This section shall be construed and applied to:
(1) facilitate remote communication consistent with other applicable law; and
(2) be consistent with reasonable practices concerning remote communication and with the continued expansion of those practices.
To the extent authorized in the articles or bylaws and determined by the board, an annual or special meeting of members may be held solely by one or more means of remote communication, if notice of the meeting is given to every member entitled to vote, and if the number of voting members participating in the meeting is sufficient to constitute a quorum at a meeting. Participation by a member by that means constitutes presence at the meeting in person or by proxy if all the other requirements of section 317A.453 are met.
To the extent authorized in the articles or bylaws and determined by the board, a member not physically present in person or by proxy at an annual or special meeting of members may, by means of remote communication, participate in a meeting of members held at a designated place. Participation by a member by that means constitutes presence at the meeting in person or by proxy if all the other requirements of section 317A.453 are met.
In any meeting of members held solely by means of remote communication under subdivision 2 or in any meeting of members held at a designated place in which one or more members participate by means of remote communication under subdivision 3:
(1) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and entitled to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a member; and
(2) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to provide each member participating by means of remote communication with a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting, including an opportunity to:
(i) read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with those proceedings;
(ii) if allowed by the procedures governing the meeting, have the member's remarks heard or read by other participants in the meeting substantially concurrently with the making of those remarks; and
(iii) if otherwise entitled, vote on matters submitted to the members.
(a) Any notice to members given by the corporation under any provision of this chapter, the articles, or the bylaws by a form of electronic communication consented to by the member to whom the notice is given is effective when given. The notice is deemed given:
(1) if by facsimile communication, when directed to a telephone number at which the member has consented to receive notice;
(2) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the member has consented to receive notice;
(3) if by a posting on an electronic network on which the member has consented to receive notice, together with separate notice to the member of the specific posting, upon the later of:
(i) the posting; and
(ii) the giving of the separate notice; and
(4) if by any other form of electronic communication by which the member has consented to receive notice, when directed to the member.
An affidavit of the secretary, other authorized officer, or authorized agent of the corporation, that the notice has been given by a form of electronic communication is, in the absence of fraud, prima facie evidence of the facts stated in the affidavit.
(b) Consent by a member to notice given by electronic communication may be given in writing or by authenticated electronic communication. The corporation is entitled to rely on any consent so given until revoked by the member, provided that no revocation affects the validity of any notice given before receipt by the corporation of revocation of the consent.
Waiver of notice by a member of a meeting by means of authenticated electronic communication may be given in the manner provided in section 317A.435, subdivision 3. Participation in a meeting by means of remote communication described in subdivisions 2 and 3 is a waiver of notice of that meeting, except where the member objects at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened, or objects before a vote on an item of business because the item may not lawfully be considered at the meeting and does not participate in the consideration of the item at that meeting.