing and approval of all
new vehicles and specific types of new equipment upon which approval is required under this
section. Such fee may be sufficient in amount to reimburse the Department of Public Safety for
all costs connected with such test and approval. The commissioner shall waive the fee for any
approval based on a certificate of approval or test report furnished by the American Association
of Motor Vehicle Administrators.
    Subd. 3. Conflicts of laws. A federal motor vehicle safety standard adopted by the
commissioner of public safety which conflicts with an equipment provision of this chapter,
applicable to the same aspect of performance, shall supersede, on its effective date, the conflicting
equipment provision of this chapter, with respect to new motor vehicles.
    Subd. 4. Misdemeanor. Any person violating the provisions of this section is guilty of
a misdemeanor.
History: 1974 c 21 s 2; 1978 c 494 s 3; 1985 c 248 s 70
169.469 INJUNCTION.
    Subdivision 1. Authority of district court. The district courts of this state have the authority
to restrain or enjoin a violation or threatened violation of section 169.468.
    Subd. 2. Injunctive power of attorney general. Whenever it appears to the satisfaction of
the attorney general that any party has sold or offered for sale or is selling or offering for sale any
such new motor vehicle or new item of motor vehicle equipment in violation of this section, the
attorney general may, in the name of the state, seek injunctive relief in any court of competent
jurisdiction against any such violation or threatened violation.
History: 1974 c 21 s 3; 1986 c 444
169.47 UNSAFE EQUIPMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Misdemeanor; exceptions. (a) It is unlawful and punishable as hereinafter
provided for any person to drive or for the owner to cause or knowingly permit to be driven on
any highway any vehicle or combination of vehicles which is in such unsafe condition as to
endanger any person, or which does not contain those parts or is not at all times equipped with
such lamps and other equipment in proper condition and adjustment as required in this chapter,
or which is equipped in any manner in violation of this chapter, or for any person to do any act
forbidden or fail to perform any act required under this chapter.
(b) The provisions of this chapter with respect to equipment on vehicles do not apply to
implements of husbandry, road machinery, or road rollers except as otherwise provided in this
chapter.
(c) For purposes of this section, a specialized vehicle resembling a low-slung trailer having a
short bed or platform shall be deemed to be an implement of husbandry when such vehicle is
used exclusively to transport implements of husbandry, provided, however, that no such vehicle
shall operate on the highway before sunrise or after sunset unless proper lighting is affixed to
the implement being drawn.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1978 c 494 s 6]
History: (2720-233) 1937 c 464 s 83; 1939 c 430 s 16; 1969 c 256 s 1; Ex1971 c 27 s 11;
1973 c 730 s 1; 1993 c 187 s 5; 1994 c 600 s 2
169.471 TELEVISION; HEADPHONES.
    Subdivision 1. Television screen in vehicle. No television screen shall be installed or used in
any motor vehicle where it is visible to the driver while operating the motor vehicle except:
(1) video screens installed in law enforcement vehicles;
(2) closed-circuit video systems used exclusively to aid the driver's visibility to the rear
or sides of the vehicle; and
(3) video screens installed as part of a vehicle control system or used in intelligent vehicle
highway applications.
    Subd. 2. Use of headphones in vehicle. (a) No person, while operating a motor vehicle, shall
wear headphones or earphones that are used in both ears simultaneously for purposes of receiving
or listening to broadcasts or reproductions from radios, tape decks, or other sound-producing or
transmitting devices.
(b) Paragraph (a) does not prohibit:
(1) the use of a hearing aid device by a person who needs the device; or
(2) the use of a communication headset by a firefighter while operating a fire department
emergency vehicle in response to an emergency.
History: 1949 c 78 s 1,2; Ex1971 c 27 s 12; 1974 c 460 s 1; 1993 c 26 s 4; 1999 c 131
s 2; 2006 c 208 s 1
169.48 VEHICLE LIGHTING.
    Subdivision 1. Lights to be displayed. (a) Every vehicle upon a highway within this state:
(1) at any time from sunset to sunrise;
(2) at any time when it is raining, snowing, sleeting, or hailing; and
(3) at any other time when visibility is impaired by weather, smoke, fog or other conditions
or there is not sufficient light to render clearly discernible persons and vehicles on the highway at
a distance of 500 feet ahead;
shall display lighted headlamps, lighted taillamps, and illuminating devices, as hereinafter,
respectively, required for different classes of vehicles, subject to exceptions with respect to
parked vehicles and law enforcement vehicles, as hereinafter stated. In addition to the other
requirements of this paragraph, every school bus transporting children upon a highway within
this state, at any time from a half-hour before sunrise to a half-hour after sunset, shall display
lighted headlamps, lighted taillamps, and illuminating devices as required by this paragraph,
except that the operator shall use the lowermost distribution of light specified in section 169.60
unless conditions warrant otherwise.
(b) When requirement is hereinafter declared as to the distance from which certain lamps
and devices shall render objects visible or within which such lamps or devices shall be visible,
these provisions shall apply during the time stated in this section upon a straight level unlighted
highway under normal atmospheric conditions unless a different time or condition is expressly
stated and unless otherwise specified the location of lamps and devices shall refer to the center
of such lamps or devices. Parking lamps shall not be used in lieu of headlamps to satisfy the
requirements of this section.
    Subd. 2. Certain violations; negligence. Notwithstanding section 169.96, a violation of
subdivision 1, paragraph (a), clause (2), is not negligence per se or prima facie evidence of
negligence.
History: (2720-234) 1937 c 464 s 84; 1967 c 218 s 1; 1974 c 134 s 1; 1990 c 482 s 1;
1990 c 555 s 8; 2003 c 45 s 1
169.49 HEADLAMPS.
(a) Every motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, shall be equipped with at least two
headlamps, with at least one on each side of the front of the motor vehicle, which headlamps shall
comply with the requirements and limitations set forth in sections 169.47 to 169.79.
(b) Every motorcycle shall be equipped with at least one and not more than two headlamps,
which shall comply with the requirements and limitations of sections 169.47 to 169.79.
History: (2720-235) 1937 c 464 s 85; 1957 c 754 s 1
169.50 REAR LAMPS.
    Subdivision 1. Requirements; exception. (a) Every motor vehicle and every vehicle that
is being drawn at the end of a train of vehicles must be equipped with at least one taillamp,
exhibiting a red light plainly visible from a distance of 500 feet to the rear.
(b) Every motor vehicle, other than a truck-tractor, and every vehicle that is being drawn
at the end of a train of vehicles, registered in this state and manufactured or assembled after
January 1, 1960, must be equipped with at least two taillamps mounted on the rear and on the
same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable. When lighted, the taillamps must comply
with the provisions of this section.
(c) An implement of husbandry being towed by a motor vehicle at a speed of not more than
30 miles per hour, displaying a slow-moving vehicle emblem, and complying with section 169.55,
subdivision 2
, paragraph (a), clause (4), is not subject to the requirements of this section.
    Subd. 2. License plates. Either such rear lamp or separate lamp shall be so constructed and
placed as to illuminate with a white light the rear registration plate and render it legible from a
distance of 50 feet to the rear. Any rear lamp or rear lamps, together with any separate lamp for
illuminating the rear registration plate, shall be so wired as to be lighted whenever the headlamps
or auxiliary driving lamps are lighted.
    Subd. 3. Reflectors. On and after January 1, 1960, each new motor vehicle, trailer, or
semitrailer, hereafter sold and each such vehicle hereafter operated on a highway, shall carry at
the rear either as a part of the rear lamp, or separately, at least two reflectors. The reflectors shall
be of a type approved by the commissioner of public safety and shall be mounted as close as is
practicable to the extreme edges of the vehicle at a height not more than 60, nor less than 20 inches
above the surface upon which the vehicle stands. Each such reflector shall be so designed and
maintained as to be visible at night from all distances within 300 to 50 feet from the vehicle, except
that on a commercial vehicle the reflectors shall be visible from all distances within 500 to 50 feet
from the vehicle, when directly in front of a motor vehicle displaying lawfully lighted headlamps.
History: (2720-236) 1937 c 464 s 86; 1947 c 428 s 25; 1953 c 201 s 1; 1957 c 754 s 2; 1959
c 215 s 1; 1959 c 521 s 6,7; 1971 c 491 s 15; 2001 c 43 s 1; 2005 c 10 art 1 s 29
169.51 CLEARANCE AND MARKER LAMPS.
(a) Every motor vehicle or motor-drawn vehicle designed or used for the transportation of
property, or for the transportation of passengers for compensation, shall display lighted lamps,
as required in this section.
(b) Every such vehicle having a width, including load thereon, at any part in excess of 80
inches shall be equipped with four clearance lamps, two located on the front at opposite sides and
not more than six inches from the extreme outer edge of the vehicle or load, displaying a white
or amber light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the front of the vehicle, and two located on
the rear on opposite sides not more than six inches from the extreme outer edge of the vehicle or
load, displaying a red light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the rear of the vehicle. The front
clearance lamps shall be located at a height of not less than 24 inches above the headlamp centers.
The rear clearance lamps shall be in addition to the red rear lamp hereinbefore required.
(c) Every such vehicle or combination of such vehicles which exceeds 30 feet in overall
length shall be equipped with at least four side marker lamps, one on each side near the front
and one on each side near the rear. Such lamps shall be at a height of not less than 24 inches
above the surface upon which the vehicle stands. The lamps near the front shall display a white
or amber light and lamps near the rear shall display a red light, each visible from a distance of
500 feet to the side of the vehicle on which it is located. If the clearance lamps on the right and
left sides of the vehicle, as hereinbefore required, display lights visible from a distance of 500
feet at right angles to the right and left side, respectively, of the vehicle, they shall be deemed to
meet the requirements as to marker lamps, provided an additional marker lamp, white or amber, is
displayed approximately midway between the above specified marker lamps.
History: (2720-237) 1937 c 464 s 87
169.52 PROJECTING LOAD; LIGHT OR FLAG.
When the load upon any vehicle extends to the rear four feet or more beyond the bed or body
of such vehicle there shall be displayed at the extreme rear end of the load, at the times when
lighted lamps on vehicles are required in this chapter, a red light or lantern plainly visible from a
distance of at least 500 feet to the sides and rear. The light or lantern required under this section
shall be in addition to the rear light required upon every vehicle. At any time when no lights are
required there shall be displayed at the extreme rear end of such load a red, yellow or orange
flag or cloth not less than 16 inches square.
History: (2720-238) 1937 c 464 s 88; 1973 c 56 s 1
169.522 SLOW-MOVING VEHICLE, SIGN REQUIRED.
    Subdivision 1. Displaying emblem; rules. (a) All animal-drawn vehicles, motorized
golf carts when operated on designated roadways pursuant to section 169.045, implements of
husbandry, and other machinery, including all road construction machinery, which are designed
for operation at a speed of 30 miles per hour or less, must display a triangular slow-moving
vehicle emblem, except (1) when being used in actual construction and maintenance work and
traveling within the limits of a construction area marked in accordance with the Manual on
Uniform Traffic Control Devices, as set forth in section 169.06, or (2) for a towed implement of
husbandry that is empty and that is not self-propelled, in which case it may be towed at lawful
speeds greater than 30 miles per hour without removing the slow-moving vehicle emblem. The
emblem must consist of a fluorescent or illuminated red-orange triangle with a dark red reflective
border and be mounted so as to be visible from a distance of not less than 600 feet to the rear.
When a primary power unit towing an implement of husbandry or other machinery displays a
slow-moving vehicle emblem visible from a distance of 600 feet to the rear, it is not necessary to
display a similar emblem on the secondary unit. All slow-moving vehicle emblems sold in this
state must be so designed that when properly mounted they are visible from a distance of not less
than 600 feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful lower beam of headlamps on a motor
vehicle. The commissioner of public safety shall adopt standards and specifications for the design
and position of mounting the slow-moving vehicle emblem. Such standards and specifications
must be adopted by rule in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act.
(b) An alternate slow-moving vehicle emblem consisting of a dull black triangle with a white
reflective border may be used after obtaining a permit from the commissioner under rules of the
commissioner. A person with a permit to use an alternate slow-moving vehicle emblem must:
(1) carry in the vehicle a regular slow-moving vehicle emblem and display the emblem when
operating a vehicle between sunset and sunrise, and at any other time when visibility is impaired
by weather, smoke, fog, or other conditions; and
(2) permanently affix to the rear of the slow-moving vehicle at least 72 square inches of
reflective tape that reflects the color red.
    Subd. 2. Prohibition on use. The use of this emblem is restricted to the slow-moving
vehicles specified in subdivision 1 and its use on any other type of vehicle or stationary object on
the highway is prohibited.
    Subd. 3. Display required. No person shall sell, lease, rent, or operate any slow-moving
vehicle, as defined in subdivision 1, except motorized golf carts and except those units designed to
be completely mounted on a primary power unit, which is manufactured or assembled on or after
July 1, 1967, unless the vehicle is equipped with a slow-moving vehicle emblem-mounting device
as specified in subdivision 1. Provided however, a slow-moving vehicle must not be operated
without such slow-moving vehicle emblem.
History: 1967 c 309 s 1; 1971 c 491 s 16; 1974 c 57 s 1; 1982 c 549 s 3; 1985 c 248 s 70;
1987 c 101 s 1; 1993 c 187 s 6; 1994 c 600 s 3; 1997 c 143 s 14; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 48
169.53 LIGHTS FOR PARKED VEHICLES.
When a vehicle is parked or stopped upon a highway or shoulder adjacent thereto during the
times when lighted lamps on vehicles are required, it shall be equipped with one or more lamps
which shall exhibit a white or amber light on the roadway side visible from a distance of 500 feet
to the front of the vehicle and a red light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the rear, except
that local authorities may provide by ordinance that no lights need be displayed upon a vehicle
when stopped or parked in accordance with local parking regulations upon a highway where there
is sufficient light to clearly reveal any person or object within a distance of 500 feet upon the
highway. Any lighted headlamps upon a parked vehicle shall be depressed or dimmed.
History: (2720-239) 1937 c 464 s 89; 1947 c 428 s 26; 1959 c 96 s 1
169.54 [Repealed, 1951 c 132 s 1]
169.541 LIGHTING EXEMPTION FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT; STANDARDS.
    Subdivision 1. Exemption. Sections 84.87, 84.928, 86B.511, and 169.48 to 169.65, relating
to lighting of vehicles and watercraft, do not apply to a licensed peace officer, as defined in section
626.84, subdivision 1, paragraph (c), while operating a motor vehicle or watercraft owned, leased,
or otherwise the property of the state or a political subdivision, in the performance of the officer's
law enforcement duties if the officer's conduct is reasonable and is consistent with the standards
adopted under subdivision 2, and if the officer reasonably believes that operating the vehicle
without lights is necessary under the circumstances to investigate a criminal violation or suspected
criminal violation of state laws, rules, or orders or local laws, ordinances, or regulations.
    Subd. 2. POST Board standards. The Peace Officer Standards and Training Board shall
adopt standards governing situations in which licensed peace officers as defined in section 626.84,
subdivision 1
, paragraph (c), may operate a vehicle or watercraft without lights as provided in
subdivision 1. The board shall report to the legislature on the standards by January 1, 1991.
History: 1990 c 391 art 10 s 3; 1990 c 555 s 9
169.55 LIGHTS ON ALL VEHICLES.
    Subdivision 1. Lights or reflectors required. At the times when lighted lamps on vehicles
are required each vehicle including an animal-drawn vehicle and any vehicle specifically
excepted in sections 169.47 to 169.79, with respect to equipment and not hereinbefore specifically
required to be equipped with lamps, shall be equipped with one or more lighted lamps or lanterns
projecting a white light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the front of the vehicle and with a
lamp or lantern exhibiting a red light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the rear, except that
reflectors meeting the maximum requirements of this chapter may be used in lieu of the lights
required in this subdivision. It shall be unlawful except as otherwise provided in this subdivision,
to project a white light to the rear of any such vehicle while traveling on any street or highway,
unless such vehicle is moving in reverse. A lighting device mounted on top of a vehicle engaged
in deliveries to residences may project a white light to the rear if the sign projects one or more
additional colors to the rear. An authorized emergency vehicle may display an oscillating,
alternating, or rotating white light used in connection with an oscillating, alternating, or rotating
red light when responding to emergency calls.
    Subd. 2. Implement of husbandry. (a) At the times when lighted lamps on vehicles are
required:
(1) every self-propelled implement of husbandry must be equipped with at least one lamp
displaying a white light to the front, and at least one lamp displaying a red light to the rear;
(2) every self-propelled implement of husbandry must also display two red reflectors visible
to the rear;
(3) every combination of a self-propelled and towed implement of husbandry must be
equipped with at least one lamp mounted to indicate as nearly as practicable the extreme left
projection of the combination and displaying a white or amber light to the front and a red or amber
light to the rear of the self-propelled implement of husbandry; and
(4) the last unit of every combination of implements of husbandry must display two red
reflectors visible to the rear.
(b) The reflectors must be of the type approved for use upon commercial vehicles. The
reflectors must be mounted as close as practicable to the extreme edges of the implement of
husbandry. The reflectors must be reflex reflectors that are visible at night from all distances
within 600 feet to 100 feet when directly in front of lawful lower beams of headlamps.
    Subd. 3. Implement of husbandry; hazard warning lights. No person may operate a
self-propelled implement of husbandry manufactured after January 1, 1970, on a highway
unless the implement of husbandry displays vehicular hazard warning lights visible to the front
and rear in normal sunlight.
History: (2720-241) 1937 c 464 s 91; 1947 c 428 s 27; 1949 c 574; 1959 c 410 s 1; 1979 c
185 s 2; 1981 c 44 s 1; 1993 c 187 s 7,8; 1999 c 238 art 2 s 21,93; 2000 c 479 art 1 s 12
169.56 AUXILIARY LIGHTS.
    Subdivision 1. Spotlight. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two spot
lamps and every lighted spot lamp shall be so aimed and used upon approaching another vehicle
that no part of the high-intensity portion of the beam will be directed on the road surface to the
left of the center of the vehicle, nor more than 100 feet ahead of the vehicle upon which such
lamps are mounted.
    Subd. 2. Fog light. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two fog lamps
mounted on the front at a height not less than 12 inches nor more than 30 inches above the level
surface upon which the vehicle stands and so aimed that when the vehicle is not loaded none of
the high-intensity portion of the light to the left of the center of the vehicle shall at a distance of
25 feet ahead project higher than a level of four inches below the level of the center of the lamp
from which it comes. Lighted fog lamps meeting the above requirements may be used with lower
headlamp beams as specified in section 169.60.
    Subd. 3. Auxiliary low-beam light. Except as provided in subdivision 5, any motor vehicle
may be equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary low-beam lamps mounted on the front at a
height of not less than 24 inches nor more than 42 inches above the level surface upon which the
vehicle stands. The provisions of section 169.60 shall apply to any combination of headlamps and
auxiliary low-beam lamps.
    Subd. 4. Auxiliary driving light. Except as provided in subdivision 5, any motor vehicle
may be equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary driving lamps mounted on the front at a
height not less than 16 inches nor more than 42 inches above the level surface upon which the
vehicle stands. The provisions of section 169.60 shall apply to any combination of headlamps
and auxiliary driving lamps.
    Subd. 5. Exception for light obstructed by snowplow blade. (a) The auxiliary lamps
permitted in subdivision 3 may be mounted more than 42 inches high on any truck equipped with
a snowplow blade that obstructs the required headlights. The lights may not be illuminated when
a snowplow blade is not mounted on the vehicle.
(b) No other vehicle may be operated on a public highway unless the auxiliary lamps
permitted in subdivisions 3 and 4 comply with the height requirements or are completely covered
with an opaque material.
History: (2720-242) 1937 c 464 s 92; 1945 c 207 s 2; 1959 c 521 s 5; 1993 c 26 s 5-7;
1994 c 600 s 4
169.57 VEHICLE SIGNALS.
    Subdivision 1. Stoplights. (a) Any vehicle may be equipped and when required under this
chapter, shall be equipped with at least two stop lamps on the rear which shall emit a red or yellow
light and which shall be actuated upon application of the service (foot) brake and which may, but
need not be, incorporated with the taillamps and which shall be plainly visible and understandable
from a distance of 100 feet to the rear during normal sunlight and at night.
(b) No person shall sell or offer for sale or operate on the highways any motor vehicle
registered in this state and manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1960, unless it is
equipped with at least two stop lamps meeting the requirements of this subdivision, except that a
motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, or truck-tractor manufactured or assembled after said date shall
be equipped with at least one stop lamp meeting the requirements of this subdivision.
    Subd. 2. Turn signal. (a) Any vehicle may be equipped, and when required under this
chapter shall be equipped, with a lamp or lamps or mechanical signal device of such color as may
be approved by the commissioner of public safety and capable of clearly indicating any intention
to turn either to the right or to the left and shall be visible and understandable during both daytime
and nighttime from a distance of 100 feet both to the front and rear.
(b) On or after July 1, 1949, it shall be unlawful for any person to sell or offer for sale any
new motor vehicle, excepting motorcycles, motor scooters, and bicycles with motor attached,
unless it is equipped with turn signals meeting the requirements of this chapter.
    Subd. 3. Maintenance. (a) When a vehicle is equipped with stop lamps or signal lamps, such
lamps shall at all times be maintained in good working condition.
(b) No stop lamps or signal lamp shall project a glaring or dazzling light.
(c) All mechanical signal devices shall be self-illumined when in use at the times when
lighted lamps on vehicles are required.
    Subd. 4. Alteration of stop lamp prohibited. On a vehicle that must be equipped with a
single center high-mounted stop lamp under federal motor vehicle safety standards, and on any
other vehicle equipped with a similar stop lamp, a person may not alter the stop lamp by the
addition of an overlay or other device, or install a replacement lens, if the alteration or installation
alters or obscures any portion of the lamp or affects the intensity of light emitted.
History: (2720-243) 1937 c 464 s 93; 1945 c 207 s 3; 1947 c 428 s 28; 1949 c 90 s 2; 1959
c 521 s 8; 1971 c 328 s 1; 1987 c 383 s 13
169.58 IDENTIFICATION LAMPS.
    Subdivision 1. Wide or long vehicle. Any vehicle or combination of vehicles having a width
including load thereon at any part in excess of 80 inches or which exceeds 30 feet in overall length
may be equipped with identification lamps on the front displaying three amber or white lights and
identification lamps on the rear displaying three red lights, and when so equipped the lights in
each such group shall be evenly spaced not less than 6 nor more than 12 inches apart, along a
horizontal line as near to the top of the vehicle as practicable, and these lights shall be visible
from a distance of 500 feet to the front and rear, respectively, of the vehicle.
    Subd. 2. Red lamp; permit for volunteer emergency responders. Upon obtaining a permit
from the commissioner of public safety, any motor vehicles operated by an active member of a
volunteer fire department authorized by or contracting with any city, town, or township in this
state, an emergency medical first responder, or an ambulance crew member may be equipped with
a lamp emitting a red light to the front of such vehicle. The lens of such lamp shall be not more
than three inches in diameter. Such lamp shall be lighted only when the member of the volunteer
fire department, ambulance crew member, or emergency medical first responder is responding
to an emergency call in connection with duties as a volunteer firefighter, ambulance crew
member, or responder. The commissioner of public safety is hereby authorized to issue permits
on applications of a member of a volunteer fire department properly certified to by the chief of
said volunteer fire department, and on applications for emergency medical first responders or
ambulance crew members. The commissioner of public safety must be notified immediately upon
the termination of membership in a volunteer fire department or when an ambulance or permitted
emergency medical first responder ceases operations.
    Subd. 3. Volunteer ambulance driver. The commissioner of public safety, upon application
therefor, may issue a permit to any certificated volunteer ambulance driver authorizing the
driver to equip any privately owned motor vehicle operated by the driver with a lamp emitting
a red light to the front of the vehicle. The lamps shall conform to specifications adopted by the
commissioner. The lamp shall be lighted only when the driver is proceeding to the location of an
ambulance in response to an emergency call. The application shall be in the form prescribed by
the commissioner and shall contain verification satisfactory to the commissioner of the applicant's
status as a certificated volunteer ambulance driver. Any permit issued shall expire immediately
upon termination of the permittee's employment as a volunteer ambulance driver.
    Subd. 4. Lighted sign on vehicle. A vehicle engaged in deliveries to residences may display
a lighting device mounted on the vehicle, which may project a red light to the front if the sign
projects one or more additional colors to the front.
History: (2720-244) 1937 c 464 s 94; 1945 c 207 s 4; 1949 c 349; 1971 c 491 s 17; 1973 c
123 art 5 s 7; 1977 c 429 s 63; 1980 c 404 s 1; 1986 c 444; 1991 c 112 s 2; 1999 c 238 art 2 s
22,93; 2000 c 479 art 1 s 12
169.59 WARNING LIGHTS.
    Subdivision 1. Fender lights. Any vehicle may be equipped with not more than two side
cowl or fender lamps, one on each side which shall emit a white light without glare.
    Subd. 2. Running board light. Any vehicle may be equipped with not more than one running
board courtesy lamp on each side thereof, which shall emit a white or yellow light without glare.
    Subd. 3. Backup light. Any vehicle may be equipped with not more than two backup lamps,
either separately or in combination with another lamp, and not more than two rear cornering
lamps, except that the lamps must not be continuously lighted when the vehicle is in forward
motion, nor shall it project a glaring light.
    Subd. 4. Flashing warning light. Any vehicle may be equipped with lamps which may be
used for the purpose of warning the operators of other vehicles of the presence of a vehicular
traffic hazard requiring the exercise of unusual care in approaching, overtaking, or passing, and
when so equipped may display such warning in addition to any other warning signals required
by this section or section 169.50, subdivision 1 or 3; 169.56, subdivision 1, 2, 3, or 4; 169.57,
subdivision 1
; or 169.64, subdivision 3. The lamps used to display such warnings to the front
shall be mounted at the same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable, and shall display
simultaneous flashing white or amber lights, or any shade of color between white and amber. The
lamps used to display such warnings to the rear shall be mounted at the same level and as widely
spaced laterally as practicable, and shall show simultaneously flashing amber or red lights, or any
shade of color between amber and red. Instead of a pair of lamps that flash simultaneously, either
one or two strobe lights or rotating beacon lights with an amber or yellow lens may be used both
to the front and rear of the vehicle. These warning lights shall be visible from a distance of not
less than 500 feet under normal atmospheric conditions at night.
History: (2720-245) 1937 c 464 s 95; 1959 c 521 s 9; 1984 c 549 s 30; 1996 c 456 s 21;
2005 c 10 art 1 s 30
169.60 DISTRIBUTION OF LIGHT.
Except as hereinafter provided, the headlamps, the auxiliary low-beam lamps, or the
auxiliary driving lamps, or combinations thereof, on motor vehicles shall be so arranged that the
driver may select at will between distributions of light projected to different elevations, subject to
the following requirements and limitations:
(a) There shall be an uppermost distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed and
of such intensity as to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 350 feet ahead for
all conditions of loading.
(b) There shall be a lowermost distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed and of
sufficient intensity to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 100 feet ahead; and on a
straight level road under any condition of loading none of the high-intensity portion of the beam
shall be directed to strike the eyes of an approaching driver.
(c) All road-lighting equipment manufactured and installed on and after January 1, 1938,
shall be so arranged that when any beam is used which is not in conformity with clause (2), means
shall be provided for indicating to the driver when such beams are being used.
History: (2720-246) 1937 c 464 s 96; Ex1937 c 38 s 1; 1955 c 53 s 1; 1993 c 26 s 8
169.61 COMPOSITE BEAM.
(a) When a motor vehicle is being operated on a highway or shoulder adjacent thereto
during the times when lighted lamps on vehicles are required in this chapter, the driver shall use
a distribution of light, or composite beam, directed high enough and of sufficient intensity to
reveal persons and vehicles at a safe distance in advance of the vehicle, subject to the following
requirements and limitations.
(b) When the driver of a vehicle approaches a vehicle within 1,000 feet, such driver shall
use a distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed that the glaring rays are not projected
into the eyes of the oncoming driver.
(c) When the driver of a vehicle follows another vehicle within 200 feet to the rear, except
when engaged in the act of overtaking and passing, such driver shall use a distribution of light
permissible under this chapter other than the uppermost distribution of light specified in section
169.60.
History: (2720-247) 1937 c 464 s 97; 1945 c 207 s 5; 1953 c 330 s 1; 1955 c 52 s 1
169.62 CERTAIN LIGHTS PERMITTED ON OLD MOTOR VEHICLES.
Headlamps arranged to provide a single distribution of light not supplemented by auxiliary
driving lamps shall be permitted on motor vehicles manufactured and sold prior to January 1,
1938, in lieu of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment herein specified if the single distribution
of light complies with the following requirements and limitations:
(a) The headlamps shall be so aimed that when the vehicle is fully loaded none of the
high-intensity portion of the lamp beam rises above a horizontal plane passing through the
headlamp centers parallel to the level surface upon which the vehicle stands, and in no case higher
than 42 inches above the level on which the vehicle stands at a distance of 75 and more feet ahead.
(b) The intensity shall be sufficient to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least
200 feet.
History: (2720-248) 1937 c 464 s 98
169.63 NUMBER OF LAMPS.
(a) At all times when lighted lamps on vehicles are required in this chapter, at least two
lighted headlamps shall be displayed, one on each side at the front of every motor vehicle, other
than a motorcycle; provided, that under adverse weather conditions two lighted auxiliary lamps,
one on each side at the front of the vehicle, may be used in lieu of two lighted headlamps, except
when such vehicle is parked subject to the rules governing lights on parked vehicles.
(b) When a motor vehicle equipped with headlamps, as herein required, is also equipped
with any auxiliary lamps, spot lamps or any other lamps on the front thereof projecting a beam of
intensity greater than 300-candle power, not more than a total of four of any such lamps on the
front of a vehicle shall be lighted at any one time when upon a highway.
(c) The maximum beam candle power from any combination of lamps used at any time for
road lighting shall not exceed that authorized by the commissioner of public safety.
History: (2720-249) 1937 c 464 s 99; 1939 c 430 s 18; 1971 c 491 s 18; 1985 c 248 s 70
169.64 PROHIBITED LIGHTS; EXCEPTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Bright light. Any lighted lamp or illuminating device upon a motor vehicle,
other than a headlamp, a spot lamp, or an auxiliary driving lamp, which projects a beam of
light of an intensity greater than 300-candle power, shall be so directed that no part of the beam
will strike the level of the roadway on which the vehicle stands at a distance of more than 75
feet from the vehicle.
    Subd. 2. Colored light. Unless otherwise authorized by the commissioner of public safety,
no vehicle shall be equipped, nor shall any person drive or move any vehicle or equipment upon
any highway with any lamp or device displaying a red light or any colored light other than those
required or permitted in this chapter.
    Subd. 3. Flashing lights. Flashing lights are prohibited, except on an authorized emergency
vehicle, school bus, bicycle as provided in section 169.222, subdivision 6, road maintenance
equipment, tow truck or towing vehicle, service vehicle, farm tractor, self-propelled farm
equipment, rural mail carrier vehicle, funeral home vehicle, or on any vehicle as a means of
indicating a right or left turn, or the presence of a vehicular traffic hazard requiring unusual care
in approaching, overtaking, or passing. All flashing warning lights shall be of the type authorized
by section 169.59, subdivision 4, unless otherwise permitted or required in this chapter.
    Subd. 4. Blue light. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) to (d), blue lights are prohibited
on all vehicles except road maintenance equipment and snow removal equipment operated by or
under contract to the state or a political subdivision thereof.
(b) Authorized emergency vehicles may display flashing blue lights to the rear of the vehicle
as a warning signal in combination with other lights permitted or required by this chapter.
In addition, authorized emergency vehicles may display, mounted on the passenger side only,
flashing blue lights to the front of the vehicle as a warning signal in combination with other
lights permitted or required by this chapter.
(c) A motorcycle may display a blue light of up to one-inch diameter as part of the
motorcycle's rear brake light.
(d) A motor vehicle may display a blue light of up to one-inch diameter as part of the
vehicle's rear brake light if:
(1) the vehicle is a collector vehicle, as described in section 168.10; or
(2) the vehicle is eligible to display a collector plate under section 168.10.
    Subd. 5. Flashing light on tow truck. A tow truck or towing vehicle must be equipped with
flashing or intermittent red and amber lights of a type approved by the commissioner of public
safety. The lights must be placed on the dome of the vehicle at the highest practicable point
visible from a distance of 500 feet. The flashing red light must be displayed only when the tow
truck or towing vehicle is engaged in emergency service on or near the traveled portion of a
highway. The flashing amber light may be displayed when the tow truck or towing vehicle is
moving a disabled vehicle.
    Subd. 6. Flashing amber light. (a) Any service vehicle may be equipped with a flashing
amber lamp of a type approved by the commissioner of public safety.
(b) A service vehicle shall not display the lighted lamp authorized under paragraph (a) when
traveling upon the highway or at any other time except at the scene of a disabled vehicle or while
engaged in snow removal or road maintenance.
(c) A self-propelled implement of husbandry may display the lighted lamp authorized under
paragraph (a) at any time.
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 1991 c 277 s 18]
    Subd. 8. Strobe lamp. (a) Notwithstanding sections 169.55, subdivision 1; 169.57,
subdivision 3
, paragraph (b); or any other law to the contrary, a vehicle may be equipped with a
360-degree flashing strobe lamp that emits a white light with a flash rate of 60 to 120 flashes a
minute, and the lamp may be used as provided in this subdivision, if the vehicle is:
(1) a school bus that is subject to and complies with the equipment requirements of sections
169.441, subdivision 1, and 169.442, subdivision 1, or a Head Start bus that is not a type III bus
as defined in section 169.01, subdivision 6. The lamp shall be permanently mounted on the
longitudinal centerline of the bus roof not less than two feet nor more than seven feet forward
of the rear roof edge. It shall operate from a separate switch containing an indicator lamp to
show when the strobe lamp is in use. The strobe lamp may be lighted only when atmospheric
conditions or terrain restrict the visibility of school bus lamps and signals or Head Start bus lamps
and signals so as to require use of the bright strobe lamp to alert motorists to the presence of the
school bus or Head Start bus. A strobe lamp may not be lighted unless the school bus or Head
Start bus is actually being used as a school bus or Head Start bus; or
(2) a road maintenance vehicle owned or under contract to the Department of Transportation
or a road authority of a county, home rule or statutory city, or town, but the strobe lamp may only
be operated while the vehicle is actually engaged in snow removal during daylight hours.
(b) Notwithstanding sections 169.55, subdivision 1; 169.57, subdivision 3, paragraph (b); or
any other law to the contrary, a vehicle may be equipped with a 360-degree flashing strobe lamp
that emits an amber light with a flash rate of 60 to 120 flashes a minute, and the lamp may be
used as provided in this subdivision, if the vehicle is a rural mail carrier vehicle, provided that the
strobe lamp is mounted at the highest practicable point on the vehicle. The strobe lamp may only
be operated while the vehicle is actually engaged during daylight hours in the delivery of mail
to residents on a rural mail route.
(c) A strobe lamp authorized by this section shall be of a double flash type certified to the
commissioner of public safety by the manufacturer as being weatherproof and having a minimum
effective light output of 200 candelas as measured by the Blondel-Rey formula.
    Subd. 9. Warning lamp on vehicles collecting solid waste. A vehicle used to collect solid
waste may be equipped with a single amber gaseous discharge warning lamp that meets the
Society of Automotive Engineers standard J 1318, Class 2. The lamp may be operated only when
the collection vehicle is in the process of collecting solid waste and is either:
(1) stopped at an establishment where solid waste is to be collected; or
(2) traveling at a speed that is at least ten miles per hour below the posted speed limit and
moving between establishments where solid waste is to be collected.
    Subd. 10. Cover for lamp or reflector. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), it is
prohibited for any person to:
(1) equip a motor vehicle with any equipment or material that covers a headlamp, taillamp,
or reflector; or
(2) operate a motor vehicle fitted with or otherwise having equipment or material that covers
a headlamp, taillamp, or reflector.
(b) Paragraph (a) does not apply to:
(1) any manufacturer's original equipment or material;
(2) any equipment or material that is clear and colorless; or
(3) the covering for auxiliary lights required under section 169.56.
History: (2720-250) 1937 c 464 s 100; 1947 c 428 s 29; 1949 c 90 s 3; 1953 c 103 s 1; 1959
c 521 s 10; 1971 c 53 s 1; 1971 c 491 s 19,20; 1976 c 104 s 2,3; 1981 c 191 s 5; 1991 c 112 s
3,5; 1991 c 339 s 7; 1992 c 464 art 2 s 1; 1993 c 187 s 9; 1993 c 281 s 6; 1993 c 326 art 4 s 3;
1994 c 478 s 2,3; 1994 c 603 s 13; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 13; 1994 c 647 art 12 s 28; 1995 c 120 s 1;
1999 c 35 s 1; 2000 c 293 s 1; 2002 c 316 s 2; 2003 c 49 s 1
169.65 SPECIFICATIONS FOR LIGHTING AND OTHER DEVICES.
(a) The commissioner of public safety is hereby authorized and required to adopt and enforce
standard specifications as to the amount, color and direction of light to be emitted or reflected by
lighting devices and as to the general construction and mounting on the vehicle for compliance
with the requirements and limitations of this chapter.
(b) No person shall have for sale, sell, or offer for sale for use upon or as a part of the
equipment of a vehicle, trailer or semitrailer, or use upon any such vehicle, any headlamp,
auxiliary driving lamp, rear lamp, signal lamp, spot lamp, clearance lamp, marker lamp or
reflector, or parts of any of the foregoing, unless of a type which has been submitted to and
approved by the commissioner of public safety.
(c) No person shall have for sale, sell, or offer for sale for use upon or as a part of the
equipment of a vehicle, trailer or semitrailer, or bicycle, or use upon any such vehicle, any lamp
or device mentioned in this section, which has been approved by the commissioner of public
safety unless such lamp or device bears thereon the trademark or name and model designation all
permanently marked under which it is approved so as to be legible when installed.
(d) No person shall use upon any vehicle, trailer or semitrailer or bicycle any lamps
mentioned in this section unless such lamps are equipped with bulbs of a type approved by the
commissioner of public safety, having a rated candle power, and are mounted and adjusted as to
focus and aim in accordance with instructions of the commissioner of public safety.
(e) The commissioner of public safety is hereby authorized to approve or disapprove lighting
devices.
(f) The commissioner of public safety is hereby required to approve or disapprove any
lighting device, of a type on which approval is specifically required in this chapter, within a
reasonable time after such device has been submitted.
(g) The commissioner of public safety is further authorized to set up a procedure which shall
be followed when any device is submitted for approval.
(h) The commissioner of public safety is authorized to set and collect a reasonable fee for
the testing and approval of all types of devices upon which approval is required in this chapter.
Such fee may be sufficient in amount to reimburse the Department of Public Safety for all costs
connected with such test and approval.
(i) The commissioner of public safety, upon approving any such lamp or device, shall
issue to the applicant a certificate of approval, together with any instructions determined by
the commissioner of public safety.
(j) The commissioner of public safety shall publish lists of all lamps and devices by
name and type which have been approved by the commissioner of public safety, together with
instructions as to the permissible candlepower rating of the bulbs which the commissioner of
public safety has determined for use therein and such other instructions as to adjustment as the
commissioner of public safety may deem necessary. No person shall sell for use or use on any
vehicle any reconverted lamp or any device redesigned for a use other than for which it was
originally approved unless authorized by the commissioner of public safety.
History: (2720-251, 2720-252, 2720-253) 1937 c 464 s 101-103; 1945 c 207 s 6; 1971 c 491
s 21; 1978 c 494 s 4; 1986 c 444
169.66 HEARING ON SPECIFICATIONS.
(a) With reason to believe that an approved device which is being sold commercially does
not comply with the requirements of this chapter, the commissioner of public safety may, after
giving 30 days' previous notice to the person holding the certificate of approval for such device
in this state, conduct a hearing upon the question of compliance of the approved device. After
the hearing the commissioner of public safety shall determine whether the approved device
meets the requirements of this chapter. If it does not meet the requirements of this chapter, the
commissioner of public safety shall give notice to the person holding the certificate of approval
for such device in this state.
(b) If, at the expiration of 90 days after such notice, the person holding the certificate of
approval for such device has failed to satisfy the commissioner of public safety that the approved
device as thereafter to be sold meets the requirements of this chapter, the commissioner of
public safety shall suspend or revoke the approval issued therefor until or unless such device is
resubmitted to and retested by an authorized testing agency and is found to meet the requirements
of this chapter, and may require that all such devices sold since the notification following the
hearing be replaced with devices that do comply with the requirements of this chapter. The
commissioner of public safety may at the time of the retest purchase in the open market and
submit to the testing agency one or more sets of such approved devices, and if such device upon
such retest fails to meet the requirements of this chapter, the commissioner of public safety may
refuse to renew the certificate of approval of such device.
History: (2720-254) 1937 c 464 s 104; 1971 c 491 s 22; 1986 c 444
169.67 BRAKES.
    Subdivision 1. Motor vehicle. Every motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, when operated
upon a highway, shall be equipped with brakes adequate to control the movement of and to stop
and hold such vehicle, including two separate means of applying the brakes, each of which
means shall be effective to apply the brakes to at least two wheels. If these two separate means
of applying the brakes are connected in any way, they shall be so constructed that failure of any
one part of the operating mechanism shall not leave the motor vehicle without brakes on at least
two wheels. The requirement in this subdivision for separate braking systems does not apply to a
commercial motor vehicle described in section 169.781, subdivision 5, paragraph (d).
    Subd. 2. Motorcycle and bicycle. Every motorcycle, and bicycle with motor attached, when
operated upon a highway, shall be equipped with at least one brake, which may be operated
by hand or foot.
    Subd. 3. Trailer, semitrailer. (a) No trailer or semitrailer with a gross weight of 3,000 or
more pounds, or a gross weight that exceeds the empty weight of the towing vehicle, may be
drawn on a highway unless it is equipped with brakes that are adequate to control the movement
of and to stop and hold the trailer or semitrailer. A surge brake on a trailer or semitrailer meets the
requirement of this paragraph for brakes adequate to stop and hold the trailer or semitrailer.
(b) No trailer or semitrailer that is required to have brakes and that has a gross weight of
more than 6,000 pounds may be drawn on a highway unless it is equipped with brakes that
are so constructed that they are adequate to stop and hold the trailer or semitrailer whenever it
becomes detached from the towing vehicle.
(c) Except as provided in paragraph (d), paragraph (a) does not apply to:
(1) a trailer used by a farmer while transporting farm products produced on the user's farm,
or supplies back to the farm of the trailer's user;
(2) a towed custom service vehicle drawn by a motor vehicle that is equipped with brakes
that meet the standards of subdivision 5, provided that such a towed custom service vehicle that
exceeds 30,000 pounds gross weight may not be drawn at a speed of more than 45 miles per hour;
(3) a trailer or semitrailer operated or used by retail dealers of implements of husbandry
while engaged exclusively in the delivery of implements of husbandry;
(4) a motor vehicle drawn by another motor vehicle that is equipped with brakes that meet
the standards of subdivision 5;
(5) a tank trailer of not more than 12,000 pounds gross weight owned by a distributor of
liquid fertilizer while engaged exclusively in transporting liquid fertilizer, or gaseous fertilizer
under pressure;
(6) a trailer of not more than 12,000 pounds gross weight owned by a distributor of dry
fertilizer while engaged exclusively in the transportation of dry fertilizer; and
(7) a disabled vehicle while being towed to a place of repair.
(d) Vehicles described in paragraph (c), clauses (1), (3), and (4), may be operated without
complying with paragraph (a) only if the trailer or semitrailer does not exceed the following
gross weights:
(1) 3,000 pounds while being drawn by a vehicle registered as a passenger automobile, other
than a pickup truck as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 29;
(2) 12,000 pounds while being drawn by any other motor vehicle except a self-propelled
implement of husbandry.
    Subd. 4. Service brakes on wheels; exceptions. (a) All motor vehicles, trailers, and
semitrailers manufactured after June 30, 1988, must be equipped with foot brakes on all wheels.
(b) Paragraph (a) does not apply to:
(1) a mobile crane that is not operated at a speed of more than 45 miles per hour and is
capable of stopping within the performance standards of subdivision 5;
(2) a motorcycle;
(3) a trailer or semitrailer with a gross weight of less than 3,000 pounds;
(4) a swivel-type third wheel on a travel trailer; and
(5) a temporary auxiliary axle attached to a motor vehicle during a period of vehicle weight
restrictions for the purpose of relieving the weight on another axle, if the combined gross weight
on the temporary axle and the axle being relieved does not exceed 18,000 pounds and the motor
vehicle meets all brake requirements under this section.
(c) Paragraph (a) does not require brakes on the front wheels of a vehicle having three or
more axles and manufactured before July 1, 1988, if the brakes on the other wheels of the vehicle
meet the standards of subdivision 5.
    Subd. 5. Performance standards. Every motor vehicle or combination of vehicles, at all
times and under all conditions of loading, upon application of the service (foot) brake, shall be
capable of (1) developing a braking force that is not less than the percentage of its gross weight
tabulated herein for its classification, (2) decelerating in a stop from not more than 20 miles per
hour at not less than the feet per second per second tabulated herein for its classification, and (3)
stopping from a speed of 20 miles per hour in not more than the distance tabulated herein for
its classification, such distance to be measured from the point at which movement of the service
brake pedal or control begins. Tests for deceleration and stopping distance shall be made on a
substantially level (not to exceed plus or minus one percent grade), dry, smooth, hard surface that
is free from loose material.
Deceleration Table

