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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

HF 480

as introduced - 91st Legislature (2019 - 2020) Posted on 03/20/2019 12:50pm

KEY: stricken = removed, old language.
underscored = added, new language.

Current Version - as introduced

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10.33

A bill for an act
relating to public safety; amending certain criminal sexual conduct definitions;
expanding criminal sexual conduct offenses for persons in current or recent
positions of authority over juveniles; eliminating some affirmative defenses to
certain criminal sexual conduct charges; removing the statute of limitations for
felony criminal sexual conduct offenses; amending Minnesota Statutes 2018,
sections 609.341, subdivisions 4, 7, 10; 609.342, subdivision 1; 609.343,
subdivision 1; 609.344, subdivision 1; 609.345, subdivision 1; 628.26.

BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF MINNESOTA:

Section 1. new text beginTITLE.
new text end

new text begin This act shall be known as "Hannah's Law."
new text end

Sec. 2.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 609.341, subdivision 4, is amended to read:


Subd. 4.

Consent.

(a) "Consent" means words or overt actions by a person indicating a
new text begin knowingly and new text endfreely given present agreement to perform a particular sexual act with the
actor. Consent does not mean the existence of a prior or current social relationship between
the actor and the complainant or that the complainant failed to resist a particular sexual act.

(b) A person who is mentally incapacitated or physically helpless as defined by this
section cannot consent to a sexual act.

(c) Corroboration of the victim's testimony is not required to show lack of consent.

Sec. 3.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 609.341, subdivision 7, is amended to read:


Subd. 7.

Mentally incapacitated.

"Mentally incapacitated" means that a person under
the influence of alcohol, a narcotic, anesthetic, or any other substancedeleted text begin, administered to that
person without the person's agreement,
deleted text end lacks the judgment to give a reasoned consent to
sexual contact or sexual penetration.

Sec. 4.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 609.341, subdivision 10, is amended to read:


Subd. 10.

new text beginCurrent or recent new text endposition of authority.

"new text beginCurrent or recent new text endposition of
authority" includes but is not limited to any person who is a parent or acting in the place of
a parent and charged withnew text begin or assumesnew text end any of a parent's rights, duties or responsibilities to
a child, or a person who is charged withnew text begin or assumesnew text end any duty or responsibility for the health,
welfare, or supervision of a child, either independently or through another, no matter how
brief, at the time ofnew text begin or within 120 days immediately precedingnew text end the act. For the purposes of
subdivision 11, "position of authority" includes a psychotherapist.

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective August 1, 2019, and applies to crimes
committed on or after that date.
new text end

Sec. 5.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 609.342, subdivision 1, is amended to read:


Subdivision 1.

Crime defined.

A person who engages in sexual penetration with another
person, or in sexual contact with a person under 13 years of age as defined in section 609.341,
subdivision 11
, paragraph (c), is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the first degree if any
of the following circumstances exists:

(a) the complainant is under 13 years of age and the actor is more than 36 months older
than the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by
the complainant is a defense;

(b) the complainant is at least 13 years of age but less than 16 years of age and the actor
is more than 48 months older than the complainant and in anew text begin current or recentnew text end position of
authority over the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to
the act by the complainant is a defense;

(c) circumstances existing at the time of the act cause the complainant to have a
reasonable fear of imminent great bodily harm to the complainant or another;

(d) the actor is armed with a dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned in a
manner to lead the complainant to reasonably believe it to be a dangerous weapon and uses
or threatens to use the weapon or article to cause the complainant to submit;

(e) the actor causes personal injury to the complainant, and either of the following
circumstances exist:

(i) the actor uses force or coercion to accomplish sexual penetration; or

(ii) the actor knows or has reason to know that the complainant is mentally impaired,
mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless;

(f) the actor is aided or abetted by one or more accomplices within the meaning of section
609.05, and either of the following circumstances exists:

(i) an accomplice uses force or coercion to cause the complainant to submit; or

(ii) an accomplice is armed with a dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned
in a manner to lead the complainant reasonably to believe it to be a dangerous weapon and
uses or threatens to use the weapon or article to cause the complainant to submit;

(g) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant and the complainant was
under 16 years of age at the time of the sexual penetration. Neither mistake as to the
complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense; or

(h) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant, the complainant was under
16 years of age at the time of the sexual penetration, and:

(i) the actor or an accomplice used force or coercion to accomplish the penetration;

(ii) the complainant suffered personal injury; or

(iii) the sexual abuse involved multiple acts committed over an extended period of time.

Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is
a defense.

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective August 1, 2019, and applies to crimes
committed on or after that date.
new text end

Sec. 6.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 609.343, subdivision 1, is amended to read:


Subdivision 1.

Crime defined.

A person who engages in sexual contact with another
person is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the second degree if any of the following
circumstances exists:

(a) the complainant is under 13 years of age and the actor is more than 36 months older
than the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by
the complainant is a defense. In a prosecution under this clause, the state is not required to
prove that the sexual contact was coerced;

(b) the complainant is at least 13 but less than 16 years of age and the actor is more than
48 months older than the complainant and in anew text begin current or recentnew text end position of authority over
the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the
complainant is a defense;

(c) circumstances existing at the time of the act cause the complainant to have a
reasonable fear of imminent great bodily harm to the complainant or another;

(d) the actor is armed with a dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned in a
manner to lead the complainant to reasonably believe it to be a dangerous weapon and uses
or threatens to use the dangerous weapon to cause the complainant to submit;

(e) the actor causes personal injury to the complainant, and either of the following
circumstances exist:

(i) the actor uses force or coercion to accomplish the sexual contact; or

(ii) the actor knows or has reason to know that the complainant is mentally impaired,
mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless;

(f) the actor is aided or abetted by one or more accomplices within the meaning of section
609.05, and either of the following circumstances exists:

(i) an accomplice uses force or coercion to cause the complainant to submit; or

(ii) an accomplice is armed with a dangerous weapon or any article used or fashioned
in a manner to lead the complainant to reasonably believe it to be a dangerous weapon and
uses or threatens to use the weapon or article to cause the complainant to submit;

(g) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant and the complainant was
under 16 years of age at the time of the sexual contact. Neither mistake as to the complainant's
age nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense; or

(h) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant, the complainant was under
16 years of age at the time of the sexual contact, and:

(i) the actor or an accomplice used force or coercion to accomplish the contact;

(ii) the complainant suffered personal injury; or

(iii) the sexual abuse involved multiple acts committed over an extended period of time.

Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is
a defense.

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective August 1, 2019, and applies to crimes
committed on or after that date.
new text end

Sec. 7.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 609.344, subdivision 1, is amended to read:


Subdivision 1.

Crime defined.

A person who engages in sexual penetration with another
person is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the third degree if any of the following
circumstances exists:

(a) the complainant is under 13 years of age and the actor is no more than 36 months
older than the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the
act by the complainant shall be a defense;

(b) the complainant is at least 13 but less than 16 years of age and the actor is more than
24 months older than the complainant. deleted text beginIn any such case if the actor is no more than 120
months older than the complainant, it shall be an affirmative defense, which must be proved
by a preponderance of the evidence, that the actor reasonably believes the complainant to
be 16 years of age or older. In all other cases,
deleted text end new text beginNeither new text endmistake as to the complainant's age
deleted text begin shall not be a defense.deleted text endnew text begin nornew text end consent new text beginto the act new text endby the complainant deleted text beginis notdeleted text endnew text begin shall benew text end a defense;

(c) the actor uses force or coercion to accomplish the penetration;

(d) the actor knows or has reason to know that the complainant is mentally impaired,
mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless;

(e) the complainant is at least 16 but less than 18 years of age and the actor is more than
48 months older than the complainant and in anew text begin current or recentnew text end position of authority over
the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the
complainant is a defense;

(f) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant and the complainant was
at least 16 but under 18 years of age at the time of the sexual penetration. Neither mistake
as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense;

(g) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant, the complainant was at
least 16 but under 18 years of age at the time of the sexual penetration, and:

(i) the actor or an accomplice used force or coercion to accomplish the penetration;

(ii) the complainant suffered personal injury; or

(iii) the sexual abuse involved multiple acts committed over an extended period of time.

Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is
a defense;

(h) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a patient of the psychotherapist
and the sexual penetration occurred:

(i) during the psychotherapy session; or

(ii) outside the psychotherapy session if an ongoing psychotherapist-patient relationship
exists.

