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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

DEFENSES

See also DEFENDANTS

Adultery, woman's marital status unknown, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.36

Adverse claims to real property, value of improvements, taxes, and assessments, Minn. Statutes 2018 559.11

Advisory opinions, Campaign Finance and Public Disclosure Board, Minn. Statutes 2018 10A.02

Agricultural chemicals

Act of God, Minn. Statutes 2018 18D.111, 2018 18D.325

End user or landowner, application, Minn. Statutes 2018 18D.101

Generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 18D.325

Aircraft, operating under influence of alcohol or controlled substances, Minn. Statutes 2018 360.0752

Alcoholic beverages

Beer, kegs, illegal sales, Minn. Statutes 2018 340A.513

Children, consumption by, consent of parent or guardian, Minn. Statutes 2018 340A.503

Complicity defense, fault defined as, Minn. Statutes 2018 604.01

Illegal sales, Minn. Statutes 2018 340A.503, 2018 340A.513, 2018 340A.801

Intoxication defense, effect on intent, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.075

Proof of age, Minn. Statutes 2018 340A.503, 2018 340A.703

Attempts at crime, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.17

Bank deposits and collections

Presentment warranties, breach, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.4-208, 2018 336.4-302

Transfer warranties, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.4-207

Waivers, unauthorized signatures or alterations, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.4-406

Bankruptcy proceedings, employers, failure to pay benefits or wage supplements, Minn. Statutes 2018 181.74

Banks, shareholders, assessments, Minn. Statutes 2018 49.19

Beer, kegs, illegal sales, Minn. Statutes 2018 340A.513

Boats and boating, boating while intoxicated, Minn. Statutes 2018 86B.331

Building accessibility, compliance with requirements, affirmative defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 363A.331

Bumpers, evidence of manufacture higher than prescribed height, affirmative defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 169.73

Campaign practices violations, Minn. Statutes 2018 211B.17

Child support

Criminal nonsupport, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.375

Nonparentage, Minn. Statutes 2018 518C.315

Nonpayment of support, Minn. Statutes 2018 518.612

Coercion for use in prostitution, excluded defenses, Minn. Statutes 2018 611A.81, 2018 611A.82

Collateral estoppel, court of appeals decisions, precedential value, Minn. Statutes 2018 480A.08

Collectively bargained health care arrangements, violations, lack of knowledge not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 62H.15

Commercial e-mail messages, violations, Minn. Statutes 2018 325F.694

Consent, see specific index headings for crimes

Consumer contracts, plain language, good faith effort to comply, Minn. Statutes 2018 325G.34

Consumer support grants, appeals, Minn. Statutes 2018 256.476

Contagious or infectious diseases, knowing transfer, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.2241

Contracts for deed, failure to record, Minn. Statutes 2018 507.235

Contributing to delinquency or status as juvenile petty offender, Minn. Statutes 2018 260B.425

Contributing to status as child in need of protection or services, Minn. Statutes 2018 260C.425

Controlled substances

Marijuana, possession or sale, Minn. Statutes 2018 152.027

Sale, transfer, or delivery, Minn. Statutes 2018 152.097

Corporations, ratable assessments against shareholders, Minn. Statutes 2018 316.19

Crimes in other jurisdictions, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.025

Criminal vehicular homicide, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.2112

Criminal vehicular operation, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.2113, 2018 609.2114

Dangerous dogs, harm caused by, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.226

Defamation, Minn. Statutes 2018 544.043

Delinquent property taxes, see Defenses or objections under PROPERTY TAXES

Dentists and dental auxiliaries, violations, generally, licenses, lack of, Minn. Statutes 2018 150A.12

Deprivation of custodial or parental rights, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.26

Devisees, liability, prior debts, Minn. Statutes 2018 573.16

Disabled persons, employment, unfair discriminatory practices, Minn. Statutes 2018 363A.25

Dishonored checks, affidavit of service, refusal to accept, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.535

Dissolution of marriage

Generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 518.06

Marital property, division, power of attorney, use not available as defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 518.58

Drivers' licenses, revocation, suspension, cancellation, or disqualification, notice, Minn. Statutes 2018 171.24

Driving while impaired, generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 169A.46

Electronic communications, illegal access, Minn. Statutes 2018 626A.32

Emergency communications, kidnappings, telephone company employees, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.774

Employee leasing arrangements, violations, generally, lack of knowledge not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 62H.15

Employers, bankruptcy, failure to pay benefits or wage supplements, Minn. Statutes 2018 181.74

Energy conservation, violations, adequate remedy not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 216C.30

Eviction

Manufactured home parks, Minn. Statutes 2018 327C.10

Real property, Minn. Statutes 2018 504B.285

Residential rental property, Minn. Statutes 2018 504B.285

Failure to appear in court, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.49