1
2
3
4





Classification of Vehicles
and Combinations
Braking Force
as a Percentage
of Gross Vehicle
or Combination
Weight
Deceleration in Feet
Per Second Per
Second
Brake System
Application and
Braking Distance in
Feet


Passenger vehicles, not
including buses

52.8 percent
17
25




Single-unit vehicles with
a manufacturer's gross
vehicle weight rating of less
than 10,000 pounds

43.5 percent
14
30







Single-unit, 2-axle vehicles
with a manufacturer's gross
vehicle weight rating of
10,000 or more pounds,
and buses not having
a manufacturer's gross
vehicle weight rating

43.5 percent
14
40





All other vehicles and
combinations with a
manufacturer's gross
vehicle weight rating of
10,000 or more pounds

43.5 percent
14
50
All brakes shall be maintained in good working order and shall be so adjusted as to operate as
equally as practicable with respect to the wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle.
    Subd. 6. Implement of husbandry. An implement of husbandry that (1) is not self-propelled,
(2) has a manufacturer's recommended capacity of more than 24,000 pounds, and (3) is
manufactured and sold after January 1, 1994, must be equipped with brakes adequate to control
the movement of and to stop and hold the towed vehicle.
History: (2720-255, 2720-256) 1937 c 464 s 105,106; Ex1937 c 38 s 2; 1939 c 430 s 19;
1945 c 207 s 7; 1953 c 423 s 1; 1955 c 452 s 1; 1959 c 277 s 1; 1961 c 89 s 1; 1963 c 747 s 1;
1967 c 272 s 1; 1976 c 205 s 1; 1988 c 636 s 8,9; 1989 c 342 s 17; 1990 c 416 s 2,3; 1992 c 581 s
12; 1993 c 187 s 10-12; 1995 c 120 s 2; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 2 s 44
169.672 [Repealed, 1984 c 549 s 34]
169.68 HORN, SIREN.
(a) Every motor vehicle when operated upon a highway must be equipped with a horn in
good working order and capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a
distance of not less than 200 feet. However, the horn or other warning device must not emit
an unreasonably loud or harsh sound or a whistle. The driver of a motor vehicle shall, when
reasonably necessary to insure safe operation, give audible warning with the horn, but shall not
otherwise use the horn when upon a highway.
(b) A vehicle must not be equipped with, and a person shall not use upon a vehicle, any siren,
whistle, or bell, except as otherwise permitted in this section.
(c) It is permissible, but not required, for any commercial vehicle to be equipped with a theft
alarm signal device, so arranged that it cannot be used by the driver as an ordinary warning signal.
(d) All authorized emergency vehicles must be equipped with a siren capable of emitting
sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than 500 feet and of a type
conforming to the federal certification standards for sirens, as determined by the General Services
Administration. However, the siren must not be used except when the vehicle is operated in
response to an emergency call or in the immediate pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of
the law, in which latter events the driver of the vehicle shall sound the siren when necessary to
warn pedestrians and other drivers of the vehicle's approach.
History: (2720-257) 1937 c 464 s 107; 1971 c 491 s 24; 1986 c 444; 2000 c 426 s 26
169.684 SEAT BELT; DECLARATION OF POLICY.
It is the policy of this state that enactment of a mandatory automobile seat belt usage law is
intended to be compatible with support for federal safety standards requiring automatic crash
protection and should not be used in any manner to rescind federal automatic crash protection
system requirements for new vehicles.
History: 1986 c 310 s 2
169.685 SEAT BELT; PASSENGER RESTRAINT SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN.
    Subdivision 1. Requirement; exemptions. After January 1, 1964, all new motor vehicles,
not exempt from Minnesota license fees, other than a bus, school bus, motorcycle, motorized
bicycle, farm tractor, road tractor, and truck, sold or offered for sale or registered in Minnesota
shall be equipped to permit the installation of seat belts in the front seat thereof.
    Subd. 2. Required after registration. Within 30 days after the registration of such motor
vehicle, it shall be equipped with seat belts installed for use in the left front and right front seats
thereof.
    Subd. 3. Standards. The specifications and requirements for seat belts or seat belt assemblies
shall conform with the minimum standards for seat belts or seat belt assemblies heretofore
adopted by the Society of Automotive Engineers and in effect on January 1, 1963.
    Subd. 4. Admissibility into evidence. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), proof of the
use or failure to use seat belts or a child passenger restraint system as described in subdivision
5, or proof of the installation or failure of installation of seat belts or a child passenger restraint
system as described in subdivision 5 shall not be admissible in evidence in any litigation involving
personal injuries or property damage resulting from the use or operation of any motor vehicle.
(b) Paragraph (a) does not affect the right of a person to bring an action for damages arising
out of an incident that involves a defectively designed, manufactured, installed, or operating
seat belt or child passenger restraint system. Paragraph (a) does not prohibit the introduction of
evidence pertaining to the use of a seat belt or child passenger restraint system in an action
described in this paragraph.
    Subd. 5. Violation; petty misdemeanor. (a) Every motor vehicle operator, when transporting
a child under the age of four on the streets and highways of this state in a motor vehicle equipped
with factory-installed seat belts, shall equip and install for use in the motor vehicle, according
to the manufacturer's instructions, a child passenger restraint system meeting federal motor
vehicle safety standards.
(b) No motor vehicle operator who is operating a motor vehicle on the streets and highways
of this state may transport a child under the age of four in a seat of a motor vehicle equipped with
a factory-installed seat belt, unless the child is properly fastened in the child passenger restraint
system. Any motor vehicle operator who violates this subdivision is guilty of a petty misdemeanor
and may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than $50. The fine may be waived or the amount
reduced if the motor vehicle operator produces evidence that within 14 days after the date of the
violation a child passenger restraint system meeting federal motor vehicle safety standards was
purchased or obtained for the exclusive use of the operator.
(c) The fines collected for violations of this subdivision must be deposited in the state
treasury and credited to a special account to be known as the Minnesota child passenger restraint
and education account.
    Subd. 6. Exceptions. (a) This section does not apply to:
(1) a person transporting a child in an emergency medical vehicle while in the performance
of official duties and when the physical or medical needs of the child make the use of a child
passenger restraint system unreasonable or when a child passenger restraint system is not
available;
(2) a peace officer transporting a child while in the performance of official duties and when a
child passenger restraint system is not available, provided that a seat belt must be substituted; and
(3) a person while operating a motor vehicle for hire, including a taxi, airport limousine, and
bus, but excluding a rented, leased, or borrowed motor vehicle.
(b) A child passenger restraint system is not required for a child who cannot, in the judgment
of a licensed physician, be safely transported in a child passenger restraint system because of a
medical condition, body size, or physical disability. A motor vehicle operator claiming exemption
for a child under this paragraph must possess a typewritten statement from the physician stating
that the child cannot be safely transported in a child passenger restraint system. The statement
must give the name and birth date of the child, be dated within the previous six months, and
be made on the physician's letterhead or contain the physician's name, address, and telephone
number. A person charged with violating subdivision 5 may not be convicted if the person
produces the physician's statement in court or in the office of the arresting officer.
(c) A person offering a motor vehicle for rent or lease shall provide a child passenger
restraint device to a customer renting or leasing the motor vehicle who requests the device. A
reasonable rent or fee may be charged for use of the child passenger restraint device.
    Subd. 7. Appropriation; special account; legislative report. The Minnesota child
passenger restraint and education account is created in the state treasury, consisting of fines
collected under subdivision 5 and other money appropriated or donated. The money in the
account is annually appropriated to the commissioner of public safety, to be used to provide child
passenger restraint systems to families in financial need and to provide an educational program on
the need for and proper use of child passenger restraint systems. The commissioner shall report
to the legislature by February 1 of each odd-numbered year on the commissioner's activities
and expenditure of funds under this section.
History: 1963 c 93 s 1; 1979 c 227 s 2; 1981 c 37 s 2; 1981 c 56 s 1,2; 1983 c 261 s 1; 1986
c 444; 1987 c 73 s 1,2; 1988 c 415 s 1; 1993 c 74 s 1; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 14,15; 1999 c 106 s 1
169.686 SEAT BELT USE REQUIRED; PENALTY.
    Subdivision 1. Seat belt requirement. (a) A properly adjusted and fastened seat belt,
including both the shoulder and lap belt when the vehicle is so equipped, shall be worn by:
(1) the driver of a passenger vehicle or commercial motor vehicle;
(2) a passenger riding in the front seat of a passenger vehicle or commercial motor vehicle;
and
(3) a passenger riding in any seat of a passenger vehicle who is older than three but younger
than 11 years of age.
(b) A person who is 15 years of age or older and who violates paragraph (a), clause (1) or
(2), is subject to a fine of $25. The driver of the passenger vehicle or commercial motor vehicle
in which the violation occurred is subject to a $25 fine for a violation of paragraph (a), clause
(2) or (3), by a child of the driver under the age of 15 or any child under the age of 11. A peace
officer may not issue a citation for a violation of this section unless the officer lawfully stopped or
detained the driver of the motor vehicle for a moving violation other than a violation involving
motor vehicle equipment. The Department of Public Safety shall not record a violation of this
subdivision on a person's driving record.
    Subd. 2. Seat belt exemptions. This section shall not apply to:
(1) a person driving a passenger vehicle in reverse;
(2) a person riding in a seat in which all the seating positions equipped with safety belts are
occupied by other persons;
(3) a person who is in possession of a written certificate from a licensed physician verifying
that because of medical unfitness or physical disability the person is unable to wear a seat belt;
(4) a person who is actually engaged in work that requires the person to alight from and
reenter a motor vehicle at frequent intervals and who, while engaged in that work, does not drive
or travel in that vehicle at a speed exceeding 25 miles per hour;
(5) a rural mail carrier of the United States Postal Service while in the performance of duties;
(6) a person driving or riding in a passenger vehicle manufactured before January 1, 1965;
and
(7) a person driving or riding in a pickup truck, as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 29,
while engaged in normal farming work or activity.
    Subd. 3. Appropriation; special account. The fines collected for a violation of subdivision
1 must be deposited in the state treasury and credited to a special account to be known as the
emergency medical services relief account. Ninety percent of the money in the account shall
be distributed to the eight regional emergency medical services systems designated by the
Emergency Medical Services Regulatory Board under section 144E.50, for personnel education
and training, equipment and vehicle purchases, and operational expenses of emergency life
support transportation services. The board of directors of each emergency medical services region
shall establish criteria for funding. Ten percent of the money in the account shall be distributed
to the commissioner of public safety for the expenses of traffic safety educational programs
conducted by State Patrol troopers.
History: 1986 c 310 s 3; 1986 c 444; 1988 c 648 s 1,2; 1989 c 288 s 1; 1991 c 204 s 1,2;
1993 c 26 s 9; 1994 c 600 s 5; 1996 c 324 s 4; 1997 c 199 s 14; 2003 c 92 s 1
169.69 MUFFLER.
Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order
which blends the exhaust noise into the overall vehicle noise and is in constant operation to
prevent excessive or unusual noise, and no person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass, or similar
device upon a motor vehicle on a street or highway. The exhaust system shall not emit or produce
a sharp popping or crackling sound. Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with such
parts and equipment so arranged and kept in such state of repair as to prevent carbon monoxide
gas from entering the interior of the vehicle.
No person shall have for sale, sell or offer for sale or use on any motor vehicle any muffler
that fails to comply with the specifications as required by the commissioner of public safety.
History: (2720-258) 1937 c 464 s 108; 1939 c 430 s 20; 1953 c 306 s 1; 1971 c 491 s 25
169.691 [Repealed, 1974 c 500 s 2]
169.692 [Repealed, 1974 c 500 s 2]
169.693 MOTOR VEHICLE NOISE LIMITS.
It is unlawful to operate a motor vehicle in violation of motor vehicle noise rules adopted
by the Pollution Control Agency.
History: 1974 c 500 s 1; 1985 c 248 s 70
169.70 REAR VIEW MIRROR.
Every motor vehicle which is so constructed, loaded or connected with another vehicle as
to obstruct the driver's view to the rear thereof from the driver's position shall be equipped with
a mirror so located as to reflect to the driver a view of the highway for a distance of at least
200 feet to the rear of such vehicle.
History: (2720-259) 1937 c 464 s 109
169.71 WINDSHIELD.
    Subdivision 1. Prohibitions generally; exceptions. (a) A person shall not drive or operate
any motor vehicle with:
(1) a windshield cracked or discolored to an extent to limit or obstruct proper vision;
(2) any objects suspended between the driver and the windshield, other than sun visors and
rearview mirrors and electronic toll collection devices; or
(3) any sign, poster, or other nontransparent material upon the front windshield, sidewings,
or side or rear windows of the vehicle, other than a certificate or other paper required to be so
displayed by law or authorized by the state director of the Division of Emergency Management or
the commissioner of public safety.
(b) Paragraph (a), clauses (2) and (3), do not apply to law enforcement vehicles.
(c) Paragraph (a), clause (2), does not apply to authorized emergency vehicles.
    Subd. 2. Windshield wiper. The windshield on every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a
device for cleaning rain, snow or other moisture from the windshield, which device shall be so
constructed as to be controlled or operated by the driver of the vehicle.
    Subd. 3. Defrosting requirement. No person shall drive any motor vehicle with the
windshield or front side windows covered with steam or frost to such an extent as to prevent
proper vision.
    Subd. 4. Glazing material; prohibitions and exceptions. (a) No person shall drive or
operate any motor vehicle required to be registered in the state of Minnesota upon any street
or highway under the following conditions:
(1) when the windshield is composed of, covered by, or treated with any material which
has the effect of making the windshield more reflective or in any other way reducing light
transmittance through the windshield;
(2) when any window on the vehicle is composed of, covered by, or treated with any material
that has a highly reflective or mirrored appearance;
(3) when any side window or rear window is composed of or treated with any material so
as to obstruct or substantially reduce the driver's clear view through the window or has a light
transmittance of less than 50 percent plus or minus three percent in the visible light range or a
luminous reflectance of more than 20 percent plus or minus three percent; or
(4) when any material has been applied after August 1, 1985, to any motor vehicle window
without an accompanying permanent marking which indicates the percent of transmittance and
the percent of reflectance afforded by the material. The marking must be in a manner so as not to
obscure vision and be readable when installed on the vehicle.
(b) This subdivision does not apply to glazing materials which:
(1) have not been modified since the original installation, nor to original replacement
windows and windshields, that were originally installed or replaced in conformance with Federal
Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 205;
(2) are required to satisfy prescription or medical needs of the driver of the vehicle or a
passenger if the driver or passenger is in possession of the prescription or a physician's statement
of medical need; or
(3) are applied to:
(i) the rear windows of a pickup truck as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 29;
(ii) the rear windows or the side windows on either side behind the driver's seat of a van as
defined in section 168.011, subdivision 28;
(iii) the side and rear windows of a vehicle used to transport human remains by a funeral
establishment holding a license under section 149A.50; or
(iv) the side and rear windows of a limousine as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 35.
History: (2720-260) 1937 c 464 s 110; 1939 c 430 s 21; 1947 c 428 s 30; 1953 c 745 s 4;
1959 c 174 s 1; 1959 c 521 s 11; 1961 c 34 s 1; 1971 c 491 s 26; 1974 c 428 s 5; 1983 c 234
s 1; 1987 c 71 s 2; 1988 c 636 s 10; 1991 c 301 s 7; 1993 c 26 s 10; 1997 c 215 s 44; 2005
c 136 art 8 s 2
169.72 TIRE SURFACE; METAL STUDS.
    Subdivision 1. Solid rubber, metal, and studded tires; exceptions; permits. (a) Every
solid rubber tire on a vehicle shall have rubber on its entire traction surface at least one inch thick
above the edge of the flange of the entire periphery.
(b) No person shall operate or move on any highway any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer,
having any metal tire in contact with the roadway, except in case of emergency.
(c) Except as provided in this section, no tire on a vehicle moved on a highway shall have on
its periphery any block, stud, flange, cleat, or spike or any other protuberances of any material
other than rubber which projects beyond the tread of the traction surface of the tire. It shall be
permissible to use any of the following on highways: implements of husbandry with tires having
protuberances which will not injure the highway, and tire chains of reasonable proportions upon
any vehicle when required for safety because of snow, ice, or other conditions tending to cause a
vehicle to skid.
(d) The commissioner and local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may, in their
discretion, issue special permits authorizing the operation upon a highway of traction engines or
tractors having movable tracks with transverse corrugations upon the periphery of such movable
tracks or farm tractors or other farm machinery, the operation of which upon a highway would
otherwise be prohibited under this chapter.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1973 c 378 s 3]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1996 c 310 s 1]
    Subd. 4. Occasional use of studded tires by nonresidents. Notwithstanding the provisions
of subdivision 1, a person, operating a motor vehicle properly licensed and registered in another
state or province of a foreign country which authorizes the use of tires with metal studs or wire
embedded tires on its highways, may operate the motor vehicle with tires having metal type studs
or with tires having wire embedded therein on the highways of this state while occasionally
within the state, and such use while occasionally within the state is not unlawful; provided that,
the metal type studs shall not exceed 5/16 of an inch in diameter inclusive of the stud casing
with an average protrusion beyond the tread surface of not more than 7/64 of an inch, and the
number of studs in a tire shall not exceed two percent of the total net contact area. Use of a
vehicle in this state on more than 30 days in any consecutive six-month period is not occasionally.
Except, a person whose regular place of employment is within the state or who is a student at an
educational institution located within the state, shall not operate a vehicle, regardless of its place
of registration, upon any highway within the state if such vehicle is equipped with tires which
would be unauthorized were the vehicle registered in this state.
    Subd. 5. Rural postal carrier. (a) A rural mail carrier of the United States Postal Service may
apply to the commissioner for a permit to operate a rural mail delivery vehicle with tires having
metal studs. An applicant must submit with the application for the permit (1) verification that the
applicant is employed as a United States postal carrier, (2) a map showing the applicant's mail
delivery route, and (3) identification of the vehicle the applicant uses on that mail delivery route.
(b) If the commissioner determines that (1) the applicant is employed as a United States
postal carrier, and (2) less than 25 percent of the total mileage on the applicant's mail delivery
route is paved, the commissioner may issue the permit. A permit under this subdivision is valid
beginning November 1 of a calendar year and expires on April 15 of the following calendar year.
(c) A permit under this subdivision authorizes the permit holder to operate a motor vehicle
equipped with tires having metal studs that meet the limitations in subdivision 4, while (1)
traveling between the permit holder's residence and a mail pickup station, and (2) delivering
United States mail on the permit holder's delivery route as shown in the map accompanying the
permit application. The permit is valid only for the vehicle identified in the permit.
(d) The commissioner may amend a permit under this subdivision when (1) the permit holder
submits evidence of a change in the permit holder's mail delivery route, or (2) the permit holder
changes vehicles used in the route.
(e) The commissioner may revoke a permit when the commissioner determines that (1) the
vehicle named in the permit is or has been operated in violation of this subdivision or the terms of
the permit, or (2) the commissioner determines that more than 25 percent of the total mileage of
the permit holder's mail delivery route is paved.
(f) Operation of a motor vehicle identified in a permit in violation of this subdivision or the
terms of a permit issued under this subdivision is a misdemeanor.
(g) A permit holder under this subdivision must remove tires having metal studs from the
vehicle identified in the permit (1) by 12:01 a.m. on April 16 of each year, and (2) whenever
the permit holder transfers ownership of the vehicle or ceases employment as a United States
postal carrier.
History: (2720-261) 1937 c 464 s 111; 1965 c 168 s 1; 1967 c 13 s 1; 1969 c 245 s 1;
Ex1971 c 43 s 1; 1973 c 378 s 1,2; 1974 c 389 s 1; 1976 c 166 s 7; 1986 c 444; 1993 c 187
s 13; 1994 c 486 s 1
169.721 UNSAFE TIRES; DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. As used in sections 169.721 to 169.727, the terms defined in this
section have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2. Passenger automobile. "Passenger automobile" means any motor vehicle designed
and used for the carrying of not more than nine persons, excluding motorcycles and motor
scooters, but including within its meaning station wagons or other highway use motor vehicles
using passenger automobile type tires.
    Subd. 3. Commissioner. "Commissioner" means the commissioner of public safety.
History: 1976 c 35 s 1
169.722 RULES FOR TIRE SAFETY.
The commissioner shall promulgate rules pursuant to chapter 14 providing for the safe
operating conditions of tires for use on passenger automobiles. The rules shall be so promulgated
that a law enforcement officer may determine whether or not a tire is in compliance by visual
inspection or by the use of simple measuring gauges. The rules shall be based on and include
effects of tread wear and depth of tread, and shall incorporate all of the provisions of section
169.723.
History: 1976 c 35 s 2; 1982 c 424 s 130
169.723 TIRES CONSIDERED UNSAFE.
A tire shall be considered unsafe if it has:
(1) any part of the ply or cord exposed; or
(2) any bump, bulge or separation; or
(3) a tread design depth of less than 2/32 (1/16) of an inch measured in the tread groove
nearest the center of the tire at three locations equally spaced around the circumference of the tire,
exclusive of tie bars or for those tires with tread wear indicators; or
(4) been worn to the level of the tread wear indicators in any two tread grooves at three
locations; or
(5) a marking "not for highway use," or "for racing purposes only," or "unsafe for highway
use;" or
(6) tread or sidewall cracks, cuts or snags deep enough to expose the body cords; or
(7) been regrooved or recut below the original tread design depth, except special taxicab tires
which have extra undertread rubber and are identified as such.
History: 1976 c 35 s 3
169.724 PROHIBITION; OPERATING AUTOMOBILE WITH UNSAFE TIRES.
No person shall drive, move or cause to be driven or moved any passenger automobile
upon the highways of this state, unless such passenger automobile is equipped with tires in safe
operating condition in accordance with rules promulgated by the commissioner.
History: 1976 c 35 s 4
169.725 TIRE SAFETY ENFORCEMENT.
If a peace officer has reasonable cause to believe that a passenger automobile is equipped
with tires in violation of sections 169.721 to 169.727, or of the rules adopted under section
169.722, the officer may require the operator of the passenger automobile to stop and submit the
passenger automobile to an inspection. If the inspection discloses that the tires of the passenger
automobile are in violation, the officer may issue a citation for the violation, and the defect must
be corrected as soon as possible. For purposes of this section, "peace officer" means a state
trooper, a county sheriff, a deputy sheriff, and a municipal police officer.
History: 1976 c 35 s 5; 1981 c 37 s 2; 1987 c 112 s 1
169.726 AUTOMOBILE SALE PROHIBITED UNLESS TIRES ARE SAFE.
No person or organization shall sell or offer for sale, other than to a motor vehicle dealer,
any passenger automobile for use on the public highways of this state, unless the passenger
automobile is equipped with tires that are in compliance with the rules promulgated by the
commissioner under authority of section 169.722. If the tires are not in compliance with the
rules, the person or organization selling or offering to sell the passenger automobile shall cause,
prior to sale, the tires to be removed from the vehicle and shall equip the vehicle with tires that
are in compliance with the rules; unless the vehicle is towed or hauled away. No person, firm,
corporation or organization shall sell or offer for sale, other than to a tire dealer, tires for highway
use not in compliance with these rules.
History: 1976 c 35 s 6
169.727 UNSAFE TIRES; MISDEMEANOR.
Any person who violates the provisions of sections 169.721 to 169.727 or any rule
promulgated pursuant thereto is guilty of a petty misdemeanor.
History: 1976 c 35 s 7
169.73 BUMPERS, SAFEGUARDS.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. (a) As used in this section, "private passenger vehicle" means a
four-wheeled passenger automobile as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 7; a van as defined
in section 168.011, subdivision 28; a pickup truck as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 29;
and a jeep-type automobile or other multipurpose vehicle. "Private passenger vehicle" does not
include a collector vehicle or collector military vehicle as defined in section 168.10.
(b) "Suspension system" includes both the front and rear wheels and tires of a vehicle as
specified in subdivision 3.
    Subd. 2. Bumper requirement. All private passenger vehicles shall be equipped with front
and rear bumpers, except that pickup trucks and vans shall be equipped with front bumpers and
with either rear bumpers or reflectors.
    Subd. 3.MS 1978 [Repealed, 1980 c 498 s 7]
    Subd. 3. Bumper restrictions. No person shall operate a private passenger vehicle that: (a)
was originally equipped with bumpers as standard equipment, unless the vehicle is equipped with
bumpers equal to the original equipment; or (b) has a suspension system or body so modified
that the height of the vehicle or any bumpers varies more than six inches from the original
manufactured height for the vehicle.
    Subd. 4.MS 1978 [Repealed, 1980 c 498 s 7]
    Subd. 4. Maximum bumper height. (a) Notwithstanding the restrictions contained in
subdivision 3, bumpers required under this section shall not exceed a height of (1) 20 inches on
any passenger automobile or station wagon or (2) 25 inches on any four-wheel drive multipurpose
type vehicle, van as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 28, or pickup truck as defined in
section 168.011, subdivision 29, when the vehicle is being operated on a public highway. The
height of the bumper shall be determined by measuring from the bottom of the bumper, excluding
any vertical bumper attachments, to the ground. A vehicle which has an original bumper which
does not exceed a height of 30 inches may be modified by attaching a full width bumper to the
regular bumper to meet the height requirement. The attached bumper must be at least 4.5 inches
in vertical height, be centered on the vehicle's centerline, extend at least ten inches on either
side of the frame, and be attached to the frame in at least four places with angle braces at no
less than 45 degrees so that it effectively transfers impact to an extent equal to or greater than
the original bumper.
(b) Competent evidence that a vehicle was originally manufactured with bumpers higher
than prescribed in this subdivision shall be an affirmative defense in any action under this section.
    Subd. 4a. Rear-end protection for other vehicles. (a) Vehicles other than private passenger
vehicles, collector vehicles, collector military vehicles, and other vehicles specifically exempted
by law from such requirements must meet the rear-end protection requirements of federal motor
carrier regulations, Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, section 393.86.
(b) Notwithstanding contrary regulations cited in paragraph (a), a truck-tractor and
semitrailer combination with a semitrailer length longer than 50 feet whose frame or body extends
more than 36 inches beyond the rear of its rearmost axle must not be operated on the highways of
this state unless equipped with a bumper or underride guard on the extreme rear of the frame or
body. The bumper or underride guard must:
(1) provide a continuous horizontal beam having a maximum ground clearance of 22 inches,
as measured with the vehicle empty and on level ground; and
(2) extend to within four inches of the lateral extremities of the semitrailer on both left
and right sides.
    Subd. 5.MS 1978 [Repealed, 1980 c 498 s 7]
    Subd. 5. Misdemeanor. Any person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: (2720-262) 1937 c 464 s 112; 1939 c 430 s 22; 1955 c 647 s 1; 1971 c 203 s 1;
1980 c 498 s 5,6; 1981 c 199 s 2; 1983 c 170 s 1; 1984 c 549 s 29; 1986 c 336 s 6; 1989 c
204 s 4; 1991 c 333 s 15
169.733 WHEEL FLAPS ON TRUCK AND TRAILER.
    Subdivision 1. Vehicles generally. Every truck, truck-tractor, trailer, semitrailer, pole
trailer, and rear-end dump truck, excepting rear-end dump farm trucks, must be provided with
wheel flaps or other suitable protection above and behind the rearmost wheels of the vehicle or
combination of vehicles to prevent, as far as practicable, the wheels from throwing dirt, water, or
other materials on the windshields of following vehicles. The flaps or protectors must be at least
as wide as the tires they are protecting and have a ground clearance of not more than nine inches
from the ground when the vehicle is empty.
    Subd. 2. Vehicle with conveyor belt. For a dump truck or truck with a rigid box fastened
to its frame and having a conveyor belt or chain in the bottom of the vehicle that moves the
cargo to the rear end of the vehicle, the flaps must be mounted as far to the rear of the vehicle as
practicable and have a ground clearance of not more than 18 inches when the vehicle is loaded.
    Subd. 3. Bottom-dump vehicle. In addition to meeting the requirements of subdivision 1, a
bottom-dump cargo vehicle transporting sand, gravel, aggregate, dirt, lime rock, silica, or similar
material must be equipped with a center flap between the wheel flaps, which must have a ground
clearance of six inches or less when the vehicle is fully loaded.
    Subd. 4. Alternative requirements. If the motor vehicle is so designed and constructed that
the above requirements are accomplished by means of body construction or other means of
enclosure, then no protectors or flaps are required.
    Subd. 5. Extended flaps. If the rear wheels are not covered at the top by fenders, body or
other parts of the vehicle, the flap or other protective means must be extended at least to a point
directly above the center of the rearmost axle.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed by amendment, 1Sp2005 c 1 art 4 s 35]
History: 1951 c 640 s 1; 1953 c 619 s 1; 1976 c 136 s 1; 1978 c 498 s 1; 1990 c 548 s 1;
1998 c 372 art 1 s 7; 1Sp2005 c 1 art 4 s 35
169.734 AUTOMOBILE FENDERS.
Every passenger automobile shall have fenders, or other devices, that are designed to
prevent, as far as practicable, water, dirt, or other material being thrown up and to the rear by
the wheels of the vehicle.
History: 1975 c 68 s 2
169.74 SAFETY GLASS.
    Subdivision 1. Required. No person shall sell any new motor vehicle, nor shall any new
