A trustee may adjust between principal and income to the extent the trustee considers necessary to comply with section 501C.1102, subdivision 3, after applying section 501C.1102, subdivisions 1 and 2, if the trustee invests and manages the trust assets as a prudent investor and the terms of the trust describe the amount that may or must be distributed to a beneficiary by referring to the trust's income.
In deciding whether and to what extent to exercise the power conferred by subdivision 1, a trustee shall consider all factors relevant to the trust and its beneficiaries, including, but not limited to, the following factors:
(1) the nature, purpose, and expected duration of the trust;
(2) the intent of the settlor;
(3) the identity and circumstances of the beneficiaries;
(4) the needs for liquidity, regularity of income, and preservation and appreciation of capital;
(5) the assets held in the trust; the extent to which they consist of financial assets, interests in closely held enterprises, tangible and intangible personal property, or real property; the extent to which an asset is used by a beneficiary; and whether an asset was purchased by the trustee or received from the settlor;
(6) the net amount allocated to income under the other provisions of sections 501C.1101 to 501C.1118 and the increase or decrease in the value of the principal assets, which the trustee may estimate as to assets for which market values are not readily available;
(7) whether and to what extent the terms of the trust give the trustee the power to invade principal or accumulate income or prohibit the trustee from invading principal or accumulating income, and the extent to which the trustee has exercised a power from time to time to invade principal or accumulate income;
(8) the actual and anticipated effect of economic conditions on principal and income and effects of inflation and deflation;
(9) the anticipated tax consequences of an adjustment; and
(10) the investment return under current economic conditions from other portfolios meeting fiduciary requirements.
A trustee may not make an adjustment:
(1) that reduces the actuarial value of the income interest in a trust to which a person transfers property with the intent to qualify for a gift tax exclusion;
(2) that changes the amount payable to a beneficiary as fixed annuity or a fixed fraction of the value of the trust assets;
(3) from any amount that is permanently set aside for charitable purposes under a will or the terms of a trust unless both income and principal are so set aside; provided, however, that this limitation does not apply to any trust created prior to August 1, 2001, to the extent the trustee receives amounts during the accounting period which would, under the provisions of Minnesota Statutes 2000, section 501B.70, in effect prior to August 1, 2001, have been allocated to income;
(4) if possessing or exercising the power to make an adjustment causes an individual to be treated as owner of all or part of the trust for income tax purposes and the individual would not be treated as the owner if the trustee did not possess the power to make adjustment;
(5) if possessing or exercising the power to make an adjustment causes all or part of the trust assets to be included for estate tax purposes in the estate of an individual who has the power to remove or appoint the trustee, or both, and the assets would not be included in the estate of the individual if the trustee did not possess the power to make an adjustment;
(6) if the trustee is a beneficiary of the trust; or
(7) if the trustee is not a beneficiary, but the adjustment would benefit the trustee directly or indirectly.
If the provisions of subdivision 3, clause (4), (5), (6), or (7), apply to a trustee and there is more than one trustee, a cotrustee to whom the provision does not apply may make the adjustment unless the exercise of the power by the remaining trustee or trustees is not permitted by the terms of the trust.
A trustee may release the entire power conferred by subdivision 1 or may release only the power to adjust from income to principal or to adjust from principal to income if the trustee is uncertain about whether possessing or exercising the power will cause a result described in subdivision 3, clause (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (7), or if the trustee determines that possessing or exercising the power will or may deprive the trust of a tax benefit or impose a tax burden not described in subdivision 3. The release may be permanent or for a specified period, including a period measured by the life of an individual.
Terms of a trust that limit the power of a trustee to make an adjustment between principal and income do not affect the application of this section unless it is clear from the terms of the trust that the terms are intended to deny the trustee the power of adjustment conferred by subdivision 1.
Nothing in this section is intended to create or imply a duty to make an adjustment, and a trustee is not liable for not considering whether to make an adjustment or for choosing not to make an adjustment. In a proceeding with respect to the trustee's nonexercise of the power to make an adjustment from principal to income (or with respect to the trustee's failure to make a greater adjustment from principal to income), the sole remedy is to direct or deny an adjustment (or greater adjustment) from principal to income.
(a) A trustee may give notice of a proposed action regarding a matter governed by this section as provided in this subdivision. For purposes of this subdivision, a proposed action includes a course of action and a determination not to take action.
(b) The trustee shall mail notice of the proposed action to all adult beneficiaries who are receiving, or are entitled to receive, income under the trust or to receive a distribution of principal if the trust were terminated at the time the notice is given. Notice may be given to any other beneficiary.
(c) The notice of proposed action must state that it is given pursuant to this subdivision and must state the following:
(1) the name and mailing address of the trustee;
(2) the name and telephone number of a person who may be contacted for additional information;
(3) a description of the action proposed to be taken and an explanation of the reasons for the action;
(4) the time within which objections to the proposed action can be made, which must be at least 30 days from the mailing of the notice of proposed action; and
(5) the date on or after which the proposed action may be taken or is effective.
(d) A beneficiary may object to the proposed action by mailing a written objection to the trustee at the address stated in the notice of proposed action within the time period specified in the notice of proposed action.
(e) If a trustee does not receive a written objection to the proposed action from the beneficiary within the applicable period, the trustee is not liable for an action regarding a matter governed by this chapter to a beneficiary if:
(1) the beneficiary is an adult (or is a minor with a duly appointed conservator of the estate) and the notice is mailed to the adult beneficiary or conservator at the address determined by the trustee after reasonable diligence;
(2) the beneficiary is an adult (or is a minor with a duly appointed conservator of the estate) and the adult beneficiary or conservator receives actual notice;
(3) the beneficiary is not an adult and has no duly appointed conservator of the estate and an adult having a substantially identical interest and having no conflicting interest receives actual notice;
(4) the beneficiary (or the conservator of the estate of a minor beneficiary) consents in writing to the proposed action either before or after the action is taken; or
(5) the beneficiary is not an adult and has no duly appointed conservator of the estate and an adult having a substantially identical interest and having no conflicting interest consents in writing to the proposed action either before or after the action is taken.
(f) If the trustee receives a written objection within the applicable time period, either the trustee or a beneficiary may petition the court to have the proposed action performed as proposed, performed with modifications, or denied. In the proceeding, a beneficiary objecting to the proposed action has the burden of proof as to whether the trustee's proposed action should not be performed. A beneficiary who has not objected is not estopped from opposing the proposed action in the proceeding. If the trustee decides not to implement the proposed action, the trustee shall notify the beneficiaries of the decision not to take the action and the reasons for the decision, and the trustee's decision not to implement the proposed action does not itself give rise to liability to any current or future beneficiary. A beneficiary may petition the court to have the action performed and has the burden of proof as to whether it should be performed.
(g) Nothing in this subdivision limits the right of a trustee or beneficiary to petition the court pursuant to section 501C.0201 for instructions as to any action, failure to act, or determination not to act regarding a matter governed by this section in the absence of notice as provided in this subdivision. In any such proceeding, any beneficiary filing such a petition or objecting to a petition of the trustee has the burden of proof as to any action taken, any failure to act, or determination not to act, by the trustee.