Farm products, contracts, readability violations, Minn. Statutes 2018 17.9441

Farm tractors, claims of nonconformity, Minn. Statutes 2018 325F.6657

Female genital mutilation, consent, not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.2245

Financial exploitation of vulnerable adults, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.2335

Fire or police state aid, forfeiture, no defense, failure to receive certificate form, Minn. Statutes 2018 69.011

Force, justification or grounds for use

Child abuse, exclusion of reasonable force, Minn. Statutes 2018 626.556

Children, reasonable force used on, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.379

Crime victims, force against perpetrators, Minn. Statutes 2018 611A.08

Generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.06, 2018 609.066

Peace officers, Minn. Statutes 2018 346.57, 2018 609.06, 2018 629.33

Prisoners, force used on, Minn. Statutes 2018 243.52

Rental property, entry by force, Minn. Statutes 2018 504B.281

Resisting arrest, Minn. Statutes 2018 629.23

School bus drivers, Minn. Statutes 2018 121A.582

School personnel, Minn. Statutes 2018 121A.582, 2018 123B.25

School principals, Minn. Statutes 2018 121A.582, 2018 121A.61

Teachers, Minn. Statutes 2018 121A.582, 2018 121A.61, 2018 123B.25, 2018 125A.0942, 2018 609.379

Tear gas use, reasonable force, Minn. Statutes 2018 624.731

Fraudulent transfers, generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 513.48

Governmental immunity

Liability insurance, effects, Minn. Statutes 2018 3.736, 2018 16B.85

School districts, liability insurance, waivers, Minn. Statutes 2018 123B.23

Gratuities, agreements to work for less not a defense to action, Minn. Statutes 2018 177.27

Groundwater pollution in sensitive areas, Minn. Statutes 2018 103H.111

Halal foods, misrepresentation of non-Halal foods, Minn. Statutes 2018 31.658

Hazardous substances releases, liability claims, defenses, Minn. Statutes 2018 115B.04, 2018 115B.05, 2018 115B.175

Hazardous waste, air and water quality violations, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.671

Health and accident insurance, policies, limitation, Minn. Statutes 2018 62A.04

Heirs, liability, prior debts, Minn. Statutes 2018 573.16

Housing with services establishments, personal service not a defense to action, Minn. Statutes 2018 144D.03

Insanity, Minn. Statutes 2018 518.06, 2018 611.026

Insurance liquidators, assertion, duties, Minn. Statutes 2018 60B.25

Insurance, claims forms, absence of warnings not a defense for violations, Minn. Statutes 2018 60A.955

Intoxication defense, effect on intent, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.075

Invention developers, contracts, bona fide error, Minn. Statutes 2018 325A.09

Investment securities, see Defenses under SECURITIES

Justification

Defamation, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.765

Force, use of, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.06, 2018 609.066

Homicide, justifiable homicide, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.065

Labor trafficking, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.284

Landlords

Code violation inspection and condemnation orders, Minn. Statutes 2018 504B.195

Code violations lawsuits, Minn. Statutes 2018 504B.415

Tenant eviction, contraband or controlled substances, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.5317

Utilities, interruption or termination, Minn. Statutes 2018 504B.221

Legal separation, generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 518.06

Legatees, liability, prior debts, Minn. Statutes 2018 573.16

Littering, civil liability, Minn. Statutes 2018 169.421

Lottery tickets, sale to minors, Minn. Statutes 2018 349A.12

Manslaughter

2d degree manslaughter, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.205

2d degree manslaughter of an unborn child, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.2665

Manufactured home parks, eviction, Minn. Statutes 2018 327C.10

Marijuana, possession or sale, Minn. Statutes 2018 18K.08

Medical malpractice lawsuits, counterclaims, pleading as, statutes of limitations, Minn. Statutes 2018 541.076

Minimum wage, agreements to work for less not a defense to action, Minn. Statutes 2018 177.27

Minnesota Insurance Guaranty Association

Claims, rights, Minn. Statutes 2018 60C.05

Insolvent member insurers, proceedings, Minn. Statutes 2018 60C.195

Motor vehicle dealers, other remedies, not a defense to injunctions, Minn. Statutes 2018 168.27

Motor vehicle insurance, proof of insurance, defense for failure to provide, Minn. Statutes 2018 169.797

Motor vehicles, forfeiture, Minn. Statutes 2018 169A.63

Municipal land use planning, appeals from local government action, Minn. Statutes 2018 462.361

Neglect or endangerment of a child, failure to prevent, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.378

Negligence

Assumption of risk, see ASSUMPTION OF RISK

Comparative negligence, see COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE

