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SF 4166

as introduced - 91st Legislature (2019 - 2020) Posted on 03/11/2020 04:37pm

KEY: stricken = removed, old language.
underscored = added, new language.

Current Version - as introduced

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A bill for an act
relating to education; strengthening the Increase Teachers of Color Act; seeking
to increase the percentage of teachers of color and American Indian teachers in
Minnesota; requiring reports; appropriating money; amending Minnesota Statutes
2018, sections 120B.11, subdivisions 2, 3; 122A.185, subdivision 1; 124D.861,
subdivision 2; proposing coding for new law in Minnesota Statutes, chapters 120B;
122A.

BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF MINNESOTA:

Section 1.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 120B.11, subdivision 2, is amended to read:


Subd. 2.

Adopting plans and budgets.

A school board, at a public meeting, deleted text beginshalldeleted text endnew text begin mustnew text end
adopt a comprehensive, long-term strategic plan to support and improve teaching and
learning that is aligned with creating the world's best workforce and includes:

(1) clearly defined district and school site goals and benchmarks for instruction and
student achievement for all student subgroups identified in section 120B.35, subdivision 3,
paragraph (b), clause (2);

(2) a process to assess and evaluate each student's progress toward meeting state and
local academic standards, assess and identify students to participate in gifted and talented
programs and accelerate their instruction, and adopt early-admission procedures consistent
with section 120B.15, and identifying the strengths and weaknesses of instruction in pursuit
of student and school success and curriculum affecting students' progress and growth toward
career and college readiness and leading to the world's best workforce;

(3) a system to periodically review and evaluate the effectiveness of all instruction and
curriculum, taking into account strategies and best practices, student outcomes, school
principal evaluations under section 123B.147, subdivision 3, students' access to effective
teachers who are members of populations underrepresented among the licensed teachers in
the district or school and who reflect the diversity of enrolled students under section 120B.35,
subdivision 3
, paragraph (b), clause (2), and teacher evaluations under section 122A.40,
subdivision 8
, or 122A.41, subdivision 5;

(4) strategies for improving instruction, curriculum, and student achievement, includingnew text begin:
new text end

new text begin (i)new text end the English and, where practicable, the native language development and the academic
achievement of English learnersnew text begin; and
new text end

new text begin (ii) for all learners, access to culturally relevant or ethnic studies curriculum using
culturally responsive methodologies
new text end;

(5) a process to examine the equitable distribution of teachers and strategies to ensure
new text begin children from new text endlow-income deleted text beginand minority childrendeleted text endnew text begin families, families of color, and American
Indian families
new text end are not taught at higher rates than other children by inexperienced, ineffective,
or out-of-field teachers;

(6) education effectiveness practices that integrate high-quality instructiondeleted text begin,deleted text endnew text begin;new text end rigorous
curriculumdeleted text begin,deleted text endnew text begin;new text end technologydeleted text begin,deleted text endnew text begin; inclusive and respectful learning and work environments for all
students, families, and employees;
new text end and a collaborative professional culture that deleted text begindevelops
and supports
deleted text endnew text begin retains qualified, racially and ethnically diverse staff effective at working with
diverse students while developing and supporting
new text end teacher quality, performance, and
effectiveness; and

(7) an annual budget for continuing to implement the district plan.

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective for all strategic plans reviewed and
updated after the day of final enactment.
new text end

Sec. 2.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 120B.11, subdivision 3, is amended to read:


Subd. 3.

District advisory committee.