Consent by the complainant is not a defense;

(i) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a former patient of the
psychotherapist and the former patient is emotionally dependent upon the psychotherapist;

(j) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a patient or former patient and
the sexual penetration occurred by means of therapeutic deception. Consent by the
complainant is not a defense;

(k) the actor accomplishes the sexual penetration by means of deception or false
representation that the penetration is for a bona fide medical purpose. Consent by the
complainant is not a defense;

(l) the actor is or purports to be a member of the clergy, the complainant is not married
to the actor, and:

(i) the sexual penetration occurred during the course of a meeting in which the
complainant sought or received religious or spiritual advice, aid, or comfort from the actor
in private; or

(ii) the sexual penetration occurred during a period of time in which the complainant
was meeting on an ongoing basis with the actor to seek or receive religious or spiritual
advice, aid, or comfort in private. Consent by the complainant is not a defense;

(m) the actor is an employee, independent contractor, or volunteer of a state, county,
city, or privately operated adult or juvenile correctional system, or secure treatment facility,
or treatment facility providing services to clients civilly committed as mentally ill and
dangerous, sexually dangerous persons, or sexual psychopathic personalities, including, but
not limited to, jails, prisons, detention centers, or work release facilities, and the complainant
is a resident of a facility or under supervision of the correctional system. Consent by the
complainant is not a defense;

(n) the actor provides or is an agent of an entity that provides special transportation
service, the complainant used the special transportation service, and the sexual penetration
occurred during or immediately before or after the actor transported the complainant. Consent
by the complainant is not a defense; or

(o) the actor performs massage or other bodywork for hire, the complainant was a user
of one of those services, and nonconsensual sexual penetration occurred during or
immediately before or after the actor performed or was hired to perform one of those services
for the complainant.

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective August 1, 2019, and applies to crimes
committed on or after that date.
new text end

Sec. 8.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 609.345, subdivision 1, is amended to read:


Subdivision 1.

Crime defined.

A person who engages in sexual contact with another
person is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the fourth degree if any of the following
circumstances exists:

(a) the complainant is under 13 years of age and the actor is no more than 36 months
older than the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age or consent to the
act by the complainant is a defense. In a prosecution under this clause, the state is not
required to prove that the sexual contact was coerced;

(b) the complainant is at least 13 but less than 16 years of age and the actor is more than
48 months older than the complainant or in anew text begin current or recentnew text end position of authority over
the complainant. Consent by the complainant to the act is not a defense. deleted text beginIn any such case,
if the actor is no more than 120 months older than the complainant, it shall be an affirmative
defense which must be proved by a preponderance of the evidence that the actor reasonably
believes the complainant to be 16 years of age or older. In all other cases,
deleted text end new text beginNeither new text endmistake
as to the complainant's age deleted text beginshall not bedeleted text endnew text begin nor consent to the act by the complainant isnew text end a defense;

(c) the actor uses force or coercion to accomplish the sexual contact;

(d) the actor knows or has reason to know that the complainant is mentally impaired,
mentally incapacitated, or physically helpless;

(e) the complainant is at least 16 but less than 18 years of age and the actor is more than
48 months older than the complainant and in anew text begin current or recentnew text end position of authority over
the complainant. Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the
complainant is a defense;

(f) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant and the complainant was
at least 16 but under 18 years of age at the time of the sexual contact. Neither mistake as to
the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is a defense;

(g) the actor has a significant relationship to the complainant, the complainant was at
least 16 but under 18 years of age at the time of the sexual contact, and:

(i) the actor or an accomplice used force or coercion to accomplish the contact;

(ii) the complainant suffered personal injury; or

(iii) the sexual abuse involved multiple acts committed over an extended period of time.

Neither mistake as to the complainant's age nor consent to the act by the complainant is
a defense;

(h) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a patient of the psychotherapist
and the sexual contact occurred:

(i) during the psychotherapy session; or

(ii) outside the psychotherapy session if an ongoing psychotherapist-patient relationship
exists. Consent by the complainant is not a defense;

(i) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a former patient of the
psychotherapist and the former patient is emotionally dependent upon the psychotherapist;

(j) the actor is a psychotherapist and the complainant is a patient or former patient and
the sexual contact occurred by means of therapeutic deception. Consent by the complainant
is not a defense;

(k) the actor accomplishes the sexual contact by means of deception or false representation
that the contact is for a bona fide medical purpose. Consent by the complainant is not a
defense;

(l) the actor is or purports to be a member of the clergy, the complainant is not married
to the actor, and:

(i) the sexual contact occurred during the course of a meeting in which the complainant
sought or received religious or spiritual advice, aid, or comfort from the actor in private; or

(ii) the sexual contact occurred during a period of time in which the complainant was
meeting on an ongoing basis with the actor to seek or receive religious or spiritual advice,
aid, or comfort in private. Consent by the complainant is not a defense;

