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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

DEFENSES

See also DEFENDANTS

Adultery, woman's marital status unknown, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.36

Adverse claims to real property

Value of improvements, taxes, and assessments, Minn. Statutes 2009 559.11

Advisory opinions

Campaign Finance and Public Disclosure Board, Minn. Statutes 2009 10A.02

Agricultural chemicals

Act of God, Minn. Statutes 2009 18D.111, 2009 18D.325

End user or landowner, application, Minn. Statutes 2009 18D.101

Sabotage, Minn. Statutes 2009 18D.325

Vandalism, Minn. Statutes 2009 18D.325

War, Minn. Statutes 2009 18D.325

Aircraft, operating under influence of alcohol or controlled substances, Minn. Statutes 2009 360.0752

Alcoholic beverages

Children, consumption by, consent of parent or guardian, Minn. Statutes 2009 340A.503

Complicity defense, fault defined as, Minn. Statutes 2009 604.01

Illegal sales, Minn. Statutes 2009 340A.503, 2009 340A.513, 2009 340A.801

Proof of age, Minn. Statutes 2009 340A.503, 2009 340A.703

Attempts at crime, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.17

Bank deposits and collections

Presentment warranties, breach, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.4-208, 2009 336.4-302

Transfer warranties, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.4-207

Waivers, unauthorized signatures or alterations, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.4-406

Bankruptcy proceedings, employers, failure to pay benefits or wage supplements, Minn. Statutes 2009 181.74

Banks, shareholders, assessments, Minn. Statutes 2009 49.19

Beer, kegs, illegal sales, Minn. Statutes 2009 340A.513

Boats and boating, boating while intoxicated, Minn. Statutes 2009 86B.331

Bumpers, evidence of manufacture higher than prescribed height, affirmative defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 169.73

Campaign practices violations, Minn. Statutes 2009 211B.17

Child support

Criminal nonsupport, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.375

Nonparentage, Minn. Statutes 2009 518C.315

Nonpayment of support, Minn. Statutes 2009 518.612

Coercion for use in prostitution

Excluded defenses, Minn. Statutes 2009 611A.81, 2009 611A.82

Collateral estoppel

Court of Appeals decisions, precedential value, Minn. Statutes 2009 480A.08

Collectively bargained health care arrangements

Violations, lack of knowledge not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 62H.15

Commercial e-mail messages, violations, Minn. Statutes 2009 325F.694

Consent, see specific index headings for crimes

Consumer contracts

Plain language, good faith effort to comply, Minn. Statutes 2009 325G.34

Consumer support grants, appeals, Minn. Statutes 2009 256.476

Contagious or infectious diseases, knowing transfer, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.2241

Contracts for deed

Assignments, failure to record, Minn. Statutes 2009 507.235

Failure to record, Minn. Statutes 2009 507.235

Contributing to delinquency or status as juvenile petty offender, Minn. Statutes 2009 260B.425

Contributing to status as child in need of protection or services, Minn. Statutes 2009 260C.425

Controlled substances

Marijuana, possession or sale, Minn. Statutes 2009 152.027

Sale, transfer, or delivery, Minn. Statutes 2009 152.097

Corporations, ratable assessments against shareholders, Minn. Statutes 2009 316.19

Crimes in other jurisdictions, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.025

Criminal vehicular operation

Controlled substances use, prescribed drugs, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.21

Dangerous dogs, harm caused by, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.226

Defamation, Minn. Statutes 2009 544.043

Delinquent property taxes, see Defenses or objections under PROPERTY TAXES

Dentists and dental auxiliaries

Violations, generally, licenses, lack of, Minn. Statutes 2009 150A.12

Deprivation of custodial or parental rights, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.26

Devisees, liability, prior debts, Minn. Statutes 2009 573.16

Disabled persons

Employment, unfair discriminatory practices, Minn. Statutes 2009 363A.25

Dishonored checks, affidavit of service, refusal to accept, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.535

Dissolution of marriage

Generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 518.06

Marital property, division, power of attorney, use not available as defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 518.58

Drivers' licenses, revocation, suspension, cancellation, or disqualification, notice, Minn. Statutes 2009 171.24

Driving while impaired, generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 169A.46

Electronic communications, illegal access, Minn. Statutes 2009 626A.32

Emergency communications

Kidnappings, telephone company employees, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.774

