language to be deleted (2) new language
relating to higher education; allowing disclosure of certain data and data sharing; defining terms; making technical changes; amending certain scholarship provisions; regulating school names and degree requirements; regulating board selection and membership requirements; requiring a report; requiring certain school bonds and licenses; restricting certain advertising; clarifying exemptions; amending loan forgiveness requirements; authorizing oral health practitioners to practice; regulating oral health practitioners; allowing certain transfers of funds; creating a work group; requiring a study on enrollment patterns; limiting appointments;
amending Minnesota Statutes 2006, sections 13.32, subdivision 3, by adding a subdivision; 136A.101, subdivision 8; 136F.90, subdivision 1; 141.25, by adding a subdivision; 144.1501, subdivision 2; Minnesota Statutes 2007 Supplement, sections 136A.121, subdivision 7a; 136A.126; 136A.127; 136A.128, by adding a subdivision; 136A.65, subdivisions 1, 3, 5, 6, 7; 136A.66; 136A.67; 136A.69; 136F.02, subdivision 1; 136F.03, subdivision 4; 141.25, subdivision 5; 141.28, subdivision 1; 141.35; Laws 2007, chapter 144, article 1, sections 3, subdivision 18; 5, subdivision 2; proposing coding for new law in Minnesota Statutes, chapters 136F; 150A.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF MINNESOTA:
Except as provided in subdivision 5, educational data is private data on individuals and shall not be disclosed except as follows:
(a) pursuant to section 13.05;
(b) pursuant to a valid court order;
(c) pursuant to a statute specifically authorizing access to the private data;
(d) to disclose information in health and safety emergencies pursuant to the provisions of United States Code, title 20, section 1232g(b)(1)(I) and Code of Federal Regulations, title 34, section 99.36;
(e) pursuant to the provisions of United States Code, title 20, sections 1232g(b)(1), (b)(4)(A), (b)(4)(B), (b)(1)(B), (b)(3) and Code of Federal Regulations, title 34, sections 99.31, 99.32, 99.33, 99.34, and 99.35;
(f) to appropriate health authorities to the extent necessary to administer immunization programs and for bona fide epidemiologic investigations which the commissioner of health determines are necessary to prevent disease or disability to individuals in the public educational agency or institution in which the investigation is being conducted;
(g) when disclosure is required for institutions that participate in a program under title IV of the Higher Education Act, United States Code, title 20, section 1092;
(h) to the appropriate school district officials to the extent necessary under subdivision 6, annually to indicate the extent and content of remedial instruction, including the results of assessment testing and academic performance at a postsecondary institution during the previous academic year by a student who graduated from a Minnesota school district within two years before receiving the remedial instruction;
(i) to appropriate authorities as provided in United States Code, title 20, section 1232g(b)(1)(E)(ii), if the data concern the juvenile justice system and the ability of the system to effectively serve, prior to adjudication, the student whose records are released; provided that the authorities to whom the data are released submit a written request for the data that certifies that the data will not be disclosed to any other person except as authorized by law without the written consent of the parent of the student and the request and a record of the release are maintained in the student's file;
(j) to volunteers who are determined to have a legitimate educational interest in the data and who are conducting activities and events sponsored by or endorsed by the educational agency or institution for students or former students;
(k) to provide student recruiting information, from educational data held by colleges and universities, as required by and subject to Code of Federal Regulations, title 32, section 216;
(l) to the juvenile justice system if information about the behavior of a student who poses a risk of harm is reasonably necessary to protect the health or safety of the student or other individuals;
(m) with respect to Social Security numbers of students in the adult basic education system, to Minnesota State Colleges and Universities and the Department of Employment and Economic Development for the purpose and in the manner described in section 124D.52, subdivision 7; or
(n) to the commissioner of education for purposes of an assessment or investigation of a report of alleged maltreatment of a student as mandated by section 626.556. Upon request by the commissioner of education, data that are relevant to a report of maltreatment and are from charter school and school district investigations of alleged maltreatment of a student must be disclosed to the commissioner, including, but not limited to, the following:
(1) information regarding the student alleged to have been maltreated;
(2) information regarding student and employee witnesses;
(3) information regarding the alleged perpetrator; and
(4) what corrective or protective action was taken, if any, by the school facility in response to a report of maltreatment by an employee or agent of the school or school district
"Resident student" means a student who meets one of the following conditions:
(1) a student who has resided in Minnesota for purposes other than postsecondary education for at least 12 months without being enrolled at a postsecondary educational institution for more than five credits in any term;
(2) a dependent student whose parent or legal guardian resides in Minnesota at the time the student applies;
(3) a student who graduated from a Minnesota high school, if the student was a resident of Minnesota during the student's period of attendance at the Minnesota high school and the student is physically attending a Minnesota postsecondary educational institution;
(4) a student who, after residing in the state for a minimum of one year, earned a high school equivalency certificate in Minnesota;
(5) a member, spouse, or dependent of a member of the armed forces of the United States stationed in Minnesota on active federal military service as defined in section 190.05, subdivision 5c;
a person or spouse of a person who relocated to Minnesota from an area that is declared a presidential disaster area within the preceding 12 months if the disaster interrupted the person's postsecondary education; or
(7) a person defined as a refugee under United States Code, title 8, section 1101(a)(42), who, upon arrival in the United States, moved to Minnesota and has continued to reside in Minnesota.