motor vehicle be registered thereafter unless the vehicle is equipped with safety glass wherever
glass is used in doors, windows, and windshields.
    Subd. 2. Definition. "Safety glass" means any product composed of glass, or other material,
as may be approved by the commissioner of public safety, as safety glass.
    Subd. 3. Replacement. All glass replacement in doors, windows, and windshields or
partitions of motor vehicles shall be made with materials meeting the requirements of this chapter
for safety glass if glass is used therefor.
    Subd. 4. Other material prohibited. No glazing material other than of a type meeting
the requirements of this chapter shall be sold, offered for sale, offered for use, or used for
installation in doors, windows or windshields of motor vehicles or of passenger-carrying trailers
or semitrailers.
    Subd. 5. Frostshield. Nothing in this section shall be construed to include frostshields.
History: (2720-263) 1937 c 464 s 113; 1947 c 428 s 31; 1971 c 491 s 27
169.743 BUG DEFLECTOR.
Bug deflectors shall be permitted but not required on motor vehicles. No bug deflector
shall be sold, offered for sale, or used which is composed of other than nonilluminated material.
No person shall operate any motor vehicle equipped with a bug deflector of nontransparent
material having more than one inch of material extending above the highest part of the hood,
excluding any decorative ornament, and no person shall operate any motor vehicle equipped with
a bug deflector of transparent material having more than three inches of material extending
above the highest part of the hood, excluding any decorative ornament; provided that trucks and
truck-tractors of 12,000 pounds gross vehicle weight or larger may be operated with a clear,
uncolored bug deflector extending no more than six inches above the highest part of the hood,
excluding any decorative ornament.
History: 1953 c 304 s 1; 1975 c 68 s 1; 1982 c 400 s 1; 1984 c 549 s 31; 1994 c 600 s 6
169.75 FLARES, FLAGS, OR REFLECTORS REQUIRED.
    Subdivision 1. Number required. No person shall operate any motor vehicle towing a travel
trailer, any passenger bus, or any other motor vehicle or combination of vehicles of an actual gross
weight or manufacturer's rated gross weight of more than 10,000 pounds at any location upon
an interstate highway or freeway or upon any other highway outside of a business or residence
district at any time from a half-hour after sunset to a half-hour before sunrise, unless there shall be
carried in such vehicle the following equipment except as otherwise provided in subdivision 2.
At least three flares or three red electric lanterns or three emergency reflective triangles or
three portable red reflector devices, each of which shall be capable of being seen and distinguished
at a distance of 500 feet under normal atmospheric conditions at nighttime.
    Subd. 2. Flammables. No person shall at any time operate a motor vehicle transporting
flammable liquids in bulk or compressed flammable gases as cargo or part of cargo upon a
highway unless it carries three electric lanterns or three emergency reflective triangles or three
portable reflector units to be used in lieu of flares and no open burning flares shall be carried on
or placed adjacent to such vehicle.
    Subd. 3. Flags and reflectors. No person shall operate any motor vehicle towing a travel
trailer, any passenger bus, or any other motor vehicle or combination of vehicles of an actual gross
weight or manufacturer's rated gross weight of more than 10,000 pounds at any location upon
any interstate highway or freeway or upon any other highway outside of a business or residence
district unless there shall be carried in such vehicle at least three emergency reflective triangles or
two red, yellow, or orange flags not less than 12 inches square which shall be displayed at any
time from one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after sunset under circumstances which
would require the use of warning lights at night and in the manner and position governing the use
of warning lights as prescribed in subdivision 5, except a flag or reflector is not required to be
displayed at the ten-foot distance.
    Subd. 4. Approved type. Every flare, lantern, signal, reflective triangle or reflector required
in this section shall be of a type approved by the commissioner of public safety.
    Subd. 5. When used. When any vehicle subject to the provisions of subdivision 1 or 3 is
disabled upon the roadway or shoulder at any location upon an interstate highway or freeway, or
upon any other highway outside of a business or residence district during the period when lighted
lamps must be displayed on vehicles and such motor vehicle cannot immediately be removed
from the main traveled portion of the highway or from the shoulder, the driver or other person in
charge of the vehicle shall promptly cause flares, lanterns, or other signals to be lighted and placed
as warning lights upon the highway, one at the traffic side of the standing vehicle approximately
ten feet rearward or forward thereof in the direction of greatest hazard to traffic, one at a distance
of approximately 100 feet to the rear of the vehicle in the center of the lane occupied by such
vehicle, and one at a distance of approximately 100 feet to the front of the vehicle in the center of
the traffic lane occupied by such vehicle, except:
(1) if disablement of any vehicle occurs within 500 feet of a curve, crest of a hill or other
obstruction to view, the driver or other person in charge shall so place the warning signal in that
direction so as to offer ample warning to other users of the highway but in no case less than 100
feet nor more than 500 feet from the disabled vehicle;
(2) if disablement of the vehicle occurs upon the roadway or shoulder of any one-way
roadway of any highway, the driver or other person in charge shall place one warning signal at the
traffic side of the vehicle not more than ten feet to the rear of the vehicle, one placed 100 feet to
the rear of the vehicle in the center of the lane occupied by the standing vehicle, and one such
signal at a distance of approximately 200 feet to the rear of the vehicle.
History: (2720-264) 1937 c 464 s 114; 1939 c 430 s 23; 1947 c 428 s 32; 1949 c 656; 1967
c 383 s 1-3; 1971 c 491 s 28; 1978 c 494 s 5; 1989 c 342 s 18,19

FIRST AID EQUIPMENT IN POLICE VEHICLES

169.751 DEFINITIONS.
For the purposes of sections 169.751 to 169.754 the following words shall have the meaning
ascribed to them in this section:
(a) "First aid equipment" shall mean equipment for the purpose of rendering first aid to sick
or injured persons as prescribed by the Department of Public Safety for its State Patrol vehicles,
such equipment to include materials for the application of splints to fractures.
(b) "Patrol motor vehicles" shall mean the State Patrol motor vehicles used in law
enforcement of the Department of Public Safety, the county sheriffs, and the various city, town,
and other local police departments.
History: 1953 c 651 s 1; 1971 c 491 s 29; 1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1980 c 509 s 59; 1981 c 37 s 2
169.752 PATROL MOTOR VEHICLES, FIRST AID EQUIPMENT.
Every patrol motor vehicle shall be equipped with and carry first aid equipment.
History: 1953 c 651 s 2
169.753 LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS TRAINED IN FIRST AID.
Law enforcement officers operating patrol motor vehicles shall be trained in the use and
application of first aid equipment.
History: 1953 c 651 s 3
169.754 APPROPRIATIONS AUTHORIZED.
The various municipalities and political subdivisions of the state of Minnesota may for their
fiscal years beginning after the enactment hereof appropriate such funds as are necessary for the
purchase of first aid equipment for their patrol motor vehicles.
History: 1953 c 651 s 4
169.755 [Repealed, 1984 c 549 s 34]
169.76 [Repealed, 1984 c 520 s 26]

TRANSPORTING PRESSURIZED GAS

169.762 PRESSURIZED FLAMMABLE GAS.
    Subdivision 1. Marking required. Any vehicle within this state which carries liquefied
petroleum gas fuel or natural gas in a tank attached to the vehicle in any concealed area,
including but not limited to trunks, compartments, or under the vehicle, shall display on the
exterior of the vehicle the words "Pressurized Flammable Gas," or a standard abbreviation or
symbol as determined by the Department of Public Safety, in block letters at least two inches
high. The letters shall be of contrasting colors and shall be placed as near as possible to the area
where the tank is located.
    Subd. 2. Dispensing prohibition. No person shall dispense liquefied petroleum gas fuel or
natural gas into any tank in a concealed area of a vehicle unless the vehicle is in compliance with
the requirements of subdivision 1.
    Subd. 3. Penalty. Any owner convicted of violating the provisions of subdivision 1 or 2
is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1982 c 617 s 8

VEHICLE INSPECTIONS

169.77 [Repealed, 1993 c 26 s 11]
169.771 SPOT CHECK OF MOTOR VEHICLE.
    Subdivision 1. Inspection program. The intent of this section is to establish a motor vehicle
inspection program administered by the commissioner of public safety evidencing substantial
compliance with the Federal Highway Safety Act.
    Subd. 2. Inspection by state trooper. (a) The commissioner of public safety is directed to
accelerate spot check inspections for unsafe motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment. Such
inspections shall be conducted by the personnel of the State Patrol who shall give the operator of
a commercial motor vehicle a signed and dated document as evidence of the inspection.
(b) However, personnel of the State Patrol may not conduct another spot inspection of a
commercial motor vehicle if (1) the operator of the vehicle can show evidence of an inspection,
which is free of critical defects, conducted in Minnesota according to this section or section
169.781 within the previous 90 days and (2) a state trooper does not have probable cause to
believe the vehicle or its equipment is unsafe or that the operator has engaged in illegal activity.
In addition, if the operator shows the state trooper evidence that the commercial motor vehicle
has been inspected within the previous 90 days, but the officer has probable cause to believe the
vehicle or its equipment is unsafe or to suspect illegal activity, then the vehicle may be inspected
to confirm the existence or absence of an unsafe condition or of the suspected illegal activity.
    Subd. 3. Rules. The commissioner of public safety may establish such reasonable rules as are
necessary to carry out the provisions of this section, but all spot check inspections shall be held
in compliance with subdivision 2 and in such a manner that the motor vehicle operators, either
private or commercial, shall not be unnecessarily inconvenienced either by extended detours,
unnecessary delays, or any other unreasonable cause.
    Subd. 4. Implied consent to inspection. Use of the highways and streets of this state shall
constitute consent to spot check inspections as provided herein.
History: 1967 c 887 s 6 subd 1-4; 1969 c 1129 art 1 s 4; 1971 c 491 s 32; 1981 c 37 s 2;
1985 c 248 s 70; 2002 c 364 s 11,12; 2002 c 371 art 3 s 3,4
169.78 MUNICIPAL INSPECTION STATION.
(a) Every municipality in the state shall have the power to acquire, erect, establish, equip,
operate, and maintain motor vehicle testing stations, for the purpose of testing and inspecting
motor vehicles using the public streets of any such municipality, and to finance and pay for the
same out of the proceeds of the collection of fees charged for such inspection. Any municipality
may pass, and by proper penalties enforce, ordinances for these purposes, and by such ordinances:
(1) require the attendance of such motor vehicles at such testing station for the purpose of
inspection, at such time as shall be deemed reasonable, after due notice thereof shall first have
been given to the owner of such motor vehicle or the owner's agent; provided, that any owner of
five or more commercial vehicles having testing equipment and facilities meeting the requirements
of the municipality may be exempted from the requirements of attendance at such testing station;
(2) require the payment of inspection fees, but such fees shall not exceed the amount of 50
cents for any one inspection, or $1 for any one year;
(3) provide free inspections as often as the owner desires between compulsory inspection
periods;
(4) provide for the issuance of an inspection certificate and require the same to be displayed
on the windshield of such motor vehicle in the lower right corner thereof, and in such manner
as not to obstruct the driver's view;
(5) prohibit the operation on the public streets of such municipality of any motor vehicle
which shall not have been submitted for inspection within a reasonable time after notice of such
required inspection shall have been given to the owner of such motor vehicle or the owner's agent,
or any motor vehicle which shall be found to be in a faulty or unsafe condition or in violation of
any city ordinance or state law, and now having a proper inspection certificate properly displayed.
(b) No such inspection shall be required of the owner of a vehicle who is not a resident of the
municipality operating and maintaining the motor vehicle testing station.
(c) In making such inspection or tests, no additional or different mechanical requirements
than those provided by state law shall be imposed upon or against a motor vehicle or the owner
thereof, or the owner's agent, in order to entitle such vehicle to an inspection certificate, but no
such certificate shall be issued or attached to any vehicle until and unless such vehicle shall, upon
such inspection, be found to comply with the terms of the state law.
History: (2720-267) 1937 c 464 s 117; 1986 c 444
169.781 ANNUAL COMMERCIAL VEHICLE INSPECTION; INSPECTORS, FEE,
PENALTY.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. For purposes of sections 169.781 to 169.783:
(a) "Commercial motor vehicle" means:
(1) a commercial motor vehicle as defined in section 169.01, subdivision 75, paragraph
(a); and
(2) each vehicle in a combination of more than 26,000 pounds.
"Commercial motor vehicle" does not include (1) a school bus or Head Start bus displaying a
certificate under section 169.451, (2) a bus operated by the Metropolitan Council or by a local
transit commission created in chapter 458A, or (3) a motor vehicle that is required to be placarded
under Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, parts 100-185.
(b) "Commissioner" means the commissioner of public safety.
(c) "Owner" means a person who owns, or has control, under a lease of more than 30 days'
duration, of one or more commercial motor vehicles.
(d) "Storage semitrailer" means a semitrailer that (1) is used exclusively to store property
at a location not on a street or highway, (2) does not contain any load when moved on a street
or highway, (3) is operated only during daylight hours, and (4) is marked on each side of the
semitrailer "storage only" in letters at least six inches high.
(e) "Building mover vehicle" means a vehicle owned or leased by a building mover as defined
in section 221.81, subdivision 1, paragraph (a), and used exclusively for moving buildings.
    Subd. 2. Inspection required. It is unlawful for a person to operate or permit the operation of:
(1) a commercial motor vehicle registered in Minnesota; or
(2) special mobile equipment as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 22, and which is
self-propelled, if it is mounted on a commercial motor vehicle chassis,
unless the vehicle displays a valid safety inspection decal issued by an inspector certified by the
commissioner, or the vehicle carries (1) proof that the vehicle complies with federal motor vehicle
inspection requirements for vehicles in interstate commerce, and (2) a certificate of compliance
with federal requirements issued by the commissioner under subdivision 9.
    Subd. 3. Inspector certification; suspension and revocation; hearing. (a) An inspection
required by this section may be performed only by:
(1) an employee of the Department of Public Safety or Transportation who has been certified
by the commissioner after having received training provided by the State Patrol; or
(2) another person who has been certified by the commissioner after having received training
provided by the State Patrol or other training approved by the commissioner.
(b) A person who is not an employee of the Department of Public Safety or Transportation
may be certified by the commissioner if the person is:
(1) an owner, or employee of the owner, of one or more commercial motor vehicles that
are power units;
(2) a dealer licensed under section 168.27 and engaged in the business of buying and selling
commercial motor vehicles, or an employee of the dealer; or
(3) engaged in the business of repairing and servicing commercial motor vehicles.
(c) Certification of persons described in paragraph (b), clauses (1) to (3), is effective for
two years from the date of certification. The commissioner may require biennial retraining of
persons holding a certificate under paragraph (b) as a condition of renewal of the certificate. The
commissioner may charge a fee of not more than $10 for each certificate issued and renewed. A
certified person described in paragraph (b), clauses (1) to (3), may charge a reasonable fee for
each inspection of a vehicle not owned by the person or the person's employer.
(d) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 5, the standards adopted by the commissioner
for commercial motor vehicle inspections under sections 169.781 to 169.783 shall be the
standards prescribed in Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, section 396.17, and in chapter III,
subchapter B, appendix G.
(e) The commissioner may classify types of vehicles for inspection purposes and may issue
separate classes of inspector certificates for each class. The commissioner shall issue separate
categories of inspector certificates based on the following classifications:
(1) a class of certificate that authorizes the certificate holder to inspect commercial motor
vehicles without regard to ownership or lease; and
(2) a class of certificate that authorizes the certificate holder to inspect only commercial
motor vehicles the certificate holder owns or leases.
The commissioner shall issue a certificate described in clause (1) only to a person described
in paragraph (b), clause (2) or (3).
(f) The commissioner, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, may suspend a certificate
issued under paragraph (b) for failure to meet annual certification requirements prescribed by
the commissioner or failure to inspect commercial motor vehicles in accordance with inspection
procedures established by the State Patrol. The commissioner shall revoke a certificate issued
under paragraph (b) if the commissioner determines after notice and an opportunity for a hearing
that the certified person issued an inspection decal for a commercial motor vehicle when the person
knew or reasonably should have known that the vehicle was in such a state of repair that it would
have been declared out of service if inspected by an employee of the State Patrol. Suspension and
revocation of certificates under this subdivision are not subject to sections 14.57 to 14.69.
    Subd. 4. Inspection report. (a) A person performing an inspection under this section shall
issue an inspection report to the owner of the commercial motor vehicle inspected. The report
must include:
(1) the full name of the person performing the inspection, and the person's inspector
certification number;
(2) the name of the owner of the vehicle and, if applicable, the United States Department
of Transportation carrier number issued to the owner of the vehicle, or to the operator of the
vehicle if other than the owner;
(3) the vehicle identification number and, if applicable, the license plate number of the
vehicle;
(4) the date and location of the inspection;
(5) the vehicle components inspected and a description of the findings of the inspection,
including identification of the components not in compliance with federal motor carrier safety
regulations; and
(6) the inspector's certification that the inspection was complete, accurate, and in compliance
with the requirements of this section.
(b) The owner must retain a copy of the inspection report for at least 14 months at a location
in the state where the vehicle is domiciled or maintained. The inspector must maintain a copy
of the inspection report for a period of 14 months following the inspection in a location in the
state where the inspector conducts business. During this period the report must be available for
inspection by an authorized federal, state, or local official.
(c) The commissioner shall prescribe the form of the inspection report and revise it as
necessary to comply with state and federal law and regulations. The adoption of the report form is
not subject to the Administrative Procedure Act.
    Subd. 5. Inspection decal. (a) A person inspecting a commercial motor vehicle shall issue
an inspection decal for the vehicle if each inspected component of the vehicle complies with
federal motor carrier safety regulations. The decal must state that in the month specified on the
decal the vehicle was inspected and each inspected component complied with federal motor
carrier safety regulations. The decal is valid for 12 months after the month specified on the decal.
The commissioners of public safety and transportation shall make decals available, at a fee of
not more than $2 for each decal, to persons certified to perform inspections under subdivision 3,
paragraph (b).
(b) Minnesota inspection decals may be affixed only to:
(1) commercial motor vehicles bearing Minnesota-based license plates; or
(2) special mobile equipment, within the meaning of subdivision 2, clause (2).
(c) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), a person inspecting (1) a vehicle of less than 57,000
pounds gross vehicle weight and registered as a farm truck, (2) a storage semitrailer, or (3) a
building mover vehicle must issue an inspection decal to the vehicle unless the vehicle has one
or more defects that would result in the vehicle being declared out of service under the North
American Uniform Driver, Vehicle, and Hazardous Materials Out-of-Service Criteria issued by the
Federal Highway Administration and the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance. A decal issued to a
vehicle described in clause (1), (2), or (3) is valid for two years from the date of issuance. A decal
issued to such a vehicle must clearly indicate that it is valid for two years from the date of issuance.
(d) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), a commercial motor vehicle that (1) is registered as a
farm truck, (2) is not operated more than 75 miles from the owner's home post office, and (3) was
manufactured before 1979 that has a dual transmission system, is not required to comply with
a requirement in an inspection standard that requires that the service brake system and parking
brake system be separate systems in the motor vehicle.
    Subd. 6. Record review; random inspection; audit. Employees of the State Patrol and
motor transportation representatives of the Department of Transportation may review records
required to be kept under subdivision 4, paragraph (b), and conduct random vehicle inspections
and audits at the facility of an owner of a commercial motor vehicle.
    Subd. 7. Disposition of revenues. The commissioner shall pay all revenues received under
this section to the commissioner of finance for deposit in the trunk highway fund.
    Subd. 8. Violation; misdemeanor. A violation of this section is a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 9. Proof of federal inspection. An owner of a commercial motor vehicle that is
subject to and in compliance with federal motor vehicle inspection requirements for vehicles in
interstate commerce may apply to the commissioner for a certificate of compliance with federal
requirements. On payment of a fee equal to the fee for an inspection decal under subdivision 5,
paragraph (a), the commissioner shall issue the certificate to the applicant.
    Subd. 10. Exemption. This section does not apply to a vehicle operated by a motor carrier of
passengers, as defined in section 221.011, subdivision 48, if the vehicle has been inspected under
section 221.0252, subdivision 3, paragraph (a), clause (2), within the previous 12 months.
History: 1990 c 563 s 1; 1991 c 174 s 1-6; 1992 c 578 s 5,6; 1992 c 581 s 13; 1993 c 187 s
14; 1994 c 603 s 14; 1994 c 628 art 3 s 12; 1995 c 120 s 3; 2000 c 426 s 27; 2000 c 479 art 1 s
17; 2001 c 188 s 2,3; 2002 c 371 art 1 s 45; 2003 c 112 art 2 s 50; 2006 c 212 art 1 s 10
169.782 DAILY COMMERCIAL VEHICLE INSPECTION; PENALTY.
    Subdivision 1. Driver; daily inspection report. (a) The driver of a commercial motor
vehicle shall report in writing at the completion of each day's work on each commercial motor
vehicle the driver has operated. A person who owns one or more commercial motor vehicles and
who employs drivers for those commercial motor vehicles must require each driver to report as
required in this section. The report must cover the following parts and accessories: service brakes,
including trailer and semitrailer brake connections; parking (hand) brake; steering mechanism;
lighting devices and reflectors; tires; horn; windshield wiper or wipers; rear vision mirror or
mirrors; coupling devices; wheels and rims; and emergency equipment.
(b) The report must identify the vehicle and list any defect or deficiency discovered by or
reported to the driver that would affect the safe operation of the vehicle or result in its mechanical
breakdown. If no defect or deficiency is discovered by or reported to the driver, the report must so
indicate. The driver must sign the report after completing it. In the case of a commercial motor
vehicle operated by two drivers, the signature of one of the drivers satisfies the requirements of
this subdivision if both drivers agree concerning the defects or deficiencies. If a driver operates
more than one commercial motor vehicle during a day's work, a report must be prepared for
each vehicle operated.
(c) Before operating or allowing the operation of a commercial motor vehicle on which a
report has been prepared under this subdivision, the owner of the vehicle or the owner's agent
must repair defects or deficiencies listed on the report that would be sufficient under inspection
procedures established by the State Patrol to require the vehicle to be declared out of service.
Before allowing the commercial motor vehicle to be operated again, the owner or the owner's
agent must certify, on the report listing the defect or deficiency, that the defect or deficiency has
been corrected or that correction is unnecessary. A motor carrier must keep the original vehicle
inspection report for at least three months after the date of inspection. The report must be available
for inspection by an authorized federal, state, or local official at any time during this period.
(d) A copy of the vehicle inspection report, including a certification of corrections resulting
from the report, must be carried in the commercial motor vehicle, or in the power unit of a
commercial motor vehicle combination, at all times when the vehicle or power unit is operated
until the next inspection report is completed under this subdivision. The copy must be made
available on demand to: (1) a peace officer; (2) a person authorized under section 221.221; and (3)
a person described in section 299D.06.
    Subd. 2. Driver; pretrip inspection. (a) Before driving a commercial motor vehicle,
a driver must:
(1) review the most recent vehicle inspection report on the vehicle;
(2) determine that the vehicle is in safe operating condition; and
(3) sign the inspection report in the vehicle.
The driver shall sign the report only if all defects and deficiencies listed in the report have
been certified as having been corrected or as not requiring correction.
(b) If the commercial motor vehicle does not contain the previous day's inspection report, the
driver must make the inspection and complete the report required under subdivision 1.
    Subd. 3. Operation prohibited. It is a misdemeanor to drive or to cause another person to
drive a commercial motor vehicle that does not contain a copy of an inspection report complying
with this section.
    Subd. 4. Exceptions. (a) With the exception of subdivision 2, paragraph (a), clause (2), this
section does not apply to a commercial motor vehicle that is a farm truck that may be operated by
a person not holding a commercial driver's license.
(b) This section does not apply to a commercial motor vehicle held for resale by a motor
vehicle dealer licensed under section 168.27.
History: 1990 c 563 s 2
169.783 COMMERCIAL VEHICLE ACCIDENT; REINSPECTION.
    Subdivision 1. Postcrash inspection. A peace officer responding to an accident involving
a commercial motor vehicle must immediately notify the State Patrol if the accident results in
death, personal injury, or property damage to an apparent extent of more than $4,400. It is a
misdemeanor for a person to drive or cause to be driven a commercial motor vehicle after such an
accident unless the vehicle:
(1) has been inspected by a state trooper or other person authorized to conduct inspections
under section 169.781, subdivision 3, paragraph (a), who is an employee of the Department of
Public Safety or Transportation, and the person inspecting the vehicle has determined that the
vehicle may safely be operated; or
(2) a waiver has been granted under subdivision 2.
    Subd. 2. Waiver. A state trooper or other authorized person called to the scene of an accident
by a responding peace officer under subdivision 1 may waive the inspection requirement of
that subdivision if the person determines that a postcrash inspection is not needed or cannot be
accomplished without unreasonable delay. A person who grants a waiver must provide to the
driver of the commercial motor vehicle for which the waiver is granted a written statement that
the inspection has been waived. The written statement must include the incident report number
assigned to the accident by the State Patrol.
History: 1990 c 563 s 3; 1991 c 174 s 7
169.79 VEHICLE REGISTRATION; DISPLAYING LICENSE PLATES.
    Subdivision 1. Registration required. No person shall operate, drive, or park a motor
vehicle on any highway unless the vehicle is registered in accordance with the laws of this state
and has the number plates or permit confirming that valid registration or operating authority has
been obtained, except as provided in sections 168.10 and 168.12, subdivision 2f, as assigned to it
by the commissioner of public safety, conspicuously displayed thereon in a manner that the view
of any plate or permit is not obstructed. A plate issued under section 168.27 or a permit issued
under chapter 168 may be displayed on a vehicle in conjunction with expired registration whether
or not it displays the license plate to which the last registration was issued.
    Subd. 2. Semitrailer. If the vehicle is a semitrailer, the number plate displayed must be
assigned to the registered owner and correlate to the certificate of title documentation on file with
the department and shall not display a year indicator.
    Subd. 3. Rear display of single plate. If the vehicle is a motorcycle, motor scooter,
motorized bicycle, motorcycle sidecar, trailer registered at greater than 3,000 pounds gross
vehicle weight (GVW), semitrailer, or vehicle displaying a dealer plate, then one license plate
must be displayed on the rear of the vehicle.
    Subd. 3a. Small trailer. If the vehicle is a trailer with 3,000 pounds or less GVW with
lifetime registration, the numbered plate or sticker must be adhered to the side of the trailer
frame tongue near the hitch.
    Subd. 4. Collector's vehicle. If the vehicle is (1) a collector's vehicle with a pioneer, classic
car, collector, or street rod license; (2) a vehicle that meets the requirements of a pioneer, classic,
or street rod vehicle except that the vehicle is used for general transportation purposes; or (3) a
vehicle that is of model year 1972 or earlier, not registered under section 168.10, subdivision 1c,
and is used for general transportation purposes, one plate must be displayed on the rear of the
vehicle, or one plate on the front and one on the rear, at the discretion of the owner.
    Subd. 5. Truck-tractor, road-tractor, or farm truck. If the vehicle is a truck-tractor,
road-tractor, or farm truck, as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 17, but excluding from that
definition semitrailers and trailers, one plate must be displayed on the front of the vehicle.
    Subd. 6. Other motor vehicles. If the motor vehicle is any kind of motor vehicle other
than those provided for in subdivisions 2 to 4, one plate must be displayed on the front and one
on the rear of the vehicle.
    Subd. 7. Plate fastened and visible. All plates must be securely fastened so as to prevent
them from swinging. The person driving the motor vehicle shall keep the plate legible and
unobstructed and free from grease, dust, or other blurring material so that the lettering is plainly
visible at all times. It is unlawful to cover any assigned letters and numbers or the name of the
state of origin of a license plate with any material whatever, including any clear or colorless
material that affects the plate's visibility or reflectivity.
    Subd. 8. Plate registration stickers. License plates issued to vehicles registered under
section 168.017 must display the month of expiration in the lower left corner as viewed facing the
plate and the year of expiration in the lower right corner as viewed facing the plate. License plates
issued to vehicles registered under section 168.127 must display either fleet registration validation
stickers in the lower right corner as viewed facing the plates or distinctive license plates, issued
by the registrar, with "FLEET REG" displayed on the bottom center portion of the plate.
History: (2720-268) 1937 c 464 s 118; 1961 c 622 s 1; 1967 c 464 s 2; 1977 c 248 s 4; 1981
c 357 s 62; 1981 c 363 s 27; 1985 c 291 s 18; 1995 c 120 s 4; 1995 c 145 s 2; 1997 c 240 s 5;
1997 c 250 s 6; 2000 c 280 s 1; 1Sp2001 c 8 art 2 s 45; 2002 c 371 art 1 s 46-48