Each school board deleted text beginshalldeleted text endnew text begin mustnew text end establish an advisory
committee to ensure active community participation in all phases of planning and improving
the instruction and curriculum affecting state and district academic standards, consistent
with subdivision 2. A district advisory committee, to the extent possible, deleted text beginshalldeleted text endnew text begin mustnew text end reflect
the diversity of the district and its school sites, include teachers, parents, support staff,
students, and other community residents, and provide translation to the extent appropriate
and practicable. The district advisory committee deleted text beginshalldeleted text endnew text begin mustnew text end pursue community support to
accelerate the academic and native literacy and achievement of English learners with varied
needs, from young children to adults, consistent with section 124D.59, subdivisions 2 and
2a. The district may establish site teams as subcommittees of the district advisory committee
under subdivision 4. The district advisory committee deleted text beginshalldeleted text endnew text begin mustnew text end recommend to the school
boardnew text begin:new text end rigorous academic standardsdeleted text begin,deleted text endnew text begin;new text end student achievement goals and measures consistent
with subdivision 1a and sections 120B.022, subdivisions 1a and 1b, and 120B.35deleted text begin,deleted text endnew text begin;new text end district
assessmentsdeleted text begin,deleted text endnew text begin;new text end means to improve students' equitable access to effective and more diverse
teachersdeleted text begin,deleted text endnew text begin; strategies to ensure the curriculum and learning and work environments are
inclusive and respectful toward all racial and ethnic groups;
new text end and program evaluations. School
sites may expand upon district evaluations of instruction, curriculum, assessments, or
programs. Whenever possible, parents and other community residents deleted text beginshalldeleted text endnew text begin mustnew text end comprise
at least two-thirds of advisory committee members.

Sec. 3.

new text begin [120B.117] INCREASING THE PERCENTAGE OF TEACHERS OF COLOR
AND AMERICAN INDIAN TEACHERS IN MINNESOTA.
new text end

new text begin Subdivision 1. new text end

new text begin Purpose. new text end

new text begin This section sets short-term and long-term state goals for
increasing the percentage of teachers of color and American Indian teachers in Minnesota,
and for ensuring all students have equitable access to effective and racially and ethnically
diverse teachers who reflect the diversity of students. The goals and report required under
this section are also important for meeting state goals for the world's best workforce under
section 120B.11, achievement and integration under section 124D.861, and higher education
attainment under section 135A.012, all of which have been established to close persistent
opportunity and achievement gaps that limit students' success in school and life and impede
the state's economic growth.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 2. new text end

new text begin Equitable access to racially and ethnically diverse teachers. new text end

new text begin The percentage
of teachers who are of color or American Indian in Minnesota should increase at least two
percentage points per year to have a teaching workforce that more closely reflects the state's
increasingly diverse student population and ensure all students have equitable access to
effective and diverse teachers by 2040.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 3. new text end

new text begin Rights not created. new text end

new text begin The attainment goal in this section is not to the exclusion
of any other goals and does not confer a right or create a claim for any person.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 4. new text end

new text begin Reporting. new text end

new text begin (a) Beginning in 2020 and every even-numbered year thereafter,
the Professional Educator Licensing and Standards Board must collaborate with the
Department of Education and the Office of Higher Education to publish a summary report
of the outcomes and effectiveness of each of the programs they administer and any other
programs receiving state appropriations that have or include an explicit purpose of increasing
the racial and ethnic diversity of the state's teacher workforce to more closely reflect the
diversity of students.
new text end

new text begin (b) The report must include programs under sections 122A.2451, 122A.63, 122A.635,
122A.685, 122A.70, 124D.09, 124D.861, 136A.1274, 136A.1275, and 136A.1791, along
with any other programs or initiatives that receive state appropriations to address the shortage
of teachers of color and American Indian teachers. The board must report on the effectiveness
of state-funded programs to increase the recruitment, preparation, licensing, hiring, and
retention of racially and ethnically diverse teachers and the state's progress toward meeting
or exceeding the goals of this section. The report must also include recommendations for
state policy and funding needed to achieve the goals of this section, as well as plans for
sharing the report and activities of grant recipients, and opportunities among grant recipients
of various programs to share effective practices with each other. The 2020 report must
include a recommendation of whether a state advisory council should be established to
address the shortage of racially and ethnically diverse teachers and what the composition
and charge of such an advisory council would be if established.
new text end

new text begin (c) The board must consult with the state Indian Affairs Council under section 3.922
and ethnic councils under section 15.0145 along with other community and stakeholder
groups, including students of color and American Indian students, in developing the report.
By November 1 of each even-numbered year, the board must submit the report to the chairs
and ranking minority members of the legislative committees with jurisdiction over education
and higher education policy and finance. The report must be available to the public on the
board's website.
new text end

Sec. 4.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 122A.185, subdivision 1, is amended to read:


Subdivision 1.

