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Minnesota Legislature

Office of the Revisor of Statutes

Chapter 297A

Section 297A.61

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Recent History

297A.61 DEFINITIONS.
    Subdivision 1. Applicability. The following words, terms, and phrases when used in this
chapter have the meanings given them in this section, unless the context clearly indicates a
different meaning.
    Subd. 2. Person. (a) "Person" includes any individual or group and any combination of
individuals, groups, or individuals and groups acting as a unit.
(b) Person includes a firm, partnership, joint venture, limited liability company, association,
cooperative, social club, fraternal organization, municipal or private corporation whether or not
organized for profit, estate, trust, business trust, receiver, trustee, syndicate, the United States, and
a state and its political subdivisions.
(c) Person includes, but is not limited to, directors and officers of corporations, governors
and managers of a limited liability company, or members of partnerships who, either individually
or jointly with others, have the control, supervision, or responsibility of filing returns and making
payment of the amount of tax imposed by this chapter.
(d) Person includes any agent or consignee of any individual or organization listed in this
subdivision.
    Subd. 3. Sale and purchase. (a) "Sale" and "purchase" include, but are not limited to, each
of the transactions listed in this subdivision.
(b) Sale and purchase include:
(1) any transfer of title or possession, or both, of tangible personal property, whether
absolutely or conditionally, for a consideration in money or by exchange or barter; and
(2) the leasing of or the granting of a license to use or consume, for a consideration in money
or by exchange or barter, tangible personal property, other than a manufactured home used for
residential purposes for a continuous period of 30 days or more.
(c) Sale and purchase include the production, fabrication, printing, or processing of tangible
personal property for a consideration for consumers who furnish either directly or indirectly the
materials used in the production, fabrication, printing, or processing.
(d) Sale and purchase include the preparing for a consideration of food. Notwithstanding
section 297A.67, subdivision 2, taxable food includes, but is not limited to, the following:
(1) prepared food sold by the retailer;
(2) soft drinks;
(3) candy;
(4) dietary supplements; and
(5) all food sold through vending machines.
(e) A sale and a purchase includes the furnishing for a consideration of electricity, gas, water,
or steam for use or consumption within this state.
(f) A sale and a purchase includes the transfer for a consideration of prewritten computer
software whether delivered electronically, by load and leave, or otherwise.
(g) A sale and a purchase includes the furnishing for a consideration of the following services:
(1) the privilege of admission to places of amusement, recreational areas, or athletic events,
and the making available of amusement devices, tanning facilities, reducing salons, steam baths,
turkish baths, health clubs, and spas or athletic facilities;
(2) lodging and related services by a hotel, rooming house, resort, campground, motel, or
trailer camp and the granting of any similar license to use real property in a specific facility, other
than the renting or leasing of it for a continuous period of 30 days or more under an enforceable
written agreement that may not be terminated without prior notice;
(3) nonresidential parking services, whether on a contractual, hourly, or other periodic
basis, except for parking at a meter;
(4) the granting of membership in a club, association, or other organization if:
(i) the club, association, or other organization makes available for the use of its members
sports and athletic facilities, without regard to whether a separate charge is assessed for use
of the facilities; and
(ii) use of the sports and athletic facility is not made available to the general public on the
same basis as it is made available to members.
Granting of membership means both onetime initiation fees and periodic membership dues.
