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HF 2898

as introduced - 89th Legislature (2015 - 2016) Posted on 03/10/2016 03:30pm

KEY: stricken = removed, old language.
underscored = added, new language.

Bill Text Versions

Engrossments
Introduction Posted on 03/10/2016

Current Version - as introduced

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A bill for an act
relating to data privacy; protecting student privacy in data on electronic devices
provided by an educational institution; providing penalties; proposing coding
for new law in Minnesota Statutes, chapter 125B.

BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF MINNESOTA:

Section 1.

new text begin [125B.30] DEFINITIONS.
new text end

new text begin (a) For the purposes of sections 125B.30 to 125B.34, the following terms have
the meanings given them.
new text end

new text begin (b) "1-to-1 program" means any program authorized by an educational institution
where a technological device is provided to a student by or through an educational
institution for overnight or at-home use.
new text end

new text begin (c) "1-to-1 device" means a technological device provided to a student pursuant
to a 1-to-1 program.
new text end

new text begin (d) "1-to-1 device provider" means a person or entity that provides a 1-to-1 device
to a student or educational institution pursuant to a 1-to-1 program, and includes any
business or nonprofit entities that share a parent, subsidiary, or sister relationship with
the entity that provides the 1-to-1 device.
new text end

new text begin (e) "Aggregate data" means student-related data collected and reported by an
educational institution at the group, cohort, or institutional level that contains no
personally identifiable student information.
new text end

new text begin (f) "De-identified" means having removed or obscured any personally identifiable
information from personally identifiable student information in a manner that prevents
the unintended disclosure of the identity of the student or information about the student.
Information shall not be considered de-identified if it meets the definition of "personally
identifiable student information" in paragraph (n).
new text end

new text begin (g) "Educational institution" means:
new text end

new text begin (1) a private or public school, institution, or school district, or any subdivision
thereof, that offers participants, students, or trainees an organized course of study or
training that is academic, trade-oriented, or preparatory for gainful employment, as well as
school employees acting under the authority or on behalf of an educational institution; or
new text end

new text begin (2) a state or local educational agency authorized to direct or control an entity in
clause (1).
new text end

new text begin (h) "Educational record" means an educational record as defined by United States
Code, title 20, section 1232g(a)(4), on the effective date of this section.
new text end

new text begin (i) "Education research" means the systematic gathering of empirical information to
advance knowledge, answer questions, identify trends, or improve outcomes within the
field of education.
new text end

new text begin (j) "Elementary school" means the grade levels falling under the definition of
"elementary school," as that term is interpreted by state law for purposes of section 9101
of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (United States Code, title 20,
section 7801 et seq.).
new text end

new text begin (k) "Law enforcement official" means an officer or employee of any agency or
authority of the state of Minnesota, or a political subdivision or agent thereof, who is
empowered by law to investigate or conduct an official inquiry into a potential violation of
law, make arrests, or prosecute or otherwise conduct a criminal, civil, or administrative
proceeding arising from an alleged violation of law.
new text end

new text begin (l) "Location tracking technology" means any hardware, software, or application that
collects or reports data that identifies the geophysical location of a technological device.
new text end

new text begin (m) "Opt-in agreement" means a discrete, verifiable, written, or electronically
generated agreement by which, subject to the provisions of sections 125B.30 to 125B.34,
a student or the student's parent or legal guardian voluntarily grants a school employee,
SIS provider, or 1-to-1 device provider with limited permission to access and interact with
a specifically defined set of personally identifiable student information.
new text end

new text begin (n) "Personally identifiable student information" means one or more of the following:
new text end

new text begin (1) a student's name;
new text end

new text begin (2) the name of a student's parent, legal guardian, or other family member;
new text end

new text begin (3) the address of a student or student's parent, legal guardian, or other family
member;
new text end

new text begin (4) a photograph, video, or audio recording that contains the student's image or voice;
new text end