Tests.

(a) The Professional Educator Licensing and Standards Board
must adopt rules requiring a candidate to demonstrate a passing score on a board-adopted
examination of skills in reading, writing, and mathematics before being granted a Tier 4
teaching license under section 122A.184 to provide direct instruction to pupils in elementary,
secondary, or special education programs. Candidates may obtain a Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier
3 license to provide direct instruction to pupils in elementary, secondary, or special education
programs if candidates meet the other requirements in section 122A.181, 122A.182, or
122A.183, respectively.

(b) The board must adopt rules requiring candidates for Tier 3 and Tier 4 licenses to
pass an examination of general pedagogical knowledge and examinations of licensure field
specific content. The content examination requirement does not apply if no relevant content
exam exists.

(c) Candidates for initial Tier 3 and Tier 4 licenses to teach elementary students must
pass test items assessing the candidates' knowledge, skill, and ability in comprehensive,
scientifically based reading instruction under section 122A.06, subdivision 4, knowledge
and understanding of the foundations of reading development, development of reading
comprehension and reading assessment and instruction, and the ability to integrate that
knowledge and understanding into instruction strategies under section 122A.06, subdivision
4.

new text begin (d) All testing centers in the state must provide monthly opportunities for untimed
content, pedagogy, and skills examinations and these opportunities must be advertised on
the test registration website. The board must require the exam vendor to provide other
equitable opportunities to pass exams, including waiving testing fees for test takers who
qualify for federal grants; providing free, multiple, full-length practice tests for each exam
and free, comprehensive study guides on the test registration website; making content and
pedagogy exams available in languages other than English for teachers seeking licensure
to teach in language immersion programs; and providing free, detailed exam results analysis
by test objective to assist candidates who do not pass an exam in identifying areas for
improvement. Any candidate who has not passed a required exam after two attempts must
be allowed to retake the exam, including new versions of the exam, without being charged
an additional fee.
new text end

deleted text begin (d)deleted text endnew text begin (e)new text end The requirement to pass a board-adopted reading, writing, and mathematics skills
examination does not apply to nonnative English speakers, as verified by qualified Minnesota
school district personnel or Minnesota higher education faculty, who, after meeting the
content and pedagogy requirements under this subdivision, apply for a teaching license to
provide direct instruction in their native language or world language instruction under section
120B.022, subdivision 1.

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective July 1, 2020.
new text end

Sec. 5.

new text begin [122A.685] GRANTS FOR GROW YOUR OWN PROGRAMS.
new text end

new text begin Subdivision 1. new text end

new text begin Establishment. new text end

new text begin The commissioner of education must award grants for
the three types of Grow Your Own programs established under this section in order to
develop a teaching workforce that more closely reflects the state's increasingly diverse
student population and ensure all students have equitable access to effective and diverse
teachers.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 2. new text end

new text begin Definitions. new text end

new text begin (a) For purposes of this section, the following terms have the
meanings given.
new text end

new text begin (b) "Eligible district" means a school district, charter school, or cooperative unit under
section 123A.24, subdivision 2.
new text end

new text begin (c) "Grow Your Own program" means a program established by an eligible district in
partnership with a Professional Educator Licensing and Standards Board-approved teacher
preparation program provider, or by a Head Start program under section 119A.50, to provide
a pathway for candidates to enter the teaching profession and teach at any level from early
childhood to secondary school.
new text end

new text begin (d) "Residency program" means a Professional Educator Licensing and Standards
Board-approved teacher preparation program established by an eligible district and a
board-approved teacher preparation program provider that uses a cohort-based model and
includes a yearlong clinical experience integrating coursework and student teaching.
new text end

new text begin (e) "Resident" means a teacher candidate participating in a residency program.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 3. new text end

new text begin Grants to residency programs. new text end

new text begin (a) An eligible district may apply for grants
to develop, maintain, or expand effective residency programs. A residency program must
pair a resident with a teacher of record who must hold a Tier 3 or 4 license. The residency
program must provide the teacher of record with ongoing professional development in
co-teaching, mentoring, and coaching skills and must ensure that the resident and teacher
of record co-teach and participate in required teacher professional development activities
for at least 80 percent of the contracted week for a full academic year.
new text end

