CHAPTER 147D. TRADITIONAL MIDWIVES
Subdivision 1. Applicability.
The definitions in this section apply to this chapter.
Subd. 2. Advisory council.
"Advisory council" means the Advisory Council of Traditional
Midwifery established under section
Subd. 3. Approved education program.
"Approved education program" means a university,
college, or other education program leading to eligibility for certification in midwifery that is
approved or accredited by the Midwifery Education and Accreditation Council (MEAC) or its
successor, or a national accrediting organization recommended by the advisory council and
approved by the board.
Subd. 4. Board.
"Board" means the Board of Medical Practice.
Subd. 5. Contact hour.
"Contact hour" means 50 consecutive minutes, excluding coffee
breaks, registration, meals without a speaker, and social activities, of a board-approved learning
experience either through an instructional session or clinical practice.
Subd. 6. Credential.
"Credential" means a license, permit, certification, registration, or other
evidence of qualification or authorization to engage in the practice of traditional midwifery in
this state or any other state.
Subd. 7. Credentialing examination.
"Credentialing examination" means an examination
administered by the North American Registry of Midwives (NARM) or its successor, or other
national testing organization recommended by the advisory council and approved by the board
for credentialing as a licensed traditional midwife. A credentialing examination must include a
written examination and a skills assessment.
Subd. 8. Normal pregnancy.
"Normal pregnancy" means a pregnancy that is progressing
and proceeding spontaneously without the need for medical intervention or the use of instruments
and where spontaneous onset of labor occurs between 37 and 42 weeks.
Subd. 9. Traditional midwifery services.
"Traditional midwifery services" means the
assessment and care of a woman and newborn during pregnancy, labor, birth, and the postpartum
period outside a hospital.
Subd. 10. Transfer of care.
"Transfer of care" means transferring, during the course of
pregnancy, the responsibility of providing services to a client from the traditional midwife to a
licensed health care provider.
Subd. 11. Transport.
"Transport" means the transferring during labor, birth, or the
postpartum period of the client to a hospital.
History: 1999 c 162 s 1
Subdivision 1. General.
Within the meaning of sections
, a person who
shall publicly profess to be a traditional midwife and who, for a fee, shall assist or attend to a
woman in pregnancy, childbirth outside a hospital, and postpartum, shall be regarded as practicing
Subd. 2. Scope of practice.
The practice of traditional midwifery includes, but is not
(1) initial and ongoing assessment for suitability of traditional midwifery care;
(2) providing prenatal education and coordinating with a licensed health care provider as
necessary to provide comprehensive prenatal care, including the routine monitoring of vital signs,
indicators of fetal developments, and laboratory tests, as needed, with attention to the physical,
nutritional, and emotional needs of the woman and her family;
(3) attending and supporting the natural process of labor and birth;
(4) postpartum care of the mother and an initial assessment of the newborn; and
(5) providing information and referrals to community resources on childbirth preparation,
breast-feeding, exercise, nutrition, parenting, and care of the newborn.
Subd. 3. Unauthorized services.
The practice of traditional midwifery does not include:
(1) the use of any surgical instrument at a childbirth, except as necessary to sever the
umbilical cord or repair a first- or second-degree perineal laceration;
(2) the assisting of childbirth by artificial or mechanical means; or
(3) the removal of a placenta accreta.
History: 1999 c 162 s 2
147D.05 PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT.
Subdivision 1. Practice standards.