VEHICLE INSURANCE

169.791 CRIMINAL PENALTY FOR FAILURE TO PRODUCE PROOF OF INSURANCE.
    Subdivision 1. Terms defined. (a) For purposes of this section and sections 169.792 to
169.798, the following terms have the meanings given.
(b) "Commissioner" means the commissioner of public safety.
(c) "District court administrator" or "court administrator" means the district court
administrator or a deputy district court administrator of the district court that has jurisdiction of
a violation of this section.
(d) "Insurance identification card" means a card issued by an obligor to an insured stating
that security as required by section 65B.48 has been provided for the insured's vehicle.
(e) "Law enforcement agency" means the law enforcement agency that employed the peace
officer who demanded proof of insurance under this section or section 169.792.
(f) "Peace officer" or "officer" means an employee of a political subdivision or state law
enforcement agency, including the Minnesota State Patrol, who is licensed by the Minnesota
Board of Peace Officer Standards and Training and is authorized to make arrests for violations
of traffic laws.
(g) "Proof of insurance" means an insurance identification card, written statement, or
insurance policy as defined by section 65B.14, subdivision 2.
(h) "Vehicle" means a motor vehicle as defined in section 65B.43, subdivision 2, or a
motorcycle as defined in section 65B.43, subdivision 13.
(i) "Written statement" means a written statement by a licensed insurance agent stating the
name and address of the insured, the vehicle identification number of the insured's vehicle, that
a plan of reparation security as required by section 65B.48 has been provided for the insured's
vehicle, and the dates of the coverage.
(j) The definitions in section 65B.43 apply to sections 169.792 to 169.798.
    Subd. 2. Requirement for driver, whether or not owner. Every driver shall have in
possession at all times when operating a vehicle and shall produce on demand of a peace officer
proof of insurance in force at the time of the demand covering the vehicle being operated. If the
driver does not produce the required proof of insurance upon the demand of a peace officer, the
driver is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor who violates this
section within ten years of the first of two prior convictions under this section, section 169.797, or
a statute or ordinance in conformity with one of those sections. The same prosecuting authority
who is responsible for prosecuting misdemeanor violations of this section is responsible for
prosecuting gross misdemeanor violations of this section. A driver who is not the owner of the
vehicle may not be convicted under this section unless the driver knew or had reason to know
that the owner did not have proof of insurance required by this section, provided that the driver
provides the officer with the name and address of the owner at the time of the demand or complies
with subdivision 3.
    Subd. 2a. Later production of proof by driver who is owner. A driver who is the owner of
the vehicle may, no later than the date and time specified in the citation for the driver's first court
appearance, produce proof of insurance stating that security had been provided for the vehicle that
was being operated at the time of the demand to the court administrator. The required proof of
insurance may be sent by mail by the driver as long as it is received no later than the date and
time specified in the citation for the driver's first court appearance. If a citation is issued, no
person shall be convicted of violating this section if the court administrator receives the required
proof of insurance no later than the date and time specified in the citation for the driver's first
court appearance. If the charge is made other than by citation, no person shall be convicted of
violating this section if the person presents the required proof of insurance at the person's first
court appearance after the charge is made.
    Subd. 3. Later production of information by driver who is not owner. If the driver is not
the owner of the vehicle, the driver shall, no later than the date and time specified in the citation for
the driver's first court appearance, provide the district court administrator with proof of insurance
or the name and address of the owner. Upon receipt of the name and address of the owner, the
district court administrator shall communicate the information to the law enforcement agency.
    Subd. 4. Requirement for owner who is not driver. If the driver is not the owner of the
vehicle, the officer may send or provide a notice to the owner of the vehicle requiring the owner to
produce proof of insurance for the vehicle that was being operated at the time of the demand.
Notice by mail is presumed to be received five days after mailing and shall be sent to the owner's
current address or the address listed on the owner's driver's license. Within ten days after receipt
of the notice, the owner shall produce the required proof of insurance to the place stated in the
notice received by the owner. The required proof of insurance may be sent by mail by the owner
as long as it is received within ten days. Any owner who fails to produce proof of insurance
within ten days of an officer's request under this subdivision is guilty of a misdemeanor. The
peace officer may mail the citation to the owner's current address or address stated on the owner's
driver's license. It is an affirmative defense to a charge against the owner that the driver used the
owner's vehicle without consent, if insurance would not have been required in the absence of the
unauthorized use by the driver. It is not a defense that a person failed to notify the Department
of Public Safety of a change of name or address as required under section 171.11. The citation
may be sent after the ten-day period.
    Subd. 5. Exemptions. Buses or other commercial vehicles operated by the Metropolitan
Council, commercial vehicles required to file proof of insurance pursuant to chapter 221, and
school buses as defined in section 171.01, subdivision 45, are exempt from this section.
    Subd. 5a. Consecutive sentences. The court may impose consecutive sentences for offenses
arising out of a single course of conduct as permitted in section 609.035, subdivision 2.
    Subd. 6. Penalty. In addition to any sentence of imprisonment that the court may impose, the
court shall impose a fine of not less than $200 nor more than the maximum fine applicable to
misdemeanors upon conviction under this section. The court may allow community service in
lieu of any fine imposed if the defendant is indigent. In addition to criminal penalties, a person
convicted under this section is subject to revocation of a driver's license or permit to drive under
section 169.792, subdivision 7, and to revocation of motor vehicle registration under section
169.792, subdivision 12.
    Subd. 7. False information; penalty. Any person who knowingly provides false information
to an officer or district court administrator under this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1989 c 321 s 10; 1992 c 571 art 14 s 2,13; 1994 c 615 s 17; 1994 c 628 art 3 s 13;
1996 c 408 art 3 s 2-4; 1996 c 442 s 19; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 29
169.792 REVOCATION OF LICENSE FOR FAILURE TO PRODUCE PROOF OF
INSURANCE.
    Subdivision 1. Implied consent. Any driver or owner of a vehicle consents, subject to the
provisions of this section and section 169.791, to the requirement of having possession of proof of
insurance, and to the revocation of the person's license if the driver or owner does not produce
the required proof of insurance no later than the date and time specified in the citation for the
driver's first court appearance, if a citation is issued, or within ten days of receipt of a written
notice, if a written notice is sent or given. Any driver of a vehicle who is not the owner of the
vehicle consents, subject to the provisions of this section and section 169.791, to providing to
the officer the name and address of the owner of the vehicle.
    Subd. 2. Requirement for driver whether or not owner. Except as provided in subdivision
3, every driver of a vehicle shall, upon the demand of a peace officer, produce proof of insurance
in force for the vehicle that was being operated at the time of the demand, to the district court
administrator no later than the date and time specified in the citation for the driver's first court
appearance. The required proof of insurance may be sent by the driver by mail as long as it
is received no later than the date and time specified in the citation for the driver's first court
appearance. A driver who is not the owner does not violate this section unless the driver knew
or had reason to know that the owner did not have proof of insurance required by this section,
provided that the driver provides the officer with the owner's name and address at the time of
the demand or complies with subdivision 3.
    Subd. 3. Requirement for driver who is not owner. If the driver is not the owner of the
vehicle, then the driver shall provide the officer with the name and address of the owner at the
time of the demand or shall, no later than the date and time specified in the citation for the
driver's first court appearance, provide the district court administrator with proof of insurance
or the name and address of the owner. Upon receipt of the owner's name and address, the
district court administrator shall forward the information to the law enforcement agency. If the
name and address received from the driver do not match information available to the district
court administrator, the district court administrator shall notify the law enforcement agency of
the discrepancy.
    Subd. 4. Requirement for owner who is not driver. If the driver is not the owner of the
vehicle, the officer may send or provide a notice to the owner requiring the owner to produce proof
of insurance in force at the time of the demand covering the vehicle being operated. The notice
shall be sent to the owner's current address or the address listed on the owner's driver's license.
Within ten days after receipt of the notice, the owner shall produce the required proof of insurance
to the place stated in the notice received by the owner. Notice to the owner by mail is presumed to
be received within five days after mailing. It is not a defense that a person failed to notify the
Department of Public Safety of a change of name or address as required under section 171.11.
    Subd. 5. Written notice. (a) When proof of insurance is demanded and none is in possession,
the law enforcement agency may send or give the driver written notice as provided in this
subdivision, unless the officer issues a citation to the driver under section 169.791 or 169.797.
If the driver is not the owner and does not produce the required proof of insurance within ten
days of the demand, the law enforcement agency may send or give written notice to the owner
of the vehicle.
(b) Within ten days after receipt of the notice, if given, the driver or owner shall produce
the required proof of insurance to the place stated in the notice. Notice to the driver or owner by
mail is presumed to be received within five days after mailing. It is not a defense that a person
failed to notify the Department of Public Safety of a change of name or address as required
under section 171.11.
(c) The Department of Public Safety shall prescribe a form setting forth the written notice
to be provided to the driver or owner. The department shall, upon request, provide a sample of
the form to any law enforcement agency. The notice shall provide that the driver or owner must
produce the proof of insurance to the law enforcement agency, at the place specified in the notice.
The notice shall also state:
(1) that Minnesota law requires every driver and owner to produce an insurance identification
card, insurance policy, or written statement indicating that the vehicle had insurance at the time of
an officer's demand, no later than the date and time specified in the citation for the driver's first
court appearance, if a citation is issued, or within ten days of receipt of the written notice if a
written notice is sent or given, provided, however, that a driver who does not own the vehicle
shall provide the name and address of the owner;
(2) that if the driver fails to produce the information within the required time or if the owner
fails to produce the information within ten days of receipt of the notice from the peace officer, the
commissioner of public safety shall revoke the person's driver's license or permit to drive for a
minimum of 30 days, and shall revoke the registration of the vehicle;
(3) that any person who displays or causes another to display an insurance identification
card, insurance policy, or written statement, knowing that the insurance is not in force, is guilty of
a misdemeanor; and
(4) that any person who alters or makes a fictitious identification card, insurance policy, or
written statement, or knowingly displays an altered or fictitious identification card, insurance
policy, or written statement, is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 6. Report to commissioner of public safety. If a driver fails to produce the required
proof of insurance or name and address of the owner no later than the date and time specified
in the citation for the driver's first court appearance, the district court administrator shall report
the failure to the commissioner. If an owner who is not the driver fails to produce the required
proof of insurance, or if a driver to whom a citation has not been issued does not provide proof
of insurance or the owner's name and address, within ten days of receipt of the notice, the law
enforcement agency shall report the failure to the commissioner. Failure to produce proof of
insurance or the owner's name and address as required by this section must be reported to the
commissioner promptly regardless of the status or disposition of any related criminal charges.
    Subd. 7. License revocation. Upon receiving the notification under subdivision 6 or
notification of a conviction for violation of section 169.791, the commissioner shall revoke
the person's driver's license or permit to drive. The revocation shall be effective beginning 14
days after the date of notification by the district court administrator or officer to the Department
of Public Safety. In order to be revoked, notice must have been mailed to the person by the
commissioner at least ten days before the effective date of the revocation. If the person, before
the effective date of the revocation, provides the commissioner with the proof of insurance or
other verifiable insurance information as determined by the commissioner, establishing that the
required insurance covered the vehicle at the time of the original demand, the revocation must not
become effective. Revocation based upon receipt of a notification under subdivision 6 must be
carried out regardless of the status or disposition of any related criminal charge. The person's
driver's license or permit to drive shall be revoked for the longer of: (i) the period provided in
section 169.797, subdivision 4, paragraph (c), including any rules adopted under that paragraph,
or (ii) until the driver or owner files proof of insurance with the Department of Public Safety
satisfactory to the commissioner of public safety. A license must not be revoked more than once
based upon the same demand for proof of insurance.
    Subd. 7a. Early reinstatement. A person whose license or permit has been revoked under
subdivision 7 may obtain a new license or permit before the expiration of the period specified
in subdivision 7 if the person provides to the Department of Public Safety proof of insurance or
other verifiable insurance information as determined by the commissioner, establishing that
insurance covered the vehicle at the time of the original demand and that any required insurance
on any vehicle registered to the person remains in effect. The person shall pay the fee required by
section 171.29, subdivision 2, paragraph (a), before reinstatement. The commissioner shall make
a notation on the person's driving record indicating that the person satisfied the requirements
of this subdivision. A person who knowingly provides false information for purposes of this
subdivision is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 8. Administrative and judicial review. At any time during a period of revocation
imposed under this section, a driver or owner may request in writing a review of the order
of revocation by the commissioner. Upon receiving a request, the commissioner or the
commissioner's designee shall review the order, the evidence upon which the order was based,
and any other material information brought to the attention of the commissioner, and determine
whether sufficient cause exists to sustain the order. Within 15 days of receiving the request, the
commissioner shall send the results of the review in writing to the person requesting the review.
The review provided in this subdivision is not subject to the contested case provisions of the
Administrative Procedure Act in sections 14.001 to 14.69.
The availability of administrative review for an order of revocation shall have no effect upon
the availability of judicial review under section 171.19.
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 1992 c 571 art 14 s 14]
    Subd. 10. Termination of revocation period. Before reinstatement of a driver's license or
permit to drive, the driver or owner shall produce proof of insurance, or other form of verifiable
insurance information as determined by the commissioner, indicating that the driver or owner has
insurance coverage satisfactory to the commissioner. The commissioner may require the insurance
identification card provided to satisfy this subdivision be certified by the insurance carrier to be
noncancelable for a period not to exceed 12 months. The commissioner of public safety may also
require an insurance identification card to be filed with respect to any and all vehicles required to
be insured under section 65B.48 and owned by any person whose driving privileges have been
revoked as provided in this section before reinstating the person's driver's license. A person who
knowingly provides false information for purposes of this subdivision is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 11. Exemptions. Buses or other commercial vehicles operated by the Metropolitan
Council, commercial vehicles required to file proof of insurance pursuant to chapter 221, and
school buses as defined in section 171.01, subdivision 45, are exempt from this section.
    Subd. 12. Vehicle registration revocation. If a person whose driver's license or permit is
revoked under subdivision 7 is also the owner of the vehicle, the commissioner shall revoke the
registration of the vehicle at the same time. If the owner of the vehicle does not have a driver's
license or permit to drive, the commissioner shall revoke the registration of the vehicle. The
commissioner shall reinstate registration of the vehicle only upon receiving proof of insurance
or other verifiable insurance information as determined by the commissioner, and proof of
compliance with all other requirements for reinstatement of motor vehicle registration, including
payment of required fees.
History: 1989 c 321 s 11; 1990 c 422 s 10; 1992 c 571 art 14 s 3; 1994 c 628 art 3 s 14;
1996 c 408 art 3 s 5-9; 1998 c 254 art 1 s 60
169.793 VEHICLE INSURANCE; UNLAWFUL ACTS, PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Acts. It shall be unlawful for any person:
(1) to issue, to display, or cause or permit to be displayed, or have in possession, an insurance
identification card, policy, or written statement knowing or having reason to know that the
insurance is not in force or is not in force as to the vehicle in question;
(2) to alter or make a fictitious insurance identification card, policy, or written statement; and
(3) to display an altered or fictitious insurance identification card, insurance policy, or written
statement knowing or having reason to know that the proof has been altered or is fictitious.
    Subd. 2. Penalty. Any person who violates any of the provisions of subdivision 1 is guilty
of a misdemeanor. In addition to any sentence of imprisonment that the court may impose, the
court shall impose a fine of not less than $200 nor more than the maximum fine applicable
to misdemeanors. The court may allow community service in lieu of any fine imposed if the
defendant is indigent.
History: 1989 c 321 s 12; 1992 c 571 art 14 s 4
169.794 [Repealed, 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 79]
169.795 VEHICLE INSURANCE RULES.
The commissioner of public safety shall adopt rules necessary to implement sections
168.041, subdivision 4; 169.09, subdivision 14; and 169.791 to 169.796.
History: 1989 c 321 s 14; 1991 c 301 s 8; 1992 c 571 art 14 s 5
169.796 VERIFICATION OF INSURANCE COVERAGE.
    Subdivision 1. Release of information. An insurance company shall release information to
the Department of Public Safety or the law enforcement authorities necessary to the verification
of insurance coverage. An insurance company or its agent acting on its behalf, or an authorized
person who releases the above information, whether oral or written, acting in good faith, is
immune from any liability, civil or criminal, arising in connection with the release of the
information.
    Subd. 2. Receipt of data by electronic transfer. The commissioner may, in the
commissioner's discretion, agree to receive by electronic transfer any information required by this
chapter to be provided to the commissioner by an insurance company.
    Subd. 3. Sampling to verify insurance coverage. (a) The commissioner of public safety
shall implement a monthly sampling program to verify insurance coverage. The sample must
annually include at least two percent of all drivers who own motor vehicles, as defined in section
168.011, licensed in the state, one-half of whom during the previous year have been convicted of at
least one vehicle insurance law violation, have had a driver's license revoked or suspended due to
habitual violation of traffic laws, have had no insurance in effect at the time of a reportable crash,
or have been convicted of an alcohol-related motor vehicle offense. No sample may be selected
based on race, religion, physical or mental disability, economic status, or geographic location.
(b) The commissioner shall request each vehicle owner included in the sample to furnish
insurance coverage information to the commissioner within 30 days. The request must require
the owner to state whether or not all motor vehicles owned by that person were insured on the
verification date stated in the commissioner's request. The request may require, but is not limited
to, a signed statement by the owner that the information is true and correct, the names and
addresses of insurers, policy numbers, and expiration or renewal dates of insurance coverage.
(c) The commissioner shall conduct a verification of the response by transmitting necessary
information to the insurance companies named in the owner's response.
(d) The insurance companies shall electronically notify the commissioner, within 30 days of
the commissioner's request, of any false statements regarding coverage.
(e) The commissioner shall suspend, without preliminary hearing, the driver's license, if any,
of a vehicle owner who falsely claims coverage, who indicates that coverage was not in effect
at the time specified in the request, or who fails to respond to the commissioner's request to
furnish proof of insurance. The commissioner shall comply with the notice requirement of section
171.18, subdivision 2.
(f) Before reinstatement of the driver's license, there must be filed with the commissioner of
public safety the written certificate of an insurance carrier authorized to do business in the state
stating that security has been provided as required by section 65B.48. The commissioner of public
safety may require the certificate of insurance provided to satisfy this subdivision to be certified
by the insurance carrier for a period not to exceed one year. The commissioner of public safety
may also require a certificate of insurance to be filed with respect to all vehicles required to be
insured under section 65B.48 and owned by any person whose driving privileges have been
suspended as provided in this section before reinstating the person's driver's license.
History: 1989 c 321 s 15; 1992 c 571 art 14 s 6; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 30
169.797 PENALTIES FOR FAILURE TO PROVIDE VEHICLE INSURANCE.
    Subdivision 1. Tort liability. Every owner of a vehicle for which security has not been
provided as required by section 65B.48, shall not by the provisions of chapter 65B be relieved of
tort liability arising out of the operation, ownership, maintenance, or use of the vehicle.
    Subd. 2. Violation by owner. Any owner of a vehicle with respect to which security is
required under sections 65B.41 to 65B.71 who operates the vehicle or permits it to be operated
upon a public highway, street, or road in this state and who knows or has reason to know that the
vehicle does not have security complying with the terms of section 65B.48 is guilty of a crime and
shall be sentenced as provided in subdivision 4.
    Subd. 3. Violation by driver. Any person who operates a vehicle upon a public highway,
street, or road in this state who knows or has reason to know that the owner does not have security
complying with the terms of section 65B.48 in full force and effect is guilty of a crime and
shall be sentenced as provided in subdivision 4.
    Subd. 3a. False statements. Any owner of a vehicle who falsely claims to have a plan of
reparation security in effect at the time of registration of a vehicle pursuant to section 65B.48 is
guilty of a crime and shall be sentenced as provided in subdivision 4.
    Subd. 4. Penalty. (a) A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person
is guilty of a gross misdemeanor who violates this section within ten years of the first of two prior
convictions under this section, section 169.791, or a statute or ordinance in conformity with
one of those sections. The operator of a vehicle who violates subdivision 3 and who causes or
contributes to causing a vehicle accident that results in the death of any person or in substantial
bodily harm to any person, as defined in section 609.02, subdivision 7a, is guilty of a gross
misdemeanor. The same prosecuting authority who is responsible for prosecuting misdemeanor
violations of this section is responsible for prosecuting gross misdemeanor violations of this
section. In addition to any sentence of imprisonment that the court may impose on a person
convicted of violating this section, the court shall impose a fine of not less than $200 nor more
than the maximum amount authorized by law. The court may allow community service in lieu of
any fine imposed if the defendant is indigent.
(b) The court may impose consecutive sentences for offenses arising out of a single course of
conduct as permitted in section 609.035, subdivision 2.
(c) In addition to the criminal penalty, the driver's license of an operator convicted under
this section shall be revoked for not more than 12 months. If the operator is also an owner of the
vehicle, the registration of the vehicle shall also be revoked for not more than 12 months. Before
reinstatement of a driver's license or registration, the operator shall file with the commissioner of
public safety the written certificate of an insurance carrier authorized to do business in this state
stating that security has been provided by the operator as required by section 65B.48.
(d) The commissioner shall include a notice of the penalties contained in this section on all
forms for registration of vehicles required to maintain a plan of reparation security.
    Subd. 4a. Registration revocation and license suspension. The commissioner of public
safety shall revoke the registration of any vehicle and shall suspend the driver's license of any
operator, without preliminary hearing upon a showing by department records, including accident
reports required to be submitted by section 169.09, or other sufficient evidence that security
required by section 65B.48 has not been provided and maintained. Before reinstatement of the
registration, there shall be filed with the commissioner of public safety the written certificate of an
insurance carrier authorized to do business in the state stating that security has been provided
as required by section 65B.48. The commissioner of public safety may require the certificate
of insurance provided to satisfy this subdivision to be certified by the insurance carrier to be
noncancelable for a period not to exceed one year. The commissioner of public safety may also
require a certificate of insurance to be filed with respect to all vehicles required to be insured
under section 65B.48 and owned by any person whose driving privileges have been suspended or
revoked as provided in this section before reinstating the person's driver's license.
    Subd. 5. Nonresident. When a nonresident's operating privilege is suspended pursuant
to this section, the commissioner of public safety or a designee shall transmit a copy of the
record of the action to the official in charge of the issuance of licenses in the state in which the
nonresident resides.
    Subd. 6. License suspension. Upon receipt of notification that the operating privilege of a
resident of this state has been suspended or revoked in any other state pursuant to a law providing
for its suspension or revocation for failure to deposit security for the payment of judgments
arising out of a vehicle accident, or for failure to provide security covering a vehicle if required
by the laws of that state, the commissioner of public safety shall suspend the operator's license
of the resident until the resident furnishes evidence of compliance with the laws of this state
and if applicable the laws of the other state.
    Subd. 7. Notice of suspension. A driver's license suspension under this section is subject to
the notice requirements of section 171.18, subdivision 2.
History: 1992 c 571 art 14 s 7; 1993 c 13 art 1 s 30; 1996 c 346 s 1; 1996 c 442 s 20;
1997 c 239 art 3 s 2; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 31
169.798 RULES OF COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC SAFETY.
    Subdivision 1. Authority. The commissioner of public safety shall have the power and
perform the duties imposed by this section and sections 65B.41 to 65B.71 and 169.797 and
may adopt rules to implement and provide effective administration of the provisions requiring
security and governing termination of security.
    Subd. 2. Evidence of security required. The commissioner of public safety may by
rule provide that vehicles owned by certain persons may not be registered in this state unless
satisfactory evidence is furnished that security has been provided as required by section 65B.48.
If a person who is required to furnish evidence ceases to maintain security, the person shall
immediately surrender the registration certificate and license plates for the vehicle. These
requirements may be imposed if:
(1) the registrant has not previously registered a vehicle in this state; or
(2) an owner or operator of the vehicle has previously failed to comply with the security
requirements of sections 65B.41 to 65B.71 or of prior law; or
(3) the driving record of an owner or operator of the vehicle evidences a continuing disregard
of the laws of this state enacted to protect the public safety; or
(4) other circumstances indicate that action is necessary to effectuate the purposes of
sections 65B.41 to 65B.71.
    Subd. 3. Security not required. No owner of a boat, snowmobile, or utility trailer registered
for a gross weight of 3,000 pounds or less shall be required by the commissioner of public safety
to furnish evidence that the security required by section 65B.48 has been provided.
    Subd. 4. Attestation of insurance required. Every owner, when applying for motor vehicle
or motorcycle registration, reregistration, or transfer of ownership, must attest that the motor
vehicle or motorcycle is covered by an insurance policy.
History: 1992 c 571 art 14 s 8; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 32,33
169.799 [Repealed, 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 79]