Sports and athletic facilities include golf courses; tennis, racquetball, handball, and squash courts;
basketball and volleyball facilities; running tracks; exercise equipment; swimming pools; and
other similar athletic or sports facilities;
(5) delivery of aggregate materials and concrete block by a third party if the delivery would
be subject to the sales tax if provided by the seller of the aggregate material or concrete block; and
(6) services as provided in this clause:
(i) laundry and dry cleaning services including cleaning, pressing, repairing, altering, and
storing clothes, linen services and supply, cleaning and blocking hats, and carpet, drapery,
upholstery, and industrial cleaning. Laundry and dry cleaning services do not include services
provided by coin operated facilities operated by the customer;
(ii) motor vehicle washing, waxing, and cleaning services, including services provided by
coin operated facilities operated by the customer, and rustproofing, undercoating, and towing of
motor vehicles;
(iii) building and residential cleaning, maintenance, and disinfecting and exterminating
services;
(iv) detective, security, burglar, fire alarm, and armored car services; but not including
services performed within the jurisdiction they serve by off-duty licensed peace officers as defined
in section 626.84, subdivision 1, or services provided by a nonprofit organization for monitoring
and electronic surveillance of persons placed on in-home detention pursuant to court order or
under the direction of the Minnesota Department of Corrections;
(v) pet grooming services;
(vi) lawn care, fertilizing, mowing, spraying and sprigging services; garden planting and
maintenance; tree, bush, and shrub pruning, bracing, spraying, and surgery; indoor plant care;
tree, bush, shrub, and stump removal, except when performed as part of a land clearing contract
as defined in section 297A.68, subdivision 40; and tree trimming for public utility lines. Services
performed under a construction contract for the installation of shrubbery, plants, sod, trees,
bushes, and similar items are not taxable;
(vii) massages, except when provided by a licensed health care facility or professional or
upon written referral from a licensed health care facility or professional for treatment of illness,
injury, or disease; and
(viii) the furnishing of lodging, board, and care services for animals in kennels and other
similar arrangements, but excluding veterinary and horse boarding services.
In applying the provisions of this chapter, the terms "tangible personal property" and "retail
sale" include taxable services listed in clause (6), items (i) to (vi) and (viii), and the provision
of these taxable services, unless specifically provided otherwise. Services performed by an
employee for an employer are not taxable. Services performed by a partnership or association
for another partnership or association are not taxable if one of the entities owns or controls more
than 80 percent of the voting power of the equity interest in the other entity. Services performed
between members of an affiliated group of corporations are not taxable. For purposes of the
preceding sentence, "affiliated group of corporations" means those entities that would be classified
as members of an affiliated group as defined under United States Code, title 26, section 1504,
disregarding the exclusions in section 1504(b).
(h) A sale and a purchase includes the furnishing for a consideration of tangible personal
property or taxable services by the United States or any of its agencies or instrumentalities, or the
state of Minnesota, its agencies, instrumentalities, or political subdivisions.
(i) A sale and a purchase includes the furnishing for a consideration of telecommunications
services, including cable television services and direct satellite services. Telecommunications
services are taxed to the extent allowed under federal law.
(j) A sale and a purchase includes the furnishing for a consideration of installation if the
installation charges would be subject to the sales tax if the installation were provided by the seller
of the item being installed.
(k) A sale and a purchase includes the rental of a vehicle by a motor vehicle dealer to
a customer when (1) the vehicle is rented by the customer for a consideration, or (2) the
motor vehicle dealer is reimbursed pursuant to a service contract as defined in section 65B.29,
subdivision 1
, clause (1).
    Subd. 4. Retail sale. (a) A "retail sale" means any sale, lease, or rental for any purpose, other
than resale, sublease, or subrent of items by the purchaser in the normal course of business as
defined in subdivision 21.
(b) A sale of property used by the owner only by leasing it to others or by holding it in an
effort to lease it, and put to no use by the owner other than resale after the lease or effort to
lease, is a sale of property for resale.
(c) A sale of master computer software that is purchased and used to make copies for sale or
lease is a sale of property for resale.
(d) A sale of building materials, supplies, and equipment to owners, contractors,
subcontractors, or builders for the erection of buildings or the alteration, repair, or improvement
of real property is a retail sale in whatever quantity sold, whether the sale is for purposes of
resale in the form of real property or otherwise.
(e) A sale of carpeting, linoleum, or similar floor covering to a person who provides for
installation of the floor covering is a retail sale and not a sale for resale since a sale of floor
covering which includes installation is a contract for the improvement of real property.
(f) A sale of shrubbery, plants, sod, trees, and similar items to a person who provides for
installation of the items is a retail sale and not a sale for resale since a sale of shrubbery, plants,
sod, trees, and similar items that includes installation is a contract for the improvement of real
property.
(g) A sale of tangible personal property that is awarded as prizes is a retail sale and is not
considered a sale of property for resale.
(h) A sale of tangible personal property utilized or employed in the furnishing or providing
of services under subdivision 3, paragraph (g), clause (1), including, but not limited to, property
given as promotional items, is a retail sale and is not considered a sale of property for resale.
