Medical assistance covers adult mental health crisis response services as defined in subdivision 2, paragraphs (c) to (e), subject to federal approval, if provided to a recipient as defined in subdivision 3 and provided by a qualified provider entity as defined in this section and by a qualified individual provider working within the provider's scope of practice and as defined in this subdivision and identified in the recipient's individual crisis treatment plan as defined in subdivision 11 and if determined to be medically necessary.
For purposes of this section, the following terms have the meanings given them.
(a) "Mental health crisis" is an adult behavioral, emotional, or psychiatric situation which, but for the provision of crisis response services, would likely result in significantly reduced levels of functioning in primary activities of daily living, or in an emergency situation, or in the placement of the recipient in a more restrictive setting, including, but not limited to, inpatient hospitalization.
(b) "Mental health emergency" is an adult behavioral, emotional, or psychiatric situation which causes an immediate need for mental health services and is consistent with section 62Q.55.
A mental health crisis or emergency is determined for medical assistance service reimbursement by a physician, a mental health professional, or crisis mental health practitioner with input from the recipient whenever possible.
(c) "Mental health crisis assessment" means an immediate face-to-face assessment by a physician, a mental health professional, or mental health practitioner under the clinical supervision of a mental health professional, following a screening that suggests that the adult may be experiencing a mental health crisis or mental health emergency situation. It includes, when feasible, assessing whether the person might be willing to voluntarily accept treatment, determining whether the person has an advance directive, and obtaining information and history from involved family members or caretakers.
(d) "Mental health mobile crisis intervention services" means face-to-face, short-term intensive mental health services initiated during a mental health crisis or mental health emergency to help the recipient cope with immediate stressors, identify and utilize available resources and strengths, engage in voluntary treatment, and begin to return to the recipient's baseline level of functioning. The services, including screening and treatment plan recommendations, must be culturally and linguistically appropriate.
(1) This service is provided on site by a mobile crisis intervention team outside of an inpatient hospital setting. Mental health mobile crisis intervention services must be available 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
(2) The initial screening must consider other available services to determine which service intervention would best address the recipient's needs and circumstances.
(3) The mobile crisis intervention team must be available to meet promptly face-to-face with a person in mental health crisis or emergency in a community setting or hospital emergency room.
(4) The intervention must consist of a mental health crisis assessment and a crisis treatment plan.
(5) The team must be available to individuals who are experiencing a co-occurring substance use disorder, who do not need the level of care provided in a detoxification facility.
(6) The treatment plan must include recommendations for any needed crisis stabilization services for the recipient, including engagement in treatment planning and family psychoeducation.
(e) "Mental health crisis stabilization services" means individualized mental health services provided to a recipient following crisis intervention services which are designed to restore the recipient to the recipient's prior functional level. Mental health crisis stabilization services may be provided in the recipient's home, the home of a family member or friend of the recipient, another community setting, or a short-term supervised, licensed residential program. Mental health crisis stabilization does not include partial hospitalization or day treatment. Mental health crisis stabilization services includes family psychoeducation.
An eligible recipient is an individual who:
(1) is age 18 or older;
(2) is screened as possibly experiencing a mental health crisis or emergency where a mental health crisis assessment is needed; and
(3) is assessed as experiencing a mental health crisis or emergency, and mental health crisis intervention or crisis intervention and stabilization services are determined to be medically necessary.
(a) A provider entity is an entity that meets the standards listed in paragraph (b) and:
(1) is a county board operated entity; or
(2) is a provider entity that is under contract with the county board in the county where the potential crisis or emergency is occurring. To provide services under this section, the provider entity must directly provide the services; or if services are subcontracted, the provider entity must maintain responsibility for services and billing.
(b) The adult mental health crisis response services provider entity must have the capacity to meet and carry out the following standards:
(1) has the capacity to recruit, hire, and manage and train mental health professionals, practitioners, and rehabilitation workers;
(2) has adequate administrative ability to ensure availability of services;
(3) is able to ensure adequate preservice and in-service training;
(4) is able to ensure that staff providing these services are skilled in the delivery of mental health crisis response services to recipients;
(5) is able to ensure that staff are capable of implementing culturally specific treatment identified in the individual treatment plan that is meaningful and appropriate as determined by the recipient's culture, beliefs, values, and language;
(6) is able to ensure enough flexibility to respond to the changing intervention and care needs of a recipient as identified by the recipient during the service partnership between the recipient and providers;
(7) is able to ensure that mental health professionals and mental health practitioners have the communication tools and procedures to communicate and consult promptly about crisis assessment and interventions as services occur;
(8) is able to coordinate these services with county emergency services, community hospitals, ambulance, transportation services, social services, law enforcement, and mental health crisis services through regularly scheduled interagency meetings;
(9) is able to ensure that mental health crisis assessment and mobile crisis intervention services are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week;
(10) is able to ensure that services are coordinated with other mental health service providers, county mental health authorities, or federally recognized American Indian authorities and others as necessary, with the consent of the adult. Services must also be coordinated with the recipient's case manager if the adult is receiving case management services;
(12) is able to submit information as required by the state;
(13) maintains staff training and personnel files;
(14) is able to establish and maintain a quality assurance and evaluation plan to evaluate the outcomes of services and recipient satisfaction;
(15) is able to keep records as required by applicable laws;
(16) is able to comply with all applicable laws and statutes;
(17) is an enrolled medical assistance provider; and
(18) develops and maintains written policies and procedures regarding service provision and administration of the provider entity, including safety of staff and recipients in high-risk situations.