If the amount appropriated is determined by the office to be more than sufficient to fund projected grant demand in the second year of the biennium, the office may increase the living and miscellaneous expense allowance in the second year of the biennium by up to an amount that retains sufficient appropriations to fund the projected grant demand. The adjustment may be made one or more times. In making the determination that there are more than sufficient funds, the office shall balance the need for sufficient resources to meet the projected demand for grants with the goal of fully allocating the appropriation for state grants. An increase in the living and miscellaneous expense allowance under this subdivision does not carry forward into a subsequent biennium. This subdivision expires June 30, 2009.
The director of the Office of Higher Education shall establish procedures for the distribution of scholarships to any Minnesota resident student
who is of one-fourth or more Indian ancestry,
who has applied for other existing state and federal scholarship and grant programs, and
who, in the opinion of the director of the Office of Higher Education, based upon postsecondary institution recommendations, has the capabilities to benefit from further education.
Scholarships must be for accredited degree programs in accredited Minnesota colleges or universities or for courses in accredited Minnesota business, technical, or vocational schools. Scholarships may also be given to students attending Minnesota colleges that are in candidacy status for obtaining full accreditation, and are eligible for and receiving federal financial aid programs. Students are also eligible for scholarships when enrolled as students in Minnesota higher education institutions that have joint programs with other accredited higher education institutions. Scholarships shall be used to defray the total cost of education including tuition, incidental fees, books, supplies, transportation, other related school costs and the cost of board and room and shall be paid directly to the college or school concerned where the student receives federal financial aid.
The total cost of education includes all tuition and fees for each student enrolling in a public institution and the portion of tuition and fees for each student enrolling in a private institution that does not exceed the tuition and fees at a comparable public institution. Each student shall be awarded a scholarship based on a federal standardized need analysis. Applicants are encouraged to apply for all other sources of financial aid.
When an Indian student satisfactorily completes the work required by a certain college or school in a school year the student is eligible for additional scholarships, if additional training is necessary to reach the student's educational and vocational objective.
Scholarships may not be given to any Indian student for more than five years of study at the undergraduate level and five years at the graduate level. Students may acquire only one degree per level and one terminal degree.
The Achieve Scholarship Program is established.
For the purposes of this section, a "qualifying program" means a rigorous secondary school program of study defined by the Department of Education under agreement with the Secretary of Education for the purposes of determining eligibility for the federal Academic Competitiveness Grant Program under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended.
The student shall request a transcript from the high school. The high school shall provide a transcript to the Office of Higher Education or to the eligible institution in which the student is enrolling, documenting the qualifying program.
To be eligible to receive a scholarship under this section, in addition to the requirements listed under section 136A.121, a student must:
(1) submit a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA);
(2) take and receive at least a grade of C for courses that comprise a rigorous secondary school program of study in a high school or in a home-school setting under section 120A.22, and graduate from high school;
(3) have a family adjusted gross income in the last complete calendar year prior to the academic year of postsecondary attendance of less than $75,000;
(4) be a United States citizen or eligible noncitizen, as defined in section 484 of the Higher Education Act, United States Code, title 20, sections 1091 et seq., as amended, and Code of Federal Regulations, title 34, section 668.33; and
(5) be a Minnesota resident, as defined in section 136A.101, subdivision 8
The Achieve Scholarship Program shall be administered by the Minnesota Office of Higher Education. The director shall develop forms and procedures necessary to administer the program.