new text begin (5) indirect identifiers, including but not limited to a student's date of birth, place of
birth, mother's maiden name, Social Security number, student number, biometric record,
telephone number, credit card account number, insurance account number, financial
services account number, customer number, persistent online identifier, e-mail address,
social media address, or other electronic address;
new text end

new text begin (6) any aggregate or de-identified student data that is capable of being disaggregated
or reconstructed to the point that individual students can be identified; and
new text end

new text begin (7) any student data or other information that, alone or in combination, is linked
or linkable to a specific student that would allow a reasonable person who does not
have personal knowledge of the relevant circumstances to identify a specific student
with reasonable certainty.
new text end

new text begin (o) "School employee" means an individual who is employed by an educational
institution, compensated through an annual salary or hourly wage paid by an educational
institution, and whose services are primarily rendered at a physical location that is owned
or leased by that educational institution. For purposes of sections 125B.30 to 125B.34,
individuals with law enforcement or school security responsibilities, including school
resource officers, school district police officers, contract or private security companies,
security guards, or other law enforcement personnel are not school employees.
new text end

new text begin (p) "Student" means any student, participant, or trainee, whether full time or part
time, in an organized course of study at an educational institution.
new text end

new text begin (q) "Student data" means data that is collected and stored by an educational
institution, or by a person or entity acting on behalf of that institution, and included in a
student's educational record.
new text end

new text begin (r) "Technological device" means any computer, cellular phone, smartphone, digital
camera, video camera, audio recording device, or other electronic device that can be used
for creating, storing, or transmitting information in the form of electronic data.
new text end

Sec. 2.

new text begin [125B.31] 1-TO-1 PROGRAMS.
new text end

new text begin Subdivision 1. new text end

new text begin General rule. new text end

new text begin When an educational institution or 1-to-1 device
provider provides a student with a technological device pursuant to a 1-to-1 program, no
school employee or 1-to-1 device provider, or an agent thereof, may access or track such a
device or the activity or data thereupon, either remotely or in person, except in accordance
with the provisions of this section.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 2. new text end

new text begin Exceptions. new text end

new text begin No school employee or 1-to-1 device provider, or an agent
thereof, may access any data input into, stored upon, or sent or received by a student's
1-to-1 device, including but not limited to its browser, keystroke, or location history, nor
may such data be analyzed, interacted with, shared, or transferred unless:
new text end

new text begin (1) the data being collected is not personally identifiable student information;
new text end

new text begin (2) the data is being accessed by or on behalf of a school employee who:
new text end

new text begin (i) is the student's teacher;
new text end

new text begin (ii) is receiving or reviewing the information for an educational purpose consistent
with the teacher's professional duties; and
new text end

new text begin (iii) does not use the information, or permit any other person or entity to use the
information, for any other purpose;
new text end

new text begin (3) a school employee or 1-to-1 device provider or an agent thereof has been
authorized to access specific personally identifiable student information pursuant to an
opt-in agreement under subdivision 9;
new text end

new text begin (4) a school employee has a reasonable suspicion that the student has violated or
is violating an educational institution policy and that data on the 1-to-1 device contains
evidence of the suspected violation, subject to the following limitations:
new text end

new text begin (i) prior to searching a student's 1-to-1 device based on reasonable individualized
suspicion, the school employee shall document the reasonable individualized suspicion
and notify the student and the student's parent or legal guardian of the suspected violation
and what data will be accessed in searching for evidence of the violation. An educational
institution, subject to any other relevant legal restrictions, may seize a student's 1-to-1
device to prevent data deletion pending notification, provided that:
new text end

new text begin (A) the prenotification seizure period is no greater than 48 hours; and
new text end

new text begin (B) the 1-to-1 device is stored securely on educational institution property and not
accessed during the prenotification seizure period;
new text end

new text begin (ii) searches of a student's device based upon a reasonable individualized suspicion
that an educational institution policy has been violated shall be strictly limited to finding
evidence of the suspected policy violation and shall immediately cease upon finding
sufficient evidence of the suspected violation. It shall be a violation of this item to copy,
share, or transfer any data, or any information thereabout, that is unrelated to the specific
suspected violation which prompted the search of the 1-to-1 device; and
new text end