Employee leasing arrangements, violations

Generally, lack of knowledge not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 62H.15

Employers, bankruptcy

Failure to pay benefits or wage supplements, Minn. Statutes 2009 181.74

Energy conservation

Violations, adequate remedy not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 216C.30

Eviction

Manufactured home parks, Minn. Statutes 2009 327C.10

Real property, Minn. Statutes 2009 504B.285

Residential rental property, Minn. Statutes 2009 504B.285

Failure to appear in court, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.49

Farm products, contracts, readability violations, Minn. Statutes 2009 17.9441

Farm tractors, claims of nonconformity, Minn. Statutes 2009 325F.6657

Female genital mutilation, consent, not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.2245

Financial exploitation of vulnerable adults, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.2335

Fire or police state aid, forfeiture

No defense, failure to receive certificate form, Minn. Statutes 2009 69.011

Fraudulent transfers, generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 513.48

Governmental immunity

Liability insurance, effects, Minn. Statutes 2009 3.736, 2009 16B.85

School districts, liability insurance, waivers, Minn. Statutes 2009 123B.23

Gratuities, agreements to work for less not a defense to action, Minn. Statutes 2009 177.27

Groundwater pollution in sensitive areas, Minn. Statutes 2009 103H.111

Halal foods, misrepresentation of non-Halal foods, Minn. Statutes 2009 31.658

Hazardous substances releases

Liability claims, defenses, Minn. Statutes 2009 115B.04, 2009 115B.05, 2009 115B.175

Hazardous waste, air and water quality violations, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.671

Health and accident insurance, policies, limitation, Minn. Statutes 2009 62A.04

Heirs, liability, prior debts, Minn. Statutes 2009 573.16

Housing with services establishments

Personal service not a defense to action, Minn. Statutes 2009 144D.03

Insanity, Minn. Statutes 2009 518.06, 2009 611.026

Insurance liquidators, assertion, duties, Minn. Statutes 2009 60B.25

Insurance, claims forms, absence of warnings not a defense for violations, Minn. Statutes 2009 60A.955

Intoxication defense, effect on intent, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.075

Invention developers, contracts, bona fide error, Minn. Statutes 2009 325A.09

Investment securities, see Defenses under SECURITIES

Justification

Defamation, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.765

Force, use of, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.06, 2009 609.066

Homicide, justifiable homicide, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.065

Labor trafficking, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.284

Landlords

Code violation inspection and condemnation orders, Minn. Statutes 2009 504B.195

Code violations lawsuits, Minn. Statutes 2009 504B.415

Tenant eviction, contraband or controlled substances, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.5317

Utilities, interruption or termination, Minn. Statutes 2009 504B.221

Legal separation, husband and wife, Minn. Statutes 2009 518.06

Legatees, liability, prior debts, Minn. Statutes 2009 573.16

Littering, civil liability, Minn. Statutes 2009 169.421

Lottery tickets, sale to minors, Minn. Statutes 2009 349A.12

Manslaughter

2d degree manslaughter, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.205

2d degree manslaughter of an unborn child, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.2665

Manufactured home parks, eviction, Minn. Statutes 2009 327C.10

Medical malpractice lawsuits, counterclaims, pleading as, statutes of limitations, Minn. Statutes 2009 541.076

Minimum wage, agreements to work for less not a defense to action, Minn. Statutes 2009 177.27

Minnesota Insurance Guaranty Association

Claims, rights, Minn. Statutes 2009 60C.05

Insolvent member insurers, proceedings, Minn. Statutes 2009 60C.195

Motor vehicle dealers

Other remedies, not a defense to injunctions, Minn. Statutes 2009 168.27

Motor vehicles, forfeiture, Minn. Statutes 2009 169A.63

Municipal land use planning

Appeals from local government action, Minn. Statutes 2009 462.361

Neglect or endangerment of a child, failure to prevent, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.378

Negligence

Assumption of risk, see ASSUMPTION OF RISK

Comparative negligence, see COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE

Contributory negligence, see CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE

Last clear chance doctrine, abolished, Minn. Statutes 2009 604.01

Negotiable instruments

Alteration of instruments, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-406

Conditional issuance of instrument, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-105

Countersignatures, failure to make, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-106

Forged signatures, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-406

Issuance without consideration, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-303

Lack of notice, holders in due course, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-302

Nonissuance of instrument, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-105