A student must complete and submit an application for the Achieve scholarship.
The deadline for the office to accept applications for Achieve scholarships is 30 days after the beginning of the academic term for which the application is submitted.
Achieve Scholarship Program applicants must certify on the application that they meet the income eligibility requirement in subdivision 5, clause (2). The Office of Higher Education or the postsecondary institution may request documentation needed to confirm income eligibility.
Minnesota Achieve scholarships shall consist of $1,200 for a student who takes and receives at least a grade of C for courses required under a qualifying program. The scholarships may be used to pay for qualifying expenses at eligible institutions.
Qualifying expenses are components included under the cost of attendance used for federal student financial aid programs, as defined in section 472 of the Higher Education Act, United States Code, title 20, sections 1091 et seq., as amended.
The Achieve scholarship may only be used to pay qualifying expenses at an eligible institution as defined under section 136A.101, subdivision 4.
A scholarship earned by a student is available for four years immediately following high school graduation. The office must certify to the commissioner of finance by October 1 of each year the amounts to be canceled from scholarship eligibility that have expired.
The office shall make two equal payments to a postsecondary institution on behalf of the student. The second payment must be made After the student successfully completes the first term of enrollment.
By January 15 of each odd-numbered year, the Office of Higher Education shall submit a report, to the committees of the legislature with jurisdiction over higher education finance and policy, regarding the success of the program in increasing the enrollment of students in rigorous high school courses, including, at a minimum, the following information:
(1) the demographics of individuals participating in the program;
(2) the grades scholarship recipients received for courses in the qualifying program under subdivision 2;
(3) the number of scholarship recipients who persisted at a postsecondary institution for a second year;
(4) the high schools attended by the program participants;
(5) the postsecondary institutions attended by the program participants;
(6) the academic performance of the students after enrolling in a postsecondary institution; and
(7) other information as identified by the director.
No school subject to registration shall grant a degree unless such degree and its underlying curriculum are approved by the office, nor shall any school subject to registration use the name "college," "academy," "institute" or "university" in its name without approval by the office.
A school subject to registration shall be granted approval to use the term "college," "academy," "institute," or "university" in its name if it was organized, operating, and using such term in its name on or before August 1, 2007, and if it meets the other policies and standards for approval established by the office.
For each degree a school offers to a student, where the student does not leave Minnesota for the major portion of the program or course leading to the degree, the school must have:
(1) qualified teaching personnel to provide the educational programs for each degree for which approval is sought;
(2) appropriate educational programs leading to each degree for which approval is sought;
(3) appropriate and accessible library, laboratory, and other physical facilities to support the educational program for each degree for which approval is sought; and
(4) a rationale showing that degree programs are consistent with the school's mission and goals.
A school may use the term "academy" or "institute" in its name without meeting any additional requirements. A school may use the term "college" in its name if it offers at least one program leading to an associate degree. A school may use the term "university" in its name if it offers at least one program leading to a master's or doctorate degree.
The office may grant conditional approval for a degree or use of a term in its name for a period of less than one year if doing so would be in the best interests of currently enrolled students or prospective students.
The office shall maintain a list of registered institutions authorized to grant degrees and schools authorized to use the name "college," "academy," "institute" or "university," and shall make such list available to the public.
a school which is duly registered with the office, or any of its officials or employees, may represent in advertising and shall disclose in catalogues, applications, and enrollment materials that the school is registered with the office by prominently displaying the following statement: "(Name of school) is registered as a private institution with the Minnesota Office of Higher Education pursuant to sections 136A.61 to 136A.71. Registration is not an endorsement of the institution. Credits earned at the institution may not transfer to all other institutions."
The office shall collect reasonable registration fees that are sufficient to recover, but do not exceed, its costs of administering the registration program. The office shall charge $1,100 for initial registration fees and $950 for annual renewal fees.
The office processing fee for adding a degree level to an existing program is $2,000 per program .