new text begin (iii) when a student is suspected of illegal conduct, no search of the 1-to-1 device may
occur unless a judicial warrant has been secured according to clause (5) even if the student
is also suspected of a related or unrelated violation of educational institution policy;
new text end

new text begin (5) a school employee or law enforcement official reasonably suspects the student
has engaged or is engaging in illegal conduct, reasonably suspects data on the 1-to-1
device contains evidence of the suspected illegal conduct, and has secured a judicial
warrant for a search of the device;
new text end

new text begin (6) doing so is necessary to update or upgrade a device's software, or protect the
device from cyberthreats, and access is limited to that purpose;
new text end

new text begin (7) doing so is necessary in response to an imminent threat to life or safety and
access is limited to that purpose. Within 72 hours of accessing a 1-to-1 device's data in
response to an imminent threat to life or safety, the school employee or law enforcement
official who accessed the device shall provide the student whose device was accessed, the
student's parent or legal guardian, and the educational institution with a written description
of the precise threat that prompted the access and what data was accessed; or
new text end

new text begin (8) the information sent from the device is posted on a Web site that:
new text end

new text begin (i) is accessible by the general public; or
new text end

new text begin (ii) is accessible by a specific school employee who was granted permission by
the student to view the content.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 3. new text end

new text begin Use of location tracking technology. new text end

new text begin No school employee or 1-to-1
device provider, or an agent thereof, may use a student's 1-to-1 device's location tracking
technology to track a device's real-time or historical location, unless:
new text end

new text begin (1) such use is ordered pursuant to a judicial warrant;
new text end

new text begin (2) the student to whom the device was provided, or the student's parent or legal
guardian, has notified a school employee or law enforcement official that the device is
missing or stolen; or
new text end

new text begin (3) doing so is necessary in response to an imminent threat to life or safety and
access is limited to that purpose. Within 72 hours of accessing a 1-to-1 device's location
tracking technology in response to an imminent threat to life or safety, the school
employee or law enforcement official who accessed the device shall provide the student
whose device was accessed, the student's parent or legal guardian, and the educational
institution a written description of the precise threat that prompted the access and what
data and features were accessed.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 4. new text end

new text begin No access to audio or video receiving, transmitting, or recording
functions; exceptions.
new text end

new text begin No school employee or 1-to-1 device provider, or an agent thereof,
may activate or access any audio or video receiving, transmitting, or recording functions
on a student's 1-to-1 device, unless:
new text end

new text begin (1) a student initiates a video chat or audio chat with the school employee or 1-to-1
device provider;
new text end

new text begin (2) the activation or access is ordered pursuant to a judicial warrant; or
new text end

new text begin (3) doing so is necessary in response to an imminent threat to life or safety and
access is limited to that purpose. Within 72 hours of accessing a 1-to-1 device's audio or
video receiving, transmitting, or recording functions in response to an imminent threat
to life or safety, the school employee or law enforcement official who accessed the
device shall provide the student whose device was accessed, the student's parent or legal
guardian, and the educational institution a written description of the precise threat that
prompted the access and what data and features were accessed.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 5. new text end

new text begin No access to student's password-protected software, Web site accounts,
or applications; exceptions.
new text end

new text begin No school employee, or an agent thereof, may use a 1-to-1
device, or require a student to use a 1-to-1 device in their presence, in order to view or
gain access to a student's password-protected software, Web site accounts or applications,
except where:
new text end

new text begin (1) the school employee is a teacher;
new text end

new text begin (2) the student is enrolled in and participating in a class taught by the teacher; and
new text end

new text begin (3) the viewing of the 1-to-1 device relates exclusively to an educational purpose.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 6. new text end

new text begin Prohibited uses of student data. new text end

new text begin No 1-to-1 device provider, or an agent
thereof, may use any student data or personally identifiable student information stored on
or retrieved from a 1-to-1 device to:
new text end