(i) A sale of tangible personal property used in conducting lawful gambling under chapter
349 or the State Lottery under chapter 349A, including, but not limited to, property given as
promotional items, is a retail sale and is not considered a sale of property for resale.
(j) A sale of machines, equipment, or devices that are used to furnish, provide, or dispense
goods or services, including, but not limited to, coin-operated devices, is a retail sale and is
not considered a sale of property for resale.
(k) In the case of a lease, a retail sale occurs (1) when an obligation to make a lease payment
becomes due under the terms of the agreement or the trade practices of the lessor or (2) in the
case of a lease of a motor vehicle, as defined in section 297B.01, subdivision 5, but excluding
vehicles with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 pounds and rentals
of vehicles for not more than 28 days, at the time the lease is executed.
(l) In the case of a conditional sales contract, a retail sale occurs upon the transfer of title or
possession of the tangible personal property.
    Subd. 5. Storage. "Storage" includes keeping or retaining tangible personal property in
Minnesota for any purpose except sale in the regular course of business.
    Subd. 6. Use. (a) "Use" includes the exercise of a right or power incident to the ownership of
any interest in tangible personal property, or services, purchased from a retailer, other than the
sale of that property in the regular course of business.
(b) Use includes the consumption of printed materials in the creation of nontaxable
advertising that is distributed, either directly or indirectly, within Minnesota.
    Subd. 7. Sales price. (a) "Sales price" means the measure subject to sales tax, and means the
total amount of consideration, including cash, credit, personal property, and services, for which
personal property or services are sold, leased, or rented, valued in money, whether received in
money or otherwise, without any deduction for the following:
(1) the seller's cost of the property sold;
(2) the cost of materials used, labor or service cost, interest, losses, all costs of transportation
to the seller, all taxes imposed on the seller, and any other expenses of the seller;
(3) charges by the seller for any services necessary to complete the sale, other than delivery
and installation charges;
(4) delivery charges;
(5) installation charges; and
(6) the value of exempt property given to the purchaser when taxable and exempt personal
property have been bundled together and sold by the seller as a single product or piece of
merchandise.
(b) Sales price does not include:
(1) discounts, including cash, terms, or coupons, that are not reimbursed by a third party and
that are allowed by the seller and taken by a purchaser on a sale;
(2) interest, financing, and carrying charges from credit extended on the sale of personal
property or services, if the amount is separately stated on the invoice, bill of sale, or similar
document given to the purchaser; and
(3) any taxes legally imposed directly on the consumer that are separately stated on the
invoice, bill of sale, or similar document given to the purchaser.
    Subd. 8. Gross receipts. "Gross receipts" means the total amount received, in money or by
barter or exchange, for all sales at retail as measured by the sales price.
    Subd. 9. Retailer and seller. "Retailer" and "seller" means any person making sales, leases,
or rentals of personal property or services.
    Subd. 10. Tangible personal property. (a) "Tangible personal property" means personal
property that can be seen, weighed, measured, felt, or touched, or that is in any other manner
perceptible to the senses. "Tangible personal property" includes, but is not limited to, electricity,
water, gas, steam, prewritten computer software, and prepaid calling cards.
(b) Tangible personal property does not include:
(1) large ponderous machinery and equipment used in a business or production activity
which at common law would be considered to be real property;
(2) property which is subject to an ad valorem property tax;
(3) property described in section 272.02, subdivision 9, clauses (a) to (d); and
(4) property described in section 272.03, subdivision 2, clauses (3) and (5).
    Subd. 11. Commissioner. "Commissioner" means the commissioner of revenue of the
state of Minnesota.
    Subd. 12. Farm machinery. (a) "Farm machinery" means new or used machinery,
equipment, implements, accessories, and contrivances used directly and principally in agricultural
production of tangible personal property intended to be sold ultimately at retail including, but
not limited to:
(1) machinery for the preparation, seeding, or cultivation of soil for growing agricultural
crops;
(2) barn cleaners, milking systems, grain dryers, feeding systems including stationary feed
bunks, and similar installations, whether or not the equipment is installed by the seller and
becomes part of the real property; and
(3) irrigation equipment sold for exclusively agricultural use, including pumps, pipe fittings,
valves, sprinklers, and other equipment necessary to the operation of an irrigation system when
sold as part of an irrigation system, whether or not the equipment is installed by the seller and
becomes part of the real property.