The office processing fee for adding a program that represents a significant departure in the objectives, content, or method of delivery of programs that are currently offered by the school is $500 per program.
If the office determines that a fact-finding visit or outside consultant is necessary to review or evaluate any new or revised program, the office shall be reimbursed for the expenses incurred related to the review as follows:
(1) $300 for the team base fee or for a paper review conducted by a consultant if the office determines that a fact-finding visit is not required;
(2) $300 for each day or part thereof on site per team member; and
(3) the actual cost of customary meals, lodging, and related travel expenses incurred by team members.
The fee for modification of any existing program is $100 and is due if there is:
(1) an increase or decrease of 25 percent or more from the original date of program approval, in clock hours, credit hours, or calendar length of an existing program;
(2) a change in academic measurement from clock hours to credit hours or vice versa; or
(3) an addition or alteration of courses that represent a 25 percent change or more in the objectives, content, or methods of delivery.
The board consists of 15 members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. At least one member of the board must be a resident of each congressional district. In selecting appointees, the governor must consider the needs of the board of trustees and the balance of the board membership with respect to labor and business representation and racial, gender, geographic, and ethnic composition. Three members must be students who are enrolled at least half time in a degree, diploma, or certificate program or have graduated from an institution governed by the board within one year of the date of appointment. The student members shall include: one member from a community college, one member from a state university, and one member from a technical college. The remaining members must be appointed to represent the state at large.
Except for seats filled under section 136F.04, the advisory council shall recommend at least two and not more than four candidates for each seat. By April 15 of each even-numbered year, the advisory council shall submit its recommendations to the governor. The governor is not bound by these recommendations.
For the state universities, the Board of Trustees of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities may:
(1) acquire by purchase or otherwise, construct, complete, remodel, equip, operate, control, and manage residence halls, dormitories, dining halls, student union buildings, parking facilities, and any other similar revenue-producing buildings of such type and character as the board finds necessary for the good and benefit of the state universities, and may acquire property whether real, personal, or mixed, by gift, purchase, or otherwise; provided that no contract for the construction of any building shall be entered into until financing has been approved by the legislature;
(2) maintain and operate any buildings or structures and charge for their use, and conduct any activities that are commonly conducted in connection with the buildings or structures;
(4) acquire building sites and buildings or structures by gift, purchase, or otherwise and pledge the revenues from them for the payment of any bonds issued for that purpose as provided in sections 136F.90 to 136F.98;
(5) borrow money and issue and sell bonds in an amount or amounts the legislature authorizes for the purpose of acquiring, constructing, completing, remodeling, or equipping any buildings or structures, and acquiring sites, and refund and refinance the bonds by the issuance and sale of refunding bonds when the board finds that it is in the public interest. The bonds shall be sold and issued by the board in the manner and upon the terms and conditions provided by chapter 475, except as otherwise provided in this section. The bonds are payable only from and secured by an irrevocable pledge of the revenues to be derived from the operation of any buildings or structures acquired, constructed, completed, remodeled, or equipped in whole or in part with the proceeds of the bonds and from other income and revenues described in section 136F.92, clause (1), the board by resolution specifies, and notwithstanding this limitation all bonds issued under sections 136F.90 to 136F.98 shall have the qualities of negotiable instruments under the laws of this state. The legislature shall not appropriate money from the general fund to pay for these bonds.
(a) No license shall be issued to any school which maintains, conducts, solicits for, or advertises within the state of Minnesota any program, unless the applicant files with the office a continuous corporate surety bond written by a company authorized to do business in Minnesota conditioned upon the faithful performance of all contracts and agreements with students made by the applicant.
(b) The amount of the surety bond shall be ten percent of the preceding year's gross income from student tuition, fees, and other required institutional charges, but in no event less than $10,000 nor greater than $250,000, except that a school may deposit a greater amount at its own discretion. A school in each annual application for licensure must compute the amount of the surety bond and verify that the amount of the surety bond complies with this subdivision, unless the school maintains a surety bond equal to at least $250,000. A school that operates at two or more locations may combine gross income from student tuition, fees, and other required institutional charges for all locations for the purpose of determining the annual surety bond requirement. The gross tuition and fees used to determine the amount of the surety bond required for a school having a license for the sole purpose of recruiting students in Minnesota shall be only that paid to the school by the students recruited from Minnesota.