(a) A licensed traditional midwife shall provide an initial
and ongoing screening to ensure that each client receives safe and appropriate care. A licensed
traditional midwife shall only accept and provide care to those women who are expected to have a
normal pregnancy, labor, and delivery. As part of the initial screening to determine whether any
contraindications are present, the licensed traditional midwife must take a detailed health history
that includes the woman's social, medical, surgical, menstrual, gynecological, contraceptive,
obstetrical, family, nutritional, and drug/chemical use histories. If a licensed traditional midwife
determines at any time during the course of the pregnancy that a woman's condition may preclude
attendance by a traditional midwife, the licensed traditional midwife must refer the client to a
licensed health care provider. As part of the initial and ongoing screening, a licensed traditional
midwife must recommend that the client receive the following services, if indicated, from
an appropriate health care provider:
(1) initial laboratory pregnancy screening, including blood group and type, antibody screen,
Indirect Coombs, rubella titer, CBC with differential and syphilis serology;
(2) gonorrhea and chlamydia cultures;
(3) screening for sickle cell;
(4) screening for hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV);
(5) maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein test and ultrasound;
(6) Rh antibody and glucose screening at 28 weeks gestation;
(7) mandated newborn screening;
(8) Rh screening of the infant for maternal RhoGAM treatment; and
(9) screening for premature labor.
(b) A client must make arrangements to have the results of any of the tests described in
paragraph (a) sent to the licensed traditional midwife providing services to the client. The licensed
traditional midwife must include these results in the client's record.
Subd. 2. Written plan.
A licensed traditional midwife must prepare a written plan with each
client to ensure continuity of care throughout pregnancy, labor, and delivery. The written plan
must incorporate the conditions under which the medical consultation plan, including the transfer
of care or transport of the client, may be implemented.
Subd. 3. Health regulations.
A licensed traditional midwife must comply with all applicable
state and municipal requirements regarding public health.
Subd. 4. Client records.
A licensed traditional midwife must maintain a client record on
each client, including:
(1) a copy of the informed consent form described in section
(2) evidence of an initial client screening described in this section;
(3) a copy of the written plan described in subdivision 2;
(4) a record of prenatal and postpartum care provided to the client at each visit; and
(5) a detailed record of the labor and delivery process.
Subd. 5. Data.
All records maintained on each client by a licensed traditional midwife are
subject to section
History: 1999 c 162 s 3
147D.07 INFORMED CONSENT.
Subdivision 1. General.
Before providing any services to a client, a licensed traditional
(1) advise the client of the information contained in the informed consent form;
(2) provide the client with an informed consent form; and
(3) have the form returned with the client's signature attesting that the client understands
the consent form and the information contained in the form.
Subd. 2. Contents.
The informed consent form must be written in language understandable
to the client and, at a minimum, must contain the following:
(1) name, address, telephone number, and license number of the licensed traditional midwife;
(2) a description of the licensed traditional midwife's education, training, and experience in
(3) the licensed traditional midwife's fees and method of billing;
(4) the right of the client to file a complaint with the board and the procedures for filing a
(5) a description of the licensed traditional midwife's medical consultation plan and the
antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum conditions requiring consultation, transfer of care,
or transport to a hospital;
(6) the scope of care and services to be provided to the client by the licensed traditional
(7) the available alternatives to traditional midwifery care;
(8) a statement indicating that the client's records and any transaction with the licensed
traditional midwife are confidential;
(9) a notice that reads: "We realize that there are risks associated with birth, including the
risk of death or disability of either mother or child. We understand that a situation may arise,
which requires emergency medical care and that it may not be possible to transport the mother
and/or baby to the hospital in time to benefit from such care. We fully accept the outcome and
consequences of our decision to have a licensed traditional midwife attend us during pregnancy
and at our birth. We realize that our licensed traditional midwife is not licensed to practice
medicine. We are not seeking a licensed physician or certified nurse midwife as the primary
caregiver for this pregnancy, and we understand that our licensed traditional midwife shall inform
us of any observed signs or symptoms of disease, which may require evaluation, care, or treatment
by a medical practitioner. We agree that we are totally responsible for obtaining qualified medical
assistance for the care of any disease or pathological condition.";
(10) the right of a client to refuse services unless otherwise provided by law;
(11) a disclosure of whether the licensed traditional midwife carries malpractice or liability
(12) the client's and licensed traditional midwife's signatures and date of signing.
Subd. 3. Filing.
The licensed traditional midwife must have a signed informed consent
form on file for each client. Upon request, the licensed traditional midwife must provide a copy
of the informed consent form to the board.