new text begin (b) A grant recipient must use at least 80 percent of grant funds to provide tuition
scholarships or stipends to enable employees or community members seeking a teaching
license, who are of color or American Indian, to participate in a residency program. A grant
recipient may request permission from the commissioner to use the remaining grant funds
to provide tuition scholarships to employees who are not persons of color or American
Indian and who seek to teach in a licensure area in which the eligible school has a shortage
of Tier 3 or 4 licensed teachers.
new text end

new text begin (c) An eligible school using grant funds under this subdivision to provide financial
support to teacher candidates may require a commitment from a candidate to teach in the
eligible school for a reasonable amount of time not to exceed five years.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 4. new text end

new text begin Grants for programs serving adults. new text end

new text begin (a) An eligible school or Head Start
program under section 119A.50 may apply for grants to provide financial assistance,
mentoring, and other experiences to support persons of color or American Indian persons
to become licensed teachers or preschool teachers.
new text end

new text begin (b) An eligible school or Head Start program must use grant funds awarded under this
subdivision for:
new text end

new text begin (1) tuition scholarships or stipends to eligible Tier 2 licensed teachers, education
assistants, cultural liaisons, or other nonlicensed employees who are of color or American
Indian and are enrolled in undergraduate or graduate-level coursework that is part of a
board-approved teacher preparation program leading to a Tier 3 teacher license;
new text end

new text begin (2) developing and implementing pathway programs with local community-based
organizations led by and for communities of color or American Indian communities that
provide stipends or tuition scholarships to parents and community members who are of
color or American Indian to change careers and obtain a Tier 3 license or other credential
needed to teach in a Head Start program; or
new text end

new text begin (3) collaborating with a board-approved teacher preparation program provided by a
postsecondary institution to develop and implement innovative teacher preparation programs
that lead to Tier 2 or Tier 3 licensure, involve more intensive and extensive clinical
experiences with more professional coaching or mentorship than are typically required in
traditional college or university campus-based teacher preparation programs, provide
candidates with support that is responsive to the unique needs of candidates who are of
color or American Indian, and have more than half of their candidates identify as persons
of color or American Indian.
new text end

new text begin (c) An eligible school or Head Start program providing financial assistance to individuals
under this subdivision may require a commitment from candidates to teach in the eligible
school or Head Start program for a reasonable amount of time not to exceed five years.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 5. new text end

new text begin Grants for programs serving secondary school students. new text end

new text begin (a) In addition to
grants for developing and offering dual-credit postsecondary course options in schools for
"Introduction to Teaching" or "Introduction to Education" courses under section 124D.09,
subdivision 10, a school district or charter school may apply for grants under this section
to offer other innovative programs that encourage secondary school students, especially
students of color and American Indian students, to pursue teaching. To be eligible for a
grant under this subdivision, a school district or charter school must ensure that the aggregate
percentage of secondary school students of color and American Indian students participating
in the program is equal to or greater than the aggregate percentage of students of color and
American Indian students in the school district or charter school.
new text end

new text begin (b) A grant recipient must use grant funds awarded under this subdivision for:
new text end

new text begin (1) supporting future teacher clubs or service-learning opportunities that provide middle
and high-school students who are of color or American Indian to have experiential learning
supporting the success of younger students or peers and to increase students' interest in
pursuing a teaching career;
new text end

new text begin (2) providing direct support, including wrap-around services, for students who are of
color or American Indian to enroll and be successful in postsecondary enrollment options
courses under section 124D.09 that would meet degree requirements for teacher licensure;
or
new text end

new text begin (3) offering scholarships to graduating high school students who are of color or American
Indian to enroll in board-approved undergraduate teacher preparation programs at a college
or university in Minnesota.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 6. new text end

new text begin Grant procedure. new text end

new text begin (a) An eligible school or Head Start program must apply
for a grant under this section in the form and manner specified by the commissioner. The
commissioner must give priority to eligible schools or Head Start programs with the highest
total number or percentage of students who are of color or American Indian.
new text end