(m) the actor is an employee, independent contractor, or volunteer of a state, county,
city, or privately operated adult or juvenile correctional system, or secure treatment facility,
or treatment facility providing services to clients civilly committed as mentally ill and
dangerous, sexually dangerous persons, or sexual psychopathic personalities, including, but
not limited to, jails, prisons, detention centers, or work release facilities, and the complainant
is a resident of a facility or under supervision of the correctional system. Consent by the
complainant is not a defense;

(n) the actor provides or is an agent of an entity that provides special transportation
service, the complainant used the special transportation service, the complainant is not
married to the actor, and the sexual contact occurred during or immediately before or after
the actor transported the complainant. Consent by the complainant is not a defense; or

(o) the actor performs massage or other bodywork for hire, the complainant was a user
of one of those services, and nonconsensual sexual contact occurred during or immediately
before or after the actor performed or was hired to perform one of those services for the
complainant.

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective August 1, 2019, and applies to crimes
committed on or after that date.
new text end

Sec. 9.

Minnesota Statutes 2018, section 628.26, is amended to read:


628.26 LIMITATIONS.

(a) Indictments or complaints for any crime resulting in the death of the victim may be
found or made at any time after the death of the person killed.

(b) Indictments or complaints for a violation of section 609.25 may be found or made
at any time after the commission of the offense.

(c) Indictments or complaints for violation of section 609.282 may be found or made at
any time after the commission of the offense if the victim was under the age of 18 at the
time of the offense.

(d) Indictments or complaints for violation of section 609.282 where the victim was 18
years of age or older at the time of the offense, or 609.42, subdivision 1, clause (1) or (2),
shall be found or made and filed in the proper court within six years after the commission
of the offense.

(e) Indictments or complaints for violation of sections 609.322 and 609.342 to 609.345deleted text begin,
if the victim was under the age of 18 years at the time the offense was committed, shall be
found or made and filed in the proper court within the later of nine years after the commission
of the offense or three years after the offense was reported to law enforcement authorities.
deleted text end

deleted text begin (f) Notwithstanding the limitations in paragraph (e), indictments or complaints for
violation of sections 609.322 and 609.342 to 609.344
deleted text end may be found or made and filed in
the proper court at any time after commission of the offensedeleted text begin, if physical evidence is collected
and preserved that is capable of being tested for its DNA characteristics. If this evidence is
not collected and preserved and the victim was 18 years old or older at the time of the
offense, the prosecution must be commenced within nine years after the commission of the
offense
deleted text end.

deleted text begin (g)deleted text endnew text begin (f)new text end Indictments or complaints for violation of sections 609.466 and 609.52, subdivision
2
, clause (3), item (iii), shall be found or made and filed in the proper court within six years
after the commission of the offense.

deleted text begin (h)deleted text endnew text begin (g)new text end Indictments or complaints for violation of section 609.2335, 609.52, subdivision
2
, clause (3), items (i) and (ii), (4), (15), or (16), 609.631, or 609.821, where the value of
the property or services stolen is more than $35,000, or for violation of section 609.527
where the offense involves eight or more direct victims or the total combined loss to the
direct and indirect victims is more than $35,000, shall be found or made and filed in the
proper court within five years after the commission of the offense.

deleted text begin (i)deleted text endnew text begin (h)new text end Except for violations relating to false material statements, representations or
omissions, indictments or complaints for violations of section 609.671 shall be found or
made and filed in the proper court within five years after the commission of the offense.

deleted text begin (j)deleted text endnew text begin (i)new text end Indictments or complaints for violation of sections 609.561 to 609.563, shall be
found or made and filed in the proper court within five years after the commission of the
offense.

deleted text begin (k)deleted text endnew text begin (j)new text end In all other cases, indictments or complaints shall be found or made and filed in
the proper court within three years after the commission of the offense.

deleted text begin (l)deleted text endnew text begin (k)new text end The limitations periods contained in this section shall exclude any period of time
during which the defendant was not an inhabitant of or usually resident within this state.

deleted text begin (m)deleted text endnew text begin (l)new text end The limitations periods contained in this section for an offense shall not include
any period during which the alleged offender participated under a written agreement in a
pretrial diversion program relating to that offense.

deleted text begin (n)deleted text endnew text begin (m)new text end The limitations periods contained in this section shall not include any period of
time during which physical evidence relating to the offense was undergoing DNA analysis,
as defined in section 299C.155, unless the defendant demonstrates that the prosecuting or
law enforcement agency purposefully delayed the DNA analysis process in order to gain
an unfair advantage.

new text begin EFFECTIVE DATE. new text end

new text begin This section is effective the day following final enactment.
new text end