History: 1999 c 162 s 4
147D.09 LIMITATIONS OF PRACTICE.
(a) A licensed traditional midwife shall not prescribe, dispense, or administer prescription
drugs, except as permitted under paragraph (b).
(b) A licensed traditional midwife may administer vitamin K either orally or through
intramuscular injection, postpartum antihemorrhagic drugs under emergency situations, local
anesthetic, oxygen, and a prophylactic eye agent to the newborn infant.
(c) A licensed traditional midwife shall not perform any operative or surgical procedures
except for suture repair of first- or second-degree perineal lacerations.
History: 1999 c 162 s 5
147D.11 MEDICAL CONSULTATION PLAN.
(a) To be eligible for licensure as a traditional midwife, an applicant must develop a medical
consultation plan, including an emergency plan. The plan must describe guidelines and under
what conditions the plan is to be implemented for:
(1) consultation with a licensed health care provider;
(2) the transfer of care to a licensed health care provider; and
(3) immediate transport to a hospital.
(b) The conditions requiring the implementation of the medical consultation plan must meet
at a minimum the conditions established by the Minnesota Midwives Guild in the Standards of
Care and Certification Guide, the most current edition.
History: 1999 c 162 s 6
Subdivision 1. Record of birth.
A licensed traditional midwife must complete a record
of birth in accordance with section
Subd. 2. Practice report.
(a) A licensed traditional midwife must compile a summary report
on each client. The report must include the following:
(1) vital statistics;
(2) scope of care administered;
(3) whether the medical consultation plan was implemented; and
(4) any physician or other health care provider referrals made.
(b) The board may review these reports at any time upon request.
Subd. 3. Public health report.
A licensed traditional midwife must promptly report to the
commissioner of health and to the board any maternal, fetal, or neonatal mortality or morbidity.
Subd. 4. Disciplinary action.
A licensed traditional midwife must report to the board
termination, revocation, or suspension of the licensed traditional midwife's certification or any
disciplinary action taken against the licensed traditional midwife by the North American Registry
History: 1999 c 162 s 7; 1Sp2001 c 9 art 15 s 32
147D.15 PROTECTED TITLES.
Subdivision 1. Protected titles.
No person may use the title "licensed traditional midwife,"
or "licensed midwife," or use, in connection with the person's name, the letters "LTM," "LM," or
any other titles, words, letters, abbreviations, or insignia indicating or implying that the person is
licensed or eligible for licensure by the state as a licensed traditional midwife unless the person
has been licensed as a licensed traditional midwife according to this chapter.
Subd. 2. Prohibited from practicing.
A person whose license under this chapter has been
revoked by the board is prohibited from practicing traditional midwifery.
Subd. 3. Penalty.
A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.
History: 1999 c 162 s 8
147D.17 LICENSURE REQUIREMENTS.
Subdivision 1. General requirements for licensure.
To be eligible for licensure, an
applicant, with the exception of those seeking licensure by reciprocity under subdivision 2, must:
(1) submit a completed application on forms provided by the board along with all fees
required under section
(i) the applicant's name, Social Security number, home address and telephone number,
and business address and telephone number;
(ii) a list of degrees received from educational institutions;
(iii) a description of the applicant's professional training;
(iv) a list of registrations, certifications, and licenses held in other jurisdictions;
(v) a description of any other jurisdiction's refusal to credential the applicant;
(vi) a description of all professional disciplinary actions initiated against the applicant in
any jurisdiction; and
(vii) any history of drug or alcohol abuse, and any misdemeanor or felony conviction;
(2) submit a diploma from an approved education program or submit evidence of having
completed an apprenticeship;
(3) submit a verified copy of a valid and current credential, issued by the North American
Registry of Midwives or other national organization recommended by the advisory council and
approved by the board, as a certified professional midwife;
(4) submit current certification from the American Heart Association or the American Red
Cross for adult and infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation;
(5) submit a copy of the applicant's medical consultation plan;
(6) submit documentation verifying that the applicant has the following practical experience
through an apprenticeship or other supervisory setting:
(i) the provision of 75 prenatal examinations, including 20 initial examinations;
(ii) supervised participation in 20 births, ten of which must be in a home setting;
(iii) participation as the primary birth attendant under the supervision of a licensed traditional
midwife at an additional 20 births, ten of which must have occurred outside a state licensed
health care facility;
(iv) 20 newborn examinations; and
(v) 40 postpartum examinations;
(7) submit additional information as requested by the board, including any additional
information necessary to ensure that the applicant is able to practice with reasonable skill and
safety to the public;
(8) sign a statement that the information in the application is true and correct to the best
of the applicant's knowledge and belief; and
(9) sign a waiver authorizing the board to obtain access to the applicant's records in this or
any other state in which the applicant has completed an approved education program or engaged
in the practice of traditional midwifery.