REQUIREMENT TO SHOW RENTAL AGREEMENT

169.7995 FAILURE TO PRODUCE RENTAL OR LEASE AGREEMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. As used in this section:
(1) "rental or lease agreement" means a written agreement to rent or lease a motor vehicle
that contains the name, address, and driver's license number of the renter or lessee; and
(2) "person" has the meaning given the term in section 645.44, subdivision 7.
    Subd. 2. Requirement. Every person who rents or leases a motor vehicle in this state for a
time period of less than 180 days shall have the rental or lease agreement covering the vehicle
in possession at all times when operating the vehicle and shall produce it upon the demand of a
peace officer. If the person is unable to produce the rental or lease agreement upon the demand
of a peace officer, the person shall, within 14 days after the demand, produce the rental or lease
agreement to the place stated in the notice provided by the peace officer. The rental or lease
agreement may be mailed by the person as long as it is received within 14 days.
    Subd. 3. Penalty. A person who fails to produce a rental or lease agreement as required by
this section is guilty of a misdemeanor. The peace officer may mail the citation to the address
given by the person or to the address stated on the driver's license, and this service by mail is valid
notwithstanding section 629.34. It is not a defense that the person failed to notify the Department
of Public Safety of a change of name or address as required under section 171.11. The citation
may be sent after the 14-day period.
    Subd. 4. False or fictitious rental or lease agreement. It is a misdemeanor for any person to
alter or make a fictitious rental or lease agreement, or to display an altered or fictitious rental or
lease agreement knowing or having reason to know the agreement is altered or fictitious.
History: 1992 c 571 art 15 s 1

SIZE, WEIGHT, AND LOAD RESTRICTIONS AND PERMITS

169.80 SIZE, WEIGHT, LOAD.
    Subdivision 1. Limitations; misdemeanor. (a) It is a misdemeanor for a person to drive
or move, or for the owner to cause or knowingly permit to be driven or moved, on a highway
a vehicle or vehicles of a size or weight exceeding the limitations stated in sections 169.80
to 169.88, or otherwise in violation of sections 169.80 to 169.88, other than section 169.81,
subdivision 5a
, and the maximum size and weight of vehicles as prescribed in sections 169.80 to
169.88 shall be lawful throughout this state, and local authorities shall have no power or authority
to alter these limitations except as express authority may be granted in sections 169.80 to 169.88.
(b) When all the axles of a vehicle or combination of vehicles are weighed separately the
sum of the weights of the axles so weighed shall be evidence of the total gross weight of the
vehicle or combination of vehicles so weighed.
(c) When each of the axles of any group that contains two or more consecutive axles of a
vehicle or combination of vehicles have been weighed separately the sum of the weights of the
axles so weighed shall be evidence of the total gross weight on the group of axles so weighed.
(d) When, in any group of three or more consecutive axles of a vehicle or combination of
vehicles any axles have been weighed separately and two or more axles consecutive to each
other in the group have been weighed together, the sum of the weights of the axles weighed
separately and the axles weighed together shall be evidence of the total gross weight of the
group of axles so weighed.
(e) The provisions of sections 169.80 to 169.88 governing size, weight, and load shall not
apply to a fire apparatus, or to a vehicle operated under the terms of a special permit issued
as provided by law.
    Subd. 2. Outside width. (a) The total outside width of a vehicle exclusive of rearview
mirrors or load securement devices which are not an integral part of the vehicle and not exceeding
three inches on each side, or the load may not exceed 102 inches except that the outside width of a
vehicle owned by a political subdivision and used exclusively for the purpose of handling sewage
sludge from sewage treatment facilities to farm fields or disposal sites, may not exceed 12 feet,
and except as otherwise provided in this section.
(b) A vehicle exceeding 102 inches in total outside width, owned by a political subdivision
and used for the purpose of transporting or applying sewage sludge to farm fields or disposal sites
may not transport sludge for distances greater than 15 miles, nor may it be used for transportation
of sewage sludge or return travel between the hours of sunset and sunrise, or at any other time
when visibility is impaired by weather, smoke, fog, or other conditions rendering persons and
vehicles not clearly discernible on the highway at a distance of 500 feet.
(c) The total outside width of a low bed trailer or equipment dolly, and the load, used
exclusively for transporting farm machinery and construction equipment may not exceed nine feet
in width except that a low bed trailer or equipment dolly with a total outside width, including the
load, in excess of 102 inches may not be operated on any interstate highway without first having
obtained a permit for the operation under section 169.86. The vehicle must display 12-inch square
red flags as markers at the front and rear of the left side of the vehicle.
(d) The total outside width of a passenger motor bus, operated exclusively in a city or
contiguous cities in this state, may not exceed nine feet.
(e) The maximum width limitation in paragraph (a) for a recreational vehicle as defined in
section 168.011, subdivision 25, is exclusive of appurtenances on the recreational vehicle that
do not extend beyond the width of the exterior rearview mirror of the recreational vehicle if
the recreational vehicle is self-propelled, or the exterior rearview mirror of the towing vehicle
if the recreational vehicle is towed.
    Subd. 2a.[Repealed, 1983 c 198 s 15]
    Subd. 3. Load on passenger vehicle. No passenger-type vehicle shall be operated on any
highway with any load carried thereon extending beyond the line of the fenders on the left side
of such vehicle nor extending more than six inches beyond the line of the fenders on the right
side thereof.
History: (2720-269, 2720-271) 1937 c 464 s 119-121; Ex1937 c 45 s 1; 1939 c 23 s 1,2;
1939 c 430 s 24; 1951 c 49 s 1; 1951 c 394 s 1; 1955 c 280 s 1; 1967 c 190 s 1; 1967 c 738 s 1;
1969 c 256 s 2; 1969 c 1054 s 1; Ex1971 c 27 s 14; Ex1971 c 48 s 30; 1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1973
c 148 s 1; 1976 c 294 s 1; 1977 c 150 s 1; 1978 c 568 s 2; 1980 c 438 s 1; 1982 c 444 s 3,4; 1982
c 617 s 7; 1983 c 198 s 5; 1986 c 398 art 13 s 3; 1988 c 518 s 1; 1993 c 187 s 15,16; 2001 c
24 s 4; 2001 c 83 s 1; 2006 c 212 art 1 s 23
169.801 IMPLEMENT OF HUSBANDRY.
    Subdivision 1. Exemption from size, weight, load provisions. Except as provided in this
section and section 169.82, the provisions of sections 169.80 to 169.88 that govern size, weight,
and load do not apply to:
(1) a horse-drawn wagon while carrying a load of loose straw or hay;
(2) a specialized vehicle resembling a low-slung trailer having a short bed or platform, while
transporting one or more implements of husbandry; or
(3) an implement of husbandry while being driven or towed at a speed of not more than 30
miles per hour; provided that this exemption applies to an implement of husbandry owned, leased,
or under the control of a farmer or implement dealer only while the implement of husbandry is
being operated on noninterstate roads or highways within 75 miles of any farmland or implement
dealership: (i) owned, leased, or operated by the farmer or implement dealer and (ii) on which the
farmer or implement dealer regularly uses or sells or leases the implement of husbandry.
    Subd. 2. Weight per inch of tire width. An implement of husbandry that is not self-propelled
and is equipped with pneumatic tires may not be operated on a public highway with a maximum
wheel load that exceeds 600 pounds per inch of tire width before August 1, 1996, and 500 pounds
per inch of tire width on and after August 1, 1996.
    Subd. 3. Hitches. A towed implement of husbandry must be equipped with (1) safety chains
that meet the requirements of section 169.82, subdivision 3, paragraph (b); (2) a regulation fifth
wheel and kingpin assembly approved by the commissioner of public safety; or (3) a hitch pin or
other hitching device with a retainer that prevents accidental unhitching.
History: 1993 c 187 s 17; 1997 c 143 s 15
169.81 HEIGHT AND LENGTH LIMITATIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Height. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), no vehicle unladen or with
load shall exceed a height of 13 feet six inches.
(b) A double-deck bus may not exceed a height of 14 feet three inches. Any carrier operating
a double-deck bus exceeding 13 feet six inches shall obtain from the commissioner, with respect
to highways under the commissioner's jurisdiction, and from local authorities, with respect to
highways under their jurisdiction, an annual permit to operate the bus upon any highway under the
jurisdiction of the party granting the permit. Annual permits shall be issued in accordance with
applicable provisions of section 169.86. The fee for an annual permit issued by the commissioner
is as provided in section 169.86, subdivision 5.
    Subd. 2. Length of single vehicle; exceptions. (a) Statewide, no single vehicle may exceed
40 feet in overall length, including load and front and rear bumpers, except:
(1) mobile cranes, which may not exceed 48 feet in overall length;
(2) buses, which may not exceed 45 feet in overall length; and
(3) type A, B, or C motor homes as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 25, paragraph (c),
which may not exceed 45 feet in overall length.
(b) Statewide, no semitrailer may exceed 48 feet in overall length, including bumper and
load, but excluding non-cargo-carrying equipment, such as refrigeration units or air compressors,
necessary for safe and efficient operation and located on the end of the semitrailer adjacent to
the truck-tractor. However, statewide, a single semitrailer may exceed 48 feet, but not 53 feet, if
the distance from the kingpin to the centerline of the rear axle group of the semitrailer does not
exceed 43 feet.
(c) Statewide, no single trailer may have an overall length exceeding 45 feet, including
the tow bar assembly but exclusive of rear bumpers that do not increase the overall length by
more than six inches.
(d) For determining compliance with this subdivision, the length of the semitrailer or trailer
must be determined separately from the overall length of the combination of vehicles.
(e) No semitrailer or trailer used in a three-vehicle combination may have an overall length
in excess of 28-1/2 feet, exclusive of:
(1) non-cargo-carrying accessory equipment, including refrigeration units or air compressors
and upper coupler plates, necessary for safe and efficient operation, located on the end of the
semitrailer or trailer adjacent to the truck or truck-tractor;
(2) the tow bar assembly; and
(3) lower coupler equipment that is a fixed part of the rear end of the first semitrailer or trailer.
    Subd. 2a. Number of units in vehicle combination; generally, exceptions. (a) Statewide,
no combination of vehicles coupled together may consist of more than two units, except as
provided in paragraph (b).
(b) Three-unit combinations may only be used as provided for in subdivisions 3, paragraph
(c); 3c; 8; and 10. Further, vehicles transporting milk from the point of production to the point
of first processing may consist of no more than three units. Mount combinations, consisting of
a truck or truck-tractor transporting similar vehicles by having the front axle of the transported
vehicle mounted onto the center of the rear part of the preceding vehicle, may be used.
    Subd. 3. Length of vehicle combinations. (a) Statewide, except on the highways identified
under provisions in paragraph (c), no combination of vehicles may exceed a total length of 75 feet.
(b) However, the total length limitation does not apply to combinations of vehicles
transporting:
(1) telephone poles, electric light and power poles, piling, or pole-length pulpwood; or
(2) pipe or other objects by a public utility when required for emergency or repair of public
service facilities or when operated under special permits as provided in section 169.86.
These combinations of vehicles must be equipped with sufficient clearance markers, or lamps for
night transportation, on both sides and upon the extreme ends of a projecting load to clearly mark
the dimensions of the load.
(c) The following combination of vehicles regularly engaged in the transportation of
commodities may operate only on divided highways having four or more lanes of travel, and on
other highways as may be designated by the commissioner of transportation subject to section
169.87, subdivision 1, and subject to the approval of the authority having jurisdiction over the
highway, for the purpose of providing reasonable access between the divided highways of four or
more lanes of travel and terminals, facilities for food, fuel, repair, and rest, and points of loading
and unloading for household goods carriers, livestock carriers, or for the purpose of providing
continuity of route:
(1) a truck-tractor and semitrailer exceeding 75 feet in length;
(2) a combination of vehicles including a truck-tractor and semitrailer drawing one additional
semitrailer which may be equipped with an auxiliary dolly;
(3) a combination of vehicles including a truck-tractor and semitrailer drawing one full trailer;
(4) a truck-tractor and semitrailer designed and used exclusively for the transportation of
motor vehicles or boats and exceeding an overall length of 75 feet including the load; and
(5) a truck or truck-tractor transporting similar vehicles by having the front axle of the
transported vehicle mounted onto the center or rear part of the preceding vehicle, defined in
Code of Federal Regulations, title 49, sections 390.5 and 393.5 as drive-away saddlemount
combinations or drive-away saddlemount vehicle transporter combinations, when the overall
length exceeds 75 feet.
(d) Vehicles operated under the provisions of this section must conform to the standards for
those vehicles prescribed by the United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway
Administration, Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety, as amended.
    Subd. 3a.[Repealed, 1983 c 198 s 15]
    Subd. 3b.[Repealed, 1983 c 198 s 15]
    Subd. 3c. Recreational vehicle combination. Notwithstanding subdivision 3, a recreational
vehicle combination may be operated without a permit if:
(1) the combination does not consist of more than three vehicles, and the towing rating of the
pickup truck is equal to or greater than the total weight of all vehicles being towed;
(2) the combination does not exceed 70 feet in length;
(3) the middle vehicle in the combination does not exceed 28 feet in length;
(4) the operator of the combination is at least 18 years of age;
(5) the trailer carrying a watercraft, motorcycle, motorized bicycle, off-highway motorcycle,
snowmobile, all-terrain vehicle, motorized golf cart, or equestrian equipment or supplies meets all
requirements of law;
(6) the trailers in the combination are connected to the pickup truck and each other in
conformity with section 169.82; and
(7) the combination is not operated within the seven-county metropolitan area, as defined in
section 473.121, subdivision 2, during the hours of 6:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to 7:00
p.m. on Mondays through Fridays.
    Subd. 3d. Combination including automobile tow dolly. Notwithstanding subdivisions 2a
and 3, a combination consisting of a single-unit truck or a pickup truck and not more than two
two-wheeled automobile tow dollies may be operated without a permit when:
(1) the combination is operated by an employee or agent of an automobile tow dolly
manufacturer or a truck rental company;
(2) no vehicle is being transported on either dolly; and
(3) the combination does not exceed 50 feet in length.
    Subd. 3e. Articulated buses. Notwithstanding subdivision 2, a motor carrier of passengers
registered under section 221.0252 may operate without a permit an articulated bus of up to 61 feet
in length.
    Subd. 4. Projecting loads. The load upon any vehicle operated alone, or the load upon the
front vehicle of a combination of vehicles, shall not extend more than three feet beyond the front
wheels of such vehicle or the front bumper of such vehicle if it is equipped with such a bumper.
    Subd. 5. Manner of loading. No vehicle shall be driven or moved on any highway unless
such vehicle is so constructed, loaded, or the load securely covered as to prevent any of its load
from dropping, sifting, leaking, blowing, or otherwise escaping therefrom, except that sand may
be dropped for the purpose of securing traction, or water or other substances may be sprinkled on
a roadway in cleaning or maintaining such roadway. This subdivision shall not apply to motor
vehicles operated by a farmer or the farmer's agent when transporting produce such as small
grains, shelled corn, soybeans, or other farm produce of a size and density not likely to cause
injury to persons or damage to property on escaping in small amounts from a vehicle. Violation
of this subdivision by a vehicle that is carrying farm produce and that is not exempted by the
preceding sentence is a petty misdemeanor.
    Subd. 5a. Firewood load. No vehicle that has a cargo area without a rear wall may be driven
or moved on a trunk highway with a load of cut firewood of less than three feet in length unless
the rear of the cargo area is covered with a material of sufficient strength to prevent any part of the
load from escaping from the rear. No person shall transport firewood in any vehicle in an unsafe
manner. Violation of this subdivision is a petty misdemeanor except that a peace officer may issue
a citation that amounts to a warning (1) for a first offense, and (2) if, in the judgment of the citing
peace officer at the site, the load of firewood is made safe for transport.
    Subd. 5b. Securing load; exceptions. (a) The driver of a vehicle transporting sand, gravel,
aggregate, dirt, lime rock, silica, or similar material shall ensure that the cargo compartment of
the vehicle is securely covered if:
(1) the vertical distance from the top of an exterior wall of the cargo compartment to the
load, when measured downward along the inside surface of the wall, is less than six inches; or
(2) the horizontal distance from the top of an exterior wall of the cargo compartment to the
load is less than two feet.
(b) The driver shall not operate a vehicle to transport sand, gravel, aggregate, dirt, lime rock,
silica, or similar material in or on any part of the vehicle other than in the cargo container. The
driver shall clean the vehicle of loose sand, gravel, aggregate, dirt, lime rock, silica, or similar
material before the vehicle is moved on a road, street, or highway following loading or unloading.
(c) A driver of a vehicle used to transport garbage, rubbish, trash, debris, or similar material
is not required to cover the transported material as long as (1) the vehicle is being operated at a
speed less than 30 miles per hour, (2) the vehicle is not being operated on an interstate highway,
and (3) no part of the load escapes from the vehicle. A driver shall immediately retrieve material
that escapes from the vehicle, when safe to do so.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1967 c 215 s 2]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 1983 c 198 s 15]
    Subd. 8. Livestock or poultry loading chute trailer. Notwithstanding the provisions of
subdivisions 2 and 3, a farm truck as defined in section 168.011, subdivision 17, including a
single-unit truck or a combination of vehicles of no more than two units and otherwise not
exceeding the size and weight limitations prescribed by law, and a livestock or poultry truck,
including a single-unit truck or a combination of vehicles of no more than two units and not
otherwise exceeding the size and weight limitations prescribed by law, owned or operated by a
livestock or poultry carrier and used primarily for transporting livestock or poultry for hire, may
draw one additional two-wheel trailer, the loaded weight of which does not exceed 3,000 pounds,
for the sole purpose of transporting a livestock or poultry loading chute; provided that such
two-wheel trailer shall not be drawn by a two-unit combination on the public highways of this
state beyond a ten-mile radius of the home post office of the owner or operator of the two-unit
combination. The two-wheel trailer used solely for transporting a livestock or poultry chute is
special mobile equipment.
    Subd. 9. Application of subdivision 8. Subdivision 8 shall not apply to the seven-county
metropolitan area.
    Subd. 10. Pickup truck; limitation on drawing trailer. Notwithstanding any other
provision of this section or any other law to the contrary, a pickup truck used primarily in
the production or transportation of liquid fertilizer, anhydrous ammonia, or any agricultural
commodity as defined in section 17.53, subdivision 2, may draw not to exceed two empty trailers
when the resulting combination does not exceed the size and weight limitations otherwise
prescribed by law. A pickup truck when drawing two trailers shall not be operated on the
highways of this state beyond a 35-mile radius of the home post office of the owner of the pickup
truck nor at a speed exceeding 35 miles per hour.
History: (2720-272, 2720-273) 1937 c 464 s 122,123; 1943 c 226 s 1; 1953 c 731 s 1; 1955
c 399 s 1; 1957 c 270 s 1; 1957 c 923 s 2; 1959 c 143 s 1; 1959 c 276 s 1; 1963 c 770 s 1; 1965 c
401 s 1; 1967 c 215 s 1; 1967 c 271 s 1; 1973 c 17 s 1; 1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1973 c 546 s 4; 1973
c 666 s 1; 1973 c 707 s 1,2; 1974 c 52 s 1; 1974 c 343 s 2,3; 1974 c 358 s 1,2; 1977 c 113 s 1;
1980 c 491 s 1; 1980 c 513 s 1,2; 1981 c 214 s 20; 1981 c 348 s 1; 1982 c 617 s 9,10; 1983 c 198
s 7,8; 1984 c 654 art 3 s 62; 1986 c 398 art 13 s 4,5; 1986 c 444; 1988 c 518 s 2; 1988 c 544 s 2;
1989 c 250 s 2; 1990 c 548 s 2,3; 1991 c 333 s 16,17; 1993 c 111 s 2,3; 1993 c 117 s 6; 1993 c
182 s 1; 1995 c 3 s 1; 1995 c 223 s 1,2; 1996 c 289 s 4-6; 1997 c 159 art 2 s 29; 1997 c 250 s 7;
1998 c 403 s 14,15; 2001 c 83 s 2; 2004 c 240 s 1; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 49; 2006 c 231 s 2
169.82 TRAILER EQUIPMENT.
    Subdivision 1. Connection to towing vehicle. (a) When one vehicle is towing another the
drawbar or other connection must be of sufficient strength to pull the weight being towed.
(b) The drawbar or other connection may not exceed 15 feet from one vehicle to the other.
This paragraph does not apply to the connection between any two vehicles transporting poles,
pipe, machinery or other objects of structural nature which cannot readily be dismembered.
    Subd. 2. Marking. When one vehicle is towing another and the connection consists of a
chain, rope, or cable, the connection must display a white, red, yellow, or orange flag or cloth not
less than 12 inches square.
    Subd. 3. Hitch, chain, or cable. (a) Every trailer or semitrailer must be hitched to the towing
motor vehicle by a device approved by the commissioner of public safety.
(b) Every trailer and semitrailer must be equipped with safety chains or cables permanently
attached to the trailer except in cases where the coupling device is a regulation fifth wheel and
kingpin assembly approved by the commissioner of public safety. In towing, the chains or cables
must be attached to the vehicles near the points of bumper attachments to the chassis of each
vehicle, and must be of sufficient strength to control the trailer in the event of failure of the towing
device. The length of chain or cable must be no more than necessary to permit free turning of the
vehicles. A minimum fine of $25 must be imposed for a violation of this paragraph.
(c) This subdivision does not apply to towed implements of husbandry.
(d) No person may be charged with a violation of this section solely by reason of violating a
maximum speed prescribed in section 169.145 or 169.67.
History: (2720-274) 1937 c 464 s 124; 1939 c 430 s 26; 1943 c 226 s 2; 1945 c 207 s 8; 1971
c 491 s 33; 1973 c 10 s 1; 1988 c 636 s 11; 1993 c 187 s 18; 1996 c 455 art 3 s 20; 1998 c 403 s 16
169.822 WEIGHT LIMITATIONS; DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. The terms in sections 169.822 to 169.829 shall have the meanings
given them.
    Subd. 2. Gross weight. "Gross weight" means the weight on any single wheel, single axle or
group of consecutive axles and the gross vehicle weight.
    Subd. 3. Single axle. "Single axle" includes all wheels whose centers may be included within
two parallel transverse vertical planes 40 inches apart.
    Subd. 4. Single wheel. "Single wheel" includes two or more wheels with centers less than
48 inches apart on an axle.
    Subd. 5. Tandem. "Tandem axles" means two consecutive axles whose centers are spaced
more than 40 inches and not more than 96 inches apart.
    Subd. 6. Tire width. "Tire width" means the manufacturer's width as shown on the tire or the
width at the widest part of the tire excluding protective side ribs, bars and decorations.
    Subd. 7. Tridem axles. "Tridem axles" mean three axles spaced within 9 feet or less.
    Subd. 8. Variable load axle. "Variable load axle" means any axle which is specifically
designed so that, through use of an actuating control, the wheels may be lifted so that the wheels
do not contact the road surface or may be lowered to carry loads of varying weights when in
contact with the road surface.
History: 1981 c 321 s 4; 1982 c 424 s 42; 1982 c 617 s 11-13; 1983 c 198 s 9; 1986 c 398
art 13 s 6-9; 1986 c 452 s 20; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 4 s 13; 1991 c 112 s 4; 1991 c 333 s 18,19;
1992 c 578 s 7-10; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 16; 1998 c 372 art 1 s 8; 2000 c 433 s 1; 2001 c 156 s 1;
2001 c 213 s 10; 2002 c 364 s 13
169.823 TIRE WEIGHT LIMITS.
    Subdivision 1. Pneumatic-tired vehicle. No vehicle or combination of vehicles equipped
with pneumatic tires shall be operated upon the highways of this state:
(1) where the gross weight on any wheel exceeds 9,000 pounds, except that on designated
local routes and state trunk highways the gross weight on any single wheel shall not exceed
10,000 pounds;
(2) where the gross weight on any single axle exceeds 18,000 pounds, except that on
designated local routes and state trunk highways the gross weight on any single axle shall not
exceed 20,000 pounds;
(3) where the maximum wheel load:
(i) on the foremost and rearmost steering axles, exceeds 600 pounds per inch of tire width or
the manufacturer's recommended load, whichever is less; or
(ii) on other axles, exceeds 500 pounds per inch of tire width or the manufacturer's
recommended load, whichever is less. This item applies to new vehicles manufactured after
August 1, 1991. For vehicles manufactured before August 2, 1991, the maximum weight per
inch of tire width is 600 pounds per inch or the manufacturer's recommended load, whichever
is less, until August 1, 1996. After July 31, 1996, this item applies to all vehicles regardless of
date of manufacture;
(4) where the gross weight on any axle of a tridem exceeds 15,000 pounds, except that for
vehicles to which an additional axle has been added prior to June 1, 1981, the maximum gross
weight on any axle of a tridem may be up to 16,000 pounds provided the gross weight of the
tridem combination does not exceed 39,900 pounds where the first and third axles of the tridem
are spaced nine feet apart;
(5) where the gross weight on any group of axles exceeds the weights permitted under
sections 169.822 to 169.829 with any or all of the interior axles disregarded, and with an exterior
axle disregarded if the exterior axle is a variable load axle that is not carrying its intended
weight, and their gross weights subtracted from the gross weight of all axles of the group under
consideration.
    Subd. 2. Vehicle not equipped with pneumatic tires. A vehicle or combination of vehicles
not equipped with pneumatic tires shall be governed by the provisions of sections 169.822 to
169.829, except that the gross weight limitations shall be reduced by 40 percent.
History: 1981 c 321 s 4; 1982 c 424 s 42; 1982 c 617 s 11-13; 1983 c 198 s 9; 1986 c 398
art 13 s 6-9; 1986 c 452 s 20; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 4 s 13; 1991 c 112 s 4; 1991 c 333 s 18,19;
1992 c 578 s 7-10; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 16; 1998 c 372 art 1 s 8; 2000 c 433 s 1; 2001 c 156 s 1;
2001 c 213 s 10; 2002 c 364 s 13
169.824 GROSS WEIGHT SCHEDULE.
    Subdivision 1. Table of axle weight limits. (a) No vehicle or combination of vehicles
equipped with pneumatic tires shall be operated upon the highways of this state where the total
gross weight on any group of two or more consecutive axles of any vehicle or combination of
vehicles exceeds that given in the following table for the distance between the centers of the
first and last axles of any group of two or more consecutive axles under consideration; unless
otherwise noted, the distance between axles being measured longitudinally to the nearest even
foot, and when the measurement is a fraction of exactly one-half foot the next largest whole
number in feet shall be used, except that when the distance between axles is more than three feet
four inches and less than three feet six inches the distance of four feet shall be used:

Maximum gross weight in pounds on a group of

2
3
4






Distances in feet
between centers of
foremost and rearmost
axles of a group
consecutive axles
of a 2-axle vehicle
or of any vehicle
or combination of
vehicles having a total
of 2 or more axles
consecutive axles
of a 3-axle vehicle
or of any vehicle
or combination of
vehicles having a total
of 3 or more axles
consecutive axles of
a 4-axle vehicle or
any combination of
vehicles having a total
of 4 or more axles

4
34,000

5
34,000

6
34,000

7
34,000
37,000

8
34,000
38,500

8 plus
34,000
42,000

(38,000)

9
35,000
43,000

(39,000)

10
36,000
43,500
49,000

(40,000)

11
36,000
44,500
49,500

12
45,000
50,000

13
46,000
51,000

14
46,500
51,500

15
47,500
52,000

16
48,000
53,000

17
49,000
53,500

18
49,500
54,000

19
50,500
55,000

20
51,000
55,500

21
52,000
56,000

22
52,500
57,000

23
53,500
57,500

24
54,000
58,000

25
(55,000)
59,000

26
(55,500)
59,500

27
(56,500)
60,000

28
(57,000)
61,000

29
(58,000)
61,500

30
(58,500)
62,000

31
(59,500)
63,000

32
(60,000)
63,500

33
64,000

34
65,000

35
65,500

36
66,000

37
67,000

38
67,500

39
68,000

40
69,000

41
69,500

42
70,000

43
71,000

44
71,500

45
72,000

46
72,500

47
(73,500)

48
(74,000)

49
(74,500)

50
(75,500)

51
(76,000)
The maximum gross weight on a group of three consecutive axles where the distance between
centers of foremost and rearmost axles is listed as seven feet or eight feet applies only to vehicles
manufactured before August 1, 1991.
"8 plus" refers to any distance greater than eight feet but less than nine feet.