If a county demonstrates that, due to geographic or other barriers, it is not feasible to provide mobile crisis intervention services according to the standards in subdivision 4, paragraph (b), clause (9), the commissioner may approve a crisis response provider based on an alternative plan proposed by a county or group of counties. The alternative plan must:
(1) result in increased access and a reduction in disparities in the availability of crisis services;
(2) provide mobile services outside of the usual nine-to-five office hours and on weekends and holidays; and
(3) comply with standards for emergency mental health services in section 245.469.
For provision of adult mental health mobile crisis intervention services, a mobile crisis intervention team is comprised of at least two mental health professionals as defined in section 245.462, subdivision 18, clauses (1) to (6), or a combination of at least one mental health professional and one mental health practitioner as defined in section 245.462, subdivision 17, with the required mental health crisis training and under the clinical supervision of a mental health professional on the team. The team must have at least two people with at least one member providing on-site crisis intervention services when needed. Team members must be experienced in mental health assessment, crisis intervention techniques, treatment engagement strategies, working with families, and clinical decision-making under emergency conditions and have knowledge of local services and resources. The team must recommend and coordinate the team's services with appropriate local resources such as the county social services agency, mental health services, and local law enforcement when necessary.
(a) Prior to initiating mobile crisis intervention services, a screening of the potential crisis situation must be conducted. The screening may use the resources of crisis assistance and emergency services as defined in sections 245.462, subdivision 6, and 245.469, subdivisions 1 and 2. The screening must gather information, determine whether a crisis situation exists, identify parties involved, and determine an appropriate response.
(b) If a crisis exists, a crisis assessment must be completed. A crisis assessment evaluates any immediate needs for which emergency services are needed and, as time permits, the recipient's current life situation, sources of stress, mental health problems and symptoms, strengths, cultural considerations, support network, vulnerabilities, current functioning, and the recipient's preferences as communicated directly by the recipient, or as communicated in a health care directive as described in chapters 145C and 253B, the treatment plan described under paragraph (d), a crisis prevention plan, or a wellness recovery action plan.
(c) If the crisis assessment determines mobile crisis intervention services are needed, the intervention services must be provided promptly. As opportunity presents during the intervention, at least two members of the mobile crisis intervention team must confer directly or by telephone about the assessment, treatment plan, and actions taken and needed. At least one of the team members must be on site providing crisis intervention services. If providing on-site crisis intervention services, a mental health practitioner must seek clinical supervision as required in subdivision 9.
(d) The mobile crisis intervention team must develop an initial, brief crisis treatment plan as soon as appropriate but no later than 24 hours after the initial face-to-face intervention. The plan must address the needs and problems noted in the crisis assessment and include measurable short-term goals, cultural considerations, and frequency and type of services to be provided to achieve the goals and reduce or eliminate the crisis. The treatment plan must be updated as needed to reflect current goals and services.
(e) The team must document which short-term goals have been met and when no further crisis intervention services are required.
(f) If the recipient's crisis is stabilized, but the recipient needs a referral to other services, the team must provide referrals to these services. If the recipient has a case manager, planning for other services must be coordinated with the case manager. If the recipient is unable to follow up on the referral, the team must link the recipient to the service and follow up to ensure the recipient is receiving the service.
(g) If the recipient's crisis is stabilized and the recipient does not have an advance directive, the case manager or crisis team shall offer to work with the recipient to develop one.
(a) Crisis stabilization services must be provided by qualified staff of a crisis stabilization services provider entity and must meet the following standards:
(1) a crisis stabilization treatment plan must be developed which meets the criteria in subdivision 11;
(2) staff must be qualified as defined in subdivision 8; and
(3) services must be delivered according to the treatment plan and include face-to-face contact with the recipient by qualified staff for further assessment, help with referrals, updating of the crisis stabilization treatment plan, supportive counseling, skills training, and collaboration with other service providers in the community.
(b) If crisis stabilization services are provided in a supervised, licensed residential setting, the recipient must be contacted face-to-face daily by a qualified mental health practitioner or mental health professional. The program must have 24-hour-a-day residential staffing which may include staff who do not meet the qualifications in subdivision 8. The residential staff must have 24-hour-a-day immediate direct or telephone access to a qualified mental health professional or practitioner.