Subd. 2. Licensure by reciprocity.
To be eligible for licensure by reciprocity, the applicant
must be credentialed by the North American Registry of Midwives or other national organization
recommended by the advisory council and approved by the board and must:
(1) submit the application materials and appropriate fees as required under subdivision 1,
clauses (1), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), and (9), and section
(2) provide a verified copy from the appropriate body of a current and unrestricted credential
for the practice of traditional midwifery in another jurisdiction that has initial credentialing
requirements equivalent to or higher than the requirements in subdivision 1; and
(3) provide letters of verification from the appropriate government body in each jurisdiction
in which the applicant holds a credential. Each letter must state the applicant's name, date of birth,
credential number, date of issuance, a statement regarding disciplinary actions, if any, taken
against the applicant, and if the applicant is in good standing in that jurisdiction.
Subd. 3. Temporary permit.
The board may issue a temporary permit to practice as a
licensed traditional midwife to an applicant eligible for licensure under this section if the
application for licensure is complete, all applicable requirements in this section have been met,
and a nonrefundable fee set by the board has been paid. The permit remains valid only until the
meeting of the board at which a decision is made on the application for licensure.
Subd. 4. Licensure by equivalency during transition period.
(a) From July 1, 1999, to
July 1, 2001, a person may qualify for licensure if the person has engaged in the practice of
traditional midwifery in this state for at least five years in the period from July 1, 1994, to June
30, 1999, and submits documentation verifying the practical experience described in subdivision
1, clause (6). To be eligible for licensure under this subdivision, the person must also submit the
application materials and the appropriate fees required under subdivision 1, clauses (1), (4),
(5), (6), (7), (8), and (9), and section
(b) An application for licensure under this subdivision must be submitted to the board
between July 1, 1999, and June 30, 2001. Licensure under this subdivision may be renewed
once. Within a two-year period from the date a license is issued by the board in accordance with
this subdivision, the licensed traditional midwife must obtain a certification from the North
American Registry of Midwives as a certified professional midwife. If certification is not obtained
within this time period, the licensed traditional midwife must obtain a new license by applying
for licensure and fulfilling the requirements then in existence for obtaining an initial license
as a licensed traditional midwife.
Subd. 5. License expiration.
Licenses issued under this chapter expire annually.
Subd. 6. Renewal.
To be eligible for license renewal, a licensed traditional midwife must:
(1) complete a renewal application on a form provided by the board;
(2) submit the renewal fee;
(3) provide evidence every three years of a total of 30 hours of continuing education
approved by the board as described in section
(4) submit evidence of an annual peer review and update of the licensed traditional midwife's
medical consultation plan; and
(5) submit any additional information requested by the board. The information must be
submitted within 30 days after the board's request, or the renewal request is nullified.
Subd. 7. Change of address.
A licensed traditional midwife who changes addresses must
inform the board within 30 days, in writing, of the change of address. All notices or other
correspondence mailed to or served on a licensed traditional midwife by the board at the licensed
traditional midwife's address on file with the board shall be considered as having been received
by the licensed traditional midwife.
