Civic skills. The student will understand that democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills, and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
Rights and responsibilities. The student will understand that individuals in a republic have rights, duties, and responsibilities. The student will understand that citizenship and its rights and duties are established by law.
Governmental institutions and political processes. The student will understand that the United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels, federal, state, and local, and the three branches of government, legislative, executive, and judicial. The student will understand that the United States establishes and maintains relationships and interacts with indigenous nations and other sovereign nations, and plays a key role in world affairs.
Economic reasoning skills. The student will understand that people make informed economic choices by identifying their goals, interpreting and applying data, considering the short-run and long-run costs and benefits of alternative choices, and revising their goals based on their analysis.
Personal finance. The student will understand that personal and financial goals can be achieved by applying economic concepts and principles to personal financial planning, budgeting, spending, saving, investing, borrowing, and insuring decisions.
Fundamental concepts. The student will understand that individuals, businesses, and governments interact and exchange goods, services, and resources in different ways and for different reasons; interactions between buyers and sellers in a market determines the price and quantity exchanged of a good, service, or resource.
Microeconomic concepts. The student will understand that market failures occur when markets fail to allocate resources efficiently or meet other goals, and this often leads to government attempts to correct the problem.
Geospatial skills. The student will understand that people use geographic representations and geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information within a spatial context.
Human systems. The student will understand that geographic factors influence the distribution, functions, growth, and patterns of cities and other human settlements.
Human environment interaction. The student will understand that the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources changes over time.
Historical thinking skills. The student will understand that historical inquiry is a process in which multiple sources and different kinds of historical evidence are analyzed to draw conclusions about what happened in the past, and how and why it happened.
United States history. The student will understand that:
before European contact, North America was populated by indigenous nations that had developed a wide range of social structures, political systems, and economic activities, and whose expansive trade networks extended across the continent;
rivalries among European nations and their search for new opportunities fueled expanding global trade networks and, in North America, colonization and settlement and the exploitation of indigenous peoples and lands; colonial development evoked varied responses by indigenous nations, and produced regional societies and economies that included imported slave labor and distinct forms of local government between 1585 and 1763;
economic expansion and the conquest of indigenous and Mexican territory spurred the agricultural and industrial growth of the United States; led to increasing regional, economic, and ethnic divisions; and inspired multiple reform movements between 1792 and 1861;
regional tensions around economic development, slavery, territorial expansion, and governance resulted in a Civil War and a period of Reconstruction that led to the abolition of slavery, a more powerful federal government, a renewed push into indigenous nations' territory, and continuing conflict over racial relations between 1850 and 1877;
as the United States shifted from its agrarian roots into an industrial and global power, the rise of big business, urbanization, and immigration led to institutionalized racism, ethnic and class conflict, and new efforts at reform between 1870 and 1920;
the economic growth, cultural innovation, and political apathy of the 1920s ended in the Great Depression which spurred new forms of government intervention and renewed labor activism, followed by World War II and an economic resurgence between 1920 and 1945;
post-World War II United States was shaped by an economic boom, Cold War military engagements, politics and protests, and rights movements to improve the status of racial minorities, women, and America's indigenous peoples between 1945 and 1989; and
the end of the Cold War, shifting geopolitical dynamics, the intensification of the global economy, and rapidly changing technologies have given renewed urgency to debates about the United States' identity, values, and role in the world between 1980 and the present.
MS s 120B.02
37 SR 1643
October 3, 2013