new text begin (1) inform, influence, or direct marketing or advertising efforts directed at a student,
a student's parent or legal guardian, or a school employee, except pursuant to a valid
opt-in agreement; or
new text end

new text begin (2) develop, in full or in part, a student profile for any commercial or other
noneducational purpose.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 7. new text end

new text begin Training required. new text end

new text begin Notwithstanding any other provisions in this section,
no school employee may supervise, direct, or participate in a 1-to-1 program, or access
any 1-to-1 device or data thereupon, until the school employee has received adequate
training to ensure the school employee's understanding and compliance with the provisions
of this section.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 8. new text end

new text begin No sharing of personally identifiable student information; exceptions.
new text end

new text begin No personally identifiable student information obtained or received from a 1-to-1 device
by a school employee or 1-to-1 device provider may be sold, shared, or otherwise
transferred to another person or entity, except:
new text end

new text begin (1) to another school employee who has satisfied the requirements of subdivision 7
and is accessing the information in furtherance of the employee's professional duties; or
new text end

new text begin (2) where a 1-to-1 device provider has been authorized to do so pursuant to an opt-in
agreement under subdivision 9.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 9. new text end

new text begin Opt-in agreements. new text end

new text begin (a) For purposes of this section, a valid opt-in
agreement shall identify, with specificity:
new text end

new text begin (1) the precise subset of personally identifiable student information on the 1-to-1
device to which the authority to access, analyze, and interact is being granted;
new text end

new text begin (2) the name of the school employee or 1-to-1 device provider to whom the authority
to access, analyze, and interact with the personally identifiable student information on the
1-to-1 device is being granted;
new text end

new text begin (3) the educational purpose for which the school employee or 1-to-1 device
provider is being granted the authority to access, analyze, and interact with the personally
identifiable student information on the 1-to-1 device; and
new text end

new text begin (4) the individual student to whom the opt-in agreement applies.
new text end

new text begin (b) An opt-in agreement shall only be valid if it has been signed by:
new text end

new text begin (1) the student's parent or guardian, if the student is in elementary school;
new text end

new text begin (2) the student and the student's parent or legal guardian, if the student has advanced
beyond elementary school but has not yet reached the age of majority; or
new text end

new text begin (3) the student alone, if the student has reached the age of majority.
new text end

new text begin (c) An opt-in agreement shall not be valid if it actually or effectively grants a 1-to-1
device provider:
new text end

new text begin (1) general authority to access a student's 1-to-1 device; or
new text end

new text begin (2) the authority to collect all the personally identifiable student information that is
generated by or used in connection with a specific program or application.
new text end

new text begin (d) An opt-in agreement may be revoked at any time, upon written notice to an
educational institution, by the person eligible to authorize an opt-in agreement pursuant to
paragraph (b). Within 30 days of such a revocation, notice to any affected third parties
shall be made by the educational institution.
new text end

new text begin (e) A 1-to-1 device provider that accesses, analyzes, or interacts with personally
identifiable student information on a 1-to-1 device shall bear the burden of proving that it
acted pursuant to a valid opt-in agreement.
new text end

new text begin (f) No 1-to-1 device program offered to an educational institution or its students
may be conditioned upon the exclusive use of any software, application, Web site, or
Internet-based service sold to or provided by the 1-to-1 device provider.
new text end

new text begin (g) No 1-to-1 device or related educational benefit may be withheld from, or punitive
measure taken against, a student or the student's parent or legal guardian:
new text end

new text begin (1) based in whole or in part upon a decision not to sign, or to revoke, an opt-in
agreement; or
new text end

new text begin (2) based in whole or in part upon a student's refusal to open, close, or maintain an
e-mail or other electronic communications or social media account with a specific service
provider.
new text end

