289A.36 Examinations; audits and collections.
Subdivision 1. Examination of taxpayer. To determine the accuracy of a return or report, or in fixing liability under state tax law, or for the purpose of collection, the commissioner may make reasonable examinations or investigations of a taxpayer's place of business, tangible personal property, equipment, computer systems and facilities, pertinent books, records, papers, vouchers, computer printouts, accounts, and documents.
Subd. 2. Access to records of other persons in connection with examination of taxpayer. When conducting an investigation or an audit of a taxpayer, or for the purpose of collection, the commissioner may examine, except where privileged by law, the relevant records and files of any person, business, institution, financial institution, state agency, agency of the United States government, or agency of any other state where permitted by statute, agreement, or reciprocity. The commissioner may compel production of these records by subpoena. A subpoena may be served directly by the commissioner.
Subd. 3. Power to compel testimony. In the administration of state tax law, the commissioner may:
(1) administer oaths or affirmations and compel by subpoena the attendance of witnesses, testimony, and the production of a person's pertinent books, records, papers, or other data for inspection and copying;
(2) examine under oath or affirmation any person regarding the business of any taxpayer concerning any relevant matter incident to the administration of state tax law. The fees of witnesses required by the commissioner to attend a hearing are equal to those allowed to witnesses appearing before courts of this state. The fees must be paid in the manner provided for the payment of other expenses incident to the administration of state tax law; and
(3) in addition to other remedies that may be available, bring an action in equity by the state against a taxpayer for an injunction ordering the taxpayer to file a complete and proper return or amended return. The district courts of this state have jurisdiction over the action and disobedience of an injunction issued under this clause will be punished as a contempt of district court.
Subd. 4. Third party subpoena where taxpayer's identity is known. An investigation may extend to a person that the commissioner determines has access to information that may be relevant to the examination or investigation. When a subpoena requiring the production of records as described in subdivision 2 is served on a third-party recordkeeper, written notice of the subpoena must be mailed to the taxpayer and to any other person who is identified in the subpoena. The notices must be given within three days of the day on which the subpoena is served. Notice to the taxpayer required by this section is sufficient if it is mailed to the last address on record with the commissioner.
The provisions of this subdivision relating to notice to the taxpayer or other parties identified in the subpoena do not apply if there is reasonable cause to believe that the giving of notice may lead to attempts to conceal, destroy, or alter records or assets relevant to the examination, to prevent the communication of information from other persons through intimidation, bribery, or collusion, or to flee to avoid prosecution, testifying, or production of records.
Subd. 5. Third party subpoena where taxpayer's identity is not known. A subpoena that does not identify the person or persons whose tax liability is being investigated may be served only if:
(1) the subpoena relates to the investigation of a particular person or ascertainable group or class of persons;
(2) there is a reasonable basis for believing that the person or group or class of persons may fail or may have failed to comply with tax laws administered by the commissioner;
(3) the information sought to be obtained from the examination of the records, and the identity of the person or persons with respect to whose liability the subpoena is issued, is not readily available from other sources;
(4) the subpoena is clear and specific concerning the information sought to be obtained; and
(5) the information sought to be obtained is limited solely to the scope of the investigation.
The party served with a subpoena that does not identify the person or persons with respect to whose tax liability the subpoena is issued may, within 20 days after service of the subpoena, petition the district court in the judicial district in which that party is located for a determination concerning whether the commissioner has complied with the requirements in clauses (1) to (5), and thus, whether the subpoena is enforceable. If no petition is made by the party served within the time prescribed, the subpoena has the effect of a court order.
Subd. 6. Request by taxpayer for subpoena. When the commissioner has the power to issue a subpoena for investigative or auditing purposes, the commissioner shall honor a reasonable request by the taxpayer to issue a subpoena on the taxpayer's behalf, if in connection with the investigation or audit.
Subd. 7. Application to court for enforcement of subpoena. (a) Disobedience of subpoenas issued under this section shall be punished by the district court of the district in which the party served with the subpoena is located, in the same manner as contempt of the district court.
(b) Disobedience of a subpoena issued under subdivision 9 shall be punished by the District Court for Ramsey County in the same manner as contempt of the district court. In addition to contempt remedies, the court may issue any order the court deems reasonably necessary to enforce compliance with the subpoena.
Subd. 8. Cost of production of records. The cost of producing records of a third party required by a subpoena must be paid by the taxpayer, if the taxpayer requests the subpoena to be issued, or if the taxpayer has the records available but has refused to provide them to the commissioner. In other cases where the taxpayer cannot produce records and the commissioner then initiates a subpoena for third-party records, the commissioner shall pay the reasonable cost of producing the records. The commissioner may later assess the reasonable costs against the taxpayer if the records contribute to the determination of an assessment of tax against the taxpayer.
Subd. 9. Access to records in connection with examination of businesses located outside the state. (a) In order to determine whether a business located outside the state of Minnesota is required to file a return under this chapter, the commissioner may examine the relevant records and files of the business.
(b) To the full extent permitted by the Minnesota and United States Constitutions, the commissioner may compel production of those relevant records and files by subpoena. The subpoena may be served on the secretary of state along with the address to which service of the subpoena is to be sent and a fee of $50. The secretary of state shall forward a copy of the subpoena to the business using the procedures for service of process in section 5.25, subdivision 6.
(c) The commissioner shall pay the reasonable cost of producing records subject to subpoena under this subdivision if:
(1) the subpoenaed party cannot produce the records without undue burden; and
(2) the examination made pursuant to paragraph (a) shows that the subpoenaed party is not required to file a return under this chapter.
Subd. 10. Penalty. In addition to sanctions imposed under subdivision 7, a penalty of $250 per day is imposed on any business that is in violation of a court order to comply with a subpoena that is seeking information necessary for the commissioner to be able to determine whether the business is required to file a return or pay a tax. The maximum penalty is $25,000. Upon the request of the commissioner, the court shall determine the amount of the penalty and enter it as a judgment in favor of the commissioner. The penalty is not payable until the judgment is entered.