(c) If crisis stabilization services are provided in a supervised, licensed residential setting that serves no more than four adult residents, and no more than two are recipients of crisis stabilization services, the residential staff must include, for at least eight hours per day, at least one individual who meets the qualifications in subdivision 8.
(d) If crisis stabilization services are provided in a supervised, licensed residential setting that serves more than four adult residents, and one or more are recipients of crisis stabilization services, the residential staff must include, for 24 hours a day, at least one individual who meets the qualifications in subdivision 8. During the first 48 hours that a recipient is in the residential program, the residential program must have at least two staff working 24 hours a day. Staffing levels may be adjusted thereafter according to the needs of the recipient as specified in the crisis stabilization treatment plan.
(a) Adult mental health crisis stabilization services must be provided by qualified individual staff of a qualified provider entity. Individual provider staff must have the following qualifications:
(1) be a mental health professional as defined in section 245.462, subdivision 18, clauses (1) to (6);
(2) be a mental health practitioner as defined in section 245.462, subdivision 17. The mental health practitioner must work under the clinical supervision of a mental health professional;
(3) be a certified peer specialist under section 256B.0615. The certified peer specialist must work under the clinical supervision of a mental health professional; or
(4) be a mental health rehabilitation worker who meets the criteria in section 256B.0623, subdivision 5, clause (4); works under the direction of a mental health practitioner as defined in section 245.462, subdivision 17, or under direction of a mental health professional; and works under the clinical supervision of a mental health professional.
(b) Mental health practitioners and mental health rehabilitation workers must have completed at least 30 hours of training in crisis intervention and stabilization during the past two years.
Mental health practitioners may provide crisis assessment and mobile crisis intervention services if the following clinical supervision requirements are met:
(1) the mental health provider entity must accept full responsibility for the services provided;
(2) the mental health professional of the provider entity, who is an employee or under contract with the provider entity, must be immediately available by phone or in person for clinical supervision;
(3) the mental health professional is consulted, in person or by phone, during the first three hours when a mental health practitioner provides on-site service;
(4) the mental health professional must:
(i) review and approve of the tentative crisis assessment and crisis treatment plan;
(ii) document the consultation; and
(iii) sign the crisis assessment and treatment plan within the next business day;
(5) if the mobile crisis intervention services continue into a second calendar day, a mental health professional must contact the recipient face-to-face on the second day to provide services and update the crisis treatment plan; and
(6) the on-site observation must be documented in the recipient's record and signed by the mental health professional.
Providers of mobile crisis intervention or crisis stabilization services must maintain a file for each recipient containing the following information:
(1) individual crisis treatment plans signed by the recipient, mental health professional, and mental health practitioner who developed the crisis treatment plan, or if the recipient refused to sign the plan, the date and reason stated by the recipient as to why the recipient would not sign the plan;
(2) signed release forms;
(3) recipient health information and current medications;
(4) emergency contacts for the recipient;
(5) case records which document the date of service, place of service delivery, signature of the person providing the service, and the nature, extent, and units of service. Direct or telephone contact with the recipient's family or others should be documented;
(6) required clinical supervision by mental health professionals;
(7) summary of the recipient's case reviews by staff;
(8) any written information by the recipient that the recipient wants in the file; and
(9) an advance directive, if there is one available.
Documentation in the file must comply with all requirements of the commissioner.
The individual crisis stabilization treatment plan must include, at a minimum:
(1) a list of problems identified in the assessment;
(2) a list of the recipient's strengths and resources;
(3) concrete, measurable short-term goals and tasks to be achieved, including time frames for achievement;
(4) specific objectives directed toward the achievement of each one of the goals;
(5) documentation of the participants involved in the service planning. The recipient, if possible, must be a participant. The recipient or the recipient's legal guardian must sign the service plan or documentation must be provided why this was not possible. A copy of the plan must be given to the recipient and the recipient's legal guardian. The plan should include services arranged, including specific providers where applicable;
(6) planned frequency and type of services initiated;
(7) a crisis response action plan if a crisis should occur;
(8) clear progress notes on outcome of goals;
(9) a written plan must be completed within 24 hours of beginning services with the recipient; and
(10) a treatment plan must be developed by a mental health professional or mental health practitioner under the clinical supervision of a mental health professional. The mental health professional must approve and sign all treatment plans.
The following services are excluded from reimbursement under this section:
(1) room and board services;
(2) services delivered to a recipient while admitted to an inpatient hospital;
(3) recipient transportation costs may be covered under other medical assistance provisions, but transportation services are not an adult mental health crisis response service;
(4) services provided and billed by a provider who is not enrolled under medical assistance to provide adult mental health crisis response services;
(5) services performed by volunteers;
(6) direct billing of time spent "on call" when not delivering services to a recipient;
(7) provider service time included in case management reimbursement. When a provider is eligible to provide more than one type of medical assistance service, the recipient must have a choice of provider for each service, unless otherwise provided for by law;
(8) outreach services to potential recipients; and
(9) a mental health service that is not medically necessary.