new text begin (b) For the 2021-2022 school year and later, grant applications for new and existing
programs must be received by the commissioner no later than January 15 of the year prior
to the school year in which the grant will be used. The commissioner must review all
applications and notify grant recipients by March 15 or as soon as practicable of the
anticipated amount awarded. If the commissioner determines that sufficient funding is
unavailable for the grants, the commissioner must notify grant applicants by June 30 or as
soon as practicable that there are insufficient funds.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 7. new text end

new text begin Account established. new text end

new text begin A Grow Your Own program account is created in the
special revenue fund for depositing money appropriated to or received by the department
for Grow Your Own programs. Money deposited in the account is appropriated to the
commissioner, does not cancel, and is continuously available for grants under this section.
Grant recipients may apply to use grant money over a period of up to 24 months.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 8. new text end

new text begin Report. new text end

new text begin Grant recipients must annually report to the commissioner in the form
and manner determined by the commissioner on their activities under this section, including
the number of participants, the percentage of participants who are of color or American
Indian, and an assessment of program effectiveness, including participant feedback, areas
for improvement, the percentage of participants continuing to pursue teacher licensure, and
where applicable, the number of participants hired in the school or district as teachers after
completing preparation programs. The commissioner must publish a report for the public
that summarizes the activities and outcomes of grant recipients and what was done to promote
sharing of effective practices among grant recipients and potential grant applicants.
new text end

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective July 1, 2021.
new text end

Sec. 6.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 124D.861, subdivision 2, is amended to read:


Subd. 2.

Plan implementation; components.

(a) The school board of each eligible
district must formally develop and implement a long-term plan under this section. The plan
must be incorporated into the district's comprehensive strategic plan under section 120B.11.
deleted text begin Plan components may include: innovative and integrated prekindergarten through grade 12
learning environments that offer students school enrollment choices; family engagement
initiatives that involve families in their students' academic life and success; professional
development opportunities for teachers and administrators focused on improving the academic
achievement of all students, including teachers and administrators who are members of
populations underrepresented among the licensed teachers or administrators in the district
or school and who reflect the diversity of students under section 120B.35, subdivision 3,
paragraph (b), clause (2), who are enrolled in the district or school; increased programmatic
opportunities and effective and more diverse instructors focused on rigor and college and
career readiness for underserved students, including students enrolled in alternative learning
centers under section 123A.05, public alternative programs under section 126C.05,
subdivision 15
, and contract alternative programs under section 124D.69, among other
underserved students; or recruitment and retention of teachers and administrators with
diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds.
deleted text end

new text begin (b)new text end The plan must contain goals for:

(1) reducing the disparities in academic achievement and in equitable access to effective
and more diverse teachers among all students and specific categories of students under
section 120B.35, subdivision 3, paragraph (b), excluding the student categories of gender,
disability, and English learners; and

(2) increasing racial and economic diversity and integration in schools and districts.

new text begin (c) The plan must include strategies to make schools' curriculum and learning and work
environments more inclusive and respectful of students' racial and ethnic diversity and to
address issues of structural inequities in schools that create opportunity and achievement
gaps for students, families, and staff who are of color or American Indian. Examples of
possible structural inequities include policies and practices that unintentionally result in
disparate discipline referrals and suspension, inequitable access to advanced coursework,
overrepresentation in lower-level coursework, inequitable participation in cocurricular
activities, inequitable parent involvement, and lack of access to racially and ethnically
diverse teachers.
new text end

new text begin (d) School districts must use local data, to the extent practicable, to develop plan
components and strategies. Plans may include:
new text end

new text begin (1) innovative and integrated prekindergarten through grade 12 learning environments
that offer students school enrollment choices;
new text end

new text begin (2) family engagement initiatives that involve families in their students' academic life
and success and improve relations between home and school;
new text end

new text begin (3) opportunities for students, families, staff, and community members who are of color
or American Indian to share their experiences in the school setting with school staff and
administration and to inform development of specific proposals for making school
environments more inclusive and respectful toward all students, families, and staff;
new text end

new text begin (4) professional development opportunities for teachers and administrators focused on
improving the academic achievement of all students, including knowledge, skills, and
dispositions needed to be culturally responsive and to successfully serve students who are
from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds;
new text end