(b) Farm machinery does not include:
(1) repair or replacement parts;
(2) tools, shop equipment, grain bins, fencing material, communication equipment, and
other farm supplies;
(3) motor vehicles taxed under chapter 297B;
(4) snowmobiles or snow blowers;
(5) lawn mowers except those used in the production of sod for sale, or garden-type tractors
or garden tillers; or
(6) machinery, equipment, implements, accessories, and contrivances used directly in the
production of horses not raised for slaughter, fur-bearing animals, or research animals.
    Subd. 13. Aquaculture production equipment. (a) "Aquaculture production equipment"
means new or used machinery, equipment, implements, accessories, and contrivances used
directly and principally in aquaculture production.
(b) Aquaculture production equipment includes augers and blowers, automatic feed systems,
manual feeding equipment, shockers, gill nets, trap nets, seines, box traps, round nets and traps,
net pens, dip nets, net washers, floating net supports, floating access walkways, net supports
and walkways, growing tanks, holding tanks, troughs, raceways, transport tanks, egg taking
equipment, egg hatcheries, egg incubators, egg baskets and troughs, egg graders, egg counting
equipment, fish counting equipment, fish graders, fish pumps and loaders, fish elevators, air
blowers, air compressors, oxygen generators, oxygen regulators, diffusers and injectors, air
supply equipment, oxygenation columns, water coolers and heaters, heat exchangers, water filter
systems, water purification systems, waste collection equipment, feed mills, portable scales, feed
grinders, feed mixers, feed carts and trucks, power feed wagons, fertilizer spreaders, fertilizer
tanks, forage collection equipment, land levelers, loaders, post hole diggers, disc, harrow, plow,
and water diversion devices.
(c) Aquaculture production equipment does not include repair or replacement parts for
aquaculture production equipment.
    Subd. 14.[Repealed, 2003 c 127 art 1 s 34]
    Subd. 14a. Lease or rental. (a) "Lease or rental" means any transfer of possession or control
of tangible personal property for a fixed or indeterminate term for consideration. A lease or rental
may include future options to purchase or extend.
(b) Lease or rental does not include:
(1) a transfer of possession or control of property under a security agreement or deferred
payment plan that requires the transfer of title upon completion of the required payments;
(2) a transfer of possession or control of property under an agreement that requires the
transfer of title upon completion of required payments and payment of an option price does not
exceed the greater of $100 or one percent of the total required payments; or
(3) providing tangible personal property along with an operator for a fixed or indeterminate
period of time. A condition of this exclusion is that the operator is necessary for the equipment to
perform as designed. For the purpose of this subdivision, an operator must do more than maintain,
inspect, or set up the tangible personal property.
(c) Lease or rental does include agreements covering motor vehicles and trailers where the
amount of consideration may be increased or decreased by reference to the amount realized upon
sale or disposition of the property as defined in United States Code, title 26, section 7701(h)(l).
(d) This definition must be used for sales and use tax purposes regardless if a transaction
is characterized as a lease or rental under generally accepted accounting principles, the Internal
Revenue Code, chapter 336, or other provisions of federal, state, or local law.
    Subd. 15.[Repealed, 2003 c 127 art 1 s 34]
    Subd. 16.[Repealed, 1Sp2001 c 5 art 12 s 95]
    Subd. 16a. Computer. "Computer" means an electronic device that accepts information in
digital or similar form and manipulates it for a result based on a sequence of instructions.
    Subd. 16b. Electronic. "Electronic" means relating to technology having electrical, digital,
magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.
    Subd. 16c. Computer software. "Computer software" means a set of coded instructions
designed to cause a computer or automatic data processing equipment to perform a task.
    Subd. 17. Prewritten computer software. "Prewritten computer software" means computer
software, including prewritten upgrades, that is not designed and developed by the author
or other creator to the specifications of a specific purchaser. The combining of two or more
"prewritten computer software" programs or prewritten portions of the programs does not cause
the combination to be other than "prewritten computer software." "Prewritten computer software"
includes software designed and developed by the author or other creator to the specifications of
a specific purchaser when it is sold to a person other than the specific purchaser. If a person
modifies or enhances computer software of which the person is not the author or creator, the
person is deemed to be the author or creator only of such person's modifications or enhancements.