Maximum gross weight in pounds on a group of

5
6
7





Distances in feet
between centers of
foremost and rearmost
axles of a group
consecutive axles of
a 5-axle vehicle or
any combination of
vehicles having a total
of 5 or more axles
consecutive axles
of a combination of
vehicles having a total
of 6 or more axles
consecutive axles
of a combination of
vehicles having a total
of 7 or more axles

14
57,000

15
57,500

16
58,000

17
59,000

18
59,500

19
60,000

20
60,500
66,000
72,000

21
61,500
67,000
72,500

22
62,000
67,500
73,000

23
62,500
68,000
73,500

24
63,000
68,500
74,000

25
64,000
69,000
75,000

26
64,500
70,000
75,500

27
65,000
70,500
76,000

28
65,500
71,000
76,500

29
66,500
71,500
77,000

30
67,000
72,000
77,500

31
67,500
73,000
78,500

32
68,000
73,500
79,000

33
69,000
74,000
79,500

34
69,500
74,500
80,000

35
70,000
75,000

36
70,500
76,000

37
71,500
76,500

38
72,000
77,000

39
72,500
77,500

40
73,000
78,000

41
(74,000)
79,000

42
(74,500)
79,500

43
(75,000)
80,000

44
(75,500)

45
(76,500)

46
(77,000)

47
(77,500)

48
(78,000)

49
(79,000)

50
(79,500)

51
(80,000)
The gross weights shown in parentheses in this table are permitted only on state trunk highways
and routes designated under section 169.832, subdivision 11.
(b) Notwithstanding any lesser weight in pounds shown in this table but subject to the
restrictions on gross vehicle weights in subdivision 2, paragraph (a), two consecutive sets of
tandem axles may carry a gross load of 34,000 pounds each and a combined gross load of 68,000
pounds provided the overall distance between the first and last axles of the consecutive sets
of tandem axles is 36 feet or more.
    Subd. 2. Gross vehicle weight of all axles. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section
169.85, the gross vehicle weight of all axles of a vehicle or combination of vehicles shall not
exceed:
(1) 80,000 pounds for any vehicle or combination of vehicles on all state trunk highways as
defined in section 160.02, subdivision 29, and for all routes designated under section 169.832,
subdivision 11
;
(2) 88,000 pounds for any vehicle or combination of vehicles with six or more axles while
exclusively engaged in hauling livestock on all state trunk highways other than interstate
highways, if the vehicle has a permit under section 169.86, subdivision 5, paragraph (k);
(3) 73,280 pounds for any vehicle or combination of vehicles with five axles or less on all
routes, other than state trunk highways and routes that are designated under section 169.832,
subdivision 11
, except that a vehicle needing reasonable access to a terminal or facilities for
food, fuel, repairs, and rest, located within three miles of a ten-ton route, may not exceed 80,000
pounds. "Terminal" means any location where freight either originates, terminates, or is handled in
the transportation process, or where commercial motor carriers maintain operating facilities; and
(4) 80,000 pounds for any vehicle or combination of vehicles with six or more axles on all
routes, other than state trunk highways and routes that are designated under section 169.832,
subdivision 11
.
(b) The maximum weights specified in this section for five consecutive axles shall not apply
to a four-axle ready-mix concrete truck which was equipped with a fifth axle prior to June 1, 1981.
The maximum gross weight on four or fewer consecutive axles of vehicles excepted by this clause
shall not exceed any maximum weight specified for four or fewer consecutive axles in this section.
History: 1981 c 321 s 4; 1982 c 424 s 42; 1982 c 617 s 11-13; 1983 c 198 s 9; 1986 c 398
art 13 s 6-9; 1986 c 452 s 20; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 4 s 13; 1991 c 112 s 4; 1991 c 333 s 18,19; 1992 c
578 s 7-10; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 16; 1998 c 372 art 1 s 8; 2000 c 433 s 1; 2001 c 156 s 1; 2001 c
213 s 10; 2002 c 364 s 13; 1Sp2005 c 1 art 4 s 36
    Subdivision 1.[Renumbered 169.822, subdivision 1]
    Subd. 2.[Renumbered 169.822, subd 2]
    Subd. 3.[Renumbered 169.822, subd 3]
    Subd. 3a.[Renumbered 169.822, subd 5]
    Subd. 4.[Renumbered 169.822, subd 4]
    Subd. 5.[Renumbered 169.822, subd 6]
    Subd. 6.[Renumbered 169.822, subd 7]
    Subd. 7.[Renumbered 169.822, subd 8]
    Subd. 8.[Renumbered 169.823, subdivision 1]
    Subd. 9.[Renumbered 169.823, subd 2]
    Subd. 10.(a) (b) [Renumbered 169.824, subdivision 1]
(c) [Renumbered 169.824, subd 2, para (a)]
(d) [Repealed, 1991 c 333 s 39]
(e) [Renumbered 169.824, subd 2, para (b)]
    Subd. 11.[Renumbered 169.826]
    Subd. 12.[Repealed, 1982 c 617 s 27]
    Subd. 12a.[Renumbered 169.827]
    Subd. 13.[Renumbered 169.828, subdivision 1]
    Subd. 14.[Renumbered 169.828, subd 2]
    Subd. 15.[Renumbered 169.829, subdivision 1]
    Subd. 16.[Renumbered 169.829, subd 2]
    Subd. 17.[Renumbered 169.829, subd 3]
169.826 GROSS WEIGHT SEASONAL INCREASES.
    Subdivision 1. Winter increase amounts. The limitations provided in sections 169.822 to
169.829 are increased by ten percent between the dates set by the commissioner for each zone
established by the commissioner based on a freezing index model each winter.
    Subd. 1a. Harvest season increase amount. The limitations provided in sections 169.822 to
169.829 are increased by ten percent from the beginning of harvest to November 30 each year
for the movement of sugar beets, carrots, and potatoes from the field of harvest to the point of
the first unloading. Transfer of the product from a farm vehicle or small farm trailer, within
the meaning of chapter 168, to another vehicle is not considered to be the first unloading. The
commissioner shall not issue permits under this subdivision if to do so will result in a loss of
federal highway funding to the state.
    Subd. 1b. Nine-ton county roads. Despite the provisions of subdivision 5 and sections
169.824, subdivision 2, paragraph (a), clause (2), and 169.832, subdivision 11, a vehicle or
combination of vehicles with a gross vehicle weight up to 88,000 pounds may be operated on a
nine-ton county road, consistent with the increases allowed for vehicles operating on a ten-ton
road, during the time when the increases under subdivision 1 are in effect in that zone.
    Subd. 2. Duration. The duration of a ten percent increase in load limits is subject to
limitation by order of the commissioner, subject to implementation of springtime load restrictions.
    Subd. 3. Excess weight permit. When the ten percent increase is in effect, a permit is
required for a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer combination that has a gross weight in excess
of 80,000 pounds, an axle group weight in excess of that prescribed in section 169.824, or a single
axle weight in excess of 20,000 pounds and which travels on interstate routes.
    Subd. 4. Weight limits set by other law. In cases where gross weights in an amount less
than that set forth in sections 169.822 to 169.829 are fixed, limited, or restricted on a highway
or bridge by or under another section of this chapter, the lesser gross weight as fixed, limited,
or restricted may not be exceeded and must control instead of the gross weights set forth in
sections 169.822 to 169.829.
    Subd. 5. Weight limit for undesignated routes. Notwithstanding any other provision of this
section, no vehicle may exceed a total gross vehicle weight of 80,000 pounds on routes which
have not been designated by the commissioner under section 169.832, subdivision 11.
    Subd. 6. Permit extension. The commissioner may, after determining the ability of the
highway structure and frost condition to support additional loads, grant a permit extending
seasonal increases for vehicles using portions of routes falling within two miles of the southern
boundary of the zone described under subdivision 1, clause (2).
History: 1981 c 321 s 4; 1982 c 424 s 42; 1982 c 617 s 11-13; 1983 c 198 s 9; 1986 c 398
art 13 s 6-9; 1986 c 452 s 20; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 4 s 13; 1991 c 112 s 4; 1991 c 333 s 18,19; 1992 c
578 s 7-10; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 16; 1998 c 372 art 1 s 8; 2000 c 433 s 1; 2001 c 156 s 1; 2001 c
213 s 10; 2002 c 364 s 13; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 34,35
169.8261 GROSS WEIGHT LIMITATIONS; FOREST PRODUCTS.
(a) A vehicle or combination of vehicles hauling raw or unfinished forest products, including
wood chips, by the most direct route to the nearest highway that has been designated under
section 169.832, subdivision 11, may be operated on any highway with gross weights permitted
under sections 169.822 to 169.829 without regard to load restrictions imposed on that highway,
except that the vehicles must:
(1) comply with seasonal load restrictions in effect between the dates set by the commissioner
under section 169.87, subdivision 2;
(2) comply with bridge load limits posted under section 169.84;
(3) be equipped and operated with six axles and brakes;
(4) not exceed 90,000 pounds gross weight, or 98,000 pounds gross weight during the time
when seasonal increases are authorized under section 169.826;
(5) not be operated on interstate and defense highways;
(6) obtain an annual permit from the commissioner of transportation;
(7) obey all road postings; and
(8) not exceed 20,000 pounds gross weight on any single axle.
(b) A vehicle operated under this section may exceed the legal axle weight limits listed in
section 169.824 by not more than 12.5 percent; except that, the weight limits may be exceeded
by not more than 22.5 percent during the time when seasonal increases are authorized under
section 169.826, subdivision 1.
History: 2004 c 295 art 1 s 10; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 50
169.827 GROSS WEIGHT REDUCTION ON RESTRICTED ROUTE.
The maximum weight on any single axle, two consecutive axles spaced within eight feet
or less, three consecutive axles spaced within nine feet or less, or four consecutive axles spaced
within 14 feet or less shall not exceed 18,000 pounds, 34,000 pounds, 43,000 pounds, or 51,500
pounds respectively multiplied by a factor of the axle weight in tons allowed on the restricted
route divided by nine. No combination of axle weights shall exceed those weights specified in
Minnesota Statutes 1981 Supplement, section 169.825, subdivision 10 for nondesignated routes.
History: 1981 c 321 s 4; 1982 c 424 s 42; 1982 c 617 s 11-13; 1983 c 198 s 9; 1986 c 398
art 13 s 6-9; 1986 c 452 s 20; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 4 s 13; 1991 c 112 s 4; 1991 c 333 s 18,19;
1992 c 578 s 7-10; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 16; 1998 c 372 art 1 s 8; 2000 c 433 s 1; 2001 c 156 s 1;
2001 c 213 s 10; 2002 c 364 s 13
169.828 AXLE RESTRICTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Consecutive axle weight and number of axles. No vehicle alone nor any
single vehicle of a combination of vehicles shall be equipped with more than four axles unless the
additional axles are steering axles or castering axles; provided that the limitation on the number of
axles as provided in sections 169.822 to 169.829 shall not apply to any vehicle operated under
permit pursuant to section 169.86. No vehicle alone nor any single vehicle of a combination of
vehicles shall exceed the posted weight limit for a single vehicle.
    Subd. 2. Variable load axle. A vehicle or combination of vehicles equipped with one or
more variable load axles shall have the pressure control preset so that the weight carried on the
variable load axle may not be varied by the operator during transport of any load. The actuating
control for the axle shall function only as an on-and-off switch. The provisions of this subdivision
do not apply to any farm truck registered prior to July 1, 1981, under section 168.013, subdivision
1c
, for 57,000 pounds or less. This subdivision does not apply to rear-loading refuse-compactor
vehicles, except that any refuse-compactor vehicle having a tridem rear axle must comply
with this subdivision before being issued a special permit under section 169.86, subdivision 5,
paragraph (h).
History: 1981 c 321 s 4; 1982 c 424 s 42; 1982 c 617 s 11-13; 1983 c 198 s 9; 1986 c 398
art 13 s 6-9; 1986 c 452 s 20; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 4 s 13; 1991 c 112 s 4; 1991 c 333 s 18,19;
1992 c 578 s 7-10; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 16; 1998 c 372 art 1 s 8; 2000 c 433 s 1; 2001 c 156 s 1;
2001 c 213 s 10; 2002 c 364 s 13
169.829 WEIGHT LIMITS NOT APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN VEHICLES.
    Subdivision 1. City vehicle except on trunk highway. (a) The provisions of sections
169.822 to 169.828 do not apply to vehicles operated exclusively in any city in this state which
has in effect an ordinance regulating the gross weight of vehicles operated within that city.
(b) This subdivision does not apply to trunk highways.
    Subd. 2. Tow truck. Sections 169.822 to 169.828 do not apply to a tow truck or towing
vehicle when towing a disabled vehicle damaged in such manner that the towed vehicle cannot be
towed from the rear and when the movement is temporary for the purpose of taking the disabled
vehicle to a place of repair.
    Subd. 3. Utility vehicle. Sections 169.822 to 169.828 do not apply to a utility vehicle that
does not exceed a weight of 20,000 pounds per axle and is owned by:
(1) a public utility, as defined in section 216B.02;
(2) a municipality or municipal utility that operates that vehicle for its municipal electric,
gas, or water system; and
(3) a cooperative electric association organized under chapter 308A.
History: 1981 c 321 s 4; 1982 c 424 s 42; 1982 c 617 s 11-13; 1983 c 198 s 9; 1986 c 398
art 13 s 6-9; 1986 c 452 s 20; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 4 s 13; 1991 c 112 s 4; 1991 c 333 s 18,19; 1992 c
578 s 7-10; 1994 c 635 art 1 s 16; 1998 c 372 art 1 s 8; 2000 c 433 s 1,4; 2001 c 156 s 1; 2001 c
213 s 10; 2002 c 364 s 13; 2003 c 97 s 3; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 63; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 69
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 1a.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 2a.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1951 c 588 s 4; 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
169.831 [Repealed, 1976 c 343 s 6]
169.832 WEIGHT LIMITATIONS ON DESIGNATED ROUTES.
    Subdivision 1.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 3.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 4.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 5.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 7.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 8.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 9.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 10.[Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 11. Designation of route. (a) The commissioner may designate any street or highway
route or segment of a route to carry the gross weights permitted under sections 169.822 to
169.829. Any designation of a route pursuant to this subdivision, other than a trunk highway
route, is subject to the approval of the local authority having jurisdiction over the route. A route
may not be designated if the commissioner finds that designation:
(1) creates an undue hazard to traffic safety; or
(2) is inconsistent with structural capacity of the route, including consideration of the volume
of traffic expected to occur on the route after designation.
(b) Notwithstanding any finding under paragraph (a), clause (2), the commissioner shall
designate any route which is needed to provide:
(1) a connection between significant centers of population or commerce, or between other
designated routes; or
(2) access to a transportation terminal; or
(3) temporary emergency service to a particular shipping or receiving point on the route.
(c) The commissioner may undesignate any route when continued designation is inconsistent
with the provisions of this subdivision, subject to the approval of any local authority having
jurisdiction over the route.
(d) Any route designation or undesignation shall be effective when adopted. The
commissioner may designate or undesignate any route when requested by any local authority
having jurisdiction over the route.
    Subd. 11a. Weight-limitation route designation by local government. Notwithstanding
subdivision 11, the governing body of a county, statutory or home rule charter city, or town may
designate any street or highway under its jurisdiction that has been designed and built to carry
such weights to carry weight permitted under sections 169.822 to 169.829. Designations by the
governing body of a county, statutory or home rule charter city, or town under this subdivision are
not subject to the approval of the commissioner.
    Subd. 12.[Repealed, 1981 c 81 s 2; 1981 c 321 s 12]
    Subd. 13.[Repealed, 1999 c 230 s 46]
History: 1977 c 248 s 7; 1981 c 81 s 1; 1981 c 321 s 5; 1986 c 398 art 13 s 10; 2004 c
295 art 1 s 11
169.833 [Repealed, 1991 c 339 s 12]
169.834 [Repealed, 1981 c 321 s 12]
169.835 FEDERAL QUALIFYING HIGHWAY.
The commissioner of transportation may not add routes to the system of federal qualifying
highways submitted to the Federal Highway Administration in accordance with the Surface
Transportation Assistance Act of 1982, United States Code, title 49, section 2311, except in
compliance with the criteria established by the commissioner for the addition of routes.
History: 1983 c 198 s 10
169.84 LOAD LIMIT ON BRIDGE.
Subject to the limitations upon wheel and axle loads prescribed in this chapter, the gross
weight of any vehicle or combination of vehicles driven onto or over a bridge on any highway
shall not exceed the safe capacity of the bridge, as may be indicated by warning posted on the
bridge or the approaches thereto.
History: (2720-276) 1937 c 464 s 126; 1953 c 22 s 1
169.85 WEIGHING; PENALTY.
    Subdivision 1. Driver to stop for weighing. (a) The driver of a vehicle that has been
lawfully stopped may be required by an officer to submit the vehicle and load to a weighing by
means of portable or stationary scales.
(b) In addition, the officer may require that the vehicle be driven to the nearest available
scales, but only if:
(1) the distance to the scales is no further than five miles, or if the distance from the point
where the vehicle is stopped to the vehicle's destination is not increased by more than ten miles
as a result of proceeding to the nearest available scales; and
(2) if the vehicle is a commercial motor vehicle, no more than two other commercial motor
vehicles are waiting to be inspected at the scale.
(c) Official traffic control devices as authorized by section 169.06 may be used to direct the
driver to the nearest scale.
(d) When a truck weight enforcement operation is conducted by means of portable or
stationary scales, signs giving notice of the operation must be posted within the highway
right-of-way and adjacent to the roadway within two miles of the operation. The driver of a truck
or combination of vehicles registered for or weighing in excess of 12,000 pounds shall proceed to
the scale site and submit the vehicle to weighing and inspection.
    Subd. 2. Unloading. (a) Upon weighing a vehicle and load, as provided in this section, an
officer may require the driver to stop the vehicle in a suitable place and remain standing until a
portion of the load is removed that is sufficient to reduce the gross weight of the vehicle to the
limit permitted under either section 168.013, subdivision 3, paragraph (b), or sections 169.822 to
169.829, whichever is the lesser violation, if any. A suitable place is a location where loading or
tampering with the load is not prohibited by federal, state, or local law, rule, or ordinance.
(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c), a driver may be required to unload a vehicle only if
the weighing officer determines that (1) on routes subject to the provisions of sections 169.822 to
169.829, the weight on an axle exceeds the lawful gross weight prescribed by sections 169.822 to
169.829, by 2,000 pounds or more, or the weight on a group of two or more consecutive axles
in cases where the distance between the centers of the first and last axles of the group under
consideration is ten feet or less exceeds the lawful gross weight prescribed by sections 169.822 to
169.829, by 4,000 pounds or more; or (2) on routes designated by the commissioner in section
169.832, subdivision 11, the overall weight of the vehicle or the weight on an axle or group of
consecutive axles exceeds the maximum lawful gross weights prescribed by sections 169.822 to
169.829; or (3) the weight is unlawful on an axle or group of consecutive axles on a road restricted
in accordance with section 169.87. Material unloaded must be cared for by the owner or driver of
the vehicle at the risk of the owner or driver.
(c) If the gross weight of the vehicle does not exceed the vehicle's registered gross weight
plus the weight allowance set forth in section 168.013, subdivision 3, paragraph (b), and plus, if
applicable, the weight allowance permitted under section 169.826, then the driver is not required
to unload under paragraph (b).
    Subd. 3. Misdemeanor. A driver of a vehicle who (1) fails or refuses to stop and submit
the vehicle and load to a weighing as required in this section, (2) fails or refuses, when directed
by an officer upon a weighing of the vehicle, to stop the vehicle and otherwise comply with the
provisions of this section, or (3) fails to comply with an official traffic control device as authorized
by section 169.06 that directs the driver to the nearest scale is guilty of a misdemeanor.
    Subd. 4. Arrest. A peace officer may arrest the driver of a motor vehicle if the peace officer
has probable cause to believe that the driver has operated the vehicle in violation of subdivision 3
within the past four hours.
    Subd. 5. Identification of driver. A person who owns or leases a motor vehicle that a peace
officer has probable cause to believe has been operated in violation of subdivision 3 must identify
the driver of the motor vehicle upon request of the peace officer. Violation of this subdivision is a
petty misdemeanor.
    Subd. 6. Officer defined. When used in this section, the word "officer" means a member of
the State Patrol, an employee of the Department of Public Safety described in section 299D.06,
or a peace officer or person under the officer's direction and control employed by a local unit of
government who is trained in weight enforcement by the Department of Public Safety.
History: (2720-277) 1937 c 464 s 127; 1951 c 212 s 1; 1953 c 719 s 1; 1975 c 68 s 3; 1977 c
248 s 9; 1981 c 321 s 6; 1983 c 198 s 11; 1996 c 455 art 3 s 21; 1997 c 159 art 2 s 30; 1997
c 230 s 3; 2002 c 364 s 14,15; 2002 c 371 art 3 s 5,6; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 36; 2004 c 228 art
1 s 76; 1Sp2005 c 1 art 4 s 37,38
169.851 WEIGHT RECORD.
    Subdivision 1. Definitions. For the purposes of this section and sections 169.862, 169.871,
and 169.872, the terms defined in subdivisions 2 and 3 have the meanings given to them.
    Subd. 2. Document. "Document" includes a bill of lading, freight bill, weight certification,
or other similar document.
    Subd. 3. First haul. "First haul" has the meaning given it in section 168.013, subdivision
3
, paragraph (d)(3).
    Subd. 4. Relevant evidence. (a) A document evidencing the receipt of goods issued by the
person consigning the goods for shipment or a person engaged in the business of transporting or
forwarding goods, which states a gross weight of the vehicle and load or the weight of the load
when combined with the empty weight of the vehicle that is in excess of the prescribed maximum
weight limitation permitted by this chapter, is relevant evidence that the weight of the vehicle
and load is unlawful.
(b) For the purposes of this section and sections 169.871 and 169.872, a document required
to be kept under section 169.872 indicating a unit of measure that, when converted to weight
and combined with the weight of the empty vehicle, indicates a gross weight in excess of the
prescribed maximum weight limitation permitted by this chapter, is relevant evidence that the
weight of the vehicle and load is unlawful.
(c) The provisions in paragraphs (a) and (b) do not limit the introduction of other competent
evidence bearing upon the question of whether or not there is a violation of the prescribed
maximum weight limitations permitted by this chapter.
    Subd. 5. Exception for farm and forest products. Subdivision 4 does not apply to the first
haul of unprocessed or raw farm products and the transportation of raw and unfinished forest
products, including wood chips, when the maximum weight limitations permitted under sections
169.822 to 169.829 are not exceeded by more than ten percent.
History: 1980 c 485 s 1; 1981 c 321 s 7; 1994 c 600 s 7; 1995 c 174 s 1; 2002 c 364 s 16;
2002 c 371 art 3 s 7; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 51
169.86 SPECIAL PERMIT TO EXCEED HEIGHT, WIDTH, OR LOAD; FEES.
    Subdivision 1. Permit authorities; restrictions. (a) The commissioner, with respect to
highways under the commissioner's jurisdiction, and local authorities, with respect to highways
under their jurisdiction, may, in their discretion, upon application in writing and good cause
being shown therefor, issue a special permit, in writing, authorizing the applicant to move a
vehicle or combination of vehicles of a size or weight of vehicle or load exceeding the maximum
specified in this chapter, or otherwise not in conformity with the provisions of this chapter, upon
any highway under the jurisdiction of the party granting such permit and for the maintenance
of which such party is responsible.
(b) Permits relating to over-width, over-length manufactured homes shall not be issued to
persons other than manufactured home dealers or manufacturers for movement of new units
owned by the manufactured home dealer or manufacturer, until the person has presented a
statement from the county auditor and treasurer where the unit is presently located, stating that all
personal and real property taxes have been paid. Upon payment of the most recent single year
delinquent personal property or current year taxes only, the county auditor or treasurer must issue
a taxes paid statement to a manufactured home dealer or a financial institution desiring to relocate
a manufactured home that has been repossessed. This statement must be dated within 30 days of
the contemplated move. The statement from the county auditor and treasurer where the unit is
presently located, stating that all personal and real property taxes have been paid, may be made by
telephone. If the statement is obtained by telephone, the permit shall contain the date and time of
the telephone call and the names of the persons in the auditor's office and treasurer's office who
verified that all personal and real property taxes had been paid.
(c) The commissioner may not grant a permit authorizing the movement, in a three-vehicle
combination, of a semitrailer or trailer that exceeds 28-1/2 feet, except that the commissioner (1)
may renew a permit that was granted before April 16, 1984, for the movement of a semitrailer
or trailer that exceeds the length limitation in section 169.81, subdivision 2, or (2) may grant a
permit authorizing the transportation of empty trailers that exceed 28-1/2 feet when using a
B-train hitching mechanism as defined in Code of Federal Regulations, title 23, section 658.5,
paragraph (o), from a point of manufacture in the state to the state border.
(d) The state as to state trunk highways, a statutory or home rule charter city as to streets
in the city, or a town as to roads in the town, may issue permits authorizing the transportation
of combinations of vehicles exceeding the limitations in section 169.81, subdivisions 2a and 3,
over highways, streets, or roads within its boundaries. Combinations of vehicles authorized by
this paragraph may be restricted as to the use of state trunk highways by the commissioner, to
the use of streets by the city road authority, and to the use of roads by the town road authority.
Nothing in this paragraph or section 169.81, subdivisions 2a and 3, alters or changes the authority
vested in local authorities under section 169.04.
    Subd. 1a. Seasonal permits for certain haulers. The commissioner of transportation, upon
application in writing therefor, may issue special permits annually to any hauler authorizing the
hauler to move vehicles or combinations of vehicles with weights exceeding by not more than ten
percent the weight limitations contained in sections 169.822 to 169.829, on interstate highways
during the times and within the zones specified in sections 169.822 to 169.829.
    Subd. 1b. Permit for snowplowing vehicle. The commissioner or a local authority may
issue an annual permit to a person that authorizes the person to operate on any highway under
the jurisdiction of the grantor of the permit, a motor vehicle bearing a snowplow blade that
when deployed does not exceed ten feet in width. The permit authorizes operation of the vehicle
between October 1 and April 1.
    Subd. 2. Required information. The application for a permit shall specifically describe in
writing the vehicle or vehicles and loads to be moved and the particular highways and period of
time for which a permit is requested.
    Subd. 3. Authority to issue permit; conditions, financial responsibility. The commissioner
or local authority may issue or withhold such permit; or, if such permit is issued, limit or prescribe
conditions of operation of such vehicle or vehicles, when necessary to assure against undue
damage to the road foundations, surfaces or structures, and may require such undertaking or other
security as may be deemed necessary to compensate for any injury or damage to any roadway or
road structure, and in addition may require that the operator or owner of such vehicle or vehicles
have in effect with respect to the operation of such vehicle or vehicles a policy of liability
insurance or bond affording substantially the same coverage with respect to injury to persons
and damage to property as is required for proof of financial responsibility under the No-Fault
Automobile Insurance Act, sections 65B.14 and 65B.41 to 65B.71.
    Subd. 3a. Denial of permit; manufactured home frames. The commissioner or local
authority may not deny a permit for the transport to a manufacturing plant of manufactured
home frames not more than 15-1/2 feet in width during periods of seasonal weight restrictions
unless the load exceeds the weight restrictions.
    Subd. 4. Display and inspection of permit. Every such permit shall be carried in the vehicle
or combination of vehicles to which it refers and shall be open to inspection by any police officer
or authorized agent of any authority granting such permit, and no person shall violate any of the
terms or conditions of such special permit.
    Subd. 5. Fee; proceeds deposited; appropriation. The commissioner, with respect to
highways under the commissioner's jurisdiction, may charge a fee for each permit issued. All
such fees for permits issued by the commissioner of transportation shall be deposited in the state
treasury and credited to the trunk highway fund. Except for those annual permits for which the
permit fees are specified elsewhere in this chapter, the fees shall be:
(a) $15 for each single trip permit.
(b) $36 for each job permit. A job permit may be issued for like loads carried on a specific
route for a period not to exceed two months. "Like loads" means loads of the same product,
weight, and dimension.
(c) $60 for an annual permit to be issued for a period not to exceed 12 consecutive months.
Annual permits may be issued for:
(1) motor vehicles used to alleviate a temporary crisis adversely affecting the safety or
well-being of the public;
(2) motor vehicles which travel on interstate highways and carry loads authorized under
subdivision 1a;
(3) motor vehicles operating with gross weights authorized under section 169.826,
subdivision 1a
;
(4) special pulpwood vehicles described in section 169.863;
(5) motor vehicles bearing snowplow blades not exceeding ten feet in width; and
(6) noncommercial transportation of a boat by the owner or user of the boat.
(d) $120 for an oversize annual permit to be issued for a period not to exceed 12 consecutive
months. Annual permits may be issued for:
(1) mobile cranes;
(2) construction equipment, machinery, and supplies;
(3) manufactured homes and manufactured storage buildings;
(4) implements of husbandry when the movement is not made according to the provisions
of paragraph (i);
(5) double-deck buses;
(6) commercial boat hauling; and
(7) three-vehicle combinations consisting of two empty, newly manufactured trailers for
cargo, horses, or livestock, not to exceed 28-1/2 feet per trailer; provided, however, the permit
allows the vehicles to be moved from a trailer manufacturer to a trailer dealer only while operating
on twin-trailer routes designated under section 169.81, subdivision 3, paragraph (c).
(e) For vehicles which have axle weights exceeding the weight limitations of sections
169.822 to 169.829, an additional cost added to the fees listed above. However, this paragraph
applies to any vehicle described in section 168.013, subdivision 3, paragraph (b), but only when
the vehicle exceeds its gross weight allowance set forth in that paragraph, and then the additional
cost is for all weight, including the allowance weight, in excess of the permitted maximum axle
weight. The additional cost is equal to the product of the distance traveled times the sum of the
overweight axle group cost factors shown in the following chart:
Overweight Axle Group Cost Factors

Weight (pounds)
Cost Per Mile For Each Group Of:




exceeding
weight
limitations on
axles
Two consecutive
axles spaced
within 8 feet or
less
Three consecutive
axles spaced
within 9 feet or
less
Four consecutive
axles spaced
within 14 feet or
less

0-2,000
.12
.05
.04

2,001-4,000
.14
.06
.05

4,001-6,000
.18
.07
.06

6,001-8,000
.21
.09
.07

8,001-10,000
.26
.10
.08

10,001-12,000
.30
.12
.09

12,001-14,000
Not permitted
.14
.11

14,001-16,000
Not permitted
.17
.12

16,001-18,000
Not permitted
.19
.15

18,001-20,000
Not permitted
Not permitted
.16

20,001-22,000
Not permitted
Not permitted
.20
The amounts added are rounded to the nearest cent for each axle or axle group. The additional
cost does not apply to paragraph (c), clauses (1) and (3).
For a vehicle found to exceed the appropriate maximum permitted weight, a cost-per-mile fee of
22 cents per ton, or fraction of a ton, over the permitted maximum weight is imposed in addition
to the normal permit fee. Miles must be calculated based on the distance already traveled in the
state plus the distance from the point of detection to a transportation loading site or unloading site
within the state or to the point of exit from the state.
(f) As an alternative to paragraph (e), an annual permit may be issued for overweight, or
oversize and overweight, construction equipment, machinery, and supplies. The fees for the
permit are as follows:

