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Rule 19.Joinder of Persons Needed for Just Adjudication

19.01Persons to be Joined if Feasible

A person who is subject to service of process shall be joined as a party in the action if (a) in the person's absence complete relief cannot be accorded among those already parties, or (b) the person claims an interest relating to the subject of the action and is so situated that the disposition of the action in the person's absence may (1) as a practical matter impair or impede the person's ability to protect that interest or (2) leave any one already a party subject to a substantial risk or incurring double, multiple, or otherwise inconsistent obligations by reason of the person's claimed interest. If the person has not been so joined, the court shall order that the person be made a party. If the person should join as a plaintiff but refuses to do so, the person may be made a defendant, or, in a proper case, an involuntary plaintiff.

19.02Determination by Court Whenever Joinder Not Feasible

If a person as described in Rule 19.01 cannot be made a party, the court shall determine whether in equity and good conscience the action should proceed among the parties before it, or should be dismissed, the absent person being thus regarded as indispensable. The factors to be considered by the court include:

(a) to what extent a judgment rendered in the person's absence might be prejudicial to the person or those already parties;

(b) the extent to which, by protective provisions in the judgment, by the shaping of relief, or other measures, the prejudice can be lessened or avoided;

(c) whether a judgment rendered in the person's absence will be adequate; and

(d) whether the plaintiff will have an adequate remedy if the action is dismissed for nonjoinder.

19.03Pleading Reasons for Nonjoinder

A pleading asserting a claim for relief shall state the names, if known to the pleader, of any persons as described in Rule 19.01 who are not joined, and the reasons why they are not joined.

19.04Exception of Class Actions

This rule is subject to the provisions of Rule 23.