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Office of the Revisor of Statutes

    Subdivision 1. Scope. For purposes of this chapter, the terms in this section have the
meanings given them, unless the language or context clearly shows that a different meaning is
    Subd. 2. Address. "Address" means mailing address, including a zip code, except that in
the case of a registered office, address means the mailing address and the actual office location,
which may not be a post office box.
    Subd. 3. Articles. "Articles" means, in the case of a corporation incorporated under or
governed by this chapter, articles of incorporation, articles of amendment, a resolution of election
to become governed by this chapter, a statement of change of registered office, registered agent,
or name of registered agent, articles of merger, articles of consolidation, articles of abandonment,
and articles of dissolution. In the case of a foreign corporation, the term includes documents
serving a similar function required to be filed with the secretary of state or other officer of the
corporation's state of incorporation.
    Subd. 3a. Authenticated. "Authenticated" means, with respect to an electronic
communication, that the communication is delivered to the principal place of business of the
corporation, or to an officer or agent of the corporation authorized by the corporation to receive
the communication, and that the communication sets forth information from which the corporation
can reasonably conclude that the communication was sent by the purported sender.
    Subd. 3b. Ballot. "Ballot" means a written ballot or a ballot transmitted by electronic
    Subd. 4. Board of directors. "Board of directors" or "board" means the group of persons
vested with the general management of the internal affairs of a corporation, regardless of how
they are identified.
    Subd. 5. Bylaws. "Bylaws" means the code adopted for the regulation or management of the
internal affairs of a corporation, regardless of how designated.
    Subd. 6. Corporation. "Corporation" means a corporation that is governed by this chapter.
A corporation may not:
(1) be formed for a purpose involving pecuniary gain to its members, other than to members
that are nonprofit organizations or subdivisions, units, or agencies of the United States or a state
or local government; and
(2) pay dividends or other pecuniary remuneration, directly or indirectly, to its members,
other than to members that are nonprofit organizations or subdivisions, units, or agencies of the
United States or a state or local government.
    Subd. 7. Director. "Director" means a member of the board.
    Subd. 7a. Electronic communication. "Electronic communication" means any form of
communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record
that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient of the communication, and that may
be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process.
    Subd. 8. Filed with the secretary of state. "Filed with the secretary of state" means that a
document meeting the requirements of this chapter, signed, and accompanied by a filing fee of
$35, has been delivered to the secretary of state of this state. The secretary of state shall endorse
on the original the word "Filed" and the month, day, and year of filing, record the document in the
Office of the Secretary of State, and return a document to the person who delivered it for filing.
    Subd. 9. Foreign corporation. "Foreign corporation" means a corporation that is formed
under laws other than the laws of this state.
    Subd. 10. Good faith. "Good faith" means honesty in fact in the conduct of an act or
    Subd. 11. Legal representative. "Legal representative" means a person empowered to act
for another person, including, but not limited to, an agent, officer, partner, or associate of an
organization; a trustee of a trust; a personal representative; a trustee in bankruptcy; or a receiver,
guardian, custodian, or conservator.
    Subd. 12. Member. "Member" means a person with membership rights in a corporation
under its articles or bylaws, regardless of how the person is identified.
    Subd. 13. Members with voting rights. "Members with voting rights" or "voting members"
means members or a class of members that has voting rights with respect to the purpose or
matter involved.
    Subd. 14. Notice. (a) "Notice" is given by a member of a corporation to the corporation or
an officer of the corporation when in writing and mailed or delivered to the corporation or the
officer at the registered office of the corporation.
(b) Notice is given by the corporation to a director, officer, member, or other person:
(1) when mailed to the person at an address designated by the person, at the last known
address of the person or, in the case of a director, officer, or member, at the address of the person
in the corporate records;
(2) when communicated to the person orally;
(3) when handed to the person;
(4) when left at the office of the person with a clerk or other person in charge of the office, or
if there is no one in charge, when left in a conspicuous place in the office;
(5) if the person's office is closed or the person to be notified has no office, when left at
the dwelling or usual place of abode of the person with a person of suitable age and discretion
residing in the house;
(6) when provided to the person by means of electronic communication as provided under
section 317A.231 or 317A.450; or
(7) when the method is fair and reasonable when all the circumstances are considered.
(c) Notice by mail is given when deposited in the United States mail with sufficient postage.
Notice is considered received when it is given.
    Subd. 15. Officer. "Officer" means a person elected, appointed, or otherwise designated as an
officer by the board or the members, and a person considered elected an officer under section
    Subd. 16. Organization. "Organization" means a domestic or foreign business or nonprofit
corporation, limited liability company, whether domestic or foreign, partnership, limited
partnership, joint venture, association, trust, estate, enterprise, or other legal or commercial entity.
    Subd. 17. Registered office. "Registered office" means the place in this state designated in
the articles of a corporation as the registered office of the corporation.
    Subd. 18. Related organization. "Related organization" means an organization that controls,
is controlled by, or is under common control with, another corporation. Control exists if an
(1) owns, directly or indirectly, at least 50 percent of the stock ownership or membership
interests of another organization;
(2) has the right, directly or indirectly, to elect, appoint, or remove 50 percent or more of the
voting members of the governing body of another organization; or
(3) has the power, directly or indirectly, to direct or cause the direction of the management
and policies of another organization, whether through the ownership of voting interests, by
contract, or otherwise.
    Subd. 18a. Remote communication. "Remote communication" means communication via
electronic communication, conference telephone, video conference, the Internet, or such other
means by which persons not physically present in the same location may communicate with each
other on a substantially simultaneous basis.
    Subd. 19. Signed. (a) "Signed" means that the signature of a person is written on a document,
as provided in section 645.44, subdivision 14. A document required by this chapter to be filed
with the secretary of state must be signed by a person authorized to do so by this chapter, the
articles or bylaws, or a resolution approved by the directors, as required by section 317A.237, or
the members with voting rights, if any, if required by section 317A.443.
(b) A signature on a document may be a facsimile affixed, engraved, printed, placed,
stamped with indelible ink, transmitted by facsimile or electronically, or in any other manner
reproduced on the document.
    Subd. 20. Written action. "Written action" means a written document signed by all of the
persons required to take the action. The term also means the counterparts of a written document
signed by any of the persons taking the action. A counterpart is the action of the persons signing
it, and all the counterparts are one written action by all of the persons signing them.
History: 1989 c 304 s 2; 1989 c 335 art 1 s 203; 1990 c 488 s 1; 1992 c 503 s 2; 1992 c 517
art 1 s 19; 1997 c 10 art 4 s 3,4; 2002 c 311 art 3 s 1-3; 2004 c 199 art 14 s 30,31