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Rule 52.Findings by the Court


In all actions tried upon the facts without a jury or with an advisory jury, the court shall find the facts specially and state separately its conclusions of law thereon and direct the entry of the appropriate judgment; and in granting or refusing interlocutory injunctions the court shall similarly set forth the findings of fact and conclusions of law which constitute the grounds for its action. Requests for findings are not necessary for purposes of review. Findings of fact, whether based on oral or documentary evidence, shall not be set aside unless clearly erroneous, and due regard shall be given to the opportunity of the trial court to judge the credibility of the witnesses. The findings of a referee, to the extent adopted by the court, shall be considered as the findings of the court. It will be sufficient if the findings of fact and conclusions of law are stated orally and recorded in open court following the close of the evidence or appear in an opinion or memorandum of decision filed by the court or in an accompanying memorandum. Findings of fact and conclusions of law are unnecessary on decisions on motions pursuant to Rule 12 or 56 or any other motion except as provided in Rules 23.08(c) and 41.02.

(Amended effective January 1, 2006.)

Advisory Committee Comment - 2006 Amendment

Rule 52.01 is amended to renumber one of the rule cross-references to reflect the amendment and renumbering of Rule 23 as part of the amendments effective January 1, 2006.


Upon motion of a party served and heard not later than the times allowed for a motion for new trial pursuant to Rule 59.03, the court may amend its findings or make additional findings, and may amend the judgment accordingly if judgment has been entered. The motion may be made with a motion for a new trial and may be made on the files, exhibits, and minutes of the court. When findings of fact are made in actions tried by the court without a jury, the question of the sufficiency of the evidence to support the findings may thereafter be raised whether or not the party raising the question has made in the district court an objection to such findings or has made a motion to amend them or a motion for judgment.

(Amended effective March 1, 2001.)

Advisory Committee Comment - 2000 Amendment

Although the text of this Rule 52.02 is not changed substantively by these amendments, it is worth noting that Rule 59.03, governing the time for filing a motion for a new trial is changed to expand the time from 15 days to 30 days for filing the motion and from 30 days to 60 days for having the motion heard. This amendment has the practical effect of extending the time for filing a motion for amended findings under Rule 52 because Rule 52.02 incorporates the filing and hearing time limits of Rule 59.