Nonperformance of promises, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-303

Obligation to pay instrument, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-305

Other agreements, effect, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-117

Presentment warranties, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-417

Restrictive endorsements, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-206

Signatures, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-308

Transfer warranties, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-416

Wrongful refusal to pay, Minn. Statutes 2009 336.3-411

Next of kin, liability, prior debts, Minn. Statutes 2009 573.16

No or insufficient consideration

Employment agency fees, notes, Minn. Statutes 2009 184.38

No-fault automobile insurance

Proof of insurance, failure to produce, Minn. Statutes 2009 169.791

Nursery stock, violations, generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 18J.10

Overtime, agreements to work for less not a defense to action, Minn. Statutes 2009 177.27

Pari-mutuel betting, underage bettors, identification, Minn. Statutes 2009 240.13

Partition of real estate, disputes between parties, Minn. Statutes 2009 558.05

Pen registers, trap and trace devices, and mobile tracking devices, Minn. Statutes 2009 626A.391

Perjury, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.48

Plant pests, violations, generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 18J.10

Plants (vegetation), violations, generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 18J.10

Pornographic works involving minors

Affirmative defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 617.246

Consent, mistake, no defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 617.245 to 2009 617.247

Product liability, useful life of product, expiration, Minn. Statutes 2009 604.03

Property taxes, see Defenses or objections under PROPERTY TAXES

Prostitution, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.325

Public Employees Retirement Association

Local relief associations, breach of fiduciary duty, Minn. Statutes 2009 353A.07

Public transportation facilities

Unfair discriminatory practices, Minn. Statutes 2009 363A.11

Reportable multiple employer welfare arrangements (MEWAs), violations, lack of knowledge not a defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 62H.15

School bus drivers, reasonable force, use, Minn. Statutes 2009 121A.582

School districts, school buses, advertising on, Minn. Statutes 2009 123B.93

School officials, Fair Dismissal Act

Technical violations, good faith exception, Minn. Statutes 2009 121A.48

School personnel, force used by, Minn. Statutes 2009 121A.582, 2009 123B.25

School principals, reasonable force, use, Minn. Statutes 2009 121A.582

Seeds, violations, generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 18J.10

Self-defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.06, 2009 609.065

Separation of husband and wife, generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 518.06

Sex crimes

Sexual psychopathic personality, not defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 253B.185

Sexually dangerous person status, not defense, Minn. Statutes 2009 253B.185

Sex trafficking, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.284

Shooting victims, failure to aid, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.662

Signatures, credit agreements, absence, effect, Minn. Statutes 2009 513.33

Smoking regulations, Minn. Statutes 2009 327.742

Soil conservation, good faith practices, Minn. Statutes 2009 103F.421, 2009 103F.441

Solicitation of children to engage in sexual conduct, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.352

Taxes

Generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 271.09

Jeopardy assessments, Minn. Statutes 2009 270C.36

Teachers, force used by, Minn. Statutes 2009 121A.582, 2009 123B.25

Tenants, eviction actions, Minn. Statutes 2009 504B.285

Theft, trade secrets, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.52

Timber cutting on state lands, Minn. Statutes 2009 90.301

Tobacco sales to children

Municipal license violations, Minn. Statutes 2009 461.12

Reliance on proof of age, driver's license or Minnesota identification card, Minn. Statutes 2009 609.685

Traffic accidents, drivers

Leaving scene of accident to obtain medical aid, Minn. Statutes 2009 169.09

Traffic sign or signal violations, motorcyclists, entering or crossing intersections against red light, Minn. Statutes 2009 169.06

Trespass, Minn. Statutes 2009 471.985

Trust companies, shareholders, assessments, Minn. Statutes 2009 49.19

Unauthorized insurers, Minn. Statutes 2009 60A.21

Volunteer firefighter relief associations

Membership, exclusions, Minn. Statutes 2009 424A.01

Voting violations, affirmative defense

Inaccurate polling place location as, Minn. Statutes 2009 201.016

Wild animals, violations, Minn. Statutes 2009 35.95

Wiretapping, Minn. Statutes 2009 626A.13

Workers' compensation

Fraud, claim forms, criminal penalties notice, Minn. Statutes 2009 176.178

Generally, Minn. Statutes 2009 176.001 to 2009 176.862

Willful negligence, Minn. Statutes 2009 176.031