Subd. 8. License renewal notice.
At least 30 days before the license renewal date, the board
shall send out a renewal notice to the last known address of the licensed traditional midwife on
file. The notice must include a renewal application and a notice of fees required for renewal. It
must also inform the licensed traditional midwife that licensure will expire without further action
by the board if an application for license renewal is not received before the deadline for renewal.
The licensed traditional midwife's failure to receive this notice shall not relieve the licensed
traditional midwife of the obligation to meet the deadline and other requirements for license
renewal. Failure to receive this notice is not grounds for challenging expiration of licensure status.
Subd. 9. Renewal deadline.
The renewal application and fee must be postmarked on or
before July 1 or as determined by the board. If the postmark is illegible, the application shall be
considered timely if received by the third working day after the deadline.
Subd. 10. Inactive status and return to active status.
(a) A license may be placed in
inactive status upon application to the board by the licensed traditional midwife and upon
payment of an inactive status fee.
(b) Licensed traditional midwives seeking restoration to active from inactive status must
pay the current renewal fees and all unpaid back inactive fees. They must meet the criteria for
renewal specified in subdivision 6, including continuing education hours equivalent to one hour
for each month of inactive status, prior to submitting an application to regain licensure status. If
the inactive status extends beyond five years, a qualifying score on a credentialing examination,
or completion of an advisory council-approved eight-week supervised practical experience is
required. If the licensed traditional midwife intends to regain active licensure by means of eight
weeks of advisory council-approved practical experience, the licensed traditional midwife shall
be granted temporary licensure for a period of no longer than six months.
Subd. 11. Licensure following lapse of licensure status for two years or less.
individual whose licensure status has lapsed for two years or less, to regain licensure status,
the individual must:
(1) apply for license renewal according to subdivision 6;
(2) document compliance with the continuing education requirements of section
since the licensed traditional midwife's initial licensure or last renewal; and
(3) submit the fees required under section
for the period not licensed, including the
fee for late renewal.
Subd. 12. Cancellation due to nonrenewal.
The board shall not renew, reissue, reinstate, or
restore a license that has lapsed and has not been renewed within two licensure renewal cycles
starting July 1999. A licensed traditional midwife whose license is canceled for nonrenewal must
obtain a new license by applying for licensure and fulfilling all requirements then in existence for
initial licensure as a licensed traditional midwife.
Subd. 13. Cancellation of licensure in good standing.
(a) A licensed traditional midwife
holding an active license as a licensed traditional midwife in the state may, upon approval of the
board, be granted licensure cancellation if the board is not investigating the person as a result of a
complaint or information received or if the board has not begun disciplinary proceedings against
the licensed traditional midwife. Such action by the board shall be reported as a cancellation of
licensure in good standing.
(b) A licensed traditional midwife who receives board approval for licensure cancellation is
not entitled to a refund of any license fees paid for the licensure period in which cancellation of
the license occurred.
(c) To obtain licensure after cancellation, a licensed traditional midwife must obtain a new
license by applying for licensure and fulfilling the requirements then in existence for obtaining an
initial license as a traditional midwife.
History: 1999 c 162 s 9
147D.19 BOARD ACTION ON APPLICATIONS FOR LICENSURE.
(a) The board shall act on each application for licensure according to paragraphs (b) to (d).
(b) The board shall determine if the applicant meets the requirements for licensure under
. The board or advisory council may investigate information provided by an
applicant to determine whether the information is accurate and complete.
(c) The board shall notify each applicant in writing of action taken on the application, the
grounds for denying licensure if licensure is denied, and the applicant's right to review under
(d) Applicants denied licensure may make a written request to the board, within 30 days of
the board's notice, to appear before the advisory council and for the advisory council to review
the board's decision to deny the applicant's license. After reviewing the denial, the advisory
council shall make a recommendation to the board as to whether the denial shall be affirmed. Each
applicant is allowed only one request for review per licensure period.