Contributory negligence, see CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE

Last clear chance doctrine, abolished, Minn. Statutes 2018 604.01

Negotiable instruments

Alteration of instruments, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-406

Conditional issuance of instrument, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-105

Countersignatures, failure to make, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-106

Forged signatures, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-406

Issuance without consideration, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-303

Lack of notice, holders in due course, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-302

Nonissuance of instrument, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-105

Nonperformance of promises, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-303

Obligation to pay instrument, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-305

Other agreements, effect, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-117

Presentment warranties, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-417

Restrictive endorsements, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-206

Signatures, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-308

Transfer warranties, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-416

Wrongful refusal to pay, Minn. Statutes 2018 336.3-411

Next of kin, liability, prior debts, Minn. Statutes 2018 573.16

No or insufficient consideration, employment agency fees, notes, Minn. Statutes 2018 184.38

No-fault automobile insurance, proof of insurance, failure to produce, Minn. Statutes 2018 169.791

Nursery stock, violations, generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 18J.10

Overtime, agreements to work for less not a defense to action, Minn. Statutes 2018 177.27

Pari-mutuel betting, underage bettors, identification, Minn. Statutes 2018 240.13

Partition of real estate, disputes between parties, Minn. Statutes 2018 558.05

Pen registers, trap and trace devices, and mobile tracking devices, Minn. Statutes 2018 626A.391

Perjury, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.48

Plant pests, violations, generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 18J.10

Plants (vegetation), violations, generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 18J.10

Pornographic works involving minors, Minn. Statutes 2018 617.245 to 2018 617.247

Product liability, useful life of product, expiration, Minn. Statutes 2018 604.03

Property taxes, see Defenses or objections under PROPERTY TAXES

Prostitution, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.325

Public transportation facilities, unfair discriminatory practices, Minn. Statutes 2018 363A.11

Reasonable force, see Force, justification or grounds for use under this topic

Receivers, Minn. Statutes 2018 576.28

Reportable multiple employer welfare arrangements (MEWAs), violations, lack of knowledge not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 62H.15

School bus drivers, reasonable force, use, Minn. Statutes 2018 121A.582

School districts, school buses, advertising on, Minn. Statutes 2018 123B.93

School officials, Fair Dismissal Act, technical violations, good faith exception, Minn. Statutes 2018 121A.48

School personnel, force used by, Minn. Statutes 2018 121A.582, 2018 123B.25

School principals, reasonable force, use, Minn. Statutes 2018 121A.582

Seeds, violations, generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 18J.10

Self-defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.06, 2018 609.065

Sex crimes

Coercion for use in prostitution, excluded defenses, Minn. Statutes 2018 611A.81, 2018 611A.82

Sexual psychopathic personality, not defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 253D.07

Sexually dangerous person status, not defense, Minn. Statutes 2018 253D.07

Solicitation of children to engage in sexual conduct, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.352

Sex trafficking, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.284

Shooting victims, failure to aid, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.662

Signatures, credit agreements, absence, effect, Minn. Statutes 2018 513.33

Smoking regulations, Minn. Statutes 2018 327.742

Soil conservation, good faith practices, Minn. Statutes 2018 103F.441

Solicitation of children to engage in sexual conduct, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.352

Taxes

Generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 271.09

Jeopardy assessments, Minn. Statutes 2018 270C.36

Teachers, force used by, Minn. Statutes 2018 121A.582, 2018 123B.25

Tenants, eviction actions, Minn. Statutes 2018 504B.285

Theft, trade secrets, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.52

Timber cutting on state lands, Minn. Statutes 2018 90.301

Tobacco, tobacco related devices, or electronic delivery devices, sales to children

Municipal license violations, Minn. Statutes 2018 461.12

Reliance on proof of age, driver's license or Minnesota identification card, Minn. Statutes 2018 609.685

Traffic accidents, drivers, leaving scene of accident to obtain medical aid, Minn. Statutes 2018 169.09

Traffic sign or signal violations, motorcyclists or bicyclists, entering or crossing intersections against red light, Minn. Statutes 2018 169.06

Trespass, Minn. Statutes 2018 471.985

Trust companies, shareholders, assessments, Minn. Statutes 2018 49.19

Unauthorized insurers, Minn. Statutes 2018 60A.21

Wild animals, violations, Minn. Statutes 2018 35.95

Wiretapping, Minn. Statutes 2018 626A.13

Workers' compensation

Fraud, claim forms, criminal penalties notice, Minn. Statutes 2018 176.178

Generally, Minn. Statutes 2018 176.001 to 2018 176.862

Willful negligence, Minn. Statutes 2018 176.031