"Prewritten computer software" or a prewritten portion of it that is modified or enhanced to any
degree, if the modification or enhancement is designed and developed to the specifications of
a specific purchaser, remains "prewritten computer software"; provided, however, that if there
is a reasonable, separately stated charge or an invoice or other statement of the price given to
the purchaser for such modification or enhancement, the modification or enhancement does
not constitute "prewritten computer software."
    Subd. 17a. Delivered electronically. "Delivered electronically" means delivered to the
purchaser by means other than tangible storage media.
    Subd. 17b. Load and leave. "Load and leave" means delivered to the purchaser by use of a
tangible storage media where the tangible storage media is not physically transferred to the
purchaser.
    Subd. 18. Disabled. "Disabled" means an individual who has a permanent and total disability
as defined in section 273.13, subdivision 22.
    Subd. 19. For-hire carrier. "For-hire carrier" means a person engaged in transportation for
hire of tangible personal property.
    Subd. 20. Prepaid telephone calling card. "Prepaid telephone calling card" means any card
or other similar arrangement, including a prepaid authorization number, that permits its holder to
obtain telephone services and pay for such services in advance.
    Subd. 21. Normal course of business. "Normal course of business" means activities that
demonstrate a commercial continuity or consistency of making sales or performing services
for the purposes of attaining profit or producing income. Factors that indicate that a person is
acting in the normal course of business include:
(1) systematic solicitation of sales through advertising media;
(2) entering into contracts to perform services or provide tangible personal property;
(3) maintaining a place of business; or
(4) use of exemption certificates to purchase items exempt from the sales tax.
    Subd. 22. Internal Revenue Code. Unless specifically provided otherwise, "Internal
Revenue Code" means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended through December 31,
2000.
    Subd. 23. United States Code. Unless specifically provided otherwise, "United States Code"
means the United States Code as amended through December 31, 2000.
    Subd. 24. Telecommunications services. (a) "Telecommunications services" means the
transmission, conveyance, or routing of voice, data, audio, video, or any other information or
signals to a point, or between or among points, by or through any electronic, satellite, optical,
microwave, or other medium or method now in existence or hereafter devised, regardless of the
protocol used for such transmission, conveyance, or routing.
(b) Telecommunications services includes the furnishing for consideration of access to
telephone services by a hotel to its guests.
(c) Telecommunications services do not include:
(1) services purchased with a prepaid telephone calling card;
(2) private communication service purchased by an agent acting on behalf of the State
Lottery;
(3) information services; and
(4) purchases of telecommunications when the purchaser uses the purchased services as a
component part of or integrates such service into another telecommunications service that is sold
by the purchaser in the normal course of business.
(d) For purposes of this subdivision, "information services" means the offering of the
capability for generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing, or
making available information.
    Subd. 25. Cable television service. "Cable television service" means the transmission
of video, audio, or other programming service to purchasers, and the subscriber interaction, if
any, required for the selection or use of the programming service, regardless of whether the
programming is transmitted over facilities owned or operated by the cable service provider or
over facilities owned or operated by one or more dealers of communications services. The
term includes point-to-multipoint distribution services by which programming is transmitted
or broadcast by microwave or other equipment directly to the subscriber's premises. The term
includes basic, extended, premium, pay-per-view, digital, and music services.
    Subd. 26. Private communication service. "Private communication service" means
a telecommunication service that entitles the customer to exclusive or priority use of a
communication channel or group of channels between or among termination points, regardless
of the manner in which the channel or channels are connected, and includes switching capacity,
extension lines, stations, and any other associated services that are provided in connection with
the use of the channel or channels.
    Subd. 27. Direct satellite service. "Direct satellite service" means programming transmitted
or broadcast by satellite directly to the subscriber's premises without the use of ground receiving or
distribution equipment, except at the subscriber's premises or in the uplink process to the satellite.
    Subd. 28. Purchase price. "Purchase price" means the measure subject to the use tax and has
the same meaning as "sales price."
    Subd. 29. State. Unless specifically provided otherwise, "state" means any state of the
United States and the District of Columbia.