Gross Weight (pounds) of Vehicle
Annual Permit Fee

90,000
or less
$200

90,001
- 100,000
$300

100,001
- 110,000
$400

110,001
- 120,000
$500

120,001
- 130,000
$600

130,001
- 140,000
$700

140,001
- 145,000
$800
If the gross weight of the vehicle is more than 145,000 pounds the permit fee is determined
under paragraph (e).
(g) For vehicles which exceed the width limitations set forth in section 169.80 by more than
72 inches, an additional cost equal to $120 added to the amount in paragraph (a) when the permit
is issued while seasonal load restrictions pursuant to section 169.87 are in effect.
(h) $85 for an annual permit to be issued for a period not to exceed 12 months, for
refuse-compactor vehicles that carry a gross weight of not more than: 22,000 pounds on a single
rear axle; 38,000 pounds on a tandem rear axle; or, subject to section 169.828, subdivision 2,
46,000 pounds on a tridem rear axle. A permit issued for up to 46,000 pounds on a tridem rear
axle must limit the gross vehicle weight to not more than 62,000 pounds.
(i) For vehicles exclusively transporting implements of husbandry, an annual permit fee
of $24. A vehicle operated under a permit authorized by this paragraph may be moved at the
discretion of the permit holder without prior route approval by the commissioner if:
(1) the total width of the transporting vehicle, including load, does not exceed 14 feet;
(2) the vehicle is operated only between sunrise and 30 minutes after sunset, and is not
operated at any time after 12:00 noon on Sundays or holidays;
(3) the vehicle is not operated when visibility is impaired by weather, fog, or other conditions
that render persons and other vehicles not clearly visible at 500 feet;
(4) the vehicle displays at the front and rear of the load or vehicle a pair of flashing amber
lights, as provided in section 169.59, subdivision 4, whenever the overall width of the vehicle
exceeds 126 inches; and
(5) the vehicle is not operated on a trunk highway with a surfaced roadway width of less
than 24 feet unless such operation is authorized by the permit.
A permit under this paragraph authorizes movements of the permitted vehicle on an interstate
highway, and movements of 75 miles or more on other highways.
(j) $300 for a motor vehicle described in section 169.8261. The fee under this paragraph
must be deposited as follows:
(1) in fiscal years 2005 through 2010:
(i) the first $50,000 in each fiscal year must be deposited in the trunk highway fund for costs
related to administering the permit program and inspecting and posting bridges;
(ii) all remaining money in each fiscal year must be deposited in a bridge inspection
and signing account in the special revenue fund. Money in the account is appropriated to the
commissioner for:
(A) inspection of local bridges and identification of local bridges to be posted, including
contracting with a consultant for some or all of these functions; and
(B) erection of weight-posting signs on local bridges; and
(2) in fiscal year 2011 and subsequent years must be deposited in the trunk highway fund.
(k) Beginning August 1, 2006, $200 for an annual permit for a vehicle operating under
authority of section 169.824, subdivision 2, paragraph (a), clause (2).
    Subd. 6. Articulated bus. Articulated buses operated by public transit operators may exceed
the length and weight limitations of this chapter, subject only to an annual permit from the
commissioner for such operation, and shall not be subject to any city ordinance or to any permit
from any local road authority. The application for a permit shall contain such information as may
be required by the commissioner.
    Subd. 7. Agreement with other state. (a) On behalf of the state of Minnesota, the
commissioner may enter into agreements with authorized representatives of other states for the
reciprocal administration and granting of permits to allow the movement of vehicles of sizes and
weights that do not conform to Minnesota law. The agreement may authorize representatives
of other states to issue permits to allow vehicles that do not conform to the size and weight
provisions of this chapter to travel on highways under the jurisdiction of the commissioner.
(b) An agreement entered into under paragraph (a), and all amendments to it, must be
in writing and may provide for exchanging information for audit and enforcement activities,
collecting fees established under this chapter, and distributing fees collected under the agreement.
It must state that no permit issued under the agreement excuses a vehicle operator from
compliance with a law of this state other than the laws governing size and weight of vehicles.
(c) For purposes of paragraphs (a) and (b), "state" means a state, territory, or possession
of the United States, the District of Columbia, a foreign country, and a state or province of a
foreign country.
(d) Fees collected under authority of the agreement must be deposited in the Minnesota state
treasury and credited to the trunk highway fund.
History: (2720-278) 1937 c 464 s 128; 1943 c 226 s 4; 1953 c 307 s 1; 1967 c 262 s 1; 1973
c 549 s 3; 1974 c 110 s 1; 1974 c 408 s 32 subd 4; 1976 c 166 s 7; 1976 c 343 s 1; 1977 c 248 s
10; 1977 c 454 s 17; 1981 c 321 s 8; 1981 c 348 s 2; 1981 c 365 s 9; 1982 c 617 s 14; 1983 c 198
s 6; 1983 c 293 s 67; 1984 c 523 s 1; 1985 c 132 s 1; 1986 c 398 art 13 s 11,12; 1986 c 444;
1988 c 544 s 3; 1989 c 250 s 3; 1989 c 299 s 1; 1990 c 604 art 3 s 6; 1991 c 333 s 20; 1992 c
578 s 11; 1993 c 182 s 2; 1993 c 187 s 19; 1996 c 289 s 7; 1997 c 114 s 1,2; 1998 c 254 art 1 s
61; 2002 c 364 s 17; 2002 c 371 art 3 s 8; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 37; 2004 c 225 s 1; 2004 c 295
art 1 s 12; 1Sp2005 c 6 art 3 s 52
169.861 [Repealed, 1982 c 617 s 27]
169.862 PERMIT FOR WIDE LOAD OF BALED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT.
    Subdivision 1. Annual permit authority; restrictions. (a) The commissioner of
transportation with respect to highways under the commissioner's jurisdiction, and local
authorities with respect to highways under their jurisdiction, may issue an annual permit to enable
a vehicle carrying round bales of hay, straw, or cornstalks, with a total outside width of the vehicle
or the load not exceeding 11-1/2 feet, to be operated on public streets and highways.
(b) The commissioner of transportation and local authorities may issue an annual permit to
enable a vehicle, having a maximum width of 102 inches, carrying a first haul of square bales
of straw, each bale having a minimum size of four feet by four feet by eight feet, with a total
outside width of the load not exceeding 12 feet, to be operated on public streets and highways
between August 1 and March 1 within 35 miles of the border between this state and the state of
North Dakota.
(c) The commissioner of transportation and local authorities may issue an annual permit to
enable a vehicle carrying square bales of hay, each with an outside dimension of not less than
three feet by four feet by seven feet, with a total height of the loaded vehicle not exceeding 15
feet, to be operated on those public streets and highways designated in the permit.
    Subd. 2. Additional restrictions. Permits issued under this section are governed by the
applicable provisions of section 169.86 except as otherwise provided herein and, in addition, carry
the following restrictions:
(a) The vehicles may not be operated between sunset and sunrise, when visibility is impaired
by weather, fog, or other conditions rendering persons and vehicles not clearly visible at a
distance of 500 feet, or on Sunday from noon until sunset, or on the days the following holidays
are observed: New Year's Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day,
and Christmas Day.
(b) The vehicles may not be operated on interstate highways.
(c) The vehicles may not be operated on a trunk highway with a pavement less than 24
feet wide.
(d) A vehicle operated under the permit must be equipped with a retractable or removable
mirror on the left side so located that it will reflect to the driver a clear view of the highway for a
distance of at least 200 feet to the rear of the vehicle.
(e) A vehicle operated under the permit must display red, orange, or yellow flags, 18 inches
square, as markers at the front and rear and on both sides of the load. The load must be securely
bound to the transporting vehicle.
(f) Farm vehicles not for hire carrying round baled hay less than 20 miles are exempt from
the requirement to obtain a permit. All other requirements of this section apply to vehicles
transporting round baled hay.
The fee for the permit is $24.
History: 1979 c 44 s 1; 1983 c 198 s 12; 1983 c 293 s 68; 1985 c 299 s 11; 1986 c 398 art
13 s 13; 1995 c 174 s 2; 1996 c 455 art 3 s 22
169.863 SPECIAL PULPWOOD VEHICLE PERMIT.
    Subdivision 1. Special vehicle. The commissioner may issue a permit for a vehicle that
meets the following requirements:
(a) There must be no more than two support points for the vehicle or for each vehicle of a
vehicle combination. The support point of each axle group must be capable of distributing the
load equally to each axle of the group with a variance of no more than 3,000 pounds between
any two axles of the group.
(b) The maximum wheel load may not exceed the tire manufacturer's recommended load or
the following weight limits, whichever is less:
(1) front steering axles, 550 pounds per inch;
(2) other single axles, 500 pounds per inch;
(3) tandem axles, 450 pounds per inch; and
(4) tridem or quad axle groups, 425 pounds per inch.
(c) The axle group weights must comply with the limitations of section 169.824.
(d) The vehicle may not be equipped with a variable load axle, unless the variable load axle
cannot be operated from the cab of the vehicle.
(e) The vehicle transports pole-length pulpwood, carries a gross vehicle weight of not more
than 82,000 pounds, and has six axles.
    Subd. 2. Permit restrictions. A vehicle operating under a permit issued under this section
may not travel on an interstate highway. The permit does not authorize the vehicle to exceed
allowable gross weights that restrict travel on a highway or bridge under the authority of the
commissioner or a local road authority.
History: 1989 c 299 s 2
169.864 SPECIAL PAPER PRODUCTS VEHICLE PERMITS.
    Subdivision 1. Special three-unit vehicle permit. The commissioner may issue a permit for
a vehicle that meets the following requirements:
(1) is a combination of vehicles, including a truck-tractor and a semitrailer drawing one
additional semitrailer, which may be equipped with an auxiliary dolly, and no semitrailer used in
the three-vehicle combination has an overall length in excess of 28-1/2 feet;
(2) has a maximum gross vehicle weight of 108,000 pounds;
(3) complies with the axle weight limits in section 169.824 or with the federal bridge formula
for axle groups not described in that section;
(4) complies with the tire weight limits in section 169.823 or the tire manufacturers'
recommended load, whichever is less;
(5) is operated only in this state on Trunk Highway marked 2 between Grand Rapids and
the port of Duluth; on Trunk Highway marked 169 between Grand Rapids and its junction with
Trunk Highway marked 53; and on Trunk Highway marked 53 between Virginia and the port
of Duluth; and
(6) the seasonal weight increases authorized under section 169.826, subdivision 1, do not
apply.
    Subd. 2. Special two-unit vehicle permit. The commissioner may issue a permit for a
vehicle that meets the following requirements:
(1) is a combination of vehicles consisting of a truck-tractor and a single semitrailer that may
exceed 48 feet, but not 53 feet, if the distance from the kingpin to the centerline of the rear axle
group of the semitrailer does not exceed 43 feet;
(2) has a maximum gross vehicle weight of 90,000 pounds;
(3) has a maximum gross vehicle weight of 98,000 pounds during the time when seasonal
weight increases authorized under section 169.826, subdivision 1, are in effect;
(4) complies with the axle weight limits in section 169.824 or with the federal bridge formula
for axle groups not described in that section;
(5) complies with the tire weight limits in section 169.823 or the tire manufacturers'
recommended load, whichever is less; and
(6) is operated only on the highways specified in subdivision 1, clause (5).
    Subd. 3. Restrictions. Vehicles issued permits under subdivisions 1 and 2 must comply with
the following restrictions:
(1) the vehicle must be operated in compliance with seasonal load restrictions under section
169.87;
(2) the vehicle may not be operated on the interstate highway system; and
(3) the vehicle may be operated on streets or highways under the control of local authorities
only upon the approval of the local authority; however, vehicles may have reasonable access to
terminals and facilities for food, fuel, repairs, and rest and for continuity of route within one mile
of the national network as provided by section 169.81, subdivision 3, and by Code of Federal
Regulations, title 23, part 658.19.
    Subd. 4. Permit fee; appropriation. Vehicle permits issued under subdivision 1, clause (1),
must be annual permits. The fee is $850 for each vehicle and must be deposited in the trunk
highway fund. An amount sufficient to administer the permit program is appropriated from the
trunk highway fund to the commissioner for the costs of administering the permit program.
History: 1Sp2005 c 1 art 4 s 39

NOTE: This section as added by Laws 2005, First Special Session chapter 1, article 4,
section 39, is effective the latter of August 1, 2006, or the date on which the commissioner
determines that building permits have been issued for the construction of a new pulp and paper
manufacturing facility at Grand Rapids. Laws 2005, First Special Session chapter 1, article 4,
section 39, the effective date.

169.87 SEASONAL LOAD RESTRICTION; ROUTE DESIGNATION.
    Subdivision 1. Optional power. (a) Local authorities, with respect to highways under their
jurisdiction, may prohibit the operation of vehicles upon any such highway or impose restrictions
as to the weight of vehicles to be operated upon any such highway, whenever any such highway,
by reason of deterioration, rain, snow, or other climatic conditions, will be seriously damaged
or destroyed unless the use of vehicles thereon is prohibited or the permissible weights thereof
reduced.
(b) The local authority enacting any such prohibition or restriction shall erect or cause to be
erected and maintained signs plainly indicating the prohibition or restriction at each end of that
portion of any highway affected thereby, and the prohibition or restriction shall not be effective
unless and until such signs are erected and maintained.
(c) Municipalities, with respect to highways under their jurisdiction, may also, by ordinance,
prohibit the operation of trucks or other commercial vehicles, or may impose limitations as to the
weight thereof, on designated highways, which prohibitions and limitations shall be designated by
appropriate signs placed on such highways.
(d) The commissioner shall likewise have authority, as hereinabove granted to local
authorities, to determine and to impose prohibitions or restrictions as to the weight of vehicles
operated upon any highway under the jurisdiction of the commissioner, and such restrictions
shall be effective when signs giving notice thereof are erected upon the highway or portion of
any highway affected by such action.
(e) When a local authority petitions the commissioner to establish a truck route for travel into,
through, or out of the territory under its jurisdiction, the commissioner shall investigate the matter.
If the commissioner determines from investigation that the operation of trucks into, through, or
out of the territory involves unusual hazards because of any or all of the following factors; load
carried, type of truck used, or topographic or weather conditions, the commissioner may, by order,
designate certain highways under the commissioner's jurisdiction as truck routes into, through,
or out of such territory. When these highways have been marked as truck routes pursuant to the
order, trucks traveling into, through, or out of the territory shall comply with the order.
    Subd. 2. Seasonal load restriction. Except for portland cement concrete roads, between the
dates set by the commissioner of transportation each year, the weight on any single axle shall
not exceed five tons on a county highway, town road, or city street that has not been restricted
as provided in subdivision 1. The gross weight on consecutive axles shall not exceed the gross
weight allowed in sections 169.822 to 169.829 multiplied by a factor of five divided by nine. This
reduction shall not apply to the gross vehicle weight.
    Subd. 3. School bus and Head Start bus. Weight restrictions imposed pursuant to
subdivisions 1 and 2 do not apply to a school bus or Head Start bus transporting students, Head
Start children, or Head Start parents when the gross weight on a single axle of the school bus or
Head Start bus does not exceed 14,000 pounds; provided that, road authorities may restrict any
highway under their jurisdiction to a lesser axle weight by written order to school boards and
Head Start grantees 24 hours in advance of required compliance with such reduced axle weight.
    Subd. 4. Vehicle transporting milk. Until June 1, 2007, a weight restriction imposed under
subdivision 1 by the commissioner of transportation or a local road authority, or imposed by
subdivision 2, does not apply to a vehicle transporting milk from the point of production to the
point of first processing if, at the time the weight restriction is exceeded, the vehicle is carrying
milk loaded at only one point of production. This subdivision does not authorize a vehicle
described in this subdivision to exceed a weight restriction of five tons per axle by more than
two tons per axle.
    Subd. 5. Utility vehicles. (a) Weight restrictions imposed by the commissioner under
subdivisions 1 and 2 do not apply to a two-axle or three-axle utility vehicle that does not exceed a
weight of 20,000 pounds per single axle and 36,000 pounds gross vehicle weight for a two-axle
vehicle or 48,000 pounds gross vehicle weight for a three-axle vehicle, if the vehicle is owned by:
(1) a public utility as defined in section 216B.02;
(2) a municipality or municipal utility that operates the vehicle for its municipal electric, gas,
or water system; or
(3) a cooperative electric association organized under chapter 308A.
(b) The exemption in this subdivision applies only when the vehicle is performing service
restoration or other work necessary to prevent an imminent loss of service.
    Subd. 6. Recycling and garbage vehicles. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), weight
restrictions imposed under subdivisions 1 and 2 do not apply to a vehicle that does not exceed
20,000 pounds per single axle and is designed and used exclusively for recycling, while engaged
in recycling in a political subdivision that mandates curbside recycling pickup.
(b) Weight restrictions imposed under subdivisions 1 and 2 do not apply to (1) a vehicle that
does not exceed 14,000 pounds per single axle and is used exclusively for recycling as described
in paragraph (a), or (2) a vehicle that does not exceed 14,000 pounds per single axle and is
designed and used exclusively for collecting mixed municipal solid waste, as defined in section
115A.03, subdivision 21, while engaged in such collection.
(c) Notwithstanding section 169.80, subdivision 1, a violation of weight restrictions imposed
under subdivisions 1 and 2 by a vehicle designed and used exclusively for recycling while
engaged in recycling in a political subdivision that mandates curbside recycling pickup while
engaged in such collection, or by a vehicle that is designed and used exclusively for collecting
mixed municipal solid waste as defined in section 115A.03, subdivision 21, while engaged in
such collection, is not subject to criminal penalties but is subject to a civil penalty for excess
weight under section 169.871.
History: (2720-279) 1937 c 464 s 129; 1947 c 505 s 1; 1949 c 695 s 1; 1951 c 445 s 1; 1967
c 12 s 1; 1967 c 467 s 1; 1973 c 85 s 1; 1981 c 321 s 9; 1982 c 617 s 15; 1986 c 444; 1994 c 603 s
15; 1999 c 154 s 2; 1999 c 230 s 16; 2000 c 433 s 2-4; 2003 c 97 s 3; 1Sp2003 c 19 art 2 s 63;
2004 c 205 s 1; 2004 c 228 art 1 s 69; 2005 c 21 s 1; 2005 c 34 s 1; 1Sp2005 c 1 art 1 s 82
169.871 EXCESS WEIGHT; CIVIL PENALTY.
    Subdivision 1. Civil liability. (a) The owner or lessee of a vehicle that is operated with a
gross weight in excess of a weight limit imposed under sections 169.822 to 169.829, 169.832
to 169.851, and 169.87 or a shipper who ships or tenders goods for shipment in a single truck
or combination vehicle that exceeds a weight limit imposed under sections 169.822 to 169.829,
169.832 to 169.851, and 169.87 is liable for a civil penalty as follows:
(1) if the total gross excess weight is not more than 1,000 pounds, one cent per pound
for each pound in excess of the legal limit;
(2) if the total gross excess weight is more than 1,000 pounds but not more than 3,000
pounds, $10 plus five cents per pound for each pound in excess of 1,000 pounds;
(3) if the total gross excess weight is more than 3,000 pounds but not more than 5,000
pounds, $110 plus ten cents per pound for each pound in excess of 3,000 pounds;
(4) if the total gross excess weight is more than 5,000 pounds but not more than 7,000
pounds, $310 plus 15 cents per pound for each pound in excess of 5,000 pounds;
(5) if the total gross excess weight is more than 7,000 pounds, $610 plus 20 cents per pound
for each pound in excess of 7,000 pounds.
(b) Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary, if a person found guilty of a violation of a
weight limit imposed under this section or sections 169.822 to 169.829, 169.832 to 169.851, or
169.87 is also found by the court to have knowingly and contemporaneously attempted to evade a
fixed weigh station or to otherwise avoid weighing by means of stationary scales under section
169.85 or other law, the court shall impose a penalty of twice the amount otherwise authorized
under paragraph (a).
(c) Any penalty imposed upon a defendant under this subdivision shall not exceed the penalty
prescribed by this subdivision. Any fine paid by the defendant in a criminal overweight action that
arose from the same overweight violation shall be applied toward payment of the civil penalty
under this subdivision. A peace officer or Department of Public Safety employee described in
section 299D.06 who cites a driver for a violation of the weight limitations established by sections
169.81 to 169.851 and 169.87 shall give written notice to the driver that the driver or another may
also be liable for the civil penalties provided herein in the same or separate proceedings.
(d) A penalty imposed upon the owner or lessee of a vehicle that is based on violations
identified by the use of shippers' weight records under section 169.872 must not exceed an
aggregate of $10,000.
    Subd. 1a. Special permit violations. (a) The owner or lessee of a vehicle that is operated
with a gross weight in excess of a weight limit imposed by permit under sections 169.86 and
169.862 and a shipper who ships or tenders goods for shipment in a single truck or combination
vehicle that exceeds a weight limit permitted under section 169.86 or 169.862 is liable for a civil
penalty at a rate of five cents per pound for each pound in excess of the weight permitted under
section 169.86 or 169.862, or $100, whichever is greater.
(b) Any penalty imposed upon a defendant under this subdivision shall not exceed the
penalty prescribed by this subdivision. Any fine paid by the defendant in a criminal overweight
action that arose from the same overweight violation may not be applied toward payment
of the civil penalty under this subdivision. A peace officer or Department of Public Safety
employee described in section 299D.06 who cites a driver for a violation of the weight limitations
established by permit pursuant to section 169.86 or 169.862 shall give written notice to the driver
that the driver or another may also be liable for the civil penalty provided in this subdivision in
the same or separate proceedings.
    Subd. 1b. Civil penalty for first two violations. Notwithstanding subdivision 1, paragraph
(a), clauses (1) to (5), a civil penalty under subdivision 1 for a violation in a motor vehicle in
the course of a first haul as defined in section 168.013, subdivision 3, paragraph (d)(3), of a
weight limit imposed under sections 169.822 to 169.829, 169.832 to 169.851, and 169.87 that is
not preceded by two or more violations of the gross weight limits in those sections in that motor
vehicle within the previous 12 months, may not exceed $150.
    Subd. 2. Jurisdiction. The district court may hear, try and determine actions commenced
under this section. Trials under this section shall be to the court, sitting without a jury. Trials to the
court under this section shall, if possible, be conducted at the same time as pretrial motions or
trials in the criminal prosecution under sections 169.81 to 169.87, if any, subject to the agreement
of the defendant.
    Subd. 3. Appearance. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 8.01, county or city
attorneys may appear in civil actions commenced under this section at the request of the attorney
general.
    Subd. 4. Venue. Civil actions under this section may be commenced in any county in
which the vehicle was loaded, unloaded or operated in violation of subdivision 1 unless there is
agreement that the action may be tried in another county or municipality.
    Subd. 5. Fines; proceeds allocated. Any penalty imposed and fines collected pursuant to
this section shall be disposed of as provided in section 299D.03, subdivision 5, with the following
exceptions:
(a) If the violation occurs in the county, and the county attorney appears in the action, the
remaining five-eighths shall be credited to the highway user tax distribution fund.
(b) If the violation occurs within the municipality, and the city attorney appears in the action,
the remaining one-third shall be paid to the highway user tax distribution fund.
(c) Except as provided in paragraph (d), when the attorney general appears in the action, all
penalties imposed and fines collected shall be credited to the highway user tax distribution fund.
(d) If the violation occurs in Hennepin County, and the arrest or apprehension is made by the
county sheriff, three-eighths of the civil penalty shall be credited to the general revenue fund of the
county and the remaining five-eighths shall be credited to the highway user tax distribution fund.
    Subd. 6. Costs and disbursements. The prevailing party in any action commenced under
this section shall be entitled to reasonable costs incurred in the action.
    Subd. 7. Shipper's good faith exception. (a) The penalty imposed by subdivision 1 shall
not be imposed on a shipper who in good faith ships goods or tenders goods for shipment in a
vehicle that does not exceed the maximum gross weight for which the truck is licensed under
section 168.013, subdivision 1e.
(b) For purposes of this section, "good faith" means that (1) the vehicle is licensed pursuant
to section 168.013, subdivision 1e, (2) the operator of the vehicle is not under the control of the
shipper, (3) the operator has requested that the vehicle be loaded to the maximum gross weight
for which the vehicle is licensed, and (4) the road leading from the shipper's immediate place
of shipment may be legally used for the allowed gross weight of the vehicle with its legally
maximum load.
History: 1980 c 485 s 2; 1980 c 618 s 10; 1981 c 321 s 10; 3Sp1981 c 2 art 1 s 14,15; 1983
c 198 s 13,14; 1985 c 299 s 12; 1986 c 444; 1988 c 606 s 1,2; 1996 c 455 art 3 s 23; 1997 c 230
s 4,5; 1998 c 254 art 2 s 16; 2002 c 297 s 1
169.872 RECEIPT OF CERTAIN OVERWEIGHT LOADS.
    Subdivision 1. Record keeping. A person who weighs goods before or after unloading or a
person who loads or unloads goods on the basis of liquid volume measure shall keep a written
record of the origin, weight, and composition of each shipment, the date of loading or receipt,
the name and address of the shipper, the total number of axles on the vehicle or combination of
vehicles, and the registration number of the power unit or some other means of identification by
which the shipment was transported. The record shall be retained for 14 days and shall be open
to inspection and copying by a state law enforcement officer or motor transport representative,
except state conservation officers, upon demand. No search warrant is required to inspect or copy
the record. This subdivision does not apply to a person weighing goods who is not involved in the
shipping, receiving, and transporting of those goods, or to a person weighing raw and unfinished
farm products transported in a single-unit vehicle with not more than three axles or by a trailer
towed by a farm tractor when the transportation is the first haul of the product.
    Subd. 1a. Limit on civil penalties. A civil penalty for excessive weight under section
169.871 may be imposed based on a record of a shipment under this section only if a state law
enforcement officer or motor transportation representative has inspected and copied the record
within 14 days of the date the shipment was received by the person keeping the record.
    Subd. 2. Evidence. Except for records relating to the loading and unloading of the first haul
of unprocessed or raw farm products and the transportation of raw and unfinished forest products,
a record kept and maintained as provided in subdivision 1 that shows that a vehicle has exceeded
a gross weight limit imposed by this chapter is relevant evidence of a violation of this chapter.
The foregoing provisions do not limit the introduction of other competent evidence bearing upon
the question of whether or not there is a violation of the prescribed maximum weight limitation
permitted by this chapter.
    Subd. 3. Misdemeanor. A person who fails to keep, maintain, or open for inspection and
copying, those documents as required in subdivision 1 is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person who
does not accurately record the information required to be contained in those documents required
in subdivision 1 is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1980 c 485 s 3; 1981 c 321 s 11; 3Sp1981 c 2 art 1 s 16; 1985 c 299 s 13; 2002 c
297 s 2,3
169.88 DAMAGES; LIABILITY.
(a) Any person driving any vehicle, object, or contrivance upon any highway or highway
structure shall be liable for all damage which the highway or highway structure may sustain as a
result of any illegal operation, driving, or moving of such vehicle, object, or contrivance, or as
a result of operation, driving or moving any vehicle, object, or contrivance weighing in excess
of the maximum weight in this chapter but authorized by a special permit issued as provided in
sections 169.80 to 169.88.
(b) When such driver is not the owner of such vehicle, object, or contrivance, but is so
operating, driving, or moving the same with the express or implied permission of the owner, then
the owner and driver shall be jointly and severally liable for any such damage.
(c) Any person who by willful acts or failure to exercise due care, damages any road, street,
or highway or highway structure shall be liable for the amount thereof.
(d) Damages under this section may be recovered in a civil action brought by the authorities
in control of such highway or highway structure.
History: (2720-280) 1937 c 464 s 130; 1967 c 509 s 1; 1986 c 444

OFFENSES, PENALTIES, AND JUDICIAL PROVISIONS

169.89 PENALTIES.
    Subdivision 1. Violation; when petty misdemeanor enhanced to misdemeanor. Unless
otherwise declared in this chapter with respect to particular offenses, it is a petty misdemeanor for
any person to do any act forbidden or fail to perform any act required by this chapter; except that:
(1) a violation which is committed in a manner or under circumstances so as to endanger or
be likely to endanger any person or property; or
(2) exclusive of violations relating to the standing or parking of an unattended vehicle, a
violation of any of the provisions of this chapter, classified therein as a petty misdemeanor,
when preceded by two or more petty misdemeanor convictions within the immediate preceding
12-month period;
is a misdemeanor to which the provisions of subdivision 2 shall not apply.
    Subd. 2. Petty misdemeanor penalty; no jury trial. A person charged with a petty
misdemeanor is not entitled to a jury trial but shall be tried by a judge without a jury. If convicted,
the person is not subject to imprisonment but shall be punished by a fine of not more than $300.
    Subd. 3.[Obsolete]
    Subd. 4. Driver's record. When a person is arrested for a violation of any provision of this
chapter, or a violation of any provision of a city ordinance regulating traffic, the court before
whom the matter is heard shall determine the driver's record of the person from the commissioner
of public safety before pronouncing sentence and the expense incident to the procurement of this
information is taxable as costs upon the conviction.
    Subd. 5. Driver improvement clinic; attendance. In conjunction with or in lieu of other
penalties provided by law for violation of this chapter or a municipal ordinance enacted in
conformance thereto, the trial court may in its judgment of conviction order the convicted person
to attend and satisfactorily complete a course of study at an approved driver improvement clinic
or youth-oriented driver improvement clinic. The commissioner of public safety may, upon the
motion of the commissioner of public safety or upon recommendation of the court, suspend,
for a period of not to exceed 30 days, the operator's license, provisional license, permit, or
nonresident operating privilege of any person who fails or refuses to comply with an order to
attend an approved driver improvement clinic or youth-oriented driver improvement clinic. The
requirement of attendance at an approved driver improvement clinic or youth-oriented driver
improvement clinic is not a fine, imprisonment, or sentence within the meaning of section
609.02. The court may not order a convicted person to attend any driver improvement clinic
or youth-oriented driver improvement clinic which is located more than 35 miles from the
person's residence. For the purposes of this section "an approved driver improvement clinic
or youth-oriented driver improvement clinic" means a clinic whose curriculum and mode of
instruction conform to standards promulgated by the commissioner of public safety.
History: (2720-281) 1937 c 464 s 131; 1939 c 430 s 27; 1947 c 428 s 34; 1965 c 711 s 5;
1969 c 118 s 1; 1969 c 1129 art 1 s 18; Ex1971 c 27 s 15; 1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1973 c 421 s 2; 1979
c 233 s 1; 1980 c 520 s 2; 1986 c 444; 1994 c 636 art 2 s 3; 1998 c 388 s 2; 2000 c 488 art 5 s 1
169.891 JURISDICTION; LIMITATION OF ACTIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Petty misdemeanors. Courts which heretofore have had jurisdiction over
misdemeanors have the same jurisdiction over petty misdemeanors.
    Subd. 2. Limitation. The period for commencing an action against any person for a petty
misdemeanor shall be the same as that for a misdemeanor.
History: Ex1971 c 27 s 16
169.90 OFFENSES.
    Subdivision 1. Attempt, conspire, aid, cause, or permit offense. Every person who
commits or attempts to commit, conspires to commit, or aids or abets in the commission of, any
act declared herein to be an offense, whether individually or in connection with one or more other
persons or as principal, agent, or accessory, shall be guilty of such offense, and every person who
falsely, fraudulently, forcibly, or willfully induces, causes, coerces, requires, permits, or directs
another to violate any provision of this chapter, is likewise guilty of such offense.
    Subd. 2. Require or permit offense by another. It is unlawful for the owner, or any other
person, employing or otherwise directing the driver of any vehicle to require or knowingly to
permit the operation of such vehicle upon a highway in any manner contrary to law.
    Subd. 3.[Renumbered 169.42, subd 2]
History: (2720-282, 2720-283) 1937 c 464 s 132,133; Ex1971 c 27 s 17
169.901 [Repealed, 2001 c 24 s 5]