new text begin (5) recruitment and retention of teachers, administrators, cultural and family liaisons,
paraprofessionals, and other nonlicensed staff from racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds
represented in the student population to strengthen relationships with all students, families,
and other members of the community;
new text end

new text begin (6) examination of academic and discipline data, institutional policies and practices that
result in opportunity and achievement disparities between racial and ethnic groups, and
changes that increase access, meaningful participation, representation, and positive outcomes
for students of color and American Indian students;
new text end

new text begin (7) increased programmatic opportunities and effective and more diverse instructors
focused on rigor and college and career readiness for underserved students, including students
enrolled in alternative learning centers under section 123A.05, public alternative programs
under section 126C.05, subdivision 15, and contract alternative programs under section
124D.69, among other underserved students;
new text end

new text begin (8) ethnic studies course offerings to provide all students with opportunities to learn
about their own and others' cultures and historical experiences; or
new text end

new text begin (9) examination and revision of curricula in various subjects to be culturally relevant
and inclusive of diverse racial and ethnic groups while meeting state academic standards.
new text end

deleted text begin (b)deleted text endnew text begin (e)new text end Among other requirements, an eligible district must implement effective,
research-based interventions that include formative assessment practices to reduce the
disparities in student academic performance among the specific categories of students as
measured by student progress and growth on state reading and math assessments and as
aligned with section 120B.11.

deleted text begin (c)deleted text endnew text begin (f)new text end Eligible districts must create efficiencies and eliminate duplicative programs and
services under this section, which may include forming collaborations or a single,
seven-county metropolitan areawide partnership of eligible districts for this purpose.

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective for all plans reviewed and updated after
the day following final enactment.
new text end

Sec. 7. new text beginAPPROPRIATIONS.
new text end

new text begin Subdivision 1. new text end

new text begin Department of Education. new text end

new text begin The sums indicated in this section are
appropriated from the general fund to the Department of Education for the fiscal year
designated.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 2. new text end

new text begin Collaborative urban and greater Minnesota educators of color grants. new text end

new text begin (a)
For transfer to the Professional Educator Licensing and Standards Board for collaborative
urban and greater Minnesota educators of color competitive grants under Minnesota Statutes,
section 122A.635:
new text end

new text begin $
new text end
new text begin .......
new text end
new text begin .....
new text end
new text begin 2021
new text end

new text begin (b) Any balance does not cancel but is available in the following fiscal year.
new text end

new text begin (c) This is a onetime appropriation in addition to any prior appropriated funds.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 3. new text end

new text begin Grow Your Own pathways to teacher licensure grants. new text end

new text begin (a) For grants to
develop or expand Grow Your Own new teacher programs:
new text end

new text begin $
new text end
new text begin .......
new text end
new text begin .....
new text end
new text begin 2021
new text end

new text begin (b) Any balance does not cancel but is available in the following fiscal year.
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new text begin (c) This is a onetime appropriation in addition to any prior appropriated funds.
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new text begin Subd. 4. new text end

new text begin Mentoring, induction, and retention incentive program grants for teachers
of color.
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new text begin (a) For transfer to the Professional Educator Licensing and Standards Board for
the development and expansion of mentoring, induction, and retention programs designed
for teachers of color or American Indian teachers under Minnesota Statutes, section 122A.70:
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new text begin $
new text end
new text begin .......
new text end
new text begin .....
new text end
new text begin 2021
new text end

new text begin (b) Any balance does not cancel but is available in the following fiscal year.
new text end

new text begin (c) This is a onetime appropriation in addition to any prior appropriated funds.
new text end

new text begin Subd. 5. new text end

new text begin Reports on increasing percentage of teachers of color and American Indian
teachers.
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new text begin For transfer to the Professional Educator Licensing and Standards Board for a
report on the efforts and impact of all state-funded programs to increase the percentage of
teachers of color and American Indian teachers in Minnesota schools developed in
consultation with the Department of Education, Office of Higher Education, grant recipients,
and stakeholders.
new text end

new text begin $
new text end
new text begin 15,000
new text end
new text begin .....
new text end
new text begin 2021
new text end