(c) The bond shall run to the state of Minnesota and to any person who may have a cause of action against the applicant arising at any time after the bond is filed and before it is canceled for breach of any contract or agreement made by the applicant with any student. The aggregate liability of the surety for all breaches of the conditions of the bond shall not exceed the principal sum deposited by the school under paragraph (b). The surety of any bond may cancel it upon giving 60 days' notice in writing to the office and shall be relieved of liability for any breach of condition occurring after the effective date of cancellation.
(d) In lieu of bond, the applicant may deposit with the commissioner of finance a sum equal to the amount of the required surety bond in cash, or securities as may be legally purchased by savings banks or for trust funds in an aggregate market value equal to the amount of the required surety bond.
(e) Failure of a school to post and maintain the required surety bond or deposit under paragraph (d) shall result in denial, suspension, or revocation of the school's license.
A school, agent, or solicitor may represent in advertisements and shall disclose in catalogues, applications, and enrollment materials that the school is duly licensed by the state by prominently displaying the following statement:
"(Name of school) is licensed as a private career school with the Minnesota Office of Higher Education pursuant to Minnesota Statutes, sections 141.21 to 141.32. Licensure is not an endorsement of the institution. Credits earned at the institution may not transfer to all other institutions."
(1) public postsecondary institutions;
(3) schools of nursing accredited by the state Board of Nursing or an equivalent public board of another state or foreign country;
(4) private schools complying with the requirements of section 120A.22, subdivision 4;
(5) courses taught to students in a valid apprenticeship program taught by or required by a trade union;
(6) schools exclusively engaged in training physically or mentally disabled persons for the state of Minnesota;
(7) schools licensed by boards authorized under Minnesota law to issue licenses;
(8) schools and educational programs, or training programs, contracted for by persons, firms, corporations, government agencies, or associations, for the training of their own employees, for which no fee is charged the employee;
(9) schools engaged exclusively in the teaching of purely avocational, recreational, or remedial subjects as determined by the office;
(10) classes, courses, or programs conducted by a bona fide trade, professional, or fraternal organization, solely for that organization's membership;
(11) programs in the fine arts provided by organizations exempt from taxation under section 290.05 and registered with the attorney general under chapter 309. For the purposes of this clause, "fine arts" means activities resulting in artistic creation or artistic performance of works of the imagination which are engaged in for the primary purpose of creative expression rather than commercial sale or employment. In making this determination the office may seek the advice and recommendation of the Minnesota Board of the Arts;
(12) classes, courses, or programs intended to fulfill the continuing education requirements for licensure or certification in a profession, that have been approved by a legislatively or judicially established board or agency responsible for regulating the practice of the profession, and that are offered exclusively to an individual practicing the profession;
(13) classes, courses, or programs intended to prepare students to sit for undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate, or occupational licensing and occupational entrance examinations;
(14) classes, courses, or programs providing 16 or fewer clock hours of instruction that are not part of the curriculum for an occupation or entry level employment;
(15) classes, courses, or programs providing instruction in personal development, modeling, or acting;
(16) training or instructional programs, in which one instructor teaches an individual student, that are not part of the curriculum for an occupation or are not intended to prepare a person for entry level employment; and
(17) schools with no physical presence in Minnesota, as determined by the office, engaged exclusively in offering distance instruction that are located in and regulated by other states or jurisdictions.
(a) A health professional education loan forgiveness program account is established. The commissioner of health shall use money from the account to establish a loan forgiveness program:
(1) for medical residents agreeing to practice in designated rural areas or underserved urban communities or specializing in the area of pediatric psychiatry;
(2) for midlevel practitioners agreeing to practice in designated rural areas or to teach for at least 20 hours per week in the nursing field in a postsecondary program;
(3) for nurses who agree to practice in a Minnesota nursing home or intermediate care facility for persons with developmental disability or to teach for at least 20 hours per week in the nursing field in a postsecondary program;
(4) for other health care technicians agreeing to teach for at least 20 hours per week in their designated field in a postsecondary program. The commissioner, in consultation with the Healthcare Education-Industry Partnership, shall determine the health care fields where the need is the greatest, including, but not limited to, respiratory therapy, clinical laboratory technology, radiologic technology, and surgical technology;
(5) for pharmacists who agree to practice in designated rural areas; and
(6) for dentists agreeing to deliver at least 25 percent of the dentist's yearly patient encounters to state public program enrollees or patients receiving sliding fee schedule discounts through a formal sliding fee schedule meeting the standards established by the United States Department of Health and Human Services under Code of Federal Regulations, title 42, section 51, chapter 303.