ARREST AND APPEARANCE PROCEDURES

169.91 ARREST.
    Subdivision 1. Procedure. When any person is arrested for any violation of any law or
ordinance relating to the operation or registration of vehicles punishable as a petty misdemeanor,
misdemeanor, gross misdemeanor, or felony, the arrested person shall be taken into custody and
immediately taken before a judge within the county in which the offense charged is alleged to
have been committed and who has jurisdiction over the offenses and is nearest or most accessible
with reference to the place where the arrest is made, in any of the following cases:
(1) when a person arrested demands an immediate appearance before a judge;
(2) when a person is arrested and charged with an offense under this chapter causing or
contributing to an accident resulting in injury or death to any person;
(3) when the person is arrested upon a charge of negligent homicide;
(4) when the person is arrested upon a charge of driving or operating or being in actual
physical control of any motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs;
(5) when the person is arrested upon a charge of failure to stop in the event of an accident
causing death, personal injuries, or damage to property;
(6) when there is reasonable cause for believing that the person arrested may leave the state,
except as provided in subdivision 4.
    Subd. 2.[Repealed, Ex1971 c 27 s 49]
    Subd. 3. Notice to appear. When a person is arrested for any violation of any law or
ordinance relating to motor vehicles, their registration or their operation, or the use of the
highways, the arresting officer shall prepare a written notice to appear in court. This place must be
before a judge within the county in which the offense charged is alleged to have been committed
who has jurisdiction and is nearest or most accessible with reference to the place of arrest. If the
offense is a petty misdemeanor, the notice to appear must include a statement that a failure to
appear will be considered a plea of guilty and waiver of the right to trial, unless the failure to
appear is due to circumstances beyond the person's control.
    Subd. 4. Reciprocal agreements. (a) The commissioner of public safety is empowered to
enter into and carry out reciprocal agreements with duly authorized representatives of other
states, districts, territories and possessions of the United States and provinces of foreign countries
having laws or compacts authorizing the release of residents of party jurisdictions upon personal
recognizance following arrest for violation of a law or ordinance relating to the operation of a
motor vehicle.
(b) When a reciprocal agreement is in effect, a law enforcement officer observing a violation
of any traffic rule by a resident of a party jurisdiction shall issue an appropriate citation and shall
not, subject to the provisions of paragraph (c), require the nonresident to post bond or collateral to
secure appearance for trial but shall accept the nonresident's personal recognizance, except the
nonresident has the right upon request to post bond or collateral in a manner provided by law
and in that case the provisions of this subdivision do not apply.
(c) A nonresident shall not be entitled to be released on personal recognizance if immediate
appearance before a judge is required by subdivision 1 or the offense is:
(1) one which, upon conviction, would result in the revocation of a person's driver's license
under the laws of this state; or
(2) a violation of a highway weight limitation; or
(3) a violation of a law governing transportation of hazardous materials; or
(4) driving a motor vehicle without a valid driver's license.
History: (2720-284, 2720-285) 1937 c 464 s 134,135; 1939 c 430 s 28,29; 1947 c 428 s 35;
1955 c 845 s 1; Ex1961 c 19 s 4; Ex1971 c 27 s 18; 1978 c 783 s 1-3; 1983 c 359 s 12; 1985 c 248
s 70; 1986 c 444; 1988 c 681 s 9,10; 1989 c 333 s 1
169.92 FAILURE TO APPEAR.
    Subdivision 1. Appearance by counsel. A person may appear in court either in person or
through an appearance by counsel. A person is not required to sign a written promise to appear.
    Subd. 2. Notice to commissioner. When a person fails to appear in court in response to a
notice to appear prepared under section 169.91, subdivision 3, or fails to comply with other orders
of the court regarding the appearance or proceedings, the court shall notify the commissioner of
public safety of the nonappearance or noncompliance upon a form provided by the commissioner.
    Subd. 3. Nonappearance by nonresident. Upon receipt of notice from the court that a
nonresident did not appear in court, the commissioner of public safety shall forward a copy of
the report to the driver licensing authority of the state, district, territory, possession, or province
of residence of the person.
    Subd. 4. Suspension of driver's license. (a) Upon receiving a report from the court, or from
the driver licensing authority of a state, district, territory, or possession of the United States or a
province of a foreign country which has an agreement in effect with this state pursuant to section
169.91, that a resident of this state or a person licensed as a driver in this state did not appear in
court in compliance with the terms of a citation, the commissioner of public safety shall notify
the driver that the driver's license will be suspended unless the commissioner receives notice
within 30 days that the driver has appeared in the appropriate court or, if the offense is a petty
misdemeanor for which a guilty plea was entered under section 609.491, that the person has paid
any fine imposed by the court. If the commissioner does not receive notice of the appearance in
the appropriate court or payment of the fine within 30 days of the date of the commissioner's
notice to the driver, the commissioner may suspend the driver's license, subject to the notice
requirements of section 171.18, subdivision 2.
(b) The order of suspension shall indicate the reason for the order and shall notify the
driver that the driver's license shall remain suspended until the driver has furnished evidence,
satisfactory to the commissioner, of compliance with any order entered by the court.
(c) Suspension shall be ordered under this subdivision only when the report clearly identifies
the person arrested; describes the violation, specifying the section of the traffic law, ordinance or
rule violated; indicates the location and date of the offense; and describes the vehicle involved
and its registration number.
History: (2720-286) 1937 c 464 s 136; 1978 c 783 s 4; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444; 1988 c
681 s 11; 1989 c 228 s 1; 1989 c 333 s 6; 1996 c 346 s 2
169.93 ARREST WITHOUT WARRANT.
The provisions of sections 169.90 to 169.95 shall govern all police officers in making arrests
without a warrant for violations of this chapter for offenses committed in their presence, but the
procedure prescribed herein shall not otherwise be exclusive of any other method prescribed by
law for the arrest and prosecution of a person for an offense of like grade.
History: (2720-287) 1937 c 464 s 137

RECORDS

169.94 RECORD OF CONVICTION.
    Subdivision 1. Not admissible as evidence. No record of the conviction of any person for
any violation of this chapter shall be admissible as evidence in any court in any civil action.
    Subd. 2. Not to affect credibility as witness. The conviction of a person upon a charge of
violating any provision of this chapter or other traffic rule less than a felony shall not affect or
impair the credibility of such person as a witness in any civil or criminal proceeding.
History: (2720-288, 2720-289) 1937 c 464 s 138,139; 1985 c 248 s 70
169.95 COURT TO KEEP SEPARATE RECORDS OF VIOLATIONS.
(a) Every court administrator shall keep a full record of every case in which a person is
charged with a violation of any law or ordinance, regulating the operation of vehicles on highways.
(b) Within ten days after the conviction or forfeiture of bail of a person upon a charge
of violating any provisions of any law or ordinance, regulating the operation of vehicles on
highways, the court administrator of the court in which the conviction was had or bail was
forfeited, shall immediately forward to the Department of Public Safety an abstract of the record
of the court covering the case in which the person was convicted or forfeited bail. The abstract
must be certified by the person required to prepare it to be true and correct.
(c) The abstract must be made upon a form furnished by the Department of Public Safety,
and shall include the name and address of the party charged, the driver's license number of the
person involved, the nature of the offense, the date of hearing, the plea, the judgment, or whether
bail was forfeited, and the amount of the fine or forfeiture, as the case may be.
(d) Every court shall also forward a report to the Department of Public Safety reporting the
conviction of any person of manslaughter or other felony in the commission of which a vehicle
was used.
(e) The failure, refusal, or neglect of any judicial officer to comply with any of the
requirements of this section shall constitute misconduct in the office and shall be grounds for
removal.
History: (2720-290) 1937 c 464 s 140; 1969 c 1129 art 1 s 18; 1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1981 c
363 s 28; 1983 c 359 s 13; 1Sp1986 c 3 art 1 s 82

UNIFORM INTERPRETATION

169.96 INTERPRETATION AND EFFECT.
(a) This chapter shall be interpreted and construed as to effectuate its general purpose to
make uniform the law of those states which enact it.
(b) In all civil actions, a violation of any of the provisions of this chapter, by either or any
of the parties to such action or actions shall not be negligence per se but shall be prima facie
evidence of negligence only.
History: (2720-291) 1937 c 464 s 141; 1939 c 430 s 30

UNIVERSITY TRAFFIC RULES

169.965 UNIVERSITY REGENTS TO REGULATE TRAFFIC AND PARKING.
    Subdivision 1. Authority. The regents of the University of Minnesota may, from time to
time, make, adopt, and enforce such rules, regulations, or ordinances as it may find expedient
or necessary relating to the regulation of traffic and parking, upon parking facilities, highways,
streets, private roads, and roadways situated on property owned, leased, or occupied by the
regents of the University of Minnesota or the University of Minnesota.
    Subd. 2. Petty misdemeanor. Any person violating such rule, regulation, or ordinance shall
be guilty of a petty misdemeanor and subject to the provisions of sections 169.891 and 169.90,
subdivision 1
.
    Subd. 3. Prosecution. The prosecution may be before a district court having jurisdiction
over the place where the violation occurs.
    Subd. 4. Enforcement. Every sheriff, police officer, or other peace officer shall see that all
rules, regulations, and ordinances are obeyed, and shall arrest and prosecute offenders.
    Subd. 5. Enforcement powers. The regents of the University of Minnesota are hereby
authorized to appoint and employ, and fix the compensation to be paid out of funds of the regents
of the University of Minnesota, persons who shall have and may exercise on property owned,
leased, or occupied by the regents of the University of Minnesota or the University of Minnesota
the same powers of arrest for violation of rules, regulations, or ordinances adopted by the regents
of the University of Minnesota pursuant to the Highway Traffic Regulation Act, chapters 169 and
169A, as amended, as possessed by a sheriff, police officer, or peace officer.
    Subd. 6. Judicial notice. All persons shall take notice of such rules, regulations, and
ordinances without pleading and proof of the same.
    Subd. 7. Notice, hearing, filing, and effect. (a) The regents of the University of Minnesota
shall fix a date for a public hearing on the adoption of any such proposed rule, regulation, or
ordinance. Notice of such hearing shall be published in a legal newspaper in the county in which
the property affected by the rule, regulation, or ordinance is located. The publication shall be at
least 15 days and not more than 45 days before the date of the hearing.
(b) If, after the public hearing, the proposed rule, regulation, or ordinance shall be adopted
by a majority of the members of the Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota, the same
shall be considered to have been enacted by the regents of the University of Minnesota. A copy of
the same shall be signed by the president, attested by the secretary, and filed with the secretary
of state of the state of Minnesota, together with proof of publication. Upon such filing, the rule,
regulation, or ordinance, as the case may be, shall thenceforth be in full force and effect.
    Subd. 8. Allocation of fines. The fines collected in Hennepin, St. Louis, and Stevens
Counties shall be paid into the treasury of the University of Minnesota, except that the portion of
the fines necessary to cover all costs and disbursements incurred in processing and prosecuting
the violations in the court shall be retained by the court administrator in Hennepin and St. Louis
Counties and by the city of Morris in Stevens County.
History: 1957 c 456 s 1-7; Ex1971 c 27 s 19; 1977 c 82 s 3; 1983 c 359 s 14; 1992 c 513 art
1 s 21; 1992 c 603 s 3; 1998 c 254 art 2 s 17; 2000 c 478 art 2 s 7; 2005 c 10 art 2 s 4
169.966 BOARD TO REGULATE TRAFFIC ON STATE UNIVERSITIES.
    Subdivision 1. Authority. The Board of Trustees of the Minnesota State Colleges and
Universities may from time to time make, adopt, and enforce such rules or ordinances not
inconsistent with this chapter, as it may find expedient or necessary relating to the regulation of
traffic and parking upon parking facilities and private roads and roadways situated on property
owned, leased, occupied, or operated by state universities.
    Subd. 1a. Parking facilities. The Board of Trustees may establish rents, charges, or fees
for the use of parking facilities owned, leased, occupied, or operated by the board. The money
collected by the board as rents, charges, or fees in accordance with this subdivision shall be
deposited in the university activity fund and is annually appropriated to the Board of Trustees for
state university purposes and to maintain and operate parking lots and parking facilities.
    Subd. 2. Petty misdemeanor. Any person violating such rule or ordinance shall be guilty of
a petty misdemeanor and subject to the provisions of sections 169.891 and 169.90, subdivision 1.
    Subd. 3. Prosecution. The prosecution may be before a district court having jurisdiction
over the place where the violation occurs.
    Subd. 4. Enforcement. Every sheriff, police officer, or other peace officer shall see that all
rules and ordinances are obeyed and shall arrest and prosecute offenders.
    Subd. 5. Enforcement powers. The Board of Trustees may appoint and employ, and fix the
compensation to be paid out of funds which may be available for such purposes, persons who
shall have and may exercise on property owned, leased, or occupied by the state universities the
same powers of arrest for violation of rules or ordinances adopted by the board as possessed
by a sheriff, police officer, or peace officer.
    Subd. 6. Judicial notice. All persons shall take notice of such rules and ordinances without
pleading and proof of the same.
    Subd. 7. Notice, hearing, filing, and effect. (a) The Board of Trustees shall fix a date
for a public hearing on the adoption of any such proposed rule or ordinance. Notice of such
hearing shall be published in a legal newspaper in the county in which the property affected by
the rule or ordinance is located. The publication shall be at least 15 days and not more than 45
days before the date of the hearing.
(b) If, after the public hearing, the proposed rule or ordinance shall be adopted by a majority
of the members of the board, the same shall be considered to have been enacted by the board.
A copy of the same shall be signed by the president and filed with the county recorder of each
county where the rule or ordinance shall be in effect, together with proof of publication. Upon
such filing, the rule or ordinance, as the case may be, shall thenceforth be in full force and effect.
    Subd. 8. Delegation. The Board of Trustees may delegate its responsibilities under this
section to a state university president. Actions of the president shall be presumed to be those of
the board. The university president shall file with the board president the results of any public
hearings and the subsequent adoption of any proposed rule or ordinance enacted pursuant thereto.
History: 1961 c 278 s 1; 1969 c 701 s 2,3; 1971 c 23 s 16; Ex1971 c 27 s 20; 1975 c 321 s 2;
1983 c 359 s 15; 1984 c 618 s 6; 1984 c 654 art 4 s 25,26; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1998 c 254 art 2 s 18;
1Sp2001 c 1 art 2 s 19; 2005 c 10 art 2 s 4

CITATION

169.97 CITATION; HIGHWAY TRAFFIC REGULATION ACT.
This chapter shall be cited as the Highway Traffic Regulation Act.
History: (2720-292) 1937 c 464 s 142

DRIVER IMPROVEMENT CLINICS

169.971 DRIVER IMPROVEMENT CLINICS; DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Scope. For the purposes of sections 169.971 to 169.973, the terms defined in
this section have the meanings given them.
    Subd. 2. Driver improvement clinic. "Driver improvement clinic" means a formal course of
study established under section 169.972, designed primarily to assist persons convicted of traffic
violations in correcting improper driving habits and to familiarize them with the provisions of
the Highway Traffic Regulation Act.
    Subd. 2a. Youth-oriented driver improvement clinic. "Youth-oriented driver improvement
clinic" means a driver improvement clinic designed for traffic violators age 18 and under to assist
them in correcting improper driving practices and review provisions of traffic law with a focus on
driving problems common to young and novice drivers.
    Subd. 3. Municipality. "Municipality" means any city, however organized, and any county
or town.
    Subd. 4. Court. "Court" means a district court.
    Subd. 5. Commissioner. "Commissioner" means the commissioner of public safety.
History: 1965 c 711 s 1; 1969 c 1129 art 1 s 18; 1973 c 123 art 5 s 7; 1983 c 359 s 16; 1998
c 254 art 2 s 19; 1998 c 388 s 3,4
169.972 ESTABLISHMENT OF DRIVER IMPROVEMENT CLINIC; FEES.
    Subdivision 1. Authority to establish clinic. Subject to sections 169.971 to 169.973 and
171.20, subdivision 3, any court, municipality, association of municipalities, or any regularly
established safety organization may establish and conduct a driver improvement clinic or a
youth-oriented driver improvement clinic.
    Subd. 2. Fees. The court, municipality or organization conducting a driver improvement
clinic or a youth-oriented driver improvement clinic may establish reasonable tuition fees not
to exceed $50, but not to exceed the actual cost of the course.
History: 1965 c 711 s 2; 1973 c 194 s 1; 1984 c 385 s 1; 1998 c 388 s 5
169.973 REGULATION OF CLINIC; DIRECTOR.
    Subdivision 1. Commissioner's authority; rules; curriculum. The commissioner of
public safety shall supervise the administration and conduct of driver improvement clinics and
youth-oriented driver improvement clinics. The commissioner of public safety shall promulgate
rules setting forth standards for the curriculum and mode of instruction of driver improvement
clinics and youth-oriented driver improvement clinics and such other matters as the commissioner
of public safety considers necessary for the proper administration of such clinics. In the
preparation of such standards the commissioner of public safety shall consult with the state
associations of judges. A driver improvement clinic established under sections 169.971 to 169.973
and 171.20, subdivision 3, shall conform to the standards promulgated by the commissioner of
public safety. The course of study at a driver improvement clinic and youth-oriented driver
improvement clinic may not exceed a cumulative total of nine hours with no single class
session lasting more than three hours. The course of study at a driver improvement clinic and
youth-oriented driver improvement clinic shall include instruction in railroad crossing safety.
    Subd. 2. Director. The commissioner of public safety may appoint a driver improvement
clinic director within the Department of Public Safety and such other employees as are necessary
to accomplish the purposes of Laws 1965, chapter 711.
History: 1965 c 711 s 3; 1969 c 1129 art 1 s 18; 1971 c 491 s 34; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c
444; 1990 c 468 s 3; 1Sp1995 c 3 art 16 s 13; 1998 c 388 s 6; 1Sp2003 c 9 art 10 s 8

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

169.974 MOTORCYCLE, MOTOR SCOOTER, MOTOR BIKE.
    Subdivision 1. Definition. Motorcycles as used herein shall mean the vehicles defined in
section 169.01, subdivision 4.
    Subd. 2. License endorsement and permit requirements. (a) No person shall operate a
motorcycle on any street or highway without having a valid standard driver's license with a
two-wheeled vehicle endorsement as provided by law. The commissioner of public safety shall
issue a two-wheeled vehicle endorsement only if the applicant (1) has in possession a valid
two-wheeled vehicle instruction permit as provided in paragraph (b), (2) has passed a written
examination and road test administered by the Department of Public Safety for the endorsement,
and (3) in the case of applicants under 18 years of age, presents a certificate or other evidence of
having successfully completed an approved two-wheeled vehicle driver's safety course in this or
another state, in accordance with rules adopted by the commissioner of public safety for courses
offered by a public, private, or commercial school or institute. The commissioner of public
safety may waive the road test for any applicant on determining that the applicant possesses a
valid license to operate a two-wheeled vehicle issued by a jurisdiction that requires a comparable
road test for license issuance.
(b) The commissioner of public safety shall issue a two-wheeled vehicle instruction permit
to any person over 16 years of age who (1) is in possession of a valid driver's license, (2) is
enrolled in an approved two-wheeled vehicle driver's safety course, and (3) has passed a written
examination for the permit and paid a fee prescribed by the commissioner of public safety. A
two-wheeled vehicle instruction permit is effective for one year and may be renewed under rules
prescribed by the commissioner of public safety.
(c) No person who is operating by virtue of a two-wheeled vehicle instruction permit shall:
(1) carry any passengers on the streets and highways of this state on the motorcycle while the
person is operating the motorcycle;
(2) drive the motorcycle at night;
(3) drive the motorcycle on any highway marked as an interstate highway pursuant to title 23
of the United States Code; or
(4) drive the motorcycle without wearing protective headgear that complies with standards
established by the commissioner of public safety.
(d) Notwithstanding paragraph (a), (b), or (c), the commissioner of public safety may issue
a special motorcycle permit, restricted or qualified as the commissioner of public safety deems
proper, to any person demonstrating a need for the permit and unable to qualify for a standard
driver's license.
    Subd. 3. Vehicle equipment. (a) Any motorcycle with a seat designed or suited for use by
a passenger shall be equipped with footrests for the passenger. No person shall operate any
motorcycle on the streets and highways after January 1, 1971, unless such motorcycle is equipped
with at least one rear view mirror so attached and adjusted as to reflect to the operator a view of the
roadway for a distance of at least 200 feet to the rear of the motorcycle and is equipped with not
less than one horn which shall be audible at a distance of at least 200 feet under normal conditions.
(b) All other applicable provisions of this chapter pertaining to motorcycle and other
motor vehicle equipment shall apply to motorcycles, except those which by their nature have
no application.
    Subd. 4. Equipment for operator and passenger. (a) No person under the age of 18 shall
operate or ride a motorcycle on the streets and highways of this state without wearing protective
headgear that complies with standards established by the commissioner of public safety; and no
person shall operate a motorcycle without wearing an eye-protective device.
(b) The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to persons during their participation
in a parade for which parade a permit or other official authorization has been granted by a local
governing body or other governmental authority or to persons riding within an enclosed cab.
    Subd. 5. Driving rules. (a) An operator of a motorcycle shall ride only upon a permanent
and regular seat which is attached to the vehicle for that purpose. No other person shall ride on
a motorcycle; except that passengers may ride upon a permanent and regular operator's seat
if designed for two persons, or upon additional seats attached to the vehicle to the rear of the
operator's seat, or in a sidecar attached to the vehicle; provided, however, that the operator of
a motorcycle shall not carry passengers in a number in excess of the designed capacity of the
motorcycle or sidecar attached to it. No passenger shall be carried in a position that will interfere
with the safe operation of the motorcycle or the view of the operator.
(b) No person shall ride upon a motorcycle as a passenger unless, when sitting astride the
seat, the person can reach the footrests with both feet.
(c) No person, except passengers of sidecars or drivers and passengers of three-wheeled
motorcycles, shall operate or ride upon a motorcycle except while sitting astride the seat, facing
forward, with one leg on either side of the motorcycle.
(d) No person shall operate a motorcycle while carrying animals, packages, bundles, or other
cargo which prevent the person from keeping both hands on the handlebars.
(e) No person shall operate a motorcycle between lanes of moving or stationary vehicles
headed in the same direction, nor shall any person drive a motorcycle abreast of or overtake or
pass another vehicle within the same traffic lane, except that motorcycles may, with the consent of
both drivers, be operated not more than two abreast in a single traffic lane.
(f) Motor vehicles including motorcycles are entitled to the full use of a traffic lane and no
motor vehicle may be driven or operated in a manner so as to deprive a motorcycle of the full
use of a traffic lane.
(g) A person operating a motorcycle upon a roadway must be granted the rights and is subject
to the duties applicable to a motor vehicle as provided by law, except as to those provisions
which by their nature can have no application.
(h) Paragraph (e) of this subdivision does not apply to police officers in the performance of
their official duties.
(i) No person shall operate a motorcycle on a street or highway unless the headlight or
headlights are lighted at all times the motorcycle is so operated.
(j) A person parking a motorcycle on the roadway of a street or highway must:
(1) if parking in a marked parking space, park the motorcycle completely within the marked
space; and
(2) park the motorcycle in such a way that the front of the motorcycle is pointed or angled
toward the nearest lane of traffic to the extent practicable and necessary to allow the operator to (i)
view any traffic in both directions of the street or highway without having to move the motorcycle
into a lane of traffic and without losing balance or control of the motorcycle, and (ii) ride the
motorcycle forward and directly into a lane of traffic when the lane is sufficiently clear of traffic.
    Subd. 6.[Repealed, 1999 c 230 s 46]
    Subd. 7. Noise limits. After December 31, 1978, noise rules adopted by the Pollution Control
Agency for motor vehicles pursuant to section 169.693 shall also apply to motorcycles.
History: 1967 c 875 s 1-5; 1969 c 1123 s 1-3; 1969 c 1129 art 1 s 18; 1971 c 226 s 1; 1971 c
491 s 35; 1974 c 133 s 1; 1975 c 29 s 3-5; 1976 c 295 s 1; 1977 c 17 s 1-4; 1977 c 134 s 1; 1981 c
357 s 63; 1982 c 548 art 4 s 13; 1983 c 216 art 1 s 29,30; 1983 c 345 s 8; 1984 c 549 s 32,33;
1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444; 1995 c 40 s 1; 1997 c 159 art 2 s 31; 1998 c 398 art 5 s 55; 2000 c
489 art 6 s 30; 2001 c 60 s 1; 2002 c 364 s 18; 2002 c 371 art 1 s 49
169.98 POLICE, PATROL, OR SECURITY GUARD VEHICLE.
    Subdivision 1. Colors and markings. (a) Except as provided in subdivisions 2 and 2a, all
motor vehicles which are primarily used in the enforcement of highway traffic rules by the State
Patrol or for general uniform patrol assignment by any municipal police department or other law
enforcement agency, except conservation officers, shall have uniform colors and markings as
provided in this subdivision. Motor vehicles of:
(1) municipal police departments, including the University of Minnesota Police Department
and park police units, shall be predominantly blue, brown, green, black, or white;
(2) the State Patrol shall be predominantly maroon; and
(3) the county sheriff's office shall be predominantly brown or white.
(b) The identity of the governmental unit operating the vehicle shall be displayed on both
front door panels and on the rear of the vehicle. The identity may be in the form of a shield or
emblem, or may be the word "police," "sheriff," or the words "State Patrol" or "conservation
officer," as appropriate, with letters not less than 2-1/2 inches high, one-inch wide and of a
three-eighths inch brush stroke. The identity shall be of a color contrasting with the background
color so that the motor vehicle is easily identifiable as belonging to a specific type of law
enforcement agency. Each vehicle shall be marked with its own identifying number on the rear
of the vehicle. The number shall be printed in the same size and color required pursuant to this
subdivision for identifying words which may be displayed on the vehicle.
    Subd. 1a. Vehicle stop authority. Only a person who is licensed as a peace officer or
part-time peace officer under sections 626.84 to 626.863 may use a motor vehicle governed
by subdivision 1 to stop a vehicle as defined in section 169.01, subdivision 2. In addition, a
hazardous materials specialist employed by the Department of Transportation may, in the course
of responding to an emergency, use a motor vehicle governed by subdivision 1 to stop a vehicle
as defined in section 169.01, subdivision 2.
    Subd. 1b. Operation of marked vehicle. Except as otherwise permitted under sections
221.221 and 299D.06, a motor vehicle governed by subdivision 1 may only be operated by a
person licensed as a peace officer or part-time peace officer under sections 626.84 to 626.863.
This prohibition does not apply to the following:
(1) a marked vehicle that is operated for maintenance purposes only;
(2) a marked vehicle that is operated during a skills course approved by the Peace Officer
Standards and Training Board;
(3) a marked vehicle that is operated to transport prisoners or equipment; or
(4) a marked vehicle that is operated by a reserve officer providing supplementary assistance
at the direction of the chief law enforcement officer or the officer's designee, when a licensed
peace officer as defined in section 626.84, subdivision 1, paragraph (c), who is employed by that
political subdivision, is on duty within the political subdivision.
    Subd. 2. Specially marked patrol vehicle. The commissioner of public safety may authorize
the use of specially marked State Patrol vehicles, that have only a marking composed of a shield
on the right door with the words inscribed thereon "Minnesota State Patrol" for primary use in the
enforcement of highway traffic rules when in the judgment of the commissioner of public safety
the use of specially marked State Patrol vehicles will contribute to the safety of the traveling
public. The number of such specially marked State Patrol vehicles used in the enforcement of
highway traffic rules shall not exceed ten percent of the total number of State Patrol vehicles
used in traffic law enforcement. All specially marked State Patrol vehicles shall be operated by
uniformed members of the State Patrol and so equipped and operated as to clearly indicate to
the driver of a car which is signaled to stop that the specially marked State Patrol vehicle is
being operated by the State Patrol.
    Subd. 2a. Specially marked police or sheriff vehicle. The chief of police of a home rule
or statutory city, and the sheriff of a county, may authorize within the jurisdiction the use of
specially marked police or sheriff's vehicles for primary use in the enforcement of highway traffic
laws and ordinances when in the judgment of the chief of police or sheriff the use of specially
marked vehicles will contribute to the safety of the traveling public. A specially marked vehicle
is a vehicle that is marked only with the shield of the city or county and the name of the proper
authority on the right front door of the vehicle. The number of specially marked vehicles owned
by a police department of a city of the first class may not exceed ten percent of the total number of
vehicles used by that police department in traffic law enforcement, and a city or county that uses
fewer than 11 vehicles in traffic law enforcement may not own more than one specially marked
vehicle. A specially marked vehicle may be operated only by a uniformed officer and must be
equipped and operated to indicate clearly to the driver of a vehicle signaled to stop that the
specially marked vehicle is being operated by a police department or sheriff's office.
    Subd. 3. Security guard vehicle. (a) All motor vehicles which are used by security guards in
the course of their employment may have any color other than those specified in subdivision 1 for
law enforcement vehicles. The identity of the security service shall be displayed on the motor
vehicle as required for law enforcement vehicles.
(b) Notwithstanding subdivision 1, paragraph (a), clause (1), a security guard may continue
to use a motor vehicle that is predominantly black in the course of the guard's employment if the
vehicle was being used in this manner before August 1, 2002.
    Subd. 4. Effective date. Subdivisions 1 to 3 shall apply to those motor vehicles purchased
subsequent to January 1, 1981.
    Subd. 5. Vehicle security barrier; exemption. Marked State Patrol vehicles are exempt
from compliance with any rule requiring a security barrier between the front and rear seats of
the vehicle. A State Patrol vehicle shall be equipped with a security barrier at the option of the
officer assigned the vehicle.
History: 1959 c 554 s 1,2; 1961 c 458 s 1; 1969 c 1129 art 1 s 4; 1971 c 491 s 36; 1980 c
578 s 10; 1981 c 37 s 2; 1985 c 248 s 70; 1986 c 444; 1987 c 162 s 1,2; 1987 c 334 s 1,2; 1989 c
17 s 1; 1993 c 326 art 7 s 3; 2002 c 267 s 1-4
169.983 SPEEDING VIOLATION; CREDIT CARD PAYMENT OF FINE.
(a) The officer who issues a citation for a violation by a person who does not reside in
Minnesota of section 169.14 shall give the defendant the option to plead guilty to the violation
upon issuance of the citation and to pay the fine to the issuing officer with a credit card.
(b) The commissioner of public safety shall adopt rules to implement this section, including
specifying the types of credit cards that may be used.
History: 1991 c 204 s 3; 1992 c 464 art 1 s 22; 1996 c 455 art 1 s 7

TRAFFIC CITATIONS

169.985 TRAFFIC CITATION QUOTA PROHIBITED.
A law enforcement agency may not order, mandate, require, or suggest to a peace officer a
quota for the issuance of traffic citations on a daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, or yearly basis.
History: 1990 c 482 s 3
169.99 UNIFORM TRAFFIC TICKET.
    Subdivision 1. Form. (a) Except as provided in subdivision 3, there shall be a uniform ticket
issued throughout the state by the police and peace officers or by any other person for violations
of this chapter and ordinances in conformity thereto. Such uniform traffic ticket shall be in the
form and have the effect of a summons and complaint. Except as provided in paragraph (b), the
uniform ticket shall state that if the defendant fails to appear in court in response to the ticket,
an arrest warrant may be issued. The uniform traffic ticket shall consist of four parts, on paper
sensitized so that copies may be made without the use of carbon paper, as follows:
(1) the complaint, with reverse side for officer's notes for testifying in court, driver's past
record, and court's action, printed on white paper;
(2) the abstract of court record for the Department of Public Safety, which shall be a copy of
the complaint with the certificate of conviction on the reverse side, printed on yellow paper;
(3) the police record, which shall be a copy of the complaint and of the reverse side of copy
(1), printed on pink paper;
(4) the summons, with, on the reverse side, such information as the court may wish to give
concerning the Traffic Violations Bureau, and a plea of guilty and waiver, printed on off-white
tag stock.
(b) If the offense is a petty misdemeanor, the uniform ticket must state that a failure to appear
will be considered a plea of guilty and waiver of the right to trial, unless the failure to appear is
due to circumstances beyond the person's control.
    Subd. 1a. Endangerment. In every charge of a violation of any provision of this chapter, the
uniform traffic ticket shall contain a blank or space wherein the officer shall specify the officer's
opinion as to whether or not an offense which is otherwise a petty misdemeanor was committed in
a manner or under circumstances so as to endanger or be likely to endanger any person or property.
    Subd. 1b. Speed. The uniform traffic ticket must provide a blank or space wherein an officer
who issues a citation for a violation of a speed limit of 55 or 60 miles per hour must specify
whether the speed was greater than ten miles per hour in excess of a 55 miles per hour speed limit,
or more than five miles per hour in excess of a 60 miles per hour speed limit.
    Subd. 2. Commissioner prescribes form. The commissioner of public safety shall prescribe
the detailed form of the uniform traffic ticket, and shall revise the uniform ticket on such
subsequent occasions as necessary and proper to keep the uniform ticket in conformity with
state and federal law.
    Subd. 3. Alteration by local government. Any city of the first class, through its governing
body, may alter by deletion or addition the uniform traffic ticket in such manner as it deems
advisable for use in such city, provided that it includes the notice required by subdivision 1,
paragraph (b). In respect to any public corporation organized and existing pursuant to sections
473.601 to 473.679, whose ordinances and regulations for the control of traffic are enforced
through prosecution in the district court having jurisdiction in one or the other of the cities of the
first class included within such public corporation, the traffic ticket used in such enforcement shall
conf