new text begin (h) A 1-to-1 device provider shall violate paragraph (g), clause (1), if it conditions
the offer, provision, or receipt of a 1-to-1 device upon a student's or the student's parent's or
legal guardian's agreement to provide access to personally identifiable student information.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 10. new text end

new text begin No sale, sharing, or transfer of personally identifiable student
information; exception.
new text end

new text begin No school employee or 1-to-1 device provider, or an agent
thereof, who receives or collects personally identifiable student information from a 1-to-1
device may share, sell or otherwise transfer such data to another person or entity unless, in
the case of a 1-to-1 device provider, such information is sold as part of a sale or merger of
the entirety of the 1-to-1 device provider's business. Any entity that purchases personally
identifiable student information pursuant to subdivision 9, paragraph (c), shall be subject
to the same restrictions and obligations under this section as the 1-to-1 device provider
from which the personally identifiable student information was obtained.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 11. new text end

new text begin Direct access prohibited; exceptions. new text end

new text begin No person or entity, other than
an educational institution, school employee, or 1-to-1 device provider subject to the
limitations set forth in this section, shall be provided direct access to review or interact
with a 1-to-1 device and the data thereon, unless otherwise authorized to do so by law,
pursuant to a judicial warrant, or upon the express permission of the student to whom the
1-to-1 device is issued.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 12. new text end

new text begin Return of 1-to-1 device; erase data. new text end

new text begin When a 1-to-1 device is
permanently returned by a student, the educational institution or 1-to-1 device provider
who provided it shall, without otherwise accessing the data on the 1-to-1 device, fully
erase all the data stored on the device and return the device to its default factory settings.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 13. new text end

new text begin Personally identifiable student data; general exceptions. new text end

new text begin The
provisions of section 125B.32 that relate to the collection and use of personally identifiable
student information shall not apply to personally identifiable student information collected
by a 1-to-1 provider from a software program, Web site or application that was:
new text end

new text begin (1) not preloaded on the 1-to-1 device;
new text end

new text begin (2) not the target of a link that was preloaded on the 1-to-1 device; and
new text end

new text begin (3) not promoted, marketed, or advertised in connection with the issuance of the
1-to-1 device.
new text end

Sec. 3.

new text begin [125B.32] LIMITATIONS ON USE.
new text end

new text begin Evidence or information obtained or collected in violation of sections 125B.30
to 125B.34 shall not be admissible in any civil or criminal trial or legal proceeding,
disciplinary action, or administrative hearing.
new text end

Sec. 4.

new text begin [125B.33] PENALTIES.
new text end

new text begin (a) Any person or entity who violates sections 125B.30 to 125B.34 shall be subject
to legal action for damages or equitable relief, to be brought by any other person claiming
that a violation of sections 125B.30 to 125B.34 has injured that person or that person's
reputation. A person so injured shall be entitled to actual damages, including mental pain
and suffering endured on account of violation of the provisions of sections 125B.30 to
125B.34, and reasonable attorney fees and other costs of litigation.
new text end

new text begin (b) Any school employee who violates sections 125B.30 to 125B.34, or any
implementing rule or regulation, may be subject to disciplinary proceedings and
punishment. For school employees who are represented under the terms of a collective
bargaining agreement, sections 125B.30 to 125B.34 prevail except where they
conflict with the collective bargaining agreement, any memorandum of agreement or
understanding signed pursuant to the collective bargaining agreement, or any recognized
and established practice relative to the members of the bargaining unit.
new text end

Sec. 5.

new text begin [125B.34] SEVERABILITY.
new text end

new text begin The provisions in sections 125B.30 to 125B.34 are severable. If any part or
provision of sections 125B.30 to 125B.34, or the application of sections 125B.30 to
125B.34 to any person, entity, or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of sections
125B.30 to 125B.34, including the application of such part or provision to other persons,
entities, or circumstances, shall not be affected by such holding and shall continue to
have force and effect.
new text end

Sec. 6. new text beginEFFECTIVE DATE.
new text end

new text begin Sections 1 to 5 are effective January 1, 2017.
new text end