(b) Appropriations made to the account do not cancel and are available until expended, except that at the end of each biennium, any remaining balance in the account that is not committed by contract and not needed to fulfill existing commitments shall cancel to the fund.
The Minnesota Office of Higher Education may transfer unencumbered balances from the appropriations in this section to the state grant appropriation, the interstate tuition reciprocity appropriation, the child care grant appropriation, the state work study appropriation, the public safety officers' survivors appropriation, and the Minnesota college savings plan appropriation. Transfers from the child care or state work study appropriations may only be made to the extent there is a projected surplus in the appropriation. A transfer may be made only with the prior written approval of the commissioner of finance and prior written notice to the chairs of the senate and house committees with jurisdiction over higher education finance.
Operations and Maintenance
This appropriation includes funding for operation and maintenance of the system including amounts to advance the University of Minnesota's efforts to sustain quality and competitiveness; and funding for the "Advancing Education" initiatives including an Ojibwe Indian language program on the Duluth campus.
This appropriation includes funding to establish banded tuition at the Morris, Crookston, and Duluth campuses to reduce tuition costs for students.
This appropriation includes funding for scholarships for undergraduate Minnesota resident students with family income under $150,000 per year. This appropriation must be matched with $1.50 of nonstate money for each $1 of state money.
This appropriation includes funding for the Center for Transportation Studies to complete a study to assess public policy options for reducing the volume of greenhouse gases emitted from the transportation sector in Minnesota. The Center for Transportation Studies must report its preliminary findings to the legislature by February 1, 2008, and must issue its full report by June 1, 2008. This is a onetime appropriation.
This appropriation includes funding to establish an India Center to improve and promote relations with India and Southeast Asia. The center must partner with public and private organizations in Minnesota to:
(1) foster an understanding of the history, culture, and values of India;
(2) serve as a resource and catalyst to promote economic, governmental, and academic pursuits involving India; and
(3) facilitate educational and business exchanges and partnerships, collaborative research, and teaching and training activities for Minnesota students and teachers.
The Board of Regents may establish an advisory council to facilitate the mission and objectives of the India Center and must report on the progress of the India Center by February 15, 2008, to the governor and chairs of the legislative committees responsible for higher education finance. This appropriation must be matched by an equal amount of nonstate money. This is a onetime appropriation.
This appropriation includes funding to assist in the formation of the neighborhood alliance and for projects identified in section 10. The alliance, the Board of Regents, and the city of Minneapolis may cooperate on the projects and may use public services of other entities to complete all or a portion of a project. This is a onetime appropriation.
This appropriation includes funding to establish a Dakota language teacher training immersion program on the Twin Cities campus to prepare teachers to teach in Dakota language immersion programs.
One percent of the appropriation in this subdivision is available when the Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota demonstrates to the commissioner of finance that the board has met at least three of the five following performance goals:
(1) increase financial support to pay the cost of attendance for students demonstrating financial need;
(2) maintain or improve the University of Minnesota's rank in its national share of total research and development expenditures reported to the National Science Foundation over the 2007 ranking;
(3) increase by at least five percent, compared to fiscal year 2007, the number of degrees awarded in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and health sciences disciplines;
(4) increase by at least five percent, compared to fiscal year 2007, the amount of financial support from key funding sources for renewable energy research; and
(5) increase and improve interaction and research activity beneficial to business and industry.
By October 1, 2007, the Board of Regents and the Office of Higher Education must agree on specific numerical indicators and definitions for each of the five goals that will be used to demonstrate the University of Minnesota's attainment of each goal.
On or before April 1, 2008, the Board of Regents must report to the legislative committees with primary jurisdiction over higher education finance and policy the progress of the University of Minnesota toward attaining the goals.
Presented to the governor May 8, 2008
Signed by the governor May 12, 2008, 1:26 p.m.
Official Publication of the State of Minnesota
Revisor of Statutes