History: 1999 c 162 s 10
147D.21 CONTINUING EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS.
Subdivision 1. Number of required contact hours.
Three years after the date of initial
licensure and every three years thereafter, a licensed traditional midwife must complete a
minimum of 30 contact hours of board-approved continuing education and attest to completion of
continuing education requirements by reporting to the board. At least five contact hours within a
three-year reporting period must involve adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation and either infant
cardiopulmonary resuscitation or neonatal advanced life support.
Subd. 2. Approval of continuing education programs.
The board shall approve continuing
education programs that meet the following criteria:
(1) the program content directly relates to the practice of traditional midwifery;
(2) each member of the program faculty is knowledgeable in the subject matter as
demonstrated by a degree from an accredited education program, verifiable experience in the
field of traditional midwifery, special training in the subject matter, or experience teaching in
the subject area;
(3) the program lasts at least one contact hour;
(4) there are specific, measurable, written objectives, consistent with the program, describing
the expected outcomes for the participants; and
(5) the program sponsor has a mechanism to verify participation and maintains attendance
records for three years.
Subd. 3. Continuing education topics.
Continuing education program topics may include,
but are not limited to, traditional midwifery care in the prenatal, labor, birth, and postpartum and
newborn periods; assessing contraindications; care in emergency situations; ethics; and nutrition.
Subd. 4. Accumulation of contact hours.
A licensed traditional midwife may not apply
contact hours acquired in one three-year reporting period to a future continuing education
Subd. 5. Verification of continuing education credits.
The board shall periodically select a
random sample of licensed traditional midwives and require those licensed traditional midwives
to supply the board with evidence of having completed the continuing education to which they
attested. Documentation may come directly from the licensed traditional midwife or from state or
national organizations that maintain continuing education records.
History: 1999 c 162 s 11
147D.23 DISCIPLINE; REPORTING.
For purposes of this chapter, licensed traditional midwives and applicants are subject to
the provisions of sections
History: 1999 c 162 s 12
147D.25 ADVISORY COUNCIL ON LICENSED TRADITIONAL MIDWIFERY.
Subdivision 1. Membership.
The board shall appoint a five-member Advisory Council on
Licensed Traditional Midwifery. One member shall be a licensed physician who has been or is
currently consulting with licensed traditional midwives, appointed from a list of names submitted
to the board by the Minnesota Medical Association. Three members shall be licensed traditional
midwives appointed from a list of names submitted to the board by Midwifery Now. One member
shall be a homebirth parent appointed from a list of names submitted to the board by Minnesota
Families for Midwifery.
Subd. 2. Organization.
The advisory council shall be organized and administered under
. The council expires June 30, 2007.
Subd. 3. Duties.
The advisory council shall:
(1) advise the board regarding standards for licensed traditional midwives;
(2) provide for distribution of information regarding licensed traditional midwifery practice
(3) advise the board on enforcement of this chapter;
(4) review applications and recommend granting or denying licensure or license renewal;
(5) advise the board on issues related to receiving and investigating complaints, conducting
hearings, and imposing disciplinary action in relation to complaints against licensed traditional
(6) advise the board regarding approval of continuing education programs using the criteria
147D.21, subdivision 2
(7) recommend alternate accrediting and credentialing organizations or agencies to the
(8) perform other duties authorized for advisory councils by chapter 214, as directed by
History: 1999 c 162 s 13; 2003 c 87 s 3
Subdivision 1. Licensure fee.
The license application fee is $100. The fee for initial
licensure and annual renewal is $100. The fee for inactive status is $50. The fee for a temporary
permit is $75.
Subd. 2. Proration of fees.
The board may prorate the initial licensure fee. All licensed
traditional midwives are required to pay the full fee upon license renewal.
Subd. 3. Penalty fee for late renewals.
An application for license renewal submitted after
the deadline must be accompanied by a late fee of $75 in addition to the required fees.
Subd. 4. Nonrefundable fees.
The fees in this section are nonrefundable.
History: 1999 c 162 s 14