    Subd. 30. Delivery charges. "Delivery charges" means charges by the seller of personal
property or services for preparation and delivery to a location designated by the purchaser of
personal property or services including, but not limited to, transportation, shipping, postage,
handling, crating, and packing.
    Subd. 31. Prepared food. "Prepared food" means food that meets either of the following
conditions:
(1) the food is sold with eating utensils provided by the seller, including plates, knives, forks,
spoons, glasses, cups, napkins, or straws; or
(2) the food is sold in a heated state or heated by the seller or two or more food ingredients
are mixed or combined by the seller for sale as a single item, except for:
(i) bakery items, including, but not limited to, bread, rolls, buns, biscuits, bagels, croissants,
pastries, donuts, danish, cakes, tortes, pies, tarts, muffins, bars, cookies, tortillas;
(ii) ready-to-eat meat and seafood in an unheated state sold by weight;
(iii) eggs, fish, meat, poultry, and foods containing these raw animal foods requiring cooking
by the consumer as recommended by the Food and Drug Administration in chapter 3, part 401.11
of its food code so as to prevent food borne illnesses; or
(iv) food that is only sliced, repackaged, or pasteurized by the seller.
    Subd. 32. Soft drinks. "Soft drinks" means nonalcoholic beverages that contain natural or
artificial sweeteners. Soft drinks do not include beverages that contain milk or milk products; soy,
rice, or similar milk substitutes; or greater than 50 percent vegetable or fruit juice by volume.
    Subd. 33. Candy. "Candy" means a preparation of sugar, honey, or other natural or artificial
sweeteners in combination with chocolate, fruits, nuts, or other ingredients or flavorings in the
form of bars, drops, or pieces. Candy does not include any preparation containing flour and
must require no refrigeration.
    Subd. 34. Food sold through vending machines. "Food sold through vending machines"
means food dispensed from a machine or other device that accepts payment including honor
payments.
    Subd. 35. Direct mail. "Direct mail" means printed material delivered or distributed by
United States mail or other delivery service to a mass audience or to addressees on a mailing
list provided by the purchaser or at the direction of the purchaser when the cost of the items is
not billed directly to the recipients. "Direct mail" includes tangible personal property supplied
directly or indirectly by the purchaser to the direct mail seller for inclusion in the package
containing the printed material. "Direct mail" does not include multiple items of printed material
delivered to a single address.
    Subd. 36. Agricultural production. "Agricultural production" includes, but is not limited to,
horticulture, silviculture, floriculture, maple syrup harvesting, and the raising of pets, livestock as
defined in section 17A.03, subdivision 5, poultry, dairy and poultry products, bees and apiary
products, the raising and harvesting of agricultural crops, sod, fur-bearing animals, research
animals, and horses.
    Subd. 37. Logging equipment. (a) "Logging equipment" means new or used machinery,
equipment, implements, accessories, and contrivances used directly and principally in the
commercial cutting or removal or both of timber or other solid wood forest products intended to
be sold ultimately at retail, including, but not limited to:
(1) machinery used for bucking, bunching, debarking, delimbing, felling, forwarding,
loading, piling, skidding, topping, and yarding operations performed on timber; and
(2) chain saws.
(b) Logging equipment does not include:
(1) repair or replacement parts;
(2) tools, shop equipment, communication equipment, and other logging supplies;
(3) motor vehicles taxed under chapter 297B;
(4) snowmobiles, snow blowers, or recreational all-terrain vehicles; or
(5) machinery, equipment, implements, accessories, and contrivances used in the creation of
other commercial wood products for sale to others, including, but not limited to, milling, planing,
carving, wood chipping, or paper manufacturing.
History: 2000 c 418 art 1 s 4,44 subd 3; 2000 c 490 art 8 s 5; 1Sp2001 c 5 art 12 s 5,7-30;
2002 c 377 art 3 s 3,4; art 9 s 11; 1Sp2002 c 3 s 1; 2003 c 127 art 1 s 8-16; art 6 s 4-7; 2005 c 56
s 1; 2005 c 151 art 7 s 6,7; 1Sp2005 c 3 art 5 s 3,4,34; 2006 